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Identification
NameCinnarizine
Accession NumberDB00568  (APRD00332)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
DescriptionCinnarizine is an anti-histaminic drug which is mainly used for the control of vomiting due to motion sickness. Cinnarizine was first synthesized by Janssen Pharmaceutica in 1955. It acts by interfering with the signal transmission between vestibular apparatus of the inner ear and the vomiting centre of the hypothalamus. The disparity of signal processing between inner ear motion receptors and the visual senses is abolished, so that the confusion of brain whether the individual is moving or standing is reduced. Vomiting in motion sickness is actually a physiological compensatory mechanism of the brain to keep the individual from moving so that it can adjust to the signal perception. Cinnarizine could be also viewed as a nootropic drug because of its vasorelaxating abilities (due to calcium channel blockage), which happen mostly in brain. It is also effectively combined with other nootropics, primarily piracetam; in such combination each drug potentiate the other in boosting brain oxygen supply.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
1-(Diphenylmethyl)-4-(3-phenyl-2-propenyl)piperazine
1-Benzhydryl-4-cinnamylpiperazin
1-Cinnamyl-4-(diphenylmethyl)piperazine
Cinarizina
Cinnarizin
Cinnarizine
Cinnarizinum
External Identifiers
  • 5-23-01-00233
  • 516 MD
  • BRN 0626121
  • R 1575
  • R 516
  • UNII-3DI2E1X18L
Approved Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
CinazynItalchimici
CinnageronStreuli Pharma
FolcodalIvax
SepanJanssen-Cilag
StugeronJanssen
Stugeron ForteJanssen
TolimanScharper
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNII3DI2E1X18L
CAS number298-57-7
WeightAverage: 368.5139
Monoisotopic: 368.225248906
Chemical FormulaC26H28N2
InChI KeyInChIKey=DERZBLKQOCDDDZ-JLHYYAGUSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C26H28N2/c1-4-11-23(12-5-1)13-10-18-27-19-21-28(22-20-27)26(24-14-6-2-7-15-24)25-16-8-3-9-17-25/h1-17,26H,18-22H2/b13-10+
IUPAC Name
1-(diphenylmethyl)-4-(3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl)piperazine
SMILES
C(C=CC1=CC=CC=C1)N1CCN(CC1)C(C1=CC=CC=C1)C1=CC=CC=C1
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as diphenylmethanes. These are compounds containing a diphenylmethane moiety, which consists of a methane wherein two hydrogen atoms are replaced by two phenyl groups.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassDiphenylmethanes
Direct ParentDiphenylmethanes
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Diphenylmethane
  • Phenylpropene
  • Styrene
  • Aralkylamine
  • N-alkylpiperazine
  • Piperazine
  • 1,4-diazinane
  • Tertiary aliphatic amine
  • Tertiary amine
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the treatment of vertigo/meniere's disease, nausea and vomiting, motion sickness and also useful for vestibular symptoms of other origins.
PharmacodynamicsCinnarizine is an antihistamine and a calcium channel blocker. Histamines mediate a number of activities such as contraction of smooth muscle of the airways and gastrointestinal tract, vasodilatation, cardiac stimulation, secretion of gastric acid, promotion of interleukin release and chemotaxis of eosinophils and mast cells. Competitive antagonists at histamine H1 receptors may be divided into first (sedating) and second (non-sedating) generation agents. Some, such as Cinnarizine also block muscarinic acetylcholine receptors and are used as anti-emetic agents. Cinnarizine through its calcium channel blocking ability also inhibits stimulation of the vestibular system.
Mechanism of actionCinnarizine inhibits contractions of vascular smooth muscle cells by blocking L-type and T-type voltage gated calcium channels. Cinnarizine has also been implicated in binding to dopamine D2 receptors, histamine H1 receptors, and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.
Related Articles
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism
SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Cinnarizine
Cinnarizine metabolite M1Details
Cinnarizine
Cinnarizine metabolite M2Details
Cinnarizine
BenzophenoneDetails
Cinnarizine
Cinnarizine metabolite M4Details
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9506
Blood Brain Barrier+0.977
Caco-2 permeable+0.6409
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.7107
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.7461
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8398
Renal organic cation transporterInhibitor0.7902
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8549
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.8919
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7558
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.7732
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9488
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorInhibitor0.8931
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9026
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9346
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.5
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9279
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9496
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9968
Rat acute toxicity2.0618 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Strong inhibitor0.5724
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.524
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
PackagersNot Available
Dosage formsNot Available
PricesNot Available
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility750 mg/L (at 25 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP5.77BIOBYTE (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00172 mg/mLALOGPS
logP5.19ALOGPS
logP5.88ChemAxon
logS-5.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)8.4ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area6.48 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count6ChemAxon
Refractivity119.86 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability43.96 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Janssen, P.A.J.; U.S. Patent 2,882,271; April 14, 1959; assigned to Laboratoria Pharmaceutica Dr. C. Janssen, Belgium.

General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesN07CA52N07CA02
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
2-HYDROXY-1,4-NAPHTHOQUINONEThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when 2-HYDROXY-1,4-NAPHTHOQUINONE is combined with Cinnarizine.
2-mercaptobenzothiazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when 2-mercaptobenzothiazole is combined with Cinnarizine.
3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine may decrease the sedative activities of Cinnarizine.
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine may decrease the sedative activities of Cinnarizine.
AbirateroneThe serum concentration of Cinnarizine can be increased when it is combined with Abiraterone.
AlfuzosinAlfuzosin may increase the hypotensive activities of Cinnarizine.
AmiodaroneThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Amiodarone.
AmobarbitalThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be increased when combined with Amobarbital.
AmorolfineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amorolfine is combined with Cinnarizine.
AmphetamineAmphetamine may decrease the sedative activities of Cinnarizine.
Amphotericin BThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amphotericin B is combined with Cinnarizine.
AN2690The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when AN2690 is combined with Cinnarizine.
AnidulafunginThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Anidulafungin is combined with Cinnarizine.
AprepitantThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be increased when combined with Aprepitant.
ArtemetherThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Artemether.
AtomoxetineThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Atomoxetine.
AtosibanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cinnarizine is combined with Atosiban.
Atracurium besylateCinnarizine may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Atracurium besylate.
AzithromycinThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Azithromycin.
Bafilomycin A1The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bafilomycin A1 is combined with Cinnarizine.
BarbitalThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be increased when combined with Barbital.
Benzoic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benzoic Acid is combined with Cinnarizine.
BenzphetamineBenzphetamine may decrease the sedative activities of Cinnarizine.
Benzylpenicilloyl PolylysineCinnarizine may decrease effectiveness of Benzylpenicilloyl Polylysine as a diagnostic agent.
BetahistineThe therapeutic efficacy of Betahistine can be decreased when used in combination with Cinnarizine.
BetaxololThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Betaxolol.
BifonazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bifonazole is combined with Cinnarizine.
BortezomibThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Bortezomib.
BupropionThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Bupropion.
ButenafineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butenafine is combined with Cinnarizine.
ButoconazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butoconazole is combined with Cinnarizine.
CaffeineThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.
CandicidinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Candicidin is combined with Cinnarizine.
CapecitabineThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Capecitabine.
CarbamazepineThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be increased when combined with Carbamazepine.
CarvedilolCarvedilol may increase the hypotensive activities of Cinnarizine.
CaspofunginThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Caspofungin is combined with Cinnarizine.
CelecoxibThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Celecoxib.
CeritinibThe serum concentration of Cinnarizine can be increased when it is combined with Ceritinib.
CeruleninThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cerulenin is combined with Cinnarizine.
ChloroquineThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Chloroquine.
ChloroxineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chloroxine is combined with Cinnarizine.
ChlorphentermineChlorphentermine may decrease the sedative activities of Cinnarizine.
ChlorpromazineThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Chlorpromazine.
CholecalciferolThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Cholecalciferol.
CiclopiroxThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ciclopirox is combined with Cinnarizine.
CimetidineThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Cimetidine.
CinacalcetThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Cinacalcet.
CitalopramThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Citalopram.
ClemastineThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Clemastine.
ClobazamThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Clobazam.
ClomipramineThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Clomipramine.
ClopidogrelThe therapeutic efficacy of Clopidogrel can be decreased when used in combination with Cinnarizine.
ClopidogrelThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Clopidogrel.
ClotrimazoleThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Clotrimazole.
ClozapineThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Clozapine.
CobicistatThe serum concentration of Cinnarizine can be increased when it is combined with Cobicistat.
CocaineThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Cocaine.
CrizotinibThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Crizotinib.
CyclosporineThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Cyclosporine.
Cyproterone acetateThe serum concentration of Cinnarizine can be decreased when it is combined with Cyproterone acetate.
DabrafenibThe serum concentration of Cinnarizine can be decreased when it is combined with Dabrafenib.
DapoxetineDapoxetine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Cinnarizine.
DarifenacinThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Darifenacin.
DarunavirThe serum concentration of Cinnarizine can be increased when it is combined with Darunavir.
Decanoic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Decanoic Acid is combined with Cinnarizine.
DeferasiroxThe serum concentration of Cinnarizine can be increased when it is combined with Deferasirox.
DelavirdineThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Delavirdine.
DesipramineThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Desipramine.
DextroamphetamineDextroamphetamine may decrease the sedative activities of Cinnarizine.
DiphenhydramineThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Diphenhydramine.
DoxazosinDoxazosin may increase the hypotensive activities of Cinnarizine.
DoxorubicinThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Doxorubicin.
DronedaroneThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Dronedarone.
DuloxetineThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Duloxetine.
EconazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Econazole is combined with Cinnarizine.
EfavirenzThe serum concentration of Cinnarizine can be decreased when it is combined with Efavirenz.
EfinaconazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Efinaconazole is combined with Cinnarizine.
EliglustatThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Eliglustat.
EtravirineThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Etravirine.
FloxuridineThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Floxuridine.
FluconazoleThe serum concentration of Cinnarizine can be increased when it is combined with Fluconazole.
FlucytosineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flucytosine is combined with Cinnarizine.
FluorouracilThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Fluorouracil.
FluoxetineThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Fluoxetine.
FluvastatinThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Fluvastatin.
FluvoxamineThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Fluvoxamine.
FosphenytoinThe serum concentration of Fosphenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Cinnarizine.
FosphenytoinThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be increased when combined with Fosphenytoin.
GemfibrozilThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Gemfibrozil.
GlyphosateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Glyphosate is combined with Cinnarizine.
GriseofulvinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Griseofulvin is combined with Cinnarizine.
HaloperidolThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Haloperidol.
HaloproginThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Haloprogin is combined with Cinnarizine.
HexetidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hexetidine is combined with Cinnarizine.
HexobarbitalThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be increased when combined with Hexobarbital.
HyaluronidaseThe therapeutic efficacy of Hyaluronidase can be decreased when used in combination with Cinnarizine.
Hydroxyamphetamine hydrobromideHydroxyamphetamine hydrobromide may decrease the sedative activities of Cinnarizine.
ImipramineThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Imipramine.
IndinavirThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Indinavir.
IndoraminIndoramin may increase the hypotensive activities of Cinnarizine.
IrbesartanThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Irbesartan.
IsoconazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoconazole is combined with Cinnarizine.
IsoniazidThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Isoniazid.
ItraconazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Itraconazole is combined with Cinnarizine.
KetoconazoleThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Ketoconazole.
LabetalolLabetalol may increase the hypotensive activities of Cinnarizine.
LeflunomideThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Leflunomide.
LidocaineThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Lidocaine.
LisdexamfetamineLisdexamfetamine may decrease the sedative activities of Cinnarizine.
LopinavirThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Lopinavir.
LorcaserinThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Lorcaserin.
LosartanThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Losartan.
LovastatinThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Lovastatin.
LumacaftorThe serum concentration of Cinnarizine can be decreased when it is combined with Lumacaftor.
LumefantrineThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Lumefantrine.
Magnesium hydroxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cinnarizine is combined with Magnesium hydroxide.
Magnesium oxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cinnarizine is combined with Magnesium oxide.
Magnesium salicylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cinnarizine is combined with Magnesium salicylate.
Magnesium SulfateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cinnarizine is combined with Magnesium Sulfate.
MephentermineMephentermine may decrease the sedative activities of Cinnarizine.
MethadoneThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Methadone.
MethamphetamineMethamphetamine may decrease the sedative activities of Cinnarizine.
MethohexitalThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be increased when combined with Methohexital.
MethotrimeprazineThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Methotrimeprazine.
MethylphenobarbitalThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be increased when combined with Methylphenobarbital.
MetoprololThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Metoprolol.
MevastatinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mevastatin is combined with Cinnarizine.
MexiletineThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Mexiletine.
MicafunginThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Micafungin is combined with Cinnarizine.
MiconazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Miconazole is combined with Cinnarizine.
MifepristoneThe serum concentration of Cinnarizine can be increased when it is combined with Mifepristone.
MiltefosineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Miltefosine is combined with Cinnarizine.
MirabegronThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Mirabegron.
MivacuriumCinnarizine may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Mivacurium.
MonensinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Monensin is combined with Cinnarizine.
MyxothiazolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Myxothiazol is combined with Cinnarizine.
NafcillinThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be increased when combined with Nafcillin.
NaftifineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Naftifine is combined with Cinnarizine.
NatamycinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Natamycin is combined with Cinnarizine.
NevirapineThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Nevirapine.
NicardipineThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Nicardipine.
NicotineThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Nicotine.
NilotinibThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Nilotinib.
NitroprussideCinnarizine may increase the hypotensive activities of Nitroprusside.
NitroxolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitroxoline is combined with Cinnarizine.
NystatinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nystatin is combined with Cinnarizine.
OmeprazoleThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Omeprazole.
OsimertinibThe serum concentration of Cinnarizine can be decreased when it is combined with Osimertinib.
OxiconazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxiconazole is combined with Cinnarizine.
pafuramidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when pafuramidine is combined with Cinnarizine.
PanobinostatThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Panobinostat.
ParoxetineThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Paroxetine.
Peginterferon alfa-2bThe serum concentration of Cinnarizine can be decreased when it is combined with Peginterferon alfa-2b.
PentamidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentamidine is combined with Cinnarizine.
PentobarbitalThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be increased when combined with Pentobarbital.
PhenobarbitalThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.
PhenterminePhentermine may decrease the sedative activities of Cinnarizine.
PhenytoinThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Cinnarizine.
PhenytoinThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
PosaconazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Posaconazole is combined with Cinnarizine.
PrazosinPrazosin may increase the hypotensive activities of Cinnarizine.
PrimidoneThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be increased when combined with Primidone.
PromazineThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Promazine.
PyrimethamineThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Pyrimethamine.
QuazepamThe serum concentration of Cinnarizine can be increased when it is combined with Quazepam.
QuinidineThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Quinidine.
QuinineThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Quinine.
RadicicolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Radicicol is combined with Cinnarizine.
RanolazineThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Ranolazine.
RapacuroniumCinnarizine may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Rapacuronium.
RifampicinThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be increased when combined with Rifampicin.
RifapentineThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be increased when combined with Rifapentine.
RitonavirThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.
RolapitantThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Rolapitant.
RopiniroleThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Ropinirole.
Salicylhydroxamic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Salicylhydroxamic Acid is combined with Cinnarizine.
Salicylic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Salicylic acid is combined with Cinnarizine.
SecobarbitalThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
SertaconazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sertaconazole is combined with Cinnarizine.
SertralineThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Sertraline.
SildenafilThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Sildenafil.
SilodosinSilodosin may increase the hypotensive activities of Cinnarizine.
SimeprevirThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Simeprevir.
SinefunginThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sinefungin is combined with Cinnarizine.
SirolimusThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sirolimus is combined with Cinnarizine.
SorafenibThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Sorafenib.
StiripentolThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Stiripentol.
SulconazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sulconazole is combined with Cinnarizine.
SulfadiazineThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Sulfadiazine.
SulfamethoxazoleThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Sulfamethoxazole.
SulfisoxazoleThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Sulfisoxazole.
TamsulosinTamsulosin may increase the hypotensive activities of Cinnarizine.
TavaboroleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tavaborole is combined with Cinnarizine.
TenofovirThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir.
TerazosinTerazosin may increase the hypotensive activities of Cinnarizine.
TerbinafineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Terbinafine is combined with Cinnarizine.
TerconazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Terconazole is combined with Cinnarizine.
TeriflunomideThe serum concentration of Cinnarizine can be decreased when it is combined with Teriflunomide.
TheophyllineThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Theophylline.
ThiamylalThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be increased when combined with Thiamylal.
ThiopentalThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be increased when combined with Thiopental.
ThioridazineThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Thioridazine.
ThiotepaThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Thiotepa.
ThymolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thymol is combined with Cinnarizine.
TicagrelorThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Ticagrelor.
TiclopidineThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Ticlopidine.
TioconazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tioconazole is combined with Cinnarizine.
TipranavirThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Tipranavir.
TolbutamideThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Tolbutamide.
TolnaftateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tolnaftate is combined with Cinnarizine.
TranylcypromineThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Tranylcypromine.
TrimazosinTrimazosin may increase the hypotensive activities of Cinnarizine.
TrimethoprimThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Trimethoprim.
TrimetrexateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trimetrexate is combined with Cinnarizine.
Valproic AcidThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Valproic Acid.
ValsartanThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Valsartan.
VemurafenibThe serum concentration of Cinnarizine can be increased when it is combined with Vemurafenib.
VenlafaxineThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Venlafaxine.
VoriconazoleThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Voriconazole.
ZafirlukastThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Zafirlukast.
ZiprasidoneThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Ziprasidone.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Histamine receptor activity
Specific Function:
In peripheral tissues, the H1 subclass of histamine receptors mediates the contraction of smooth muscles, increase in capillary permeability due to contraction of terminal venules, and catecholamine release from adrenal medulla, as well as mediating neurotransmission in the central nervous system.
Gene Name:
HRH1
Uniprot ID:
P35367
Molecular Weight:
55783.61 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
  2. Paton DM, Webster DR: Clinical pharmacokinetics of H1-receptor antagonists (the antihistamines). Clin Pharmacokinet. 1985 Nov-Dec;10(6):477-97. [PubMed:2866055 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. The isoform alpha-1C gives rise to L-type calcium currents. Long-lasting (L-type) calcium channels belon...
Gene Name:
CACNA1C
Uniprot ID:
Q13936
Molecular Weight:
248974.1 Da
References
  1. Singh BN: The mechanism of action of calcium antagonists relative to their clinical applications. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1986;21 Suppl 2:109S-121S. [PubMed:3530295 ]
  2. Cohen CJ, Spires S, Van Skiver D: Block of T-type Ca channels in guinea pig atrial cells by antiarrhythmic agents and Ca channel antagonists. J Gen Physiol. 1992 Oct;100(4):703-28. [PubMed:1281221 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity involved sa node cell action potential
Specific Function:
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. The isoform alpha-1D gives rise to L-type calcium currents. Long-lasting (L-type) calcium channels belon...
Gene Name:
CACNA1D
Uniprot ID:
Q01668
Molecular Weight:
245138.75 Da
References
  1. Singh BN: The mechanism of action of calcium antagonists relative to their clinical applications. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1986;21 Suppl 2:109S-121S. [PubMed:3530295 ]
  2. Cohen CJ, Spires S, Van Skiver D: Block of T-type Ca channels in guinea pig atrial cells by antiarrhythmic agents and Ca channel antagonists. J Gen Physiol. 1992 Oct;100(4):703-28. [PubMed:1281221 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. The isoform alpha-1F gives rise to L-type calcium currents. Long-lasting (L-type) calcium channels belon...
Gene Name:
CACNA1F
Uniprot ID:
O60840
Molecular Weight:
220675.9 Da
References
  1. Singh BN: The mechanism of action of calcium antagonists relative to their clinical applications. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1986;21 Suppl 2:109S-121S. [PubMed:3530295 ]
  2. Cohen CJ, Spires S, Van Skiver D: Block of T-type Ca channels in guinea pig atrial cells by antiarrhythmic agents and Ca channel antagonists. J Gen Physiol. 1992 Oct;100(4):703-28. [PubMed:1281221 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. The isoform alpha-1S gives rise to L-type calcium currents. Long-lasting (L-type) calcium channels belon...
Gene Name:
CACNA1S
Uniprot ID:
Q13698
Molecular Weight:
212348.1 Da
References
  1. Singh BN: The mechanism of action of calcium antagonists relative to their clinical applications. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1986;21 Suppl 2:109S-121S. [PubMed:3530295 ]
  2. Cohen CJ, Spires S, Van Skiver D: Block of T-type Ca channels in guinea pig atrial cells by antiarrhythmic agents and Ca channel antagonists. J Gen Physiol. 1992 Oct;100(4):703-28. [PubMed:1281221 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Scaffold protein binding
Specific Function:
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. The isoform alpha-1G gives rise to T-type calcium currents. T-type calcium channels belong to the "low-v...
Gene Name:
CACNA1G
Uniprot ID:
O43497
Molecular Weight:
262468.62 Da
References
  1. Singh BN: The mechanism of action of calcium antagonists relative to their clinical applications. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1986;21 Suppl 2:109S-121S. [PubMed:3530295 ]
  2. Cohen CJ, Spires S, Van Skiver D: Block of T-type Ca channels in guinea pig atrial cells by antiarrhythmic agents and Ca channel antagonists. J Gen Physiol. 1992 Oct;100(4):703-28. [PubMed:1281221 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Scaffold protein binding
Specific Function:
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. The isoform alpha-1H gives rise to T-type calcium currents. T-type calcium channels belong to the "low-v...
Gene Name:
CACNA1H
Uniprot ID:
O95180
Molecular Weight:
259160.2 Da
References
  1. Singh BN: The mechanism of action of calcium antagonists relative to their clinical applications. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1986;21 Suppl 2:109S-121S. [PubMed:3530295 ]
  2. Cohen CJ, Spires S, Van Skiver D: Block of T-type Ca channels in guinea pig atrial cells by antiarrhythmic agents and Ca channel antagonists. J Gen Physiol. 1992 Oct;100(4):703-28. [PubMed:1281221 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. Isoform alpha-1I gives rise to T-type calcium currents. T-type calcium channels belong to the "low-volta...
Gene Name:
CACNA1I
Uniprot ID:
Q9P0X4
Molecular Weight:
245100.8 Da
References
  1. Singh BN: The mechanism of action of calcium antagonists relative to their clinical applications. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1986;21 Suppl 2:109S-121S. [PubMed:3530295 ]
  2. Cohen CJ, Spires S, Van Skiver D: Block of T-type Ca channels in guinea pig atrial cells by antiarrhythmic agents and Ca channel antagonists. J Gen Physiol. 1992 Oct;100(4):703-28. [PubMed:1281221 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
no
Actions
other/unknown
General Function:
Potassium channel regulator activity
Specific Function:
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name:
DRD2
Uniprot ID:
P14416
Molecular Weight:
50618.91 Da
References
  1. Brucke T, Wober C, Podreka I, Wober-Bingol C, Asenbaum S, Aull S, Wenger S, Ilieva D, Harasko-van der Meer C, Wessely P, et al.: D2 receptor blockade by flunarizine and cinnarizine explains extrapyramidal side effects. A SPECT study. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1995 May;15(3):513-8. [PubMed:7714010 ]
  2. Kuzuhara S: [Drug-induced parkinsonism]. Nihon Rinsho. 1997 Jan;55(1):112-7. [PubMed:9014432 ]
  3. doi:10.1007/s00415-006-3004-8 [Link]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
binder
General Function:
G-protein coupled amine receptor activity
Specific Function:
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase.
Components:
NameUniProt IDDetails
D(1A) dopamine receptorP21728 Details
D(1B) dopamine receptorP21918 Details
References
  1. Nasu R, Matsuo H, Takanaga H, Ohtani H, Sawada Y: Quantitative prediction of catalepsy induced by amoxapine, cinnarizine and cyclophosphamide in mice. Biopharm Drug Dispos. 2000 May;21(4):129-38. [PubMed:11180191 ]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
binder
General Function:
Phosphatidylinositol phospholipase c activity
Specific Function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is Pi turnover.
Components:
NameUniProt IDDetails
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1P11229 Details
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2P08172 Details
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3P20309 Details
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4P08173 Details
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M5P08912 Details
References
  1. Nasu R, Matsuo H, Takanaga H, Ohtani H, Sawada Y: Quantitative prediction of catalepsy induced by amoxapine, cinnarizine and cyclophosphamide in mice. Biopharm Drug Dispos. 2000 May;21(4):129-38. [PubMed:11180191 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular Weight:
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenyto...
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular Weight:
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N...
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular Weight:
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase.
Gene Name:
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID:
P20813
Molecular Weight:
56277.81 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Exhibits a high coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity. Can act in the hydroxylation of the anti-cancer drugs cyclophosphamide and ifosphamide. Competent in the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1. Constitutes the major nicotine C-oxidase. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. Possesses low phenacetin O-deethylation activity.
Gene Name:
CYP2A6
Uniprot ID:
P11509
Molecular Weight:
56501.005 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Vitamin d 24-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP1A1
Uniprot ID:
P04798
Molecular Weight:
58164.815 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23