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Identification
NameHaloperidol
Accession NumberDB00502  (APRD00538)
Typesmall molecule
Groupsapproved
Description

A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat schizophrenia and other psychoses. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, delusional disorders, ballism, and tourette syndrome (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in mental retardation and the chorea of huntington disease. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable hiccups. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)

Structure
Thumb
SynonymsNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Brand names
NameCompany
AloperidinNot Available
BioperidoloNot Available
BrotoponNot Available
DozicNot Available
DuraperidolNot Available
Einalon SNot Available
EukystolNot Available
HaldolNot Available
HalostenNot Available
KeselanNot Available
LintonNot Available
PelucesNot Available
SerenaceNot Available
SigaperidolNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
CategoriesNot Available
CAS number52-86-8
WeightAverage: 375.864
Monoisotopic: 375.140134897
Chemical FormulaC21H23ClFNO2
InChI KeyInChIKey=LNEPOXFFQSENCJ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C21H23ClFNO2/c22-18-7-5-17(6-8-18)21(26)11-14-24(15-12-21)13-1-2-20(25)16-3-9-19(23)10-4-16/h3-10,26H,1-2,11-15H2
IUPAC Name
4-[4-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-hydroxypiperidin-1-yl]-1-(4-fluorophenyl)butan-1-one
SMILES
OC1(CCN(CCCC(=O)C2=CC=C(F)C=C2)CC1)C1=CC=C(Cl)C=C1
Mass SpecNot Available
Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
SuperclassHeterocyclic Compounds
ClassPiperidines
SubclassPhenylpiperidines
Direct parentPhenylpiperidines
Alternative parentsButyrophenones; Acetophenones; Benzoyl Derivatives; Fluorobenzenes; Chlorobenzenes; Aryl Chlorides; Aryl Fluorides; Tertiary Alcohols; Tertiary Amines; Ketones; Enolates; Polyamines; Organofluorides; Organochlorides
Substituentsacetophenone; benzoyl; chlorobenzene; fluorobenzene; aryl fluoride; benzene; aryl chloride; aryl halide; tertiary alcohol; tertiary amine; ketone; enolate; polyamine; organochloride; carbonyl group; organohalogen; organofluoride; amine; alcohol; organonitrogen compound
Classification descriptionThis compound belongs to the phenylpiperidines. These are compounds containing a phenylpiperidine skeleton, which consists of a piperidine bound to a phenyl group.
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the management of psychotic disorders (eg. schizophrenia) and delirium, as well as to control tics and vocal utterances of Tourette's syndrome (Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome). Also used for the treatment of severe behavioural problems in children with disrubtive behaviour disorder or ADHD (attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder). Haloperidol has been used in the prevention and control of severe nausea and vomiting.
PharmacodynamicsHaloperidol is a psychotropic agent indicated for the treatment of schizophrenia. It also exerts sedative and antiemetic activity. Haloperidol principal pharmacological effects are similar to those of piperazine-derivative phenothiazines. The drug has action at all levels of the central nervous system-primarily at subcortical levels-as well as on multiple organ systems. Haloperidol has strong antiadrenergic and weaker peripheral anticholinergic activity; ganglionic blocking action is relatively slight. It also possesses slight antihistaminic and antiserotonin activity.
Mechanism of actionThe precise mechanism whereby the therapeutic effects of haloperidol are produced is not known, but the drug appears to depress the CNS at the subcortical level of the brain, midbrain, and brain stem reticular formation. Haloperidol seems to inhibit the ascending reticular activating system of the brain stem (possibly through the caudate nucleus), thereby interrupting the impulse between the diencephalon and the cortex. The drug may antagonize the actions of glutamic acid within the extrapyramidal system, and inhibitions of catecholamine receptors may also contribute to haloperidol's mechanism of action. Haloperidol may also inhibit the reuptake of various neurotransmitters in the midbrain, and appears to have a strong central antidopaminergic and weak central anticholinergic activity. The drug produces catalepsy and inhibits spontaneous motor activity and conditioned avoidance behaviours in animals. The exact mechanism of antiemetic action of haloperidol has also not been fully determined, but the drug has been shown to directly affect the chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ) through the blocking of dopamine receptors in the CTZ.
AbsorptionOral-60%
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein binding92%
Metabolism

Hepatic

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Haloperidol
4-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-hydroxypiperidineDetails
Haloperidol
Reduced haloperidolDetails
Haloperidol
Haloperidol glucuronideDetails
Haloperidol
Haloperidol 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridineDetails
Haloperidol
fluorobenzoylpropionic acidDetails
Haloperidol
4-(4-Chlorophenyl)-1-[4-(4-fluorophenyl)-4-oxobutyl]-pyridinium (HPP+)Details
Reduced haloperidol
    Haloperidol reduced pyridinium ion derivativeDetails
    Haloperidol reduced pyridinium ion derivative
    Haloperidol pyridinium ion derivativeDetails
    Haloperidol 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine
      Haloperidol pyridinium ion derivativeDetails
      Route of eliminationNot Available
      Half life3 weeks
      ClearanceNot Available
      ToxicityLD50=165 mg/kg (rats, oral)
      Affected organisms
      • Humans and other mammals
      PathwaysNot Available
      SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
      SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
      ADMET
      Predicted ADMET features
      Property Value Probability
      Human Intestinal Absorption + 1.0
      Blood Brain Barrier + 0.9465
      Caco-2 permeable + 0.6023
      P-glycoprotein substrate Substrate 0.6673
      P-glycoprotein inhibitor I Inhibitor 0.8563
      P-glycoprotein inhibitor II Inhibitor 0.8137
      Renal organic cation transporter Inhibitor 0.6058
      CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-substrate 0.8355
      CYP450 2D6 substrate Substrate 0.8919
      CYP450 3A4 substrate Substrate 0.5796
      CYP450 1A2 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9045
      CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9207
      CYP450 2D6 substrate Inhibitor 0.9197
      CYP450 2C19 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9248
      CYP450 3A4 substrate Inhibitor 0.6899
      CYP450 inhibitory promiscuity Low CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity 0.7933
      Ames test Non AMES toxic 0.9133
      Carcinogenicity Non-carcinogens 0.8769
      Biodegradation Not ready biodegradable 1.0
      Rat acute toxicity 3.4367 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
      hERG inhibition (predictor I) Weak inhibitor 0.5
      hERG inhibition (predictor II) Inhibitor 0.7474
      Pharmacoeconomics
      Manufacturers
      • Ortho mcneil pharmaceutical
      • Ortho mcneil pharmaceutical inc
      • Duramed pharmaceuticals inc sub barr laboratories inc
      • Lederle laboratories div american cyanamid co
      • Mutual pharmaceutical co inc
      • Mylan pharmaceuticals inc
      • Par pharmaceutical inc
      • Purepac pharmaceutical co
      • Quantum pharmics ltd
      • Roxane laboratories inc
      • Royce laboratories inc
      • Sandoz inc
      • Scs pharmaceuticals
      • Vintage pharmaceuticals llc
      • Watson laboratories inc
      • Zydus pharmaceuticals usa inc
      • Ortho mcneil janssen pharmaceutical inc
      • App pharmaceuticals llc
      • Bedford laboratories div ben venue laboratories inc
      • Claris lifesciences ltd
      • Hospira inc
      • Sandoz canada inc
      • Teva parenteral medicines inc
      • Alpharma uspd inc
      • Morton grove pharmaceuticals inc
      • Pharmaceutical assoc inc div beach products
      • Silarx pharmaceuticals inc
      • Teva pharmaceuticals usa inc
      • Teva pharmaceuticals usa
      • Ortho mcneil janssen pharmaceuticals inc
      • Abraxis pharmaceutical products
      • Akorn strides llc
      • Gland pharma ltd
      • Marsam pharmaceuticals llc
      • Smith and nephew solopak div smith and nephew
      • Solopak medical products inc
      • Solopak laboratories inc
      • Actavis mid atlantic llc
      Packagers
      Dosage forms
      FormRouteStrength
      LiquidIntramuscular
      LiquidOral
      SolutionOral
      TabletOral
      Prices
      Unit descriptionCostUnit
      Haloperidol Decanoate 100 mg/ml Solution 5ml Vial257.14USDvial
      Haldol decanoate 100 ampul107.77USDml
      Haldol decanoate 50 ampul56.53USDml
      Haloperidol dec 100 mg/ml vial29.85USDml
      Haloperidol powder21.42USDg
      Haloperidol dec 50 mg/ml vial17.71USDml
      Haloperidol La 100 mg/ml15.42USDml
      Haldol 5 mg/ml ampul13.4USDml
      Haloperidol La 50 mg/ml7.71USDml
      Haloperidol 5 mg/ml4.73USDml
      Haloperidol lac 5 mg/ml vial3.54USDml
      Haloperidol 20 mg tablet2.81USDtablet
      Haloperidol 10 mg tablet1.46USDtablet
      Haloperidol 5 mg tablet0.8USDtablet
      Novo-Peridol 20 mg Tablet0.66USDtablet
      Haloperidol 2 mg tablet0.49USDtablet
      Haloperidol lac 2 mg/ml conc0.45USDml
      Haloperidol 1 mg tablet0.36USDtablet
      Haloperidol 0.5 mg tablet0.25USDtablet
      Pernox scrub cleanser0.18USDg
      Apo-Haloperidol 5 mg Tablet0.16USDtablet
      Novo-Peridol 5 mg Tablet0.16USDtablet
      Apo-Haloperidol 10 mg Tablet0.14USDtablet
      Novo-Peridol 10 mg Tablet0.14USDtablet
      Apo-Haloperidol 2 mg Tablet0.11USDtablet
      Novo-Peridol 2 mg Tablet0.11USDtablet
      Apo-Haloperidol 1 mg Tablet0.06USDtablet
      Novo-Peridol 1 mg Tablet0.06USDtablet
      Apo-Haloperidol 0.5 mg Tablet0.04USDtablet
      Novo-Peridol 0.5 mg Tablet0.04USDtablet
      DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
      PatentsNot Available
      Properties
      Statesolid
      Experimental Properties
      PropertyValueSource
      melting point151.5 °CPhysProp
      water solubility14 mg/L (at 25 °C)MERCK INDEX (1996)
      logP4.30EL TAYAR,N ET AL. (1985)
      logS-4.43ADME Research, USCD
      pKa8.66EL TAYAR,N ET AL. (1985)
      Predicted Properties
      PropertyValueSource
      water solubility4.46e-03 g/lALOGPS
      logP3.7ALOGPS
      logP3.66ChemAxon
      logS-4.9ALOGPS
      pKa (strongest acidic)13.96ChemAxon
      pKa (strongest basic)8.05ChemAxon
      physiological charge1ChemAxon
      hydrogen acceptor count3ChemAxon
      hydrogen donor count1ChemAxon
      polar surface area40.54ChemAxon
      rotatable bond count6ChemAxon
      refractivity102.59ChemAxon
      polarizability39.15ChemAxon
      number of rings3ChemAxon
      bioavailability1ChemAxon
      rule of fiveYesChemAxon
      Ghose filterYesChemAxon
      Veber's ruleNoChemAxon
      MDDR-like ruleYesChemAxon
      Spectra
      SpectraNot Available
      References
      Synthesis Reference

      DrugSyn.org

      US3438991
      General Reference
      1. Niemegeers CJ, Laduron PM: Pharmacology and biochemistry of haloperidol. Proc R Soc Med. 1976;69 suppl 1:3-8. Pubmed
      External Links
      ResourceLink
      KEGG DrugD00136
      KEGG CompoundC01814
      PubChem Compound3559
      PubChem Substance46508794
      ChemSpider3438
      BindingDB21398
      ChEBI5613
      ChEMBLCHEMBL54
      Therapeutic Targets DatabaseDAP000313
      PharmGKBPA449841
      IUPHAR86
      Guide to Pharmacology86
      Drug Product Database761745
      RxListhttp://www.rxlist.com/cgi/generic/haloper.htm
      Drugs.comhttp://www.drugs.com/cdi/haloperidol.html
      WikipediaHaloperidol
      ATC CodesN05AD01
      AHFS Codes
      • 28:16.08.08
      PDB EntriesNot Available
      FDA labelshow(169 KB)
      MSDSshow(73.2 KB)
      Interactions
      Drug Interactions
      Drug
      Anisotropine MethylbromideThe anticholinergic increases the risk of psychosis and tardive dyskinesia
      ArtemetherAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
      AtomoxetineThe CYP2D6 inhibitor could increase the effect and toxicity of atomoxetine
      AtropineThe anticholinergic increases the risk of psychosis and tardive dyskinesia
      BenzatropineThe anticholinergic increases the risk of psychosis and tardive dyskinesia
      BiperidenThe anticholinergic increases the risk of psychosis and tardive dyskinesia
      CarbamazepineCarbamazepine may decrease the serum concentration of haloperidol by increasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of haloperidol if carbamazepine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
      ClidiniumThe anticholinergic increases the risk of psychosis and tardive dyskinesia
      ClozapineClozapine, a moderate CYP2D6 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of haloperidol by decreasing its metabolism. Additive CNS despresant and anticholinergic effects may also occur. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of haloperidol if clozapine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. Also monitor for increased CNS depressant and anticholinergic effects during concomitant therapy.
      DicyclomineThe anticholinergic increases the risk of psychosis and tardive dyskinesia
      EthopropazineThe anticholinergic increases the risk of psychosis and tardive dyskinesia
      FluconazoleFluconazole may increase the effect and toxicity of haloperidol.
      Glycerol PhenylbutyrateHaloperidol may induce hyperammonemia. Monitor ammonia levels closely when use of haloperidol is necessary in UCD patients.
      GlycopyrrolateThe anticholinergic increases the risk of psychosis and tardive dyskinesia
      GuanethidineHaloperidol may decrease the effect of guanethidine.
      Homatropine MethylbromideThe anticholinergic increases the risk of psychosis and tardive dyskinesia
      HyoscyamineThe anticholinergic increases the risk of psychosis and tardive dyskinesia
      IndacaterolConcomitant therapy with monoamine oxidase inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants, or other drugs that prolong the QTc interval should be monitored closely. These drugs may potentiate the effect of adrenergic agonist on the cardiovascular system.
      IsopropamideThe anticholinergic increases the risk of psychosis and tardive dyskinesia
      ItraconazoleItraconazole may increase the effect and toxicity of haloperidol.
      KetoconazoleKetoconazole may increase the effect and toxicity of haloperidol.
      LithiumPossible extrapyramidal effects and neurotoxicity with this combination
      LumefantrineAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
      MepenzolateThe anticholinergic increases the risk of psychosis and tardive dyskinesia
      MesoridazineIncreased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias
      MethanthelineThe anticholinergic increases the risk of psychosis and tardive dyskinesia
      MethyldopaMethyldopa increases haloperidol effect or risk of psychosis
      OrphenadrineThe anticholinergic increases the risk of psychosis and tardive dyskinesia
      OxyphencyclimineThe anticholinergic increases the risk of psychosis and tardive dyskinesia
      ProcyclidineThe anticholinergic increases the risk of psychosis and tardive dyskinesia
      PropanthelineThe anticholinergic increases the risk of psychosis and tardive dyskinesia
      PropranololIncreased effect of both drugs
      RifabutinThe rifamycin decreases the effect of haloperidol
      RifampicinThe rifamycin decreases the effect of haloperidol
      ScopolamineThe anticholinergic increases the risk of psychosis and tardive dyskinesia
      TacrineThe therapeutic effects of the central acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI), Tacrine, and/or the anticholinergic/antipsychotic, Haloperidol, may be reduced due to antagonism. This interaction may be beneficial when the anticholinergic action is a side effect. AChEIs may also augment the central neurotoxic effect of antipsychotics. Monitor for extrapyramidal symptoms and decreased efficacy of both agents.
      TacrolimusAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur increasing the risk of serious ventricular arrhythmias. Concomitant therapy should be used with caution.
      TamoxifenHaloperidol may decrease the therapeutic effect of Tamoxifen by decreasing the production of active metabolites. Consider alternate therapy.
      TamsulosinHaloperidol, a CYP3A4/2D6 inhibitor, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Tamsulosin, a CYP3A4/2D6 substrate. Monitor for changes in therapeutic/adverse effects of Tamsulosin if Haloperidol is initiated, discontinued, or dose changed.
      TelithromycinTelithromycin may reduce clearance of Haloperidol. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Haloperidol if Telithromycin is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
      TerbinafineTerbinafine may reduce the metabolism and clearance of Haloperidol. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for therapeutic/adverse effects of Haloperidol if Terbinafine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
      TetrabenazineMay cause dopamine deficiency. Monitor for Tetrabenazine adverse effects. May cause dopamine deficiency. Similar pharmacologic properties thus combination therapy will worsen the severity of sedative, parkinsonian, and extrapyramidal adverse effects.
      ThioridazineIncreased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias
      ThiothixeneMay cause additive QTc-prolonging effects. Increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias. Consider alternate therapy. Thorough risk:benefit assessment is required prior to co-administration.
      TolterodineHaloperidol may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Tolterodine. Adjust Tolterodine dose and monitor for efficacy and toxicity.
      ToremifeneAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur, increasing the risk of serious ventricular arrhythmias. Consider alternate therapy. A thorough risk:benefit assessment is required prior to co-administration.
      TramadolHaloperidol may increase Tramadol toxicity by decreasing Tramadol metabolism and clearance. Haloperidol may decrease the effect of Tramadol by decreasing active metabolite production.
      TrazodoneThe CYP3A4 inhibitor, Haloperidol, may increase Trazodone efficacy/toxicity by decreasing Trazodone metabolism and clearance. The CYP2D6 inhibitor, Trazodone, may increase the efficacy of Haloperidol by decreasing Haloperidol metabolism and clearance. Monitor for changes in Trazodone and Haloperidol efficacy/toxicity if either agent is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
      TridihexethylThe anticholinergic increases the risk of psychosis and tardive dyskinesia
      TrihexyphenidylThe anticholinergic increases the risk of psychosis and tardive dyskinesia
      TrimethobenzamideTrimethobenzamide and Haloperidol, two anticholinergics, may cause additive anticholinergic effects and enhance their adverse/toxic effects. Monitor for enhanced anticholinergic effects.
      TrimipramineAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur, increasing the risk of serious ventricular arrhythmias. Concomitant therapy should be used with caution.
      TriprolidineTriprolidine and Haloperidol, two anticholinergics, may cause additive anticholinergic effects and enhance their adverse/toxic effects. Additive CNS depressant effects may also occur. Monitor for enhanced anticholinergic and CNS depressant effects.
      TrospiumTrospium and Haloperidol, two anticholinergics, may cause additive anticholinergic effects and enhanced adverse/toxic effects. Monitor for enhanced anticholinergic effects.
      VoriconazoleVoriconazole, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of haloperidol by decreasing its metabolism. Additive QTc prolongation may also occur. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of haloperidol if voriconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
      VorinostatAdditive QTc prolongation may occur. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for QTc prolongation as this can lead to Torsade de Pointes (TdP).
      ZiprasidoneAdditive QTc-prolonging effects may increase the risk of severe arrhythmias. Concomitant therapy is contraindicated.
      ZuclopenthixolAdditive QTc prolongation may occur. Consider alternate therapy or use caution and monitor for QTc prolongation as this can lead to Torsade de Pointes (TdP).
      Zuclopenthixol acetateAdditive QTc prolongation may occur. Consider alternate therapy or use caution and monitor for QTc prolongation as this can lead to Torsade de Pointes (TdP).
      Zuclopenthixol decanoateAdditive QTc prolongation may occur. Consider alternate therapy or use caution and monitor for QTc prolongation as this can lead to Torsade de Pointes (TdP).
      Food Interactions
      • Take with food to reduce irritation, limit caffeine intake. Avoid alcohol.

      1. D(2) dopamine receptor

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: yes

      Actions: antagonist

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      D(2) dopamine receptor P14416 Details

      References:

      1. Osinski MA, Uchic ME, Seifert T, Shaughnessy TK, Miller LN, Nakane M, Cox BF, Brioni JD, Moreland RB: Dopamine D2, but not D4, receptor agonists are emetogenic in ferrets. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2005 May;81(1):211-9. Pubmed
      2. Bustillo J, Barrow R, Paz R, Tang J, Seraji-Bozorgzad N, Moore GJ, Bolognani F, Lauriello J, Perrone-Bizzozero N, Galloway MP: Long-term treatment of rats with haloperidol: lack of an effect on brain N-acetyl aspartate levels. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2006 Apr;31(4):751-6. Pubmed
      3. Ishiwata K, Oda K, Sakata M, Kimura Y, Kawamura K, Oda K, Sasaki T, Naganawa M, Chihara K, Okubo Y, Ishii K: A feasibility study of [11C]SA4503-PET for evaluating sigmal receptor occupancy by neuroleptics: the binding of haloperidol to sigma1 and dopamine D2-like receptors. Ann Nucl Med. 2006 Oct;20(8):569-73. Pubmed
      4. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed
      5. Naiker DV, Catts SV, Catts VS, Bedi KS, Bryan-Lluka LJ: Dose determination of haloperidol, risperidone and olanzapine using an in vivo dopamine D2-receptor occupancy method in the rat. Eur J Pharmacol. 2006 Jul 1;540(1-3):87-90. Epub 2006 May 11. Pubmed
      6. Uchida S, Kato Y, Hirano K, Kagawa Y, Yamada S: Brain neurotransmitter receptor-binding characteristics in rats after oral administration of haloperidol, risperidone and olanzapine. Life Sci. 2007 Apr 3;80(17):1635-40. Epub 2007 Jan 27. Pubmed
      7. Leysen JE, Janssen PM, Megens AA, Schotte A: Risperidone: a novel antipsychotic with balanced serotonin-dopamine antagonism, receptor occupancy profile, and pharmacologic activity. J Clin Psychiatry. 1994 May;55 Suppl:5-12. Pubmed
      8. Seeman P: Dopamine D2 receptors as treatment targets in schizophrenia. Clin Schizophr Relat Psychoses. 2010 Apr;4(1):56-73. Pubmed

      2. D(1A) dopamine receptor

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Actions: antagonist

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      D(1A) dopamine receptor P21728 Details

      References:

      1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed
      2. Cai G, Gurdal H, Smith C, Wang HY, Friedman E: Inverse agonist properties of dopaminergic antagonists at the D(1A) dopamine receptor: uncoupling of the D(1A) dopamine receptor from G(s) protein. Mol Pharmacol. 1999 Nov;56(5):989-96. Pubmed

      3. Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2B

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Actions: antagonist

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2B Q13224 Details

      References:

      1. Hattori K, Uchino S, Isosaka T, Maekawa M, Iyo M, Sato T, Kohsaka S, Yagi T, Yuasa S: Fyn is required for haloperidol-induced catalepsy in mice. J Biol Chem. 2006 Mar 17;281(11):7129-35. Epub 2006 Jan 10. Pubmed
      2. Zhuravliova E, Barbakadze T, Natsvlishvili N, Mikeladze DG: Haloperidol induces neurotoxicity by the NMDA receptor downstream signaling pathway, alternative from glutamate excitotoxicity. Neurochem Int. 2007 Jun;50(7-8):976-82. Epub 2006 Nov 7. Pubmed
      3. Gu WH, Yang S, Shi WX, Zhen XC, Jin GZ: Effects of (-)-stepholidine on NMDA receptors: comparison with haloperidol and clozapine. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2007 Jul;28(7):953-8. Pubmed
      4. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed
      5. Steinmetz RD, Fava E, Nicotera P, Steinhilber D: A simple cell line based in vitro test system for N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor ligands. J Neurosci Methods. 2002 Jan 15;113(1):99-110. Pubmed
      6. Sinor JD, Du S, Venneti S, Blitzblau RC, Leszkiewicz DN, Rosenberg PA, Aizenman E: NMDA and glutamate evoke excitotoxicity at distinct cellular locations in rat cortical neurons in vitro. J Neurosci. 2000 Dec 1;20(23):8831-7. Pubmed
      7. Gallagher MJ, Huang H, Lynch DR: Modulation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor by haloperidol: NR2B-specific interactions. J Neurochem. 1998 May;70(5):2120-8. Pubmed

      4. 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Actions: other/unknown

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A P28223 Details

      References:

      1. Leysen JE, Janssen PM, Megens AA, Schotte A: Risperidone: a novel antipsychotic with balanced serotonin-dopamine antagonism, receptor occupancy profile, and pharmacologic activity. J Clin Psychiatry. 1994 May;55 Suppl:5-12. Pubmed

      5. D(3) dopamine receptor

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Actions: inverse agonist

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      D(3) dopamine receptor P35462 Details

      References:

      1. Leysen JE, Janssen PM, Megens AA, Schotte A: Risperidone: a novel antipsychotic with balanced serotonin-dopamine antagonism, receptor occupancy profile, and pharmacologic activity. J Clin Psychiatry. 1994 May;55 Suppl:5-12. Pubmed
      2. Tuppurainen H, Kuikka JT, Viinamaki H, Husso M, Tiihonen J: Dopamine D2/3 receptor binding potential and occupancy in midbrain and temporal cortex by haloperidol, olanzapine and clozapine. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2009 Aug;63(4):529-37. Epub 2009 May 22. Pubmed
      3. Tadori Y, Forbes RA, McQuade RD, Kikuchi T: Characterization of aripiprazole partial agonist activity at human dopamine D3 receptors. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008 Nov 12;597(1-3):27-33. Epub 2008 Sep 20. Pubmed
      4. Kessler RM, Ansari MS, Riccardi P, Li R, Jayathilake K, Dawant B, Meltzer HY: Occupancy of striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D2/D3 receptors by olanzapine and haloperidol. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2005 Dec;30(12):2283-9. Pubmed
      5. Malmberg, Mikaels, Mohell N: Agonist and inverse agonist activity at the dopamine D3 receptor measured by guanosine 5’—gamma-thio-triphosphate—35S- binding. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998 Apr;285(1):119-26. Pubmed

      1. Cytochrome P450 3A5

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Actions: substrate

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Cytochrome P450 3A5 P20815 Details

      References:

      1. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.
      2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

      2. Cytochrome P450 3A7

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Actions: substrate

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Cytochrome P450 3A7 P24462 Details

      References:

      1. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.

      3. Cytochrome P450 1A2

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Actions: substrate

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Cytochrome P450 1A2 P05177 Details

      References:

      1. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.
      2. Tateishi T, Watanabe M, Kumai T, Tanaka M, Moriya H, Yamaguchi S, Satoh T, Kobayashi S: CYP3A is responsible for N-dealkylation of haloperidol and bromperidol and oxidation of their reduced forms by human liver microsomes. Life Sci. 2000 Nov 3;67(24):2913-20. Pubmed

      4. Cytochrome P450 2D6

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Actions: substrate inhibitor inducer

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Cytochrome P450 2D6 P10635 Details

      References:

      1. Micallef J, Fakra E, Blin O: [Use of antidepressant drugs in schizophrenic patients with depression] Encephale. 2006 Mar-Apr;32(2 Pt 1):263-9. Pubmed
      2. Otani K, Aoshima T: Pharmacogenetics of classical and new antipsychotic drugs. Ther Drug Monit. 2000 Feb;22(1):118-21. Pubmed
      3. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.
      4. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

      5. Cytochrome P450 3A4

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Actions: substrate inhibitor

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Cytochrome P450 3A4 P08684 Details

      References:

      1. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.
      2. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. Pubmed
      3. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed
      4. Kalgutkar AS, Taylor TJ, Venkatakrishnan K, Isin EM: Assessment of the contributions of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 in the metabolism of the antipsychotic agent haloperidol to its potentially neurotoxic pyridinium metabolite and effect of antidepressants on the bioactivation pathway. Drug Metab Dispos. 2003 Mar;31(3):243-9. Pubmed

      6. Carbonyl reductase [NADPH] 1

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Actions: substrate

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Carbonyl reductase [NADPH] 1 P16152 Details

      References:

      1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. Pubmed

      7. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-9

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Actions: substrate

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-9 O60656 Details

      References:

      1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. Pubmed

      8. Cytochrome P450 1A1

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Actions: substrate

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Cytochrome P450 1A1 P04798 Details

      References:

      1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

      9. Cytochrome P450 2C19

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Actions: substrate

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Cytochrome P450 2C19 P33261 Details

      References:

      1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

      10. Cytochrome P450 2C9

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Actions: substrate

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Cytochrome P450 2C9 P11712 Details

      References:

      1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

      1. Multidrug resistance protein 1

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Actions: substrate inhibitor

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Multidrug resistance protein 1 P08183 Details

      References:

      1. Mahar Doan KM, Humphreys JE, Webster LO, Wring SA, Shampine LJ, Serabjit-Singh CJ, Adkison KK, Polli JW: Passive permeability and P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux differentiate central nervous system (CNS) and non-CNS marketed drugs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Dec;303(3):1029-37. Pubmed
      2. Nagy H, Goda K, Fenyvesi F, Bacso Z, Szilasi M, Kappelmayer J, Lustyik G, Cianfriglia M, Szabo G Jr: Distinct groups of multidrug resistance modulating agents are distinguished by competition of P-glycoprotein-specific antibodies. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 Mar 19;315(4):942-9. Pubmed
      3. Boulton DW, DeVane CL, Liston HL, Markowitz JS: In vitro P-glycoprotein affinity for atypical and conventional antipsychotics. Life Sci. 2002 May 31;71(2):163-9. Pubmed

      Comments
      Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on October 08, 2013 14:23