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Identification
NameVinblastine
Accession NumberDB00570  (APRD00708)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
Description

Antitumor alkaloid isolated from Vinca rosea. (Merck, 11th ed.)

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
(2alpha,2'BETA,3beta,4alpha,5beta)-vincaleukoblastine
Vinblastin
Vinblastina
Vinblastine
Vinblastinum
Vincaleukoblastine
VLB
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Velbe 1mg/mlpowder for solution10 mgintravenousEli Lilly Canada Inc1994-11-152000-10-02Canada
Vinblastine Sulfate Inj 1mg/mlliquid1 mgintravenousDavid Bull Laboratories (Pty) Ltd.1992-12-311998-08-13Canada
Vinblastine Sulfate Injectionsolution1 mgintravenousHospira Healthcare Corporation1998-04-14Not applicableCanada
Vinblastine Sulfate Injectionsolution1 mgintravenousSandoz Canada IncorporatedNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Vinblastine Sulphate Injectionsolution1 mgintravenousTeva Canada Limited2013-02-08Not applicableCanada
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Vinblastine Sulfateinjection1 mg/mLintravenousAPP Pharmaceuticals, LLC2000-07-12Not applicableUs
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
BlastivinPharmachemie
CytoblastinCipla
LemblastineNot Available
OncostinCipla
VelbanABL Antibióticos do Brasil
VelbastinKorea United Pharm
VelbeSTADA
VinblasinTeva
VinblastinGedeon Richter
VinkoKoçak
WeibaodingHospira
XintoprostRichmond
Brand mixturesNot Available
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Vinblastine Sulfate
Thumb
  • InChI Key: KDQAABAKXDWYSZ-JKDPCDLQSA-N
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 908.387758716
  • Average Mass: 909.053
DBSALT000644
Categories
UNII5V9KLZ54CY
CAS number865-21-4
WeightAverage: 810.9741
Monoisotopic: 810.420379474
Chemical FormulaC46H58N4O9
InChI KeyInChIKey=JXLYSJRDGCGARV-XQKSVPLYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C46H58N4O9/c1-8-42(54)23-28-24-45(40(52)57-6,36-30(15-19-49(25-28)26-42)29-13-10-11-14-33(29)47-36)32-21-31-34(22-35(32)56-5)48(4)38-44(31)17-20-50-18-12-16-43(9-2,37(44)50)39(59-27(3)51)46(38,55)41(53)58-7/h10-14,16,21-22,28,37-39,47,54-55H,8-9,15,17-20,23-26H2,1-7H3/t28-,37+,38-,39-,42+,43-,44-,45+,46+/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
methyl (1R,9R,10S,11R,12R,19R)-11-(acetyloxy)-12-ethyl-4-[(13S,15S,17S)-17-ethyl-17-hydroxy-13-(methoxycarbonyl)-1,11-diazatetracyclo[13.3.1.0⁴,¹².0⁵,¹⁰]nonadeca-4(12),5,7,9-tetraen-13-yl]-10-hydroxy-5-methoxy-8-methyl-8,16-diazapentacyclo[10.6.1.0¹,⁹.0²,⁷.0¹⁶,¹⁹]nonadeca-2(7),3,5,13-tetraene-10-carboxylate
SMILES
[H][C@@]12N(C)C3=C(C=C(C(OC)=C3)[C@]3(C[C@@H]4CN(C[C@](O)(CC)C4)CCC4=C3NC3=CC=CC=C43)C(=O)OC)[C@@]11CCN3CC=C[C@@](CC)([C@@H](OC(C)=O)[C@]2(O)C(=O)OC)[C@@]13[H]
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as vinca alkaloids. These are alkaloids with a dimeric chemical structure composed of an indole nucleus (catharanthine), and a dihydroindole nucleus (vindoline), joined together.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassAlkaloids and derivatives
ClassVinca alkaloids
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentVinca alkaloids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Vinca alkaloid skeleton
  • Carbazole
  • Indole or derivatives
  • Indole
  • Dialkylarylamine
  • Anisole
  • Aralkylamine
  • Tetrahydropyridine
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Benzenoid
  • N-alkylpyrrolidine
  • Piperidine
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Acetate salt
  • Methyl ester
  • Tertiary alcohol
  • Pyrrolidine
  • Pyrrole
  • Cyclic alcohol
  • Tertiary aliphatic amine
  • Tertiary amine
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • 1,2-aminoalcohol
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Ether
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Alcohol
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor treatment of breast cancer, testicular cancer, lymphomas, neuroblastoma, Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, mycosis fungoides, histiocytosis, and Kaposi's sarcoma.
PharmacodynamicsVinblastine is a vinca alkaloid antineoplastic agent. The vinca alkaloids are structurally similar compounds comprised of 2 multiringed units: vindoline and catharanthine. The vinca alkaloids have become clinically useful since the discovery of their antitumour properties in 1959. Initially, extracts of the periwinkle plant (Catharanthus roseus) were investigated because of putative hypoglycemic properties, but were noted to cause marrow suppression in rats and antileukemic effects in vitro. Vinblastine has some immunosuppressant effect. The vinca alkaloids are considered to be cell cycle phase-specific.
Mechanism of actionThe antitumor activity of vinblastine is thought to be due primarily to inhibition of mitosis at metaphase through its interaction with tubulin. Vinblastine binds to the microtubular proteins of the mitotic spindle, leading to crystallization of the microtubule and mitotic arrest or cell death.
Related Articles
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein binding98-99%
Metabolism

Hepatic. Metabolism of vinblastine has been shown to be mediated by hepatic cytochrome P450 3A isoenzymes.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Vinblastine
DesacetylvinblastineDetails
Route of eliminationThe major route of excretion may be through the biliary system.
Half lifeTriphasic: 35 min, 53 min, and 19 hours
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityOral, mouse: LD50 = 423 mg/kg; Oral, rat: LD50 = 305 mg/kg.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Vinblastine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00436
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9806
Blood Brain Barrier-0.9203
Caco-2 permeable+0.6283
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.9213
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.7737
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.6817
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.771
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.816
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9117
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.72
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9198
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9093
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9025
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8149
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8681
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9132
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.91
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable1.0
Rat acute toxicity2.9111 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9366
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.5793
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Eli lilly and co
  • Abraxis pharmaceutical products
  • App pharmaceuticals llc
  • Bedford laboratories div ben venue laboratories inc
  • Hospira inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Powder for solutionintravenous10 mg
Injectionintravenous1 mg/mL
Liquidintravenous1 mg
Solutionintravenous1 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Vinblastine sulf 10 mg vial18.6USD each
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point267 °CNot Available
water solubilityNegligibleNot Available
logP3.70SANGSTER (1994)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0169 mg/mLALOGPS
logP4.22ALOGPS
logP4.18ChemAxon
logS-4.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)10.87ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)8.86ChemAxon
Physiological Charge2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count9ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area154.1 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count10ChemAxon
Refractivity222.42 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability87.3 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings9ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Pierre Potier, Pierre Mangeney, Nicole Langlois, Yves Langlois, “Process for the synthesis of vinblastine and leurosidine.” U.S. Patent US4305875, issued October, 1977.

US4305875
General References
  1. Starling D: Two ultrastructurally distinct tubulin paracrystals induced in sea-urchin eggs by vinblastine sulphate. J Cell Sci. 1976 Jan;20(1):79-89. [PubMed:942954 ]
External Links
ATC CodesL01CA01
AHFS Codes
  • 10:00.00
PDB Entries
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (73.5 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AfatinibThe serum concentration of Afatinib can be decreased when it is combined with Vinblastine.
AprepitantThe serum concentration of Vinblastine can be increased when it is combined with Aprepitant.
AripiprazoleThe serum concentration of Aripiprazole can be increased when it is combined with Vinblastine.
BexaroteneThe serum concentration of Vinblastine can be decreased when it is combined with Bexarotene.
BosentanThe serum concentration of Vinblastine can be decreased when it is combined with Bosentan.
Brentuximab vedotinThe serum concentration of Brentuximab vedotin can be decreased when it is combined with Vinblastine.
ClarithromycinThe serum concentration of Vinblastine can be increased when it is combined with Clarithromycin.
ClozapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Vinblastine is combined with Clozapine.
ConivaptanThe serum concentration of Vinblastine can be increased when it is combined with Conivaptan.
Dabigatran etexilateThe serum concentration of Dabigatran etexilate can be decreased when it is combined with Vinblastine.
DabrafenibThe serum concentration of Vinblastine can be decreased when it is combined with Dabrafenib.
DasatinibThe serum concentration of Vinblastine can be increased when it is combined with Dasatinib.
DeferasiroxThe serum concentration of Vinblastine can be decreased when it is combined with Deferasirox.
DenosumabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Denosumab is combined with Vinblastine.
DoxorubicinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Vinblastine.
FluconazoleThe metabolism of Vinblastine can be decreased when combined with Fluconazole.
FosaprepitantThe serum concentration of Vinblastine can be increased when it is combined with Fosaprepitant.
Fusidic AcidThe serum concentration of Vinblastine can be increased when it is combined with Fusidic Acid.
IdelalisibThe serum concentration of Vinblastine can be increased when it is combined with Idelalisib.
ItraconazoleThe serum concentration of Vinblastine can be increased when it is combined with Itraconazole.
IvacaftorThe serum concentration of Vinblastine can be increased when it is combined with Ivacaftor.
LedipasvirThe serum concentration of Ledipasvir can be decreased when it is combined with Vinblastine.
LeflunomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Vinblastine is combined with Leflunomide.
LinagliptinThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Vinblastine.
LopinavirThe serum concentration of Vinblastine can be increased when it is combined with Lopinavir.
LuliconazoleThe serum concentration of Vinblastine can be increased when it is combined with Luliconazole.
MetamizoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metamizole is combined with Vinblastine.
MifepristoneThe serum concentration of Vinblastine can be increased when it is combined with Mifepristone.
MitomycinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Vinblastine is combined with Mitomycin.
MitotaneThe serum concentration of Vinblastine can be decreased when it is combined with Mitotane.
NatalizumabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Vinblastine is combined with Natalizumab.
NelfinavirThe metabolism of Vinblastine can be decreased when combined with Nelfinavir.
NetupitantThe serum concentration of Vinblastine can be increased when it is combined with Netupitant.
PalbociclibThe serum concentration of Vinblastine can be increased when it is combined with Palbociclib.
PhenelzinePhenelzine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Vinblastine.
PhenytoinThe metabolism of Vinblastine can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
PimecrolimusThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pimecrolimus is combined with Vinblastine.
PosaconazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Posaconazole is combined with Vinblastine.
RanolazineThe serum concentration of Vinblastine can be increased when it is combined with Ranolazine.
RitonavirThe serum concentration of Vinblastine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
RoflumilastRoflumilast may increase the immunosuppressive activities of Vinblastine.
SaquinavirThe serum concentration of Vinblastine can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
SiltuximabThe serum concentration of Vinblastine can be decreased when it is combined with Siltuximab.
SimeprevirThe serum concentration of Vinblastine can be increased when it is combined with Simeprevir.
Sipuleucel-TThe therapeutic efficacy of Sipuleucel-T can be decreased when used in combination with Vinblastine.
SofosbuvirThe serum concentration of Sofosbuvir can be decreased when it is combined with Vinblastine.
St. John's WortThe serum concentration of Vinblastine can be decreased when it is combined with St. John's Wort.
StiripentolThe serum concentration of Vinblastine can be increased when it is combined with Stiripentol.
TacrolimusThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tacrolimus is combined with Vinblastine.
TesmilifeneThe serum concentration of Vinblastine can be decreased when it is combined with Tesmilifene.
TocilizumabThe serum concentration of Vinblastine can be decreased when it is combined with Tocilizumab.
TofacitinibVinblastine may increase the immunosuppressive activities of Tofacitinib.
TolterodineThe serum concentration of Tolterodine can be increased when it is combined with Vinblastine.
TranylcypromineTranylcypromine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Vinblastine.
TrastuzumabTrastuzumab may increase the neutropenic activities of Vinblastine.
VerapamilThe serum concentration of Vinblastine can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.
VincristineThe serum concentration of Vincristine can be decreased when it is combined with Vinblastine.
VoriconazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Voriconazole is combined with Vinblastine.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
adduct
General Function:
Structural molecule activity
Specific Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain.
Gene Name:
TUBA1A
Uniprot ID:
Q71U36
Molecular Weight:
50135.25 Da
References
  1. Jordan MA, Kamath K: How do microtubule-targeted drugs work? An overview. Curr Cancer Drug Targets. 2007 Dec;7(8):730-42. [PubMed:18220533 ]
  2. Correia JJ: Effects of antimitotic agents on tubulin-nucleotide interactions. Pharmacol Ther. 1991 Nov;52(2):127-47. [PubMed:1818332 ]
  3. Jordan A, Hadfield JA, Lawrence NJ, McGown AT: Tubulin as a target for anticancer drugs: agents which interact with the mitotic spindle. Med Res Rev. 1998 Jul;18(4):259-96. [PubMed:9664292 ]
  4. Islam MN, Iskander MN: Microtubulin binding sites as target for developing anticancer agents. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2004 Dec;4(10):1077-104. [PubMed:15579115 ]
  5. Gupta S, Bhattacharyya B: Antimicrotubular drugs binding to vinca domain of tubulin. Mol Cell Biochem. 2003 Nov;253(1-2):41-7. [PubMed:14619954 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
adduct
General Function:
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Specific Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain.
Gene Name:
TUBB
Uniprot ID:
P07437
Molecular Weight:
49670.515 Da
References
  1. Jordan MA, Kamath K: How do microtubule-targeted drugs work? An overview. Curr Cancer Drug Targets. 2007 Dec;7(8):730-42. [PubMed:18220533 ]
  2. Correia JJ: Effects of antimitotic agents on tubulin-nucleotide interactions. Pharmacol Ther. 1991 Nov;52(2):127-47. [PubMed:1818332 ]
  3. Jordan A, Hadfield JA, Lawrence NJ, McGown AT: Tubulin as a target for anticancer drugs: agents which interact with the mitotic spindle. Med Res Rev. 1998 Jul;18(4):259-96. [PubMed:9664292 ]
  4. Islam MN, Iskander MN: Microtubulin binding sites as target for developing anticancer agents. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2004 Dec;4(10):1077-104. [PubMed:15579115 ]
  5. Gupta S, Bhattacharyya B: Antimicrotubular drugs binding to vinca domain of tubulin. Mol Cell Biochem. 2003 Nov;253(1-2):41-7. [PubMed:14619954 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
adduct
General Function:
Structural constituent of cytoskeleton
Specific Function:
In the elongating spermatid it is associated with the manchette, a specialized microtubule system present during reshaping of the sperm head.
Gene Name:
TUBD1
Uniprot ID:
Q9UJT1
Molecular Weight:
51033.86 Da
References
  1. Jordan MA, Kamath K: How do microtubule-targeted drugs work? An overview. Curr Cancer Drug Targets. 2007 Dec;7(8):730-42. [PubMed:18220533 ]
  2. Correia JJ: Effects of antimitotic agents on tubulin-nucleotide interactions. Pharmacol Ther. 1991 Nov;52(2):127-47. [PubMed:1818332 ]
  3. Jordan A, Hadfield JA, Lawrence NJ, McGown AT: Tubulin as a target for anticancer drugs: agents which interact with the mitotic spindle. Med Res Rev. 1998 Jul;18(4):259-96. [PubMed:9664292 ]
  4. Islam MN, Iskander MN: Microtubulin binding sites as target for developing anticancer agents. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2004 Dec;4(10):1077-104. [PubMed:15579115 ]
  5. Gupta S, Bhattacharyya B: Antimicrotubular drugs binding to vinca domain of tubulin. Mol Cell Biochem. 2003 Nov;253(1-2):41-7. [PubMed:14619954 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
adduct
General Function:
Structural constituent of cytoskeleton
Specific Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. The gamma chain is found at microtubule organizing centers (MTOC) such as the spindle poles or the centrosome. Pericentriolar matrix component that regulates alpha/beta chain minus-end nucleation, centrosome duplication and spindle formation.
Gene Name:
TUBG1
Uniprot ID:
P23258
Molecular Weight:
51169.48 Da
References
  1. Jordan MA, Kamath K: How do microtubule-targeted drugs work? An overview. Curr Cancer Drug Targets. 2007 Dec;7(8):730-42. [PubMed:18220533 ]
  2. Correia JJ: Effects of antimitotic agents on tubulin-nucleotide interactions. Pharmacol Ther. 1991 Nov;52(2):127-47. [PubMed:1818332 ]
  3. Jordan A, Hadfield JA, Lawrence NJ, McGown AT: Tubulin as a target for anticancer drugs: agents which interact with the mitotic spindle. Med Res Rev. 1998 Jul;18(4):259-96. [PubMed:9664292 ]
  4. Islam MN, Iskander MN: Microtubulin binding sites as target for developing anticancer agents. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2004 Dec;4(10):1077-104. [PubMed:15579115 ]
  5. Gupta S, Bhattacharyya B: Antimicrotubular drugs binding to vinca domain of tubulin. Mol Cell Biochem. 2003 Nov;253(1-2):41-7. [PubMed:14619954 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
adduct
General Function:
Structural constituent of cytoskeleton
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
TUBE1
Uniprot ID:
Q9UJT0
Molecular Weight:
52931.4 Da
References
  1. Jordan MA, Kamath K: How do microtubule-targeted drugs work? An overview. Curr Cancer Drug Targets. 2007 Dec;7(8):730-42. [PubMed:18220533 ]
  2. Correia JJ: Effects of antimitotic agents on tubulin-nucleotide interactions. Pharmacol Ther. 1991 Nov;52(2):127-47. [PubMed:1818332 ]
  3. Jordan A, Hadfield JA, Lawrence NJ, McGown AT: Tubulin as a target for anticancer drugs: agents which interact with the mitotic spindle. Med Res Rev. 1998 Jul;18(4):259-96. [PubMed:9664292 ]
  4. Islam MN, Iskander MN: Microtubulin binding sites as target for developing anticancer agents. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2004 Dec;4(10):1077-104. [PubMed:15579115 ]
  5. Gupta S, Bhattacharyya B: Antimicrotubular drugs binding to vinca domain of tubulin. Mol Cell Biochem. 2003 Nov;253(1-2):41-7. [PubMed:14619954 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
no
Actions
other/unknown
General Function:
Transcriptional activator activity, rna polymerase ii transcription factor binding
Specific Function:
Transcription factor that recognizes and binds to the enhancer heptamer motif 5'-TGA[CG]TCA-3'. Promotes activity of NR5A1 when phosphorylated by HIPK3 leading to increased steroidogenic gene expression upon cAMP signaling pathway stimulation.
Gene Name:
JUN
Uniprot ID:
P05412
Molecular Weight:
35675.32 Da
References
  1. Brantley-Finley C, Lyle CS, Du L, Goodwin ME, Hall T, Szwedo D, Kaushal GP, Chambers TC: The JNK, ERK and p53 pathways play distinct roles in apoptosis mediated by the antitumor agents vinblastine, doxorubicin, and etoposide. Biochem Pharmacol. 2003 Aug 1;66(3):459-69. [PubMed:12907245 ]
  2. Bene A, Kurten RC, Chambers TC: Subcellular localization as a limiting factor for utilization of decoy oligonucleotides. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004 Oct 21;32(19):e142. [PubMed:15498923 ]
  3. Obey TB, Lyle CS, Chambers TC: Role of c-Jun in cellular sensitivity to the microtubule inhibitor vinblastine. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005 Oct 7;335(4):1179-84. [PubMed:16111654 ]
  4. Martinez-Campa C, Casado P, Rodriguez R, Zuazua P, Garcia-Pedrero JM, Lazo PS, Ramos S: Effect of vinca alkaloids on ERalpha levels and estradiol-induced responses in MCF-7 cells. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2006 Jul;98(1):81-9. Epub 2006 Mar 23. [PubMed:16555127 ]
  5. Duan L, Sterba K, Kolomeichuk S, Kim H, Brown PH, Chambers TC: Inducible overexpression of c-Jun in MCF7 cells causes resistance to vinblastine via inhibition of drug-induced apoptosis and senescence at a step subsequent to mitotic arrest. Biochem Pharmacol. 2007 Feb 15;73(4):481-90. Epub 2006 Oct 29. [PubMed:17126817 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiot...
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  2. Ekins S, Bravi G, Wikel JH, Wrighton SA: Three-dimensional-quantitative structure activity relationship analysis of cytochrome P-450 3A4 substrates. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Oct;291(1):424-33. [PubMed:10490933 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular Weight:
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitorinducer
General Function:
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular Weight:
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Arora A, Shukla Y: Modulation of vinca-alkaloid induced P-glycoprotein expression by indole-3-carbinol. Cancer Lett. 2003 Jan 28;189(2):167-73. [PubMed:12490309 ]
  2. Gao J, Murase O, Schowen RL, Aube J, Borchardt RT: A functional assay for quantitation of the apparent affinities of ligands of P-glycoprotein in Caco-2 cells. Pharm Res. 2001 Feb;18(2):171-6. [PubMed:11405287 ]
  3. Wang EJ, Casciano CN, Clement RP, Johnson WW: Active transport of fluorescent P-glycoprotein substrates: evaluation as markers and interaction with inhibitors. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001 Nov 30;289(2):580-5. [PubMed:11716514 ]
  4. Tang F, Horie K, Borchardt RT: Are MDCK cells transfected with the human MDR1 gene a good model of the human intestinal mucosa? Pharm Res. 2002 Jun;19(6):765-72. [PubMed:12134945 ]
  5. Horie K, Tang F, Borchardt RT: Isolation and characterization of Caco-2 subclones expressing high levels of multidrug resistance protein efflux transporter. Pharm Res. 2003 Feb;20(2):161-8. [PubMed:12636153 ]
  6. Schwab D, Fischer H, Tabatabaei A, Poli S, Huwyler J: Comparison of in vitro P-glycoprotein screening assays: recommendations for their use in drug discovery. J Med Chem. 2003 Apr 24;46(9):1716-25. [PubMed:12699389 ]
  7. Tanigawara Y, Okamura N, Hirai M, Yasuhara M, Ueda K, Kioka N, Komano T, Hori R: Transport of digoxin by human P-glycoprotein expressed in a porcine kidney epithelial cell line (LLC-PK1). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1992 Nov;263(2):840-5. [PubMed:1359120 ]
  8. Tiberghien F, Loor F: Ranking of P-glycoprotein substrates and inhibitors by a calcein-AM fluorometry screening assay. Anticancer Drugs. 1996 Jul;7(5):568-78. [PubMed:8862725 ]
  9. Pouliot JF, L'Heureux F, Liu Z, Prichard RK, Georges E: Reversal of P-glycoprotein-associated multidrug resistance by ivermectin. Biochem Pharmacol. 1997 Jan 10;53(1):17-25. [PubMed:8960059 ]
  10. Smit JW, Weert B, Schinkel AH, Meijer DK: Heterologous expression of various P-glycoproteins in polarized epithelial cells induces directional transport of small (type 1) and bulky (type 2) cationic drugs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998 Jul;286(1):321-7. [PubMed:9655875 ]
  11. Shepard RL, Winter MA, Hsaio SC, Pearce HL, Beck WT, Dantzig AH: Effect of modulators on the ATPase activity and vanadate nucleotide trapping of human P-glycoprotein. Biochem Pharmacol. 1998 Sep 15;56(6):719-27. [PubMed:9751076 ]
  12. Golstein PE, Boom A, van Geffel J, Jacobs P, Masereel B, Beauwens R: P-glycoprotein inhibition by glibenclamide and related compounds. Pflugers Arch. 1999 Apr;437(5):652-60. [PubMed:10087141 ]
  13. Takara K, Tanigawara Y, Komada F, Nishiguchi K, Sakaeda T, Okumura K: Cellular pharmacokinetic aspects of reversal effect of itraconazole on P-glycoprotein-mediated resistance of anticancer drugs. Biol Pharm Bull. 1999 Dec;22(12):1355-9. [PubMed:10746169 ]
  14. Nagy H, Goda K, Fenyvesi F, Bacso Z, Szilasi M, Kappelmayer J, Lustyik G, Cianfriglia M, Szabo G Jr: Distinct groups of multidrug resistance modulating agents are distinguished by competition of P-glycoprotein-specific antibodies. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 Mar 19;315(4):942-9. [PubMed:14985103 ]
  15. Chen C, Mireles RJ, Campbell SD, Lin J, Mills JB, Xu JJ, Smolarek TA: Differential interaction of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coa reductase inhibitors with ABCB1, ABCC2, and OATP1B1. Drug Metab Dispos. 2005 Apr;33(4):537-46. Epub 2004 Dec 22. [PubMed:15616150 ]
  16. Yamazaki M, Neway WE, Ohe T, Chen I, Rowe JF, Hochman JH, Chiba M, Lin JH: In vitro substrate identification studies for p-glycoprotein-mediated transport: species difference and predictability of in vivo results. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Mar;296(3):723-35. [PubMed:11181899 ]
  17. Adachi Y, Suzuki H, Sugiyama Y: Comparative studies on in vitro methods for evaluating in vivo function of MDR1 P-glycoprotein. Pharm Res. 2001 Dec;18(12):1660-8. [PubMed:11785684 ]
  18. Kumar S, Kwei GY, Poon GK, Iliff SA, Wang Y, Chen Q, Franklin RB, Didolkar V, Wang RW, Yamazaki M, Chiu SH, Lin JH, Pearson PG, Baillie TA: Pharmacokinetics and interactions of a novel antagonist of chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) with ritonavir in rats and monkeys: role of CYP3A and P-glycoprotein. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Mar;304(3):1161-71. [PubMed:12604693 ]
  19. Atkinson DE, Greenwood SL, Sibley CP, Glazier JD, Fairbairn LJ: Role of MDR1 and MRP1 in trophoblast cells, elucidated using retroviral gene transfer. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2003 Sep;285(3):C584-91. Epub 2003 Apr 30. [PubMed:12724138 ]
  20. Troutman MD, Thakker DR: Novel experimental parameters to quantify the modulation of absorptive and secretory transport of compounds by P-glycoprotein in cell culture models of intestinal epithelium. Pharm Res. 2003 Aug;20(8):1210-24. [PubMed:12948019 ]
  21. Dagenais C, Graff CL, Pollack GM: Variable modulation of opioid brain uptake by P-glycoprotein in mice. Biochem Pharmacol. 2004 Jan 15;67(2):269-76. [PubMed:14698039 ]
  22. Taipalensuu J, Tavelin S, Lazorova L, Svensson AC, Artursson P: Exploring the quantitative relationship between the level of MDR1 transcript, protein and function using digoxin as a marker of MDR1-dependent drug efflux activity. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2004 Jan;21(1):69-75. [PubMed:14706813 ]
  23. Hunter J, Hirst BH, Simmons NL: Drug absorption limited by P-glycoprotein-mediated secretory drug transport in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell layers. Pharm Res. 1993 May;10(5):743-9. [PubMed:8100632 ]
  24. Borgnia MJ, Eytan GD, Assaraf YG: Competition of hydrophobic peptides, cytotoxic drugs, and chemosensitizers on a common P-glycoprotein pharmacophore as revealed by its ATPase activity. J Biol Chem. 1996 Feb 9;271(6):3163-71. [PubMed:8621716 ]
  25. Dantzig AH, Shepard RL, Law KL, Tabas L, Pratt S, Gillespie JS, Binkley SN, Kuhfeld MT, Starling JJ, Wrighton SA: Selectivity of the multidrug resistance modulator, LY335979, for P-glycoprotein and effect on cytochrome P-450 activities. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Aug;290(2):854-62. [PubMed:10411602 ]
  26. Lecureur V, Sun D, Hargrove P, Schuetz EG, Kim RB, Lan LB, Schuetz JD: Cloning and expression of murine sister of P-glycoprotein reveals a more discriminating transporter than MDR1/P-glycoprotein. Mol Pharmacol. 2000 Jan;57(1):24-35. [PubMed:10617675 ]
  27. Fedoruk MN, Gimenez-Bonafe P, Guns ES, Mayer LD, Nelson CC: P-glycoprotein increases the efflux of the androgen dihydrotestosterone and reduces androgen responsive gene activity in prostate tumor cells. Prostate. 2004 Apr 1;59(1):77-90. [PubMed:14991868 ]
  28. Takara K, Sakaeda T, Kakumoto M, Tanigawara Y, Kobayashi H, Okumura K, Ohnishi N, Yokoyama T: Effects of alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist doxazosin on MDR1-mediated multidrug resistance and transcellular transport. Oncol Res. 2009;17(11-12):527-33. [PubMed:19806783 ]
  29. Jutabha P, Wempe MF, Anzai N, Otomo J, Kadota T, Endou H: Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing human P-glycoprotein: probing trans- and cis-inhibitory effects on [3H]vinblastine and [3H]digoxin efflux. Pharmacol Res. 2010 Jan;61(1):76-84. doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2009.07.002. Epub 2009 Jul 21. [PubMed:19631272 ]
  30. Kugawa F, Suzuki T, Miyata M, Tomono K, Tamanoi F: Construction of a model cell line for the assay of MDR1 (multi drug resistance gene-1) substrates/inhibitors using HeLa cells. Pharmazie. 2009 May;64(5):296-300. [PubMed:19530439 ]
  31. Woodahl EL, Crouthamel MH, Bui T, Shen DD, Ho RJ: MDR1 (ABCB1) G1199A (Ser400Asn) polymorphism alters transepithelial permeability and sensitivity to anticancer agents. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2009 Jun;64(1):183-8. doi: 10.1007/s00280-008-0906-4. Epub 2009 Jan 4. [PubMed:19123050 ]
  32. Ekins S, Kim RB, Leake BF, Dantzig AH, Schuetz EG, Lan LB, Yasuda K, Shepard RL, Winter MA, Schuetz JD, Wikel JH, Wrighton SA: Application of three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships of P-glycoprotein inhibitors and substrates. Mol Pharmacol. 2002 May;61(5):974-81. [PubMed:11961114 ]
  33. Takara K, Sakaeda T, Yagami T, Kobayashi H, Ohmoto N, Horinouchi M, Nishiguchi K, Okumura K: Cytotoxic effects of 27 anticancer drugs in HeLa and MDR1-overexpressing derivative cell lines. Biol Pharm Bull. 2002 Jun;25(6):771-8. [PubMed:12081145 ]
  34. Henning U, Loffler S, Krieger K, Klimke A: Uptake of clozapine into HL-60 promyelocytic leukaemia cells. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2002 May;35(3):90-5. [PubMed:12107852 ]
  35. Tang F, Horie K, Borchardt RT: Are MDCK cells transfected with the human MRP2 gene a good model of the human intestinal mucosa? Pharm Res. 2002 Jun;19(6):773-9. [PubMed:12134946 ]
  36. Yasuda K, Lan LB, Sanglard D, Furuya K, Schuetz JD, Schuetz EG: Interaction of cytochrome P450 3A inhibitors with P-glycoprotein. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Oct;303(1):323-32. [PubMed:12235267 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitorinducer
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates export of organic anions and drugs from the cytoplasm. Mediates ATP-dependent transport of glutathione and glutathione conjugates, leukotriene C4, estradiol-17-beta-o-glucuronide, methotrexate, antiviral drugs and other xenobiotics. Confers resistance to anticancer drugs. Hydrolyzes ATP with low efficiency.
Gene Name:
ABCC1
Uniprot ID:
P33527
Molecular Weight:
171589.5 Da
References
  1. Schrenk D, Baus PR, Ermel N, Klein C, Vorderstemann B, Kauffmann HM: Up-regulation of transporters of the MRP family by drugs and toxins. Toxicol Lett. 2001 Mar 31;120(1-3):51-7. [PubMed:11323161 ]
  2. Loe DW, Almquist KC, Cole SP, Deeley RG: ATP-dependent 17 beta-estradiol 17-(beta-D-glucuronide) transport by multidrug resistance protein (MRP). Inhibition by cholestatic steroids. J Biol Chem. 1996 Apr 19;271(16):9683-9. [PubMed:8621644 ]
  3. Flanagan SD, Cummins CL, Susanto M, Liu X, Takahashi LH, Benet LZ: Comparison of furosemide and vinblastine secretion from cell lines overexpressing multidrug resistance protein (P-glycoprotein) and multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRP1 and MRP2). Pharmacology. 2002;64(3):126-34. [PubMed:11834888 ]
  4. Yildiz M, Celik-Ozenci C, Akan S, Akan I, Sati L, Demir R, Savas B, Ozben T, Samur M, Ozdogan M, Artac M, Bozcuk H: Zoledronic acid is synergic with vinblastine to induce apoptosis in a multidrug resistance protein-1 dependent way: an in vitro study. Cell Biol Int. 2006 Mar;30(3):278-82. Epub 2006 Feb 2. [PubMed:16458542 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitorinducer
General Function:
Organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates hepatobiliary excretion of numerous organic anions. May function as a cellular cisplatin transporter.
Gene Name:
ABCC2
Uniprot ID:
Q92887
Molecular Weight:
174205.64 Da
References
  1. Schrenk D, Baus PR, Ermel N, Klein C, Vorderstemann B, Kauffmann HM: Up-regulation of transporters of the MRP family by drugs and toxins. Toxicol Lett. 2001 Mar 31;120(1-3):51-7. [PubMed:11323161 ]
  2. Chen C, Mireles RJ, Campbell SD, Lin J, Mills JB, Xu JJ, Smolarek TA: Differential interaction of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coa reductase inhibitors with ABCB1, ABCC2, and OATP1B1. Drug Metab Dispos. 2005 Apr;33(4):537-46. Epub 2004 Dec 22. [PubMed:15616150 ]
  3. Ishikawa T, Muller M, Klunemann C, Schaub T, Keppler D: ATP-dependent primary active transport of cysteinyl leukotrienes across liver canalicular membrane. Role of the ATP-dependent transport system for glutathione S-conjugates. J Biol Chem. 1990 Nov 5;265(31):19279-86. [PubMed:2172249 ]
  4. Tang F, Horie K, Borchardt RT: Are MDCK cells transfected with the human MRP2 gene a good model of the human intestinal mucosa? Pharm Res. 2002 Jun;19(6):773-9. [PubMed:12134946 ]
  5. Baltes S, Gastens AM, Fedrowitz M, Potschka H, Kaever V, Loscher W: Differences in the transport of the antiepileptic drugs phenytoin, levetiracetam and carbamazepine by human and mouse P-glycoprotein. Neuropharmacology. 2007 Feb;52(2):333-46. Epub 2006 Oct 10. [PubMed:17045309 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Isoform 1: May participate directly in the active transport of drugs into subcellular organelles or influence drug distribution indirectly. Transports glutathione conjugates as leukotriene-c4 (LTC4) and N-ethylmaleimide S-glutathione (NEM-GS).Isoform 2: Inhibits TNF-alpha-mediated apoptosis through blocking one or more caspases.
Gene Name:
ABCC6
Uniprot ID:
O95255
Molecular Weight:
164904.81 Da
References
  1. Cai J, Daoud R, Alqawi O, Georges E, Pelletier J, Gros P: Nucleotide binding and nucleotide hydrolysis properties of the ABC transporter MRP6 (ABCC6). Biochemistry. 2002 Jun 25;41(25):8058-67. [PubMed:12069597 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Involved in the ATP-dependent secretion of bile salts into the canaliculus of hepatocytes.
Gene Name:
ABCB11
Uniprot ID:
O95342
Molecular Weight:
146405.83 Da
References
  1. Wang EJ, Casciano CN, Clement RP, Johnson WW: Fluorescent substrates of sister-P-glycoprotein (BSEP) evaluated as markers of active transport and inhibition: evidence for contingent unequal binding sites. Pharm Res. 2003 Apr;20(4):537-44. [PubMed:12739759 ]
  2. Lecureur V, Sun D, Hargrove P, Schuetz EG, Kim RB, Lan LB, Schuetz JD: Cloning and expression of murine sister of P-glycoprotein reveals a more discriminating transporter than MDR1/P-glycoprotein. Mol Pharmacol. 2000 Jan;57(1):24-35. [PubMed:10617675 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Quaternary ammonium group transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates tubular uptake of organic compounds from circulation. Mediates the influx of agmatine, dopamine, noradrenaline (norepinephrine), serotonin, choline, famotidine, ranitidine, histamin, creatinine, amantadine, memantine, acriflavine, 4-[4-(dimethylamino)-styryl]-N-methylpyridinium ASP, amiloride, metformin, N-1-methylnicotinamide (NMN), tetraethylammonium (TEA), 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridiniu...
Gene Name:
SLC22A2
Uniprot ID:
O15244
Molecular Weight:
62579.99 Da
References
  1. Pan BF, Sweet DH, Pritchard JB, Chen R, Nelson JA: A transfected cell model for the renal toxin transporter, rOCT2. Toxicol Sci. 1999 Feb;47(2):181-6. [PubMed:10220855 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23