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Identification
NameLevothyroxine
Accession NumberDB00451  (APRD00235, EXPT02993)
Typesmall molecule
Groupsapproved
Description

The major hormone derived from the thyroid gland. Thyroxine is synthesized via the iodination of tyrosines (monoiodotyrosine) and the coupling of iodotyrosines (diiodotyrosine) in the thyroglobulin. Thyroxine is released from thyroglobulin by proteolysis and secreted into the blood. Thyroxine is peripherally deiodinated to form triiodothyronine which exerts a broad spectrum of stimulatory effects on cell metabolism. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
3,3',5,5'-Tetraiodo-L-thyronineNot AvailableNot Available
L-T4Not AvailableNot Available
L-ThyroxineNot AvailableNot Available
O-(4-Hydroxy-3,5-diidophenyl)-3,5-diiodo-L-tyrosineNot AvailableNot Available
T4Not AvailableNot Available
Salts
Name/CAS Structure Properties
Levothyroxine Sodium
55-03-8
Thumb
  • InChI Key: YDTFRJLNMPSCFM-YDALLXLXSA-M
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 798.668626168
  • Average Mass: 798.8518
DBSALT000244
Brand names
NameCompany
EltroxinGlaxoSmithKline
EuthyroxMerck
EutiroxMerck
LetroxBerlin-Chemie
LevaxinNycomed
LevothroidForest
LevothyroxMerck
LevoxylJones
NovothyroxNot Available
OroxineGlaxoSmithKline
SynthroidAbbott
ThyraxMerck
TirosintIBSA
UnithroidWatson
Brand mixtures
Brand NameIngredients
LiotrixLevothyroxine + Liothyronine
ThyrolarLevothyroxine + Liothyronine
CategoriesNot Available
CAS number51-48-9
WeightAverage: 776.87
Monoisotopic: 776.686681525
Chemical FormulaC15H11I4NO4
InChI KeyXUIIKFGFIJCVMT-LBPRGKRZSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C15H11I4NO4/c16-8-4-7(5-9(17)13(8)21)24-14-10(18)1-6(2-11(14)19)3-12(20)15(22)23/h1-2,4-5,12,21H,3,20H2,(H,22,23)/t12-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(2S)-2-amino-3-[4-(4-hydroxy-3,5-diiodophenoxy)-3,5-diiodophenyl]propanoic acid
SMILES
N[C@@H](CC1=CC(I)=C(OC2=CC(I)=C(O)C(I)=C2)C(I)=C1)C(O)=O
Mass SpecNot Available
Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
SuperclassPhenylpropanoids and Polyketides
ClassPhenylpropanoic Acids
SubclassNot Available
Direct parentPhenylpropanoic Acids
Alternative parentsDiarylethers; Amphetamines and Derivatives; Alpha Amino Acids and Derivatives; o-Iodophenols; Phenol Ethers; Amino Fatty Acids; Iodobenzenes; Aryl Iodides; Polyols; Enolates; Carboxylic Acids; Enols; Polyamines; Monoalkylamines; Organoiodides
Substituents2-iodophenol; 2-halophenol; phenol ether; iodobenzene; phenol derivative; benzene; aryl iodide; aryl halide; polyol; enolate; polyamine; carboxylic acid derivative; carboxylic acid; enol; ether; amine; organohalogen; organoiodide; primary aliphatic amine; organonitrogen compound; primary amine
Classification descriptionThis compound belongs to the phenylpropanoic acids. These are compounds whose structure contain a benzene ring conjugated to a propanoic acid.
Pharmacology
IndicationFor use alone or in combination with antithyroid agents to treat hypothyroidism, goiter, chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, myxedema coma, and stupor.
PharmacodynamicsLevothyroxine (T4) is a synthetically prepared levo isomer of thyroxine, the major hormone secreted from the thyroid gland. Thyroxine is released from thyroglobulin by proteolysis and secreted into the blood. Thyroxine is peripherally deiodinated to form triiodothyronine (T3) which exerts a broad spectrum of stimulatory effects on cell metabolism. Thyroid hormone increases the metabolic rate of cells of all tissues in the body. In the fetus and newborn, thyroid hormone is important for the growth and development of all tissues including bones and the brain. In adults, thyroid hormone helps to maintain brain function, food metabolism, and body temperature, among other effects. The symptoms of thyroid deficiency relieved by levothyroxine include slow speech, lack of energy, weight gain, hair loss, dry thick skin and unusual sensitivity to cold.
Mechanism of actionLevothyroxine acts like the endogenous thyroid hormone thyroxine (T4, a tetra-iodinated tyrosine derivative). In the liver and kidney, T4 is converted to T3, the active metabolite. In order to increase solubility, the thyroid hormones attach to thyroid hormone binding proteins, thyroxin-binding globulin, and thyroxin-binding prealbumin (transthyretin). Transport and binding to thyroid hormone receptors in the cytoplasm and nucleus then takes place. Thus by acting as a replacement for natural thyroxine, symptoms of thyroxine deficiency are relieved.
AbsorptionBioavailability varies from 48% to 80%. Human studies have confirmed the importance of an intact jejunum and ileum for levothyroxine absorption and have shown some absorption from the duodenum.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein binding> 99% to serum proteins, including thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG), thyroxine-binding prealbumin (TBPA), and albumin (TBA)
Metabolism

Approximately 70% of secreted T4 is deiodinated to equal amounts of T3 and reverse triiodothyronine (rT3), which is calorigenically inactive. Elimination of T4 and T3 involves hepatic conjugation to glucuronic and sulfuric acids. The hormones undergo enterohepatic circulation as conjugates are hydrolyzed in the intestine and reabsorbed. Conjugated compounds that reach the colon are hydrolyzed and eliminated as free compounds in the feces. Other minor T4 metabolites have been identified.

Route of eliminationThyroid hormones are primarily eliminated by the kidneys.
Half lifeT4, 6 to 7 days. T3, 1 to 2 days.
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityLD50=20 mg/kg (orally in rat). Hypermetabolic state indistinguishable from thyrotoxicosis of endogenous origin. Symptoms of thyrotoxicosis include weight loss, increased appetite, palpitations, nervousness, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, sweating, tachycardia, increased pulse and blood pressure, cardiac arrhythmias, tremors, insomnia, heat intolerance, fever, and menstrual irregularities.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
Property Value Probability
Human Intestinal Absorption + 0.7212
Blood Brain Barrier - 0.6886
Caco-2 permeable - 0.653
P-glycoprotein substrate Non-substrate 0.5321
P-glycoprotein inhibitor I Non-inhibitor 0.9175
P-glycoprotein inhibitor II Non-inhibitor 0.9709
Renal organic cation transporter Non-inhibitor 0.8891
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-substrate 0.8309
CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-substrate 0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-substrate 0.6847
CYP450 1A2 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.5924
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.7037
CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.923
CYP450 2C19 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9025
CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.831
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuity Low CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity 0.8459
Ames test Non AMES toxic 0.7591
Carcinogenicity Non-carcinogens 0.9148
Biodegradation Not ready biodegradable 0.9693
Rat acute toxicity 2.7082 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I) Weak inhibitor 0.9697
hERG inhibition (predictor II) Non-inhibitor 0.8508
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Institute biochimique sa (ibsa)
  • Institut biochimique sa ibsa
  • Vintage pharmaceuticals llc
  • Alara pharmaceutical corporation
  • Lloyd inc
  • Merck kgaa
  • Mylan pharmaceuticals inc
  • King pharmaceuticals inc
  • Abbott laboratories
  • Jerome stevens pharmaceuticals inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Powder, for solutionParenteral100 mcg/ml
Powder, for solutionParenteral40 mcg/ml
TabletOral100 mcg
TabletOral112 mcg
TabletOral125 mcg
TabletOral137 mcg
TabletOral150 mcg
TabletOral175 mcg
TabletOral200 mcg
TabletOral25 mcg
TabletOral300 mcg
TabletOral50 mcg
TabletOral75 mcg
TabletOral88 mcg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Levothyroxine sodium powder159.12USDg
Levothyroxine 200 mcg vial24.0USDvial
Levothyroxine 500 mcg vial24.0USDvial
Levoxyl 300 mcg tablet2.34USDtablet
Synthroid 300 mcg tablet1.29USDtablet
Synthroid 175 mcg tablet1.07USDtablet
Synthroid 200 mcg tablet0.99USDtablet
Synthroid 137 mcg tablet0.87USDtablet
Synthroid 112 mcg tablet0.84USDtablet
Synthroid 125 mcg tablet0.84USDtablet
Synthroid 150 mcg tablet0.83USDtablet
Levothyroxine Sodium 300 mcg tablet0.77USDtablet
Synthroid 100 mcg tablet0.73USDtablet
Synthroid 75 mcg tablet0.72USDtablet
Synthroid 88 mcg tablet0.71USDtablet
Levoxyl 200 mcg tablet0.7USDtablet
Levoxyl 175 mcg tablet0.69USDtablet
Unithroid 300 mcg tablet0.69USDtablet
Synthroid 50 mcg tablet0.65USDtablet
Levoxyl 137 mcg tablet0.62USDtablet
Unithroid 200 mcg tablet0.62USDtablet
Levoxyl 112 mcg tablet0.61USDtablet
Synthroid 25 mcg tablet0.61USDtablet
Unithroid 175 mcg tablet0.61USDtablet
Levoxyl 150 mcg tablet0.59USDtablet
Levoxyl 125 mcg tablet0.58USDtablet
Levothyroxine Sodium 175 mcg tablet0.57USDtablet
Levothyroxine Sodium 200 mcg tablet0.57USDtablet
Levothyroxine 175 mcg tablet0.55USDtablet
Unithroid 150 mcg tablet0.55USDtablet
Levoxyl 88 mcg tablet0.54USDtablet
Unithroid 112 mcg tablet0.53USDtablet
Unithroid 125 mcg tablet0.53USDtablet
Levoxyl 75 mcg tablet0.52USDtablet
Levothroid 300 mcg tablet0.51USDtablet
Levoxyl 100 mcg tablet0.51USDtablet
Levothyroxine Sodium 100 mcg tablet0.5USDtablet
Levothyroxine Sodium 150 mcg tablet0.5USDtablet
Levothyroxine Sodium 88 mcg tablet0.5USDtablet
Levoxyl 50 mcg tablet0.49USDtablet
Unithroid 88 mcg tablet0.49USDtablet
Unithroid 100 mcg tablet0.47USDtablet
Unithroid 75 mcg tablet0.47USDtablet
Levothyroxine Sodium 125 mcg tablet0.47USDtablet
Levothyroxine Sodium 137 mcg tablet0.47USDtablet
Levothyroxine Sodium 50 mcg tablet0.47USDtablet
Levothyroxine Sodium 75 mcg tablet0.47USDtablet
Levothyroxine Sodium 112 mcg tablet0.46USDtablet
Levothyroxine 137 mcg tablet0.45USDtablet
Levoxyl 25 mcg tablet0.45USDtablet
Levothyroxine 112 mcg tablet0.44USDtablet
Levothyroxine Sodium 25 mcg tablet0.43USDtablet
Unithroid 50 mcg tablet0.43USDtablet
Unithroid 25 mcg tablet0.42USDtablet
Unithroid direct 100 mcg tablet0.42USDtablet
Unithroid direct 112 mcg tablet0.42USDtablet
Unithroid direct 125 mcg tablet0.42USDtablet
Unithroid direct 150 mcg tablet0.42USDtablet
Unithroid direct 175 mcg tablet0.42USDtablet
Unithroid direct 200 mcg tablet0.42USDtablet
Unithroid direct 25 mcg tablet0.42USDtablet
Unithroid direct 300 mcg tablet0.42USDtablet
Unithroid direct 50 mcg tablet0.42USDtablet
Unithroid direct 75 mcg tablet0.42USDtablet
Unithroid direct 88 mcg tablet0.42USDtablet
Levothroid 200 mcg tablet0.4USDtablet
Levothroid 175 mcg tablet0.38USDtablet
Levothyroxine 88 mcg tablet0.38USDtablet
Levothroid 125 mcg tablet0.36USDtablet
Levothroid 150 mcg tablet0.36USDtablet
Levothroid 100 mcg tablet0.35USDtablet
Levothroid 137 mcg tablet0.35USDtablet
Levothroid 112 mcg tablet0.34USDtablet
Levothroid 75 mcg tablet0.33USDtablet
Levothroid 88 mcg tablet0.33USDtablet
Levothyroxine 300 mcg tablet0.32USDtablet
Levothroid 25 mcg tablet0.31USDtablet
Unithroid 137 mcg tablet0.31USDtablet
Levothroid 50 mcg tablet0.3USDtablet
Levothyroxine 200 mcg tablet0.29USDtablet
Levothyroxine 150 mcg tablet0.24USDtablet
Levothyroxine 125 mcg tablet0.22USDtablet
Levothyroxine 100 mcg tablet0.2USDtablet
Levothyroxine 75 mcg tablet0.2USDtablet
Levothyroxine 50 mcg tablet0.18USDtablet
Synthroid 0.137 mg Tablet0.18USDtablet
Levothyroxine 25 mcg tablet0.17USDtablet
Synthroid 0.3 mg Tablet0.12USDtablet
Synthroid 0.175 mg Tablet0.11USDtablet
Synthroid 0.075 mg Tablet0.1USDtablet
Synthroid 0.088 mg Tablet0.1USDtablet
Synthroid 0.112 mg Tablet0.1USDtablet
Synthroid 0.125 mg Tablet0.1USDtablet
Synthroid 0.025 mg Tablet0.09USDtablet
Synthroid 0.2 mg Tablet0.09USDtablet
Synthroid 0.1 mg Tablet0.08USDtablet
Synthroid 0.15 mg Tablet0.08USDtablet
Eltroxin 0.3 mg Tablet0.07USDtablet
Synthroid 0.05 mg Tablet0.06USDtablet
Eltroxin 0.2 mg Tablet0.05USDtablet
Eltroxin 0.1 mg Tablet0.04USDtablet
Eltroxin 0.15 mg Tablet0.04USDtablet
Eltroxin 0.05 mg Tablet0.03USDtablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
CountryPatent NumberApprovedExpires (estimated)
United States77233902004-03-142024-03-14
United States63991012000-03-302020-03-30
Properties
Statesolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point235.5 °CPhysProp
water solubility0.105 mg/mLNot Available
logP4Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility8.98e-03 g/lALOGPS
logP1.15ALOGPS
logP3.73ChemAxon
logS-4.9ALOGPS
pKa (strongest acidic)0.27ChemAxon
pKa (strongest basic)9.43ChemAxon
physiological charge0ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count4ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count3ChemAxon
polar surface area92.78ChemAxon
rotatable bond count5ChemAxon
refractivity126.79ChemAxon
polarizability49.4ChemAxon
number of rings2ChemAxon
bioavailability1ChemAxon
rule of fiveNoChemAxon
Ghose filterNoChemAxon
Veber's ruleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like ruleNoChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraMS/MS1D NMR2D NMR
References
Synthesis Reference

Jivn-Ren Chen, Dimitri C. Papadimitriou, “Stable dosage of levothyroxine sodium and process of production.” U.S. Patent US5225204, issued November, 1991.

US5225204
General Reference
  1. Uchino H, Kanai Y, Kim DK, Wempe MF, Chairoungdua A, Morimoto E, Anders MW, Endou H: Transport of amino acid-related compounds mediated by L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1): insights into the mechanisms of substrate recognition. Mol Pharmacol. 2002 Apr;61(4):729-37. Pubmed
External Links
ResourceLink
KEGG CompoundC01829
PubChem Compound5819
PubChem Substance46507672
ChemSpider5614
ChEBI18332
ChEMBLCHEMBL1624
Therapeutic Targets DatabaseDAP000083
PharmGKBPA450221
IUPHAR2635
Guide to Pharmacology2635
Drug Product Database2245948
RxListhttp://www.rxlist.com/cgi/generic/levothy.htm
Drugs.comhttp://www.drugs.com/levothyroxine.html
PDRhealthhttp://www.pdrhealth.com/drug_info/rxdrugprofiles/drugs/syn1421.shtml
WikipediaLevothyroxine
ATC CodesH03AA01
AHFS Codes
  • 68:36.04
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelshow(54.3 KB)
MSDSshow(51.7 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AcenocoumarolThe thyroid hormone, levothyroxine, increase the anticoagulant effect of acenocoumarol.
AnisindioneThe thyroid hormone, levothyroxine, increase the anticoagulant effect of anisindione.
CalciumCalcium decreases absorption of levothyroxine
Calcium AcetateCalcium salts such as calcium acetate may diminish the therapeutic effect of thyroid products such as levothyroxine. Separate the doses of the thyroid product and the oral calcium supplement by at least 4 hours. Monitor for decreased therapeutic effects of thyroid products if an oral calcium supplement is initiated/dose increased, or increased effects if an oral calcium supplement is discontinued/dose decreased.
Calcium ChlorideCalcium salts such as calcium chloride may diminish the therapeutic effect of thyroid products such as levothyroxine. Separate the doses of the thyroid product and the oral calcium supplement by at least 4 hours. Monitor for decreased therapeutic effects of thyroid products if an oral calcium supplement is initiated/dose increased, or increased effects if an oral calcium supplement is discontinued/dose decreased.
CholestyramineThe resin, cholestyramine, decreases the absorption of the thyroid hormone, levothyroxine.
ColestipolThe resin, colestipol, decreases the absorption of the thyroid hormone, levothyroxine.
DicoumarolThe thyroid hormone, levothyroxine, increase the anticoagulant effect of dicumarol.
DigoxinThe thyroid hormone, levothyroxine, decreases the effect of digoxin.
IronIron decreases absorption of levothyroxine
Iron DextranIron decreases the absorption of levothyroxine
RaloxifeneRaloxifene decreases absorption of levothyroxine
SucralfateSucralfate decreases the effect of levothyroxine
WarfarinLevothyroxine may contribute to the anticoagulant effect of warfarin by increasing the metabolism of vitamin K-dependent clotting factors. Monitor for changes in prothrombin time and anticoagulant effects if levothyroxine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
Food Interactions
  • Absorption increased in fasting state and decreased in malabsorption states.
  • Consistent administration in relation to meals is recommended.
  • No iron or calium carbonate within 4 hours of taking this medication.
  • Oral administration with infant soybean formula, soybean flour, cotton seed meal, walnuts, foods containing large amounts of fiber, ferrous sulfate, and antacids may decrease drug absorption.
  • Take 30-60 minutes before breakfast.

Targets

1. Thyroid hormone receptor alpha

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: agonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Thyroid hormone receptor alpha P10827 Details

References:

  1. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  2. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  3. Bernal J: Thyroid hormone receptors in brain development and function. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Mar;3(3):249-59. Pubmed
  4. Nakajima Y, Yamada M, Horiguchi K, Satoh T, Hashimoto K, Tokuhiro E, Onigata K, Mori M: Resistance to thyroid hormone due to a novel thyroid hormone receptor mutant in a patient with hypothyroidism secondary to lingual thyroid and functional characterization of the mutant receptor. Thyroid. 2010 Aug;20(8):917-26. Pubmed
  5. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed

2. Thyroid hormone receptor beta

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: agonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Thyroid hormone receptor beta P10828 Details

References:

  1. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  2. Marazuela M, Nattero L, Moure D, Garcia-Polo I, Figueroa-Vega N, Guijarro C: Thyroid hormone resistance and pituitary enlargement after thyroid ablation in a woman on levothyroxine treatment. Thyroid. 2008 Oct;18(10):1119-23. Pubmed
  3. Sivakumar T, Chaidarun S: Resistance to thyroid hormone in a patient with coexisting Graves’ disease. Thyroid. 2010 Feb;20(2):213-6. Pubmed
  4. Grasberger H, Ringkananont U, Croxson M, Refetoff S: Resistance to thyroid hormone in a patient with thyroid dysgenesis. Thyroid. 2005 Jul;15(7):730-3. Pubmed

Enzymes

1. Cytochrome P450 2C8

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2C8 P10632 Details

References:

  1. Walsky RL, Gaman EA, Obach RS: Examination of 209 drugs for inhibition of cytochrome P450 2C8. J Clin Pharmacol. 2005 Jan;45(1):68-78. Pubmed

2. Cytochrome P450 3A4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A4 P08684 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

Carriers

1. Transthyretin

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: no

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Transthyretin P02766 Details

References:

  1. Eneqvist T, Lundberg E, Karlsson A, Huang S, Santos CR, Power DM, Sauer-Eriksson AE: High resolution crystal structures of piscine transthyretin reveal different binding modes for triiodothyronine and thyroxine. J Biol Chem. 2004 Jun 18;279(25):26411-6. Epub 2004 Apr 13. Pubmed
  2. Palha JA: Transthyretin as a thyroid hormone carrier: function revisited. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2002 Dec;40(12):1292-300. Pubmed

2. Thyroxine-binding globulin

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: no

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Thyroxine-binding globulin P05543 Details

References:

  1. Palha JA: Transthyretin as a thyroid hormone carrier: function revisited. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2002 Dec;40(12):1292-300. Pubmed

3. Serum albumin

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: no

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Serum albumin P02768 Details

References:

  1. Palha JA: Transthyretin as a thyroid hormone carrier: function revisited. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2002 Dec;40(12):1292-300. Pubmed

Transporters

1. Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1C1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1C1 Q9NYB5 Details

References:

  1. Westholm DE, Stenehjem DD, Rumbley JN, Drewes LR, Anderson GW: Competitive inhibition of organic anion transporting polypeptide 1c1-mediated thyroxine transport by the fenamate class of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Endocrinology. 2009 Feb;150(2):1025-32. Epub 2008 Oct 9. Pubmed
  2. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. Pubmed
  3. Pizzagalli F, Hagenbuch B, Stieger B, Klenk U, Folkers G, Meier PJ: Identification of a novel human organic anion transporting polypeptide as a high affinity thyroxine transporter. Mol Endocrinol. 2002 Oct;16(10):2283-96. Pubmed

2. Monocarboxylate transporter 8

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Monocarboxylate transporter 8 P36021 Details

References:

  1. Friesema EC, Ganguly S, Abdalla A, Manning Fox JE, Halestrap AP, Visser TJ: Identification of monocarboxylate transporter 8 as a specific thyroid hormone transporter. J Biol Chem. 2003 Oct 10;278(41):40128-35. Epub 2003 Jul 18. Pubmed

3. Multidrug resistance protein 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inducer

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Multidrug resistance protein 1 P08183 Details

References:

  1. Siegmund W, Altmannsberger S, Paneitz A, Hecker U, Zschiesche M, Franke G, Meng W, Warzok R, Schroeder E, Sperker B, Terhaag B, Cascorbi I, Kroemer HK: Effect of levothyroxine administration on intestinal P-glycoprotein expression: consequences for drug disposition. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2002 Sep;72(3):256-64. Pubmed

4. Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2 P46721 Details

References:

  1. Kullak-Ublick GA, Ismair MG, Stieger B, Landmann L, Huber R, Pizzagalli F, Fattinger K, Meier PJ, Hagenbuch B: Organic anion-transporting polypeptide B (OATP-B) and its functional comparison with three other OATPs of human liver. Gastroenterology. 2001 Feb;120(2):525-33. Pubmed

5. Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1 Q9Y6L6 Details

References:

  1. Kullak-Ublick GA, Ismair MG, Stieger B, Landmann L, Huber R, Pizzagalli F, Fattinger K, Meier PJ, Hagenbuch B: Organic anion-transporting polypeptide B (OATP-B) and its functional comparison with three other OATPs of human liver. Gastroenterology. 2001 Feb;120(2):525-33. Pubmed

6. Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B3

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B3 Q9NPD5 Details

References:

  1. Kullak-Ublick GA, Ismair MG, Stieger B, Landmann L, Huber R, Pizzagalli F, Fattinger K, Meier PJ, Hagenbuch B: Organic anion-transporting polypeptide B (OATP-B) and its functional comparison with three other OATPs of human liver. Gastroenterology. 2001 Feb;120(2):525-33. Pubmed

7. Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 4A1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 4A1 Q96BD0 Details

References:

  1. Fujiwara K, Adachi H, Nishio T, Unno M, Tokui T, Okabe M, Onogawa T, Suzuki T, Asano N, Tanemoto M, Seki M, Shiiba K, Suzuki M, Kondo Y, Nunoki K, Shimosegawa T, Iinuma K, Ito S, Matsuno S, Abe T: Identification of thyroid hormone transporters in humans: different molecules are involved in a tissue-specific manner. Endocrinology. 2001 May;142(5):2005-12. Pubmed

8. Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 4C1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 4C1 Q6ZQN7 Details

References:

  1. Mikkaichi T, Suzuki T, Onogawa T, Tanemoto M, Mizutamari H, Okada M, Chaki T, Masuda S, Tokui T, Eto N, Abe M, Satoh F, Unno M, Hishinuma T, Inui K, Ito S, Goto J, Abe T: Isolation and characterization of a digoxin transporter and its rat homologue expressed in the kidney. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Mar 9;101(10):3569-74. Epub 2004 Mar 1. Pubmed

9. Large neutral amino acids transporter small subunit 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Large neutral amino acids transporter small subunit 1 Q01650 Details

References:

  1. Uchino H, Kanai Y, Kim DK, Wempe MF, Chairoungdua A, Morimoto E, Anders MW, Endou H: Transport of amino acid-related compounds mediated by L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1): insights into the mechanisms of substrate recognition. Mol Pharmacol. 2002 Apr;61(4):729-37. Pubmed

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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:10