You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on DrugBank.
Identification
NameGalantamine
Accession NumberDB00674  (APRD00206, EXPT01628)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
Description

A benzazepine derived from norbelladine. It is found in galanthus and other amaryllidaceae. Galantamine is a cholinesterase inhibitor that has been used to reverse the muscular effects of gallamine triethiodide and tubocurarine, and has been studied as a treatment for Alzheimer’s disease and other central nervous system disorders. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
(-)-Galanthamine
Galanthamine
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Auro-galantamine ERcapsule (extended release)24 mgoralAuro Pharma Inc2014-06-12Not applicableCanada
Auro-galantamine ERcapsule (extended release)16 mgoralAuro Pharma Inc2014-06-12Not applicableCanada
Auro-galantamine ERcapsule (extended release)8 mgoralAuro Pharma Inc2014-06-12Not applicableCanada
Galantamine ERcapsule (extended release)24 mgoralSanis Health IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Galantamine ERcapsule (extended release)24 mgoralPro Doc Limitee2013-12-03Not applicableCanada
Galantamine ERcapsule (extended release)16 mgoralSanis Health IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Galantamine ERcapsule (extended release)16 mgoralPro Doc Limitee2013-12-03Not applicableCanada
Galantamine ERcapsule (extended release)8 mgoralSanis Health IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Galantamine ERcapsule (extended release)8 mgoralPro Doc Limitee2013-12-03Not applicableCanada
Galantamine Hydrobromidetablet, film coated4 mg/1oralPatriot Pharmaceuticals, LLC2001-02-28Not applicableUs
Galantamine Hydrobromidetablet, film coated4 mg/1oralYabao Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. Beijing2001-03-01Not applicableUs
Galantamine Hydrobromidecapsule, extended release24 mg/1oralPatriot Pharmaceuticals, LLC2004-12-22Not applicableUs
Galantamine Hydrobromidecapsule, extended release16 mg/1oralPatriot Pharmaceuticals, LLC2004-12-22Not applicableUs
Galantamine Hydrobromidecapsule, extended release8 mg/1oralPatriot Pharmaceuticals, LLC2004-12-22Not applicableUs
Galantamine Hydrobromidetablet, film coated12 mg/1oralAvera Mc Kennan Hospital2015-09-02Not applicableUs
Galantamine Hydrobromidetablet, film coated12 mg/1oralPatriot Pharmaceuticals, LLC2001-02-28Not applicableUs
Galantamine Hydrobromidetablet, film coated12 mg/1oralYabao Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. Beijing2001-03-01Not applicableUs
Galantamine Hydrobromidetablet, film coated8 mg/1oralPatriot Pharmaceuticals, LLC2001-02-28Not applicableUs
Galantamine Hydrobromidetablet, film coated8 mg/1oralYabao Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. Beijing2001-03-01Not applicableUs
Ipg-galantamine ERcapsule (extended release)16 mgoralInternational Pharmaceutical Generics LtdNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Ipg-galantamine ERcapsule (extended release)8 mgoralInternational Pharmaceutical Generics LtdNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Ipg-galantamine ERcapsule (extended release)24 mgoralInternational Pharmaceutical Generics LtdNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Mar-galantamine ERcapsule (extended release)24 mgoralMarcan Pharmaceuticals Inc2015-03-25Not applicableCanada
Mar-galantamine ERcapsule (extended release)16 mgoralMarcan Pharmaceuticals Inc2015-02-25Not applicableCanada
Mar-galantamine ERcapsule (extended release)8 mgoralMarcan Pharmaceuticals Inc2015-02-25Not applicableCanada
Mylan-galantamine ERcapsule (extended release)24 mgoralMylan Pharmaceuticals Ulc2010-11-12Not applicableCanada
Mylan-galantamine ERcapsule (extended release)16 mgoralMylan Pharmaceuticals Ulc2010-11-12Not applicableCanada
Mylan-galantamine ERcapsule (extended release)8 mgoralMylan Pharmaceuticals Ulc2010-11-12Not applicableCanada
Pat-galantamine ERcapsule (extended release)24 mgoralPatriot A Division Of Janssen Inc2011-01-05Not applicableCanada
Pat-galantamine ERcapsule (extended release)16 mgoralPatriot A Division Of Janssen Inc2011-01-05Not applicableCanada
Pat-galantamine ERcapsule (extended release)8 mgoralPatriot A Division Of Janssen Inc2011-01-05Not applicableCanada
Pendo-galantamine ERcapsule (extended release)8 mgoralPendopharm Division Of De Pharmascience IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
PMS-galantaminetablet4 mgoralPharmascience IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
PMS-galantaminetablet12 mgoralPharmascience IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
PMS-galantaminetablet8 mgoralPharmascience IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
PMS-galantamine ERcapsule (extended release)24 mgoralPharmascience Inc2013-06-13Not applicableCanada
PMS-galantamine ERcapsule (extended release)16 mgoralPharmascience Inc2013-06-13Not applicableCanada
PMS-galantamine ERcapsule (extended release)8 mgoralPharmascience Inc2013-06-13Not applicableCanada
Ratio-galantaminetablet8 mgoralRatiopharm Inc Division Of Teva Canada LimitedNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Ratio-galantaminetablet4 mgoralRatiopharm Inc Division Of Teva Canada LimitedNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Ratio-galantaminetablet12 mgoralRatiopharm Inc Division Of Teva Canada LimitedNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Razadynetablet, film coated12 mg/1oralJanssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2001-03-01Not applicableUs
Razadynetablet, film coated8 mg/1oralRebel Distributors Corp2001-02-28Not applicableUs
Razadynetablet, film coated8 mg/1oralJanssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2001-03-01Not applicableUs
Razadynetablet, film coated4 mg/1oralJanssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2001-03-01Not applicableUs
Razadynecapsule, extended release24 mg/1oralJanssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2004-12-24Not applicableUs
Razadynecapsule, extended release16 mg/1oralJanssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2004-12-24Not applicableUs
Razadynecapsule, extended release8 mg/1oralJanssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2004-12-24Not applicableUs
Razadynesolution4 mg/mLoralJanssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2001-06-22Not applicableUs
Razadynetablet, film coated12 mg/1oralRebel Distributors Corp2001-02-28Not applicableUs
Reminyl -(12mg)tablet12 mgoralJanssen Inc2001-08-102009-08-05Canada
Reminyl -(4mg)tablet4 mgoralJanssen Inc2001-08-082009-08-05Canada
Reminyl -(8mg)tablet8 mgoralJanssen Inc2001-08-082009-08-05Canada
Reminyl ERcapsule (extended release)24 mgoralJanssen Inc2005-04-29Not applicableCanada
Reminyl ERcapsule (extended release)16 mgoralJanssen Inc2005-04-29Not applicableCanada
Reminyl ERcapsule (extended release)8 mgoralJanssen Inc2005-04-29Not applicableCanada
Sandoz Galantamine ERcapsule (extended release)24 mgoralSandoz Canada IncorporatedNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Sandoz Galantamine ERcapsule (extended release)16 mgoralSandoz Canada IncorporatedNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Sandoz Galantamine ERcapsule (extended release)8 mgoralSandoz Canada IncorporatedNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Teva-galantamine ERcapsule (extended release)8 mgoralTeva Canada Limited2012-01-06Not applicableCanada
Teva-galantamine ERcapsule (extended release)24 mgoralTeva Canada Limited2012-01-06Not applicableCanada
Teva-galantamine ERcapsule (extended release)16 mgoralTeva Canada Limited2012-01-06Not applicableCanada
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-galantaminetablet8 mgoralApotex IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Apo-galantaminetablet4 mgoralApotex IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Apo-galantaminetablet12 mgoralApotex IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Galantaminetablet, film coated4 mg/1oralApotex Corp.2012-11-05Not applicableUs
Galantaminetablet, film coated12 mg/1oralApotex Corp.2012-11-05Not applicableUs
Galantaminecapsule, extended release8 mg/1oralBarr Laboratories Inc.2008-10-14Not applicableUs
Galantaminetablet, film coated12 mg/1oralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2008-08-29Not applicableUs
Galantaminetablet, film coated4 mg/1oralAurobindo Pharma Limited2011-03-29Not applicableUs
Galantaminetablet, film coated12 mg/1oralCitron Pharma LLC2011-03-29Not applicableUs
Galantaminetablet, film coated12 mg/1oralBarr Laboratories Inc.2008-08-28Not applicableUs
Galantaminetablet, film coated8 mg/1oralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2008-08-29Not applicableUs
Galantaminetablet, film coated12 mg/1oralCadila Healthcare Limited2011-10-10Not applicableUs
Galantaminetablet, film coated8 mg/1oralCitron Pharma LLC2011-03-29Not applicableUs
Galantaminetablet, film coated8 mg/1oralBarr Laboratories Inc.2008-08-28Not applicableUs
Galantaminetablet, film coated12 mg/1oralZydus Pharmaceuticals (USA) Inc.2011-10-10Not applicableUs
Galantaminetablet, film coated4 mg/1oralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2008-08-29Not applicableUs
Galantaminetablet, film coated8 mg/1oralCadila Healthcare Limited2011-10-10Not applicableUs
Galantaminetablet, film coated4 mg/1oralCitron Pharma LLC2011-03-29Not applicableUs
Galantaminetablet, film coated4 mg/1oralBarr Laboratories Inc.2008-08-28Not applicableUs
Galantaminetablet, film coated8 mg/1oralZydus Pharmaceuticals (USA) Inc.2011-10-10Not applicableUs
Galantaminetablet, film coated12 mg/1oralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2009-05-29Not applicableUs
Galantaminetablet, film coated4 mg/1oralCadila Healthcare Limited2011-10-10Not applicableUs
Galantaminetablet, film coated4 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2014-06-23Not applicableUs
Galantaminetablet, film coated12 mg/1oralMylan Institutional Inc.2009-11-09Not applicableUs
Galantaminetablet, film coated4 mg/1oralZydus Pharmaceuticals (USA) Inc.2011-10-10Not applicableUs
Galantaminetablet, film coated8 mg/1oralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2009-05-29Not applicableUs
Galantaminetablet, film coated4 mg/1oralMc Kesson Packaging Services A Business Unit Of Mc Kesson Corporation2011-03-29Not applicableUs
Galantaminecapsule, extended release24 mg/1oralBarr Laboratories Inc.2008-10-15Not applicableUs
Galantaminetablet, film coated8 mg/1oralMylan Institutional Inc.2009-11-09Not applicableUs
Galantaminetablet, film coated12 mg/1oralAurobindo Pharma Limited2011-03-29Not applicableUs
Galantaminetablet, film coated8 mg/1oralApotex Corp.2012-11-05Not applicableUs
Galantaminetablet, film coated4 mg/1oralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2009-05-29Not applicableUs
Galantaminetablet, film coated8 mg/1oralMc Kesson Packaging Services A Business Unit Of Mc Kesson Corporation2011-03-29Not applicableUs
Galantaminecapsule, extended release16 mg/1oralBarr Laboratories Inc.2008-10-15Not applicableUs
Galantaminetablet, film coated4 mg/1oralMylan Institutional Inc.2009-11-09Not applicableUs
Galantaminetablet, film coated8 mg/1oralAurobindo Pharma Limited2011-03-29Not applicableUs
Galantamine Hydrobromidecapsule, extended release8 mg/1oralWatson Laboratories, Inc.2009-12-15Not applicableUs
Galantamine Hydrobromidesolution4 mg/mLoralRoxane Laboratories, Inc2009-08-14Not applicableUs
Galantamine Hydrobromidecapsule, extended release24 mg/1oralWatson Laboratories, Inc.2009-12-15Not applicableUs
Galantamine Hydrobromidecapsule, extended release24 mg/1oralSun Pharma Global FZE2011-02-09Not applicableUs
Galantamine Hydrobromidecapsule, extended release16 mg/1oralSun Pharma Global FZE2011-02-09Not applicableUs
Galantamine Hydrobromidecapsule, extended release8 mg/1oralSun Pharma Global FZE2011-02-09Not applicableUs
Galantamine Hydrobromidecapsule, extended release24 mg/1oralGlobal Pharmaceuticals, Division of Impax Laboratories Inc.2009-05-27Not applicableUs
Galantamine Hydrobromidecapsule, extended release24 mg/1oralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2011-01-24Not applicableUs
Galantamine Hydrobromidecapsule, extended release16 mg/1oralGlobal Pharmaceuticals, Division of Impax Laboratories Inc.2009-05-27Not applicableUs
Galantamine Hydrobromidecapsule, extended release16 mg/1oralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2011-01-24Not applicableUs
Galantamine Hydrobromidecapsule, extended release16 mg/1oralWatson Laboratories, Inc.2009-12-15Not applicableUs
Galantamine Hydrobromidecapsule, extended release8 mg/1oralGlobal Pharmaceuticals, Division of Impax Laboratories Inc.2009-05-27Not applicableUs
Galantamine Hydrobromidecapsule, extended release8 mg/1oralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2011-01-24Not applicableUs
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
LycoremineNot Available
NivalinNot Available
ReminylNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Galantamine hydrobromide
Thumb
  • InChI Key: QORVDGQLPPAFRS-XPSHAMGMSA-N
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 367.078306222
  • Average Mass: 368.265
DBSALT000316
Categories
UNII0D3Q044KCA
CAS number357-70-0
WeightAverage: 287.3535
Monoisotopic: 287.152143543
Chemical FormulaC17H21NO3
InChI KeyInChIKey=ASUTZQLVASHGKV-JDFRZJQESA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C17H21NO3/c1-18-8-7-17-6-5-12(19)9-14(17)21-16-13(20-2)4-3-11(10-18)15(16)17/h3-6,12,14,19H,7-10H2,1-2H3/t12-,14-,17-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(1S,12S,14R)-9-methoxy-4-methyl-11-oxa-4-azatetracyclo[8.6.1.0¹,¹².0⁶,¹⁷]heptadeca-6(17),7,9,15-tetraen-14-ol
SMILES
[H][C@]12C[C@@H](O)C=C[C@]11CCN(C)CC3=C1C(O2)=C(OC)C=C3
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as galanthamine-type amaryllidaceae alkaloids. These are amaryllidaceae alkaloids with a structure characterized a tetracyclic skeleton with two ortho aromatic protons in ring A.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassAlkaloids and derivatives
ClassAmaryllidaceae alkaloids
Sub ClassGalanthamine-type amaryllidaceae alkaloids
Direct ParentGalanthamine-type amaryllidaceae alkaloids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Galanthamine-type amaryllidaceae alkaloid
  • Benzazepine
  • Benzofuran
  • Anisole
  • Aralkylamine
  • Azepine
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Benzenoid
  • Tertiary aliphatic amine
  • Tertiary amine
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Oxacycle
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Ether
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Alcohol
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the treatment of mild to moderate dementia of the Alzheimer's type. Has also been investigated in patients with mild cognitive impairment who did not meet the diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer's disease.
PharmacodynamicsGalantamine is a parasympathomimetic, specifically, a reversible cholinesterase inhibitor. It is indicated for the treatment of mild to moderate dementia of the Alzheimer's type. An early pathophysiological feature of Alzheimer's disease that is associated with memory loss and cognitive deficits is a deficiency of acetylcholine as a result of selective loss of cholinergic neurons in the cerebral cortex, nucleus basalis, and hippocampus. Galantamine is postulated to exert its therapeutic effect by enhancing cholinergic function. This is accomplished by increasing the concentration of acetylcholine through reversible inhibition of its hydrolysis by acetylcholinesterase. If this proposed mechanism of action is correct, Galantamine's effect may lessen as the disease progresses and fewer cholinergic neurons remain functionally intact. There is no evidence that Galantamine alters the course of the underlying dementing process.
Mechanism of actionGalantamine is a phenanthrene alkaloid and a reversible, competitive acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. It is not structurally related to other acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Galantamine's proposed mechanism of action involves the reversible inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, which prevents the hydrolysis of acetycholine, leading to an increased concentration of acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses. Galantamine also binds allosterically with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and may possibly potentiate the action of agonists (such as acetylcholine) at these receptors.
Related Articles
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distribution
  • 175 L
Protein binding18%
MetabolismNot Available
Route of eliminationGalantamine is metabolized by hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes, glucuronidated, and excreted unchanged in the urine.
Half life7 hours
Clearance
  • 300 mL/min [After IV. or oral administration]
ToxicityLD50=75 mg/kg (rat)
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+1.0
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9959
Caco-2 permeable+0.8259
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.8976
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.6069
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9443
Renal organic cation transporterInhibitor0.5728
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8072
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.8919
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.7408
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9046
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9071
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.5414
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8301
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8832
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9439
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7995
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9055
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable1.0
Rat acute toxicity2.7790 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8023
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.7424
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Barr laboratories inc
  • Impax laboratories inc
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • Ortho mcneil janssen pharmaceuticals inc
  • Roxane laboratories inc
  • Ortho mcneil janssen pharmaceutical inc
  • Actavis elizabeth llc
  • Beijing yabao biopharmaceutical co ltd
  • Dr reddys laboratories ltd
  • Mylan pharmaceuticals inc
  • Sandoz inc
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Tablet, film coatedoral12 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedoral4 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedoral8 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseoral16 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseoral24 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseoral8 mg/1
Solutionoral4 mg/mL
Tabletoral12 mg
Tabletoral4 mg
Tabletoral8 mg
Capsule (extended release)oral16 mg
Capsule (extended release)oral24 mg
Capsule (extended release)oral8 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Galantamine Hydrobromide 30 16 mg 24 Hour Capsule Bottle198.58USD bottle
Galantamine Hydrobromide 30 8 mg 24 Hour Capsule Bottle198.58USD bottle
Razadyne 12 mg tablet8.3USD tablet
Razadyne 4 mg tablet5.36USD tablet
Razadyne 8 mg tablet3.66USD tablet
Galantamine hbr 12 mg tablet3.18USD tablet
Galantamine hbr 4 mg tablet3.18USD tablet
Galantamine hbr 8 mg tablet3.18USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
CA2310926 No2001-11-202017-06-06Canada
CA2358062 No2006-12-192019-12-20Canada
US6099863 No1997-06-062017-06-06Us
US6358527 No1997-06-062017-06-06Us
US7160559 No1999-12-202019-12-20Us
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point269-270 °C (HBr salt)Not Available
water solubility10 mg/mL (HBr salt)Not Available
logP1.8Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility1.7 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1.39ALOGPS
logP1.16ChemAxon
logS-2.2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)14.81ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)8.91ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area41.93 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity82.3 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability31.4 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-000l-5980000000-928ad889466b6a2b3827View in MoNA
References
Synthesis Reference

Vijaya Bolugoddu, Sanjay Shukla, Mukunda Jambula, Rajeshwar Sagyam, Ramchandra Pingili, Ananda Thirunavakarasu, “Preparation of (-)-galantamine hydrobromide.” U.S. Patent US20060009640, issued January 12, 2006.

US20060009640
General References
  1. Scott LJ, Goa KL: Galantamine: a review of its use in Alzheimer's disease. Drugs. 2000 Nov;60(5):1095-122. [PubMed:11129124 ]
  2. Greenblatt HM, Kryger G, Lewis T, Silman I, Sussman JL: Structure of acetylcholinesterase complexed with (-)-galanthamine at 2.3 A resolution. FEBS Lett. 1999 Dec 17;463(3):321-6. [PubMed:10606746 ]
  3. Woodruff-Pak DS, Vogel RW 3rd, Wenk GL: Galantamine: effect on nicotinic receptor binding, acetylcholinesterase inhibition, and learning. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Feb 13;98(4):2089-94. Epub 2001 Feb 6. [PubMed:11172080 ]
  4. Birks J: Cholinesterase inhibitors for Alzheimer's disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 Jan 25;(1):CD005593. [PubMed:16437532 ]
  5. Lilienfeld S: Galantamine--a novel cholinergic drug with a unique dual mode of action for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Summer;8(2):159-76. [PubMed:12177686 ]
  6. Olin J, Schneider L: Galantamine for Alzheimer's disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(3):CD001747. [PubMed:12137632 ]
External Links
ATC CodesN06DA04
AHFS Codes
  • 12:04.00
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (278 KB)
MSDSDownload (28.4 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AcepromazineGalantamine may increase the central neurotoxic activities of Acepromazine.
AcetophenazineGalantamine may increase the central neurotoxic activities of Acetophenazine.
AcetylcholineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Galantamine is combined with Acetylcholine.
AmisulprideGalantamine may increase the central neurotoxic activities of Amisulpride.
AripiprazoleGalantamine may increase the central neurotoxic activities of Aripiprazole.
Atracurium besylateGalantamine may decrease the neuromuscular blocking activities of Atracurium besylate.
BenzquinamideGalantamine may increase the central neurotoxic activities of Benzquinamide.
BretyliumBretylium may increase the bradycardic activities of Galantamine.
CarbacholThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Galantamine is combined with Carbachol.
CarphenazineGalantamine may increase the central neurotoxic activities of Carphenazine.
CeritinibGalantamine may increase the bradycardic activities of Ceritinib.
ChlormezanoneGalantamine may increase the central neurotoxic activities of Chlormezanone.
ChlorpromazineGalantamine may increase the central neurotoxic activities of Chlorpromazine.
ChlorprothixeneGalantamine may increase the central neurotoxic activities of Chlorprothixene.
CitalopramGalantamine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Citalopram.
ClozapineGalantamine may increase the central neurotoxic activities of Clozapine.
DipyridamoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Galantamine can be decreased when used in combination with Dipyridamole.
DofetilideGalantamine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Dofetilide.
DroperidolGalantamine may increase the central neurotoxic activities of Droperidol.
EsmololEsmolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Galantamine.
FencamfamineGalantamine may increase the central neurotoxic activities of Fencamfamine.
FludrocortisoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fludrocortisone is combined with Galantamine.
FlupentixolGalantamine may increase the central neurotoxic activities of Flupentixol.
FluphenazineGalantamine may increase the central neurotoxic activities of Fluphenazine.
FluspirileneGalantamine may increase the central neurotoxic activities of Fluspirilene.
GoserelinGalantamine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Goserelin.
HaloperidolGalantamine may increase the central neurotoxic activities of Haloperidol.
IvabradineGalantamine may increase the bradycardic activities of Ivabradine.
LacosamideGalantamine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Lacosamide.
LeuprolideGalantamine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Leuprolide.
LoxapineGalantamine may increase the central neurotoxic activities of Loxapine.
MesoridazineGalantamine may increase the central neurotoxic activities of Mesoridazine.
MethotrimeprazineGalantamine may increase the central neurotoxic activities of Methotrimeprazine.
MifepristoneMifepristone may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Galantamine.
MolindoneGalantamine may increase the central neurotoxic activities of Molindone.
NadololGalantamine may increase the bradycardic activities of Nadolol.
OctreotideOctreotide may increase the bradycardic activities of Galantamine.
OlanzapineGalantamine may increase the central neurotoxic activities of Olanzapine.
OndansetronGalantamine may increase the central neurotoxic activities of Ondansetron.
PaliperidoneGalantamine may increase the central neurotoxic activities of Paliperidone.
ParoxetineThe metabolism of Galantamine can be decreased when combined with Paroxetine.
PerphenazineGalantamine may increase the central neurotoxic activities of Perphenazine.
PimozideGalantamine may increase the central neurotoxic activities of Pimozide.
PiperacetazineGalantamine may increase the central neurotoxic activities of Piperacetazine.
ProchlorperazineGalantamine may increase the central neurotoxic activities of Prochlorperazine.
ProcyclidineThe therapeutic efficacy of Procyclidine can be decreased when used in combination with Galantamine.
PromazineGalantamine may increase the central neurotoxic activities of Promazine.
QuetiapineGalantamine may increase the central neurotoxic activities of Quetiapine.
RemoxiprideGalantamine may increase the central neurotoxic activities of Remoxipride.
ReserpineGalantamine may increase the central neurotoxic activities of Reserpine.
RisperidoneGalantamine may increase the central neurotoxic activities of Risperidone.
RuxolitinibRuxolitinib may increase the bradycardic activities of Galantamine.
SertindoleGalantamine may increase the central neurotoxic activities of Sertindole.
SertralineThe metabolism of Galantamine can be decreased when combined with Sertraline.
SuccinylcholineThe serum concentration of Succinylcholine can be increased when it is combined with Galantamine.
SulpirideGalantamine may increase the central neurotoxic activities of Sulpiride.
ThioridazineGalantamine may increase the central neurotoxic activities of Thioridazine.
ThiothixeneGalantamine may increase the central neurotoxic activities of Thiothixene.
TofacitinibTofacitinib may increase the bradycardic activities of Galantamine.
TrifluoperazineGalantamine may increase the central neurotoxic activities of Trifluoperazine.
TriflupromazineGalantamine may increase the central neurotoxic activities of Triflupromazine.
VilazodoneThe metabolism of Galantamine can be decreased when combined with Vilazodone.
VortioxetineThe metabolism of Galantamine can be decreased when combined with Vortioxetine.
ZiprasidoneGalantamine may increase the central neurotoxic activities of Ziprasidone.
ZuclopenthixolGalantamine may increase the central neurotoxic activities of Zuclopenthixol.
Food Interactions
  • Take with food.

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Serine hydrolase activity
Specific Function:
Terminates signal transduction at the neuromuscular junction by rapid hydrolysis of the acetylcholine released into the synaptic cleft. Role in neuronal apoptosis.
Gene Name:
ACHE
Uniprot ID:
P22303
Molecular Weight:
67795.525 Da
References
  1. Tonkopii VD, Prozorovskii VB, Suslova IM: [Interaction of reversible inhibitors with the catalytic centers and allosteric sites of cholinesterases]. Biull Eksp Biol Med. 1976 Aug;82(8):947-50. [PubMed:1026294 ]
  2. Greenblatt HM, Kryger G, Lewis T, Silman I, Sussman JL: Structure of acetylcholinesterase complexed with (-)-galanthamine at 2.3 A resolution. FEBS Lett. 1999 Dec 17;463(3):321-6. [PubMed:10606746 ]
  3. Guillou C, Mary A, Renko DZ, Gras E, Thal C: Potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitors: design, synthesis and structure-activity relationships of alkylene linked bis-galanthamine and galanthamine-galanthaminium salts. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2000 Apr 3;10(7):637-9. [PubMed:10762042 ]
  4. Blesa R: Galantamine: therapeutic effects beyond cognition. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2000 Sep;11 Suppl 1:28-34. [PubMed:10971049 ]
  5. Stahl SM: The new cholinesterase inhibitors for Alzheimer's disease, Part 1: their similarities are different. J Clin Psychiatry. 2000 Oct;61(10):710-1. [PubMed:11078030 ]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
  7. Lilienfeld S: Galantamine--a novel cholinergic drug with a unique dual mode of action for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Summer;8(2):159-76. [PubMed:12177686 ]
  8. Olin J, Schneider L: Galantamine for Alzheimer's disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(3):CD001747. [PubMed:12137632 ]
  9. Scott LJ, Goa KL: Galantamine: a review of its use in Alzheimer's disease. Drugs. 2000 Nov;60(5):1095-122. [PubMed:11129124 ]
  10. Lilienfeld S, Parys W: Galantamine: additional benefits to patients with Alzheimer's disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2000 Sep;11 Suppl 1:19-27. [PubMed:10971048 ]
  11. Woodruff-Pak DS, Lander C, Geerts H: Nicotinic cholinergic modulation: galantamine as a prototype. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Winter;8(4):405-26. [PubMed:12481195 ]
  12. Hansen RA, Gartlehner G, Kaufer DJ, Lohr KN, Carey T: Drug Class Review: Alzheimer's Drugs: Final Report [Internet] . 2006 Jun;():. [PubMed:20480924 ]
  13. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
allosteric modulator
General Function:
Ion channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name:
CHRNA1
Uniprot ID:
P02708
Molecular Weight:
54545.235 Da
References
  1. Scott LJ, Goa KL: Galantamine: a review of its use in Alzheimer's disease. Drugs. 2000 Nov;60(5):1095-122. [PubMed:11129124 ]
  2. Lilienfeld S: Galantamine--a novel cholinergic drug with a unique dual mode of action for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Summer;8(2):159-76. [PubMed:12177686 ]
  3. Olin J, Schneider L: Galantamine for Alzheimer's disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(3):CD001747. [PubMed:12137632 ]
  4. Lilienfeld S, Parys W: Galantamine: additional benefits to patients with Alzheimer's disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2000 Sep;11 Suppl 1:19-27. [PubMed:10971048 ]
  5. Woodruff-Pak DS, Lander C, Geerts H: Nicotinic cholinergic modulation: galantamine as a prototype. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Winter;8(4):405-26. [PubMed:12481195 ]
  6. Hansen RA, Gartlehner G, Kaufer DJ, Lohr KN, Carey T: Drug Class Review: Alzheimer's Drugs: Final Report [Internet] . 2006 Jun;():. [PubMed:20480924 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
allosteric modulator
General Function:
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name:
CHRNB1
Uniprot ID:
P11230
Molecular Weight:
56697.9 Da
References
  1. Scott LJ, Goa KL: Galantamine: a review of its use in Alzheimer's disease. Drugs. 2000 Nov;60(5):1095-122. [PubMed:11129124 ]
  2. Lilienfeld S: Galantamine--a novel cholinergic drug with a unique dual mode of action for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Summer;8(2):159-76. [PubMed:12177686 ]
  3. Olin J, Schneider L: Galantamine for Alzheimer's disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(3):CD001747. [PubMed:12137632 ]
  4. Lilienfeld S, Parys W: Galantamine: additional benefits to patients with Alzheimer's disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2000 Sep;11 Suppl 1:19-27. [PubMed:10971048 ]
  5. Woodruff-Pak DS, Lander C, Geerts H: Nicotinic cholinergic modulation: galantamine as a prototype. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Winter;8(4):405-26. [PubMed:12481195 ]
  6. Hansen RA, Gartlehner G, Kaufer DJ, Lohr KN, Carey T: Drug Class Review: Alzheimer's Drugs: Final Report [Internet] . 2006 Jun;():. [PubMed:20480924 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
allosteric modulator
General Function:
Acetylcholine-activated cation-selective channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name:
CHRND
Uniprot ID:
Q07001
Molecular Weight:
58894.55 Da
References
  1. Scott LJ, Goa KL: Galantamine: a review of its use in Alzheimer's disease. Drugs. 2000 Nov;60(5):1095-122. [PubMed:11129124 ]
  2. Lilienfeld S: Galantamine--a novel cholinergic drug with a unique dual mode of action for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Summer;8(2):159-76. [PubMed:12177686 ]
  3. Olin J, Schneider L: Galantamine for Alzheimer's disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(3):CD001747. [PubMed:12137632 ]
  4. Lilienfeld S, Parys W: Galantamine: additional benefits to patients with Alzheimer's disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2000 Sep;11 Suppl 1:19-27. [PubMed:10971048 ]
  5. Woodruff-Pak DS, Lander C, Geerts H: Nicotinic cholinergic modulation: galantamine as a prototype. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Winter;8(4):405-26. [PubMed:12481195 ]
  6. Hansen RA, Gartlehner G, Kaufer DJ, Lohr KN, Carey T: Drug Class Review: Alzheimer's Drugs: Final Report [Internet] . 2006 Jun;():. [PubMed:20480924 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
allosteric modulator
General Function:
Channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name:
CHRNG
Uniprot ID:
P07510
Molecular Weight:
57882.8 Da
References
  1. Scott LJ, Goa KL: Galantamine: a review of its use in Alzheimer's disease. Drugs. 2000 Nov;60(5):1095-122. [PubMed:11129124 ]
  2. Lilienfeld S: Galantamine--a novel cholinergic drug with a unique dual mode of action for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Summer;8(2):159-76. [PubMed:12177686 ]
  3. Olin J, Schneider L: Galantamine for Alzheimer's disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(3):CD001747. [PubMed:12137632 ]
  4. Lilienfeld S, Parys W: Galantamine: additional benefits to patients with Alzheimer's disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2000 Sep;11 Suppl 1:19-27. [PubMed:10971048 ]
  5. Woodruff-Pak DS, Lander C, Geerts H: Nicotinic cholinergic modulation: galantamine as a prototype. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Winter;8(4):405-26. [PubMed:12481195 ]
  6. Hansen RA, Gartlehner G, Kaufer DJ, Lohr KN, Carey T: Drug Class Review: Alzheimer's Drugs: Final Report [Internet] . 2006 Jun;():. [PubMed:20480924 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
allosteric modulator
General Function:
Cation transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name:
CHRNE
Uniprot ID:
Q04844
Molecular Weight:
54696.54 Da
References
  1. Scott LJ, Goa KL: Galantamine: a review of its use in Alzheimer's disease. Drugs. 2000 Nov;60(5):1095-122. [PubMed:11129124 ]
  2. Lilienfeld S: Galantamine--a novel cholinergic drug with a unique dual mode of action for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Summer;8(2):159-76. [PubMed:12177686 ]
  3. Olin J, Schneider L: Galantamine for Alzheimer's disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(3):CD001747. [PubMed:12137632 ]
  4. Lilienfeld S, Parys W: Galantamine: additional benefits to patients with Alzheimer's disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2000 Sep;11 Suppl 1:19-27. [PubMed:10971048 ]
  5. Woodruff-Pak DS, Lander C, Geerts H: Nicotinic cholinergic modulation: galantamine as a prototype. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Winter;8(4):405-26. [PubMed:12481195 ]
  6. Hansen RA, Gartlehner G, Kaufer DJ, Lohr KN, Carey T: Drug Class Review: Alzheimer's Drugs: Final Report [Internet] . 2006 Jun;():. [PubMed:20480924 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
allosteric modulator
General Function:
Drug binding
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name:
CHRNA2
Uniprot ID:
Q15822
Molecular Weight:
59764.82 Da
References
  1. Scott LJ, Goa KL: Galantamine: a review of its use in Alzheimer's disease. Drugs. 2000 Nov;60(5):1095-122. [PubMed:11129124 ]
  2. Lilienfeld S: Galantamine--a novel cholinergic drug with a unique dual mode of action for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Summer;8(2):159-76. [PubMed:12177686 ]
  3. Olin J, Schneider L: Galantamine for Alzheimer's disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(3):CD001747. [PubMed:12137632 ]
  4. Lilienfeld S, Parys W: Galantamine: additional benefits to patients with Alzheimer's disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2000 Sep;11 Suppl 1:19-27. [PubMed:10971048 ]
  5. Woodruff-Pak DS, Lander C, Geerts H: Nicotinic cholinergic modulation: galantamine as a prototype. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Winter;8(4):405-26. [PubMed:12481195 ]
  6. Hansen RA, Gartlehner G, Kaufer DJ, Lohr KN, Carey T: Drug Class Review: Alzheimer's Drugs: Final Report [Internet] . 2006 Jun;():. [PubMed:20480924 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
allosteric modulator
General Function:
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name:
CHRNA3
Uniprot ID:
P32297
Molecular Weight:
57479.54 Da
References
  1. Scott LJ, Goa KL: Galantamine: a review of its use in Alzheimer's disease. Drugs. 2000 Nov;60(5):1095-122. [PubMed:11129124 ]
  2. Lilienfeld S: Galantamine--a novel cholinergic drug with a unique dual mode of action for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Summer;8(2):159-76. [PubMed:12177686 ]
  3. Olin J, Schneider L: Galantamine for Alzheimer's disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(3):CD001747. [PubMed:12137632 ]
  4. Lilienfeld S, Parys W: Galantamine: additional benefits to patients with Alzheimer's disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2000 Sep;11 Suppl 1:19-27. [PubMed:10971048 ]
  5. Woodruff-Pak DS, Lander C, Geerts H: Nicotinic cholinergic modulation: galantamine as a prototype. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Winter;8(4):405-26. [PubMed:12481195 ]
  6. Hansen RA, Gartlehner G, Kaufer DJ, Lohr KN, Carey T: Drug Class Review: Alzheimer's Drugs: Final Report [Internet] . 2006 Jun;():. [PubMed:20480924 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
allosteric modulator
General Function:
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane permeable to sodium ions.
Gene Name:
CHRNA4
Uniprot ID:
P43681
Molecular Weight:
69956.47 Da
References
  1. Scott LJ, Goa KL: Galantamine: a review of its use in Alzheimer's disease. Drugs. 2000 Nov;60(5):1095-122. [PubMed:11129124 ]
  2. Lilienfeld S: Galantamine--a novel cholinergic drug with a unique dual mode of action for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Summer;8(2):159-76. [PubMed:12177686 ]
  3. Olin J, Schneider L: Galantamine for Alzheimer's disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(3):CD001747. [PubMed:12137632 ]
  4. Lilienfeld S, Parys W: Galantamine: additional benefits to patients with Alzheimer's disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2000 Sep;11 Suppl 1:19-27. [PubMed:10971048 ]
  5. Woodruff-Pak DS, Lander C, Geerts H: Nicotinic cholinergic modulation: galantamine as a prototype. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Winter;8(4):405-26. [PubMed:12481195 ]
  6. Hansen RA, Gartlehner G, Kaufer DJ, Lohr KN, Carey T: Drug Class Review: Alzheimer's Drugs: Final Report [Internet] . 2006 Jun;():. [PubMed:20480924 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
allosteric modulator
General Function:
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name:
CHRNA5
Uniprot ID:
P30532
Molecular Weight:
53053.965 Da
References
  1. Scott LJ, Goa KL: Galantamine: a review of its use in Alzheimer's disease. Drugs. 2000 Nov;60(5):1095-122. [PubMed:11129124 ]
  2. Lilienfeld S: Galantamine--a novel cholinergic drug with a unique dual mode of action for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Summer;8(2):159-76. [PubMed:12177686 ]
  3. Olin J, Schneider L: Galantamine for Alzheimer's disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(3):CD001747. [PubMed:12137632 ]
  4. Lilienfeld S, Parys W: Galantamine: additional benefits to patients with Alzheimer's disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2000 Sep;11 Suppl 1:19-27. [PubMed:10971048 ]
  5. Woodruff-Pak DS, Lander C, Geerts H: Nicotinic cholinergic modulation: galantamine as a prototype. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Winter;8(4):405-26. [PubMed:12481195 ]
  6. Hansen RA, Gartlehner G, Kaufer DJ, Lohr KN, Carey T: Drug Class Review: Alzheimer's Drugs: Final Report [Internet] . 2006 Jun;():. [PubMed:20480924 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
allosteric modulator
General Function:
Acetylcholine-activated cation-selective channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name:
CHRNA6
Uniprot ID:
Q15825
Molecular Weight:
56897.745 Da
References
  1. Scott LJ, Goa KL: Galantamine: a review of its use in Alzheimer's disease. Drugs. 2000 Nov;60(5):1095-122. [PubMed:11129124 ]
  2. Lilienfeld S: Galantamine--a novel cholinergic drug with a unique dual mode of action for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Summer;8(2):159-76. [PubMed:12177686 ]
  3. Olin J, Schneider L: Galantamine for Alzheimer's disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(3):CD001747. [PubMed:12137632 ]
  4. Lilienfeld S, Parys W: Galantamine: additional benefits to patients with Alzheimer's disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2000 Sep;11 Suppl 1:19-27. [PubMed:10971048 ]
  5. Woodruff-Pak DS, Lander C, Geerts H: Nicotinic cholinergic modulation: galantamine as a prototype. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Winter;8(4):405-26. [PubMed:12481195 ]
  6. Hansen RA, Gartlehner G, Kaufer DJ, Lohr KN, Carey T: Drug Class Review: Alzheimer's Drugs: Final Report [Internet] . 2006 Jun;():. [PubMed:20480924 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
allosteric modulator
General Function:
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane. The channel is blocked by alpha-bungarotoxin.
Gene Name:
CHRNA7
Uniprot ID:
P36544
Molecular Weight:
56448.925 Da
References
  1. Scott LJ, Goa KL: Galantamine: a review of its use in Alzheimer's disease. Drugs. 2000 Nov;60(5):1095-122. [PubMed:11129124 ]
  2. Lilienfeld S: Galantamine--a novel cholinergic drug with a unique dual mode of action for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Summer;8(2):159-76. [PubMed:12177686 ]
  3. Olin J, Schneider L: Galantamine for Alzheimer's disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(3):CD001747. [PubMed:12137632 ]
  4. Lilienfeld S, Parys W: Galantamine: additional benefits to patients with Alzheimer's disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2000 Sep;11 Suppl 1:19-27. [PubMed:10971048 ]
  5. Woodruff-Pak DS, Lander C, Geerts H: Nicotinic cholinergic modulation: galantamine as a prototype. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Winter;8(4):405-26. [PubMed:12481195 ]
  6. Hansen RA, Gartlehner G, Kaufer DJ, Lohr KN, Carey T: Drug Class Review: Alzheimer's Drugs: Final Report [Internet] . 2006 Jun;():. [PubMed:20480924 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
allosteric modulator
General Function:
Calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Ionotropic receptor with a probable role in the modulation of auditory stimuli. Agonist binding induces a conformation change that leads to the opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane (PubMed:11752216, PubMed:25282151). The channel is permeable to a range of divalent cations including calcium, the influx of which may activate a potassium current which hyperpolarizes the ...
Gene Name:
CHRNA9
Uniprot ID:
Q9UGM1
Molecular Weight:
54806.63 Da
References
  1. Scott LJ, Goa KL: Galantamine: a review of its use in Alzheimer's disease. Drugs. 2000 Nov;60(5):1095-122. [PubMed:11129124 ]
  2. Lilienfeld S: Galantamine--a novel cholinergic drug with a unique dual mode of action for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Summer;8(2):159-76. [PubMed:12177686 ]
  3. Olin J, Schneider L: Galantamine for Alzheimer's disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(3):CD001747. [PubMed:12137632 ]
  4. Lilienfeld S, Parys W: Galantamine: additional benefits to patients with Alzheimer's disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2000 Sep;11 Suppl 1:19-27. [PubMed:10971048 ]
  5. Woodruff-Pak DS, Lander C, Geerts H: Nicotinic cholinergic modulation: galantamine as a prototype. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Winter;8(4):405-26. [PubMed:12481195 ]
  6. Hansen RA, Gartlehner G, Kaufer DJ, Lohr KN, Carey T: Drug Class Review: Alzheimer's Drugs: Final Report [Internet] . 2006 Jun;():. [PubMed:20480924 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
allosteric modulator
General Function:
Receptor binding
Specific Function:
Ionotropic receptor with a probable role in the modulation of auditory stimuli. Agonist binding may induce an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane. The channel is permeable to a range of divalent cations including calcium, the influx of which may activate a potassium current which hyperpolarizes t...
Gene Name:
CHRNA10
Uniprot ID:
Q9GZZ6
Molecular Weight:
49704.295 Da
References
  1. Scott LJ, Goa KL: Galantamine: a review of its use in Alzheimer's disease. Drugs. 2000 Nov;60(5):1095-122. [PubMed:11129124 ]
  2. Lilienfeld S: Galantamine--a novel cholinergic drug with a unique dual mode of action for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Summer;8(2):159-76. [PubMed:12177686 ]
  3. Olin J, Schneider L: Galantamine for Alzheimer's disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(3):CD001747. [PubMed:12137632 ]
  4. Lilienfeld S, Parys W: Galantamine: additional benefits to patients with Alzheimer's disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2000 Sep;11 Suppl 1:19-27. [PubMed:10971048 ]
  5. Woodruff-Pak DS, Lander C, Geerts H: Nicotinic cholinergic modulation: galantamine as a prototype. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Winter;8(4):405-26. [PubMed:12481195 ]
  6. Hansen RA, Gartlehner G, Kaufer DJ, Lohr KN, Carey T: Drug Class Review: Alzheimer's Drugs: Final Report [Internet] . 2006 Jun;():. [PubMed:20480924 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
allosteric modulator
General Function:
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane permeable to sodiun ions.
Gene Name:
CHRNB2
Uniprot ID:
P17787
Molecular Weight:
57018.575 Da
References
  1. Scott LJ, Goa KL: Galantamine: a review of its use in Alzheimer's disease. Drugs. 2000 Nov;60(5):1095-122. [PubMed:11129124 ]
  2. Lilienfeld S: Galantamine--a novel cholinergic drug with a unique dual mode of action for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Summer;8(2):159-76. [PubMed:12177686 ]
  3. Olin J, Schneider L: Galantamine for Alzheimer's disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(3):CD001747. [PubMed:12137632 ]
  4. Lilienfeld S, Parys W: Galantamine: additional benefits to patients with Alzheimer's disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2000 Sep;11 Suppl 1:19-27. [PubMed:10971048 ]
  5. Woodruff-Pak DS, Lander C, Geerts H: Nicotinic cholinergic modulation: galantamine as a prototype. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Winter;8(4):405-26. [PubMed:12481195 ]
  6. Hansen RA, Gartlehner G, Kaufer DJ, Lohr KN, Carey T: Drug Class Review: Alzheimer's Drugs: Final Report [Internet] . 2006 Jun;():. [PubMed:20480924 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
allosteric modulator
General Function:
Drug binding
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name:
CHRNB3
Uniprot ID:
Q05901
Molecular Weight:
52728.215 Da
References
  1. Scott LJ, Goa KL: Galantamine: a review of its use in Alzheimer's disease. Drugs. 2000 Nov;60(5):1095-122. [PubMed:11129124 ]
  2. Lilienfeld S: Galantamine--a novel cholinergic drug with a unique dual mode of action for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Summer;8(2):159-76. [PubMed:12177686 ]
  3. Olin J, Schneider L: Galantamine for Alzheimer's disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(3):CD001747. [PubMed:12137632 ]
  4. Lilienfeld S, Parys W: Galantamine: additional benefits to patients with Alzheimer's disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2000 Sep;11 Suppl 1:19-27. [PubMed:10971048 ]
  5. Woodruff-Pak DS, Lander C, Geerts H: Nicotinic cholinergic modulation: galantamine as a prototype. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Winter;8(4):405-26. [PubMed:12481195 ]
  6. Hansen RA, Gartlehner G, Kaufer DJ, Lohr KN, Carey T: Drug Class Review: Alzheimer's Drugs: Final Report [Internet] . 2006 Jun;():. [PubMed:20480924 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
allosteric modulator
General Function:
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name:
CHRNB4
Uniprot ID:
P30926
Molecular Weight:
56378.985 Da
References
  1. Scott LJ, Goa KL: Galantamine: a review of its use in Alzheimer's disease. Drugs. 2000 Nov;60(5):1095-122. [PubMed:11129124 ]
  2. Lilienfeld S: Galantamine--a novel cholinergic drug with a unique dual mode of action for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Summer;8(2):159-76. [PubMed:12177686 ]
  3. Olin J, Schneider L: Galantamine for Alzheimer's disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(3):CD001747. [PubMed:12137632 ]
  4. Lilienfeld S, Parys W: Galantamine: additional benefits to patients with Alzheimer's disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2000 Sep;11 Suppl 1:19-27. [PubMed:10971048 ]
  5. Woodruff-Pak DS, Lander C, Geerts H: Nicotinic cholinergic modulation: galantamine as a prototype. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Winter;8(4):405-26. [PubMed:12481195 ]
  6. Hansen RA, Gartlehner G, Kaufer DJ, Lohr KN, Carey T: Drug Class Review: Alzheimer's Drugs: Final Report [Internet] . 2006 Jun;():. [PubMed:20480924 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Identical protein binding
Specific Function:
Esterase with broad substrate specificity. Contributes to the inactivation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Can degrade neurotoxic organophosphate esters.
Gene Name:
BCHE
Uniprot ID:
P06276
Molecular Weight:
68417.575 Da
References
  1. Svoboda Z, Kvetina J, Kunesova G, Herink J, Bajgar J, Bartosova L, Zivny P, Palicka V: Effect of galantamine on acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities in the presence of L-carnitine in rat selected brain and peripheral tissues. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2006 Dec;27 Suppl 2:183-6. [PubMed:17159811 ]
  2. Giacobini E: Selective inhibitors of butyrylcholinesterase: a valid alternative for therapy of Alzheimer's disease? Drugs Aging. 2001;18(12):891-8. [PubMed:11888344 ]
  3. Wilkinson DG: Galantamine: a new treatment for Alzheimer's disease. Expert Rev Neurother. 2001 Nov;1(2):153-9. doi: 10.1586/14737175.1.2.153. [PubMed:19811027 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiot...
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular Weight:
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Comments
comments powered by Disqus
Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on July 24, 2016 01:51