You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on DrugBank.
Identification
NameGalantamine
Accession NumberDB00674  (APRD00206, EXPT01628)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
Description

A benzazepine derived from norbelladine. It is found in galanthus and other amaryllidaceae. Galantamine is a cholinesterase inhibitor that has been used to reverse the muscular effects of gallamine triethiodide and tubocurarine, and has been studied as a treatment for Alzheimer’s disease and other central nervous system disorders. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
(-)-GalanthamineNot AvailableNot Available
GalanthamineNot AvailableNot Available
Salts
Name/CAS Structure Properties
Galantamine hydrobromide
Thumb
  • InChI Key: QORVDGQLPPAFRS-XPSHAMGMSA-N
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 367.078306222
  • Average Mass: 368.265
DBSALT000316
Brand names
NameCompany
LycoremineNot Available
NivalinNot Available
RazadyneNot Available
ReminylNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
Categories
CAS number357-70-0
WeightAverage: 287.3535
Monoisotopic: 287.152143543
Chemical FormulaC17H21NO3
InChI KeyASUTZQLVASHGKV-JDFRZJQESA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C17H21NO3/c1-18-8-7-17-6-5-12(19)9-14(17)21-16-13(20-2)4-3-11(10-18)15(16)17/h3-6,12,14,19H,7-10H2,1-2H3/t12-,14-,17-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(1S,12S,14R)-9-methoxy-4-methyl-11-oxa-4-azatetracyclo[8.6.1.0^{1,12}.0^{6,17}]heptadeca-6,8,10(17),15-tetraen-14-ol
SMILES
[H][C@]12C[C@@H](O)C=C[C@]11CCN(C)CC3=C1C(O2)=C(OC)C=C3
Mass SpecNot Available
Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
SuperclassHeterocyclic Compounds
ClassBenzazepines
SubclassNot Available
Direct parentBenzazepines
Alternative parentsBenzofurans; Anisoles; Alkyl Aryl Ethers; Azepines; Tertiary Amines; Secondary Alcohols; Polyamines
Substituentsbenzofuran; anisole; phenol ether; alkyl aryl ether; azepine; benzene; secondary alcohol; tertiary amine; ether; polyamine; amine; alcohol; organonitrogen compound
Classification descriptionThis compound belongs to the benzazepines. These are organic compounds containing a benzene ring fused to an azepine ring (unsaturated seven-member heterocycle with one nitrogen atom replacing a carbon atom).
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the treatment of mild to moderate dementia of the Alzheimer's type. Has also been investigated in patients with mild cognitive impairment who did not meet the diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer's disease.
PharmacodynamicsGalantamine is a parasympathomimetic, specifically, a reversible cholinesterase inhibitor. It is indicated for the treatment of mild to moderate dementia of the Alzheimer's type. An early pathophysiological feature of Alzheimer's disease that is associated with memory loss and cognitive deficits is a deficiency of acetylcholine as a result of selective loss of cholinergic neurons in the cerebral cortex, nucleus basalis, and hippocampus. Galantamine is postulated to exert its therapeutic effect by enhancing cholinergic function. This is accomplished by increasing the concentration of acetylcholine through reversible inhibition of its hydrolysis by acetylcholinesterase. If this proposed mechanism of action is correct, Galantamine's effect may lessen as the disease progresses and fewer cholinergic neurons remain functionally intact. There is no evidence that Galantamine alters the course of the underlying dementing process.
Mechanism of actionGalantamine is a phenanthrene alkaloid and a reversible, competitive acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. It is not structurally related to other acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Galantamine's proposed mechanism of action involves the reversible inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, which prevents the hydrolysis of acetycholine, leading to an increased concentration of acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses. Galantamine also binds allosterically with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and may possibly potentiate the action of agonists (such as acetylcholine) at these receptors.
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distribution
  • 175 L
Protein binding18%
Metabolism
Route of eliminationGalantamine is metabolized by hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes, glucuronidated, and excreted unchanged in the urine.
Half life7 hours
Clearance
  • 300 mL/min [After IV. or oral administration]
ToxicityLD50=75 mg/kg (rat)
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
Property Value Probability
Human Intestinal Absorption + 1.0
Blood Brain Barrier + 0.9959
Caco-2 permeable + 0.8259
P-glycoprotein substrate Substrate 0.8976
P-glycoprotein inhibitor I Inhibitor 0.6069
P-glycoprotein inhibitor II Non-inhibitor 0.9443
Renal organic cation transporter Inhibitor 0.5728
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-substrate 0.8072
CYP450 2D6 substrate Substrate 0.8919
CYP450 3A4 substrate Substrate 0.7408
CYP450 1A2 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9046
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9071
CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.5414
CYP450 2C19 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.8301
CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.8832
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuity Low CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity 0.9439
Ames test Non AMES toxic 0.7995
Carcinogenicity Non-carcinogens 0.9055
Biodegradation Not ready biodegradable 1.0
Rat acute toxicity 2.7790 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I) Weak inhibitor 0.8023
hERG inhibition (predictor II) Non-inhibitor 0.7424
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Barr laboratories inc
  • Impax laboratories inc
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • Ortho mcneil janssen pharmaceuticals inc
  • Roxane laboratories inc
  • Ortho mcneil janssen pharmaceutical inc
  • Actavis elizabeth llc
  • Beijing yabao biopharmaceutical co ltd
  • Dr reddys laboratories ltd
  • Mylan pharmaceuticals inc
  • Sandoz inc
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Capsule, extended releaseOral
TabletOral
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Galantamine Hydrobromide 30 16 mg 24 Hour Capsule Bottle198.58USDbottle
Galantamine Hydrobromide 30 8 mg 24 Hour Capsule Bottle198.58USDbottle
Razadyne 12 mg tablet8.3USDtablet
Razadyne 4 mg tablet5.36USDtablet
Razadyne 8 mg tablet3.66USDtablet
Galantamine hbr 12 mg tablet3.18USDtablet
Galantamine hbr 4 mg tablet3.18USDtablet
Galantamine hbr 8 mg tablet3.18USDtablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
CountryPatent NumberApprovedExpires (estimated)
United States71605591999-12-202019-12-20
United States60998631997-06-062017-06-06
Canada23580622006-12-192019-12-20
Canada23109262001-11-202017-06-06
Properties
Statesolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point269-270 °C (HBr salt)Not Available
water solubility10 mg/mL (HBr salt)Not Available
logP1.8Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility1.7ALOGPS
logP1.39ALOGPS
logP1.16ChemAxon
logS-2.2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)14.81ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)8.91ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area41.93 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity82.3 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability31.4 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
References
Synthesis Reference

Vijaya Bolugoddu, Sanjay Shukla, Mukunda Jambula, Rajeshwar Sagyam, Ramchandra Pingili, Ananda Thirunavakarasu, “Preparation of (-)-galantamine hydrobromide.” U.S. Patent US20060009640, issued January 12, 2006.

US20060009640
General Reference
  1. Scott LJ, Goa KL: Galantamine: a review of its use in Alzheimer’s disease. Drugs. 2000 Nov;60(5):1095-122. Pubmed
  2. Greenblatt HM, Kryger G, Lewis T, Silman I, Sussman JL: Structure of acetylcholinesterase complexed with (-)-galanthamine at 2.3 A resolution. FEBS Lett. 1999 Dec 17;463(3):321-6. Pubmed
  3. Woodruff-Pak DS, Vogel RW 3rd, Wenk GL: Galantamine: effect on nicotinic receptor binding, acetylcholinesterase inhibition, and learning. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Feb 13;98(4):2089-94. Epub 2001 Feb 6. Pubmed
  4. Birks J: Cholinesterase inhibitors for Alzheimer’s disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 Jan 25;(1):CD005593. Pubmed# Lilienfeld S: Galantamine—a novel cholinergic drug with a unique dual mode of action for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Summer;8(2):159-76. Pubmed
  5. Olin J, Schneider L: Galantamine for Alzheimer’s disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(3):CD001747. Pubmed# Scott LJ, Goa KL: Galantamine: a review of its use in Alzheimer’s disease. Drugs. 2000 Nov;60(5):1095-122. Pubmed
External Links
ResourceLink
KEGG DrugD04292
KEGG CompoundC08526
PubChem Compound908828
PubChem Substance46505659
ChemSpider23175565
BindingDB10404
ChEBI5264
ChEMBLCHEMBL659
Therapeutic Targets DatabaseDAP000559
PharmGKBPA449726
HETGNT
Drug Product Database2266717
RxListhttp://www.rxlist.com/cgi/generic/reminyl.htm
Drugs.comhttp://www.drugs.com/cdi/galantamine.html
WikipediaGalantamine
ATC CodesN06DA04
AHFS Codes
  • 12:04.00
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelshow(278 KB)
MSDSshow(28.4 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AcepromazinePossible antagonism of action
AceprometazinePossible antagonism of action
AlimemazinePossible antagonism of action
AlverinePossible antagonism of action
AmantadinePossible antagonism of action
AmitriptylinePossible antagonism of action
AmoxapinePossible antagonism of action
AtropinePossible antagonism of action
AzatadinePossible antagonism of action
BenzatropinePossible antagonism of action
BiperidenPossible antagonism of action
BrompheniraminePossible antagonism of action
CarbinoxaminePossible antagonism of action
ChlorphenaminePossible antagonism of action
ChlorpromazinePossible antagonism of action
ChlorprothixenePossible antagonism of action
CimetidinePossible antagonism of action
ClemastinePossible antagonism of action
ClidiniumPossible antagonism of action
ClomipraminePossible antagonism of action
ClozapinePossible antagonism of action
CyclizinePossible antagonism of action
CyclobenzaprinePossible antagonism of action
CyproheptadinePossible antagonism of action
DarifenacinPossible antagonism of action
DesipraminePossible antagonism of action
DexbrompheniraminePossible antagonism of action
DicyclominePossible antagonism of action
DimenhydrinatePossible antagonism of action
DiphenhydraminePossible antagonism of action
DiphenoxylatePossible antagonism of action
DiphenylpyralinePossible antagonism of action
DisopyramidePossible antagonism of action
DoxepinPossible antagonism of action
DoxylaminePossible antagonism of action
EthopropazinePossible antagonism of action
FlavoxatePossible antagonism of action
FlupentixolPossible antagonism of action
GlutethimidePossible antagonism of action
GlycopyrrolatePossible antagonism of action
HydroxyzinePossible antagonism of action
HyoscyaminePossible antagonism of action
ImipraminePossible antagonism of action
IsocarboxazidPossible antagonism of action
IsopropamidePossible antagonism of action
KetoconazoleKetoconazole increases the effect and toxicity of galantamine
LoxapinePossible antagonism of action
MaprotilinePossible antagonism of action
MeclizinePossible antagonism of action
MesoridazinePossible antagonism of action
MethdilazinePossible antagonism of action
MethotrimeprazinePossible antagonism of action
Methylscopolamine bromidePossible antagonism of action
MirtazapinePossible antagonism of action
MoclobemidePossible antagonism of action
MolindonePossible antagonism of action
NortriptylinePossible antagonism of action
OlanzapinePossible antagonism of action
OrphenadrinePossible antagonism of action
OxybutyninPossible antagonism of action
ParoxetineParoxetine increases the effect and toxicity of galantamine
PerphenazinePossible antagonism of action
PethidinePossible antagonism of action
PhenelzinePossible antagonism of action
PhenindaminePossible antagonism of action
PimozidePossible antagonism of action
PipotiazinePossible antagonism of action
ProcainamidePossible antagonism of action
ProchlorperazinePossible antagonism of action
ProcyclidinePossible antagonism of action
PromazinePossible antagonism of action
PromethazinePossible antagonism of action
PropanthelinePossible antagonism of action
PropericiazinePossible antagonism of action
ProtriptylinePossible antagonism of action
QuetiapinePossible antagonism of action
QuinidinePossible antagonism of action
Quinidine barbituratePossible antagonism of action
RisperidonePossible antagonism of action
ScopolaminePossible antagonism of action
SertralinePossible antagonism of action
SolifenacinPossible antagonism of action
ThioproperazinePossible antagonism of action
ThioridazinePossible antagonism of action
ThiothixenePossible antagonism of action
TizanidinePossible antagonism of action
TolterodinePossible antagonism of action
TranylcyprominePossible antagonism of action
TrazodonePossible antagonism of action
TrifluoperazinePossible antagonism of action
TriflupromazinePossible antagonism of action
TrihexyphenidylPossible antagonism of action
TrimethobenzamideThe therapeutic effects of the anticholinergic, Trimethobenzamide, and/or the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (central), Galantamine, may be reduced due to antagonism. Monitor therapeutic effects of both agents.
TrimipraminePossible antagonism of action
TripelennaminePossible antagonism of action
TriprolidinePossible antagonism of action
TrospiumThe therapeutic effects of the anticholinergic, Trospium, and/or the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (central), Galantamine, may be reduced due to antagonism. Monitor therapeutic effects of both agents.
ZiprasidonePossible antagonism of action
ZuclopenthixolPossible antagonism of action
Food Interactions
  • Take with food.

Targets

1. Acetylcholinesterase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Acetylcholinesterase P22303 Details

References:

  1. Tonkopii VD, Prozorovskii VB, Suslova IM: [Interaction of reversible inhibitors with the catalytic centers and allosteric sites of cholinesterases] Biull Eksp Biol Med. 1976 Aug;82(8):947-50. Pubmed
  2. Greenblatt HM, Kryger G, Lewis T, Silman I, Sussman JL: Structure of acetylcholinesterase complexed with (-)-galanthamine at 2.3 A resolution. FEBS Lett. 1999 Dec 17;463(3):321-6. Pubmed
  3. Guillou C, Mary A, Renko DZ, Gras E, Thal C: Potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitors: design, synthesis and structure-activity relationships of alkylene linked bis-galanthamine and galanthamine-galanthaminium salts. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2000 Apr 3;10(7):637-9. Pubmed
  4. Blesa R: Galantamine: therapeutic effects beyond cognition. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2000 Sep;11 Suppl 1:28-34. Pubmed
  5. Stahl SM: The new cholinesterase inhibitors for Alzheimer’s disease, Part 1: their similarities are different. J Clin Psychiatry. 2000 Oct;61(10):710-1. Pubmed
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed
  7. Lilienfeld S: Galantamine—a novel cholinergic drug with a unique dual mode of action for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Summer;8(2):159-76. Pubmed
  8. Olin J, Schneider L: Galantamine for Alzheimer’s disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(3):CD001747. Pubmed# Scott LJ, Goa KL: Galantamine: a review of its use in Alzheimer’s disease. Drugs. 2000 Nov;60(5):1095-122. Pubmed
  9. Lilienfeld S, Parys W: Galantamine: additional benefits to patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2000 Sep;11 Suppl 1:19-27. Pubmed
  10. Woodruff-Pak DS, Lander C, Geerts H: Nicotinic cholinergic modulation: galantamine as a prototype. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Winter;8(4):405-26. Pubmed
  11. Hansen RA, Gartlehner G, Kaufer DJ, Lohr KN, Carey T: Pubmed
  12. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. Pubmed

2. Acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: allosteric modulator

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha P02708 Details

References:

  1. Scott LJ, Goa KL: Galantamine: a review of its use in Alzheimer’s disease. Drugs. 2000 Nov;60(5):1095-122. Pubmed
  2. Lilienfeld S: Galantamine—a novel cholinergic drug with a unique dual mode of action for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Summer;8(2):159-76. Pubmed
  3. Olin J, Schneider L: Galantamine for Alzheimer’s disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(3):CD001747. Pubmed
  4. Lilienfeld S, Parys W: Galantamine: additional benefits to patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2000 Sep;11 Suppl 1:19-27. Pubmed
  5. Woodruff-Pak DS, Lander C, Geerts H: Nicotinic cholinergic modulation: galantamine as a prototype. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Winter;8(4):405-26. Pubmed
  6. Hansen RA, Gartlehner G, Kaufer DJ, Lohr KN, Carey T: Pubmed

3. Acetylcholine receptor subunit beta

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: allosteric modulator

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Acetylcholine receptor subunit beta P11230 Details

References:

  1. Scott LJ, Goa KL: Galantamine: a review of its use in Alzheimer’s disease. Drugs. 2000 Nov;60(5):1095-122. Pubmed
  2. Lilienfeld S: Galantamine—a novel cholinergic drug with a unique dual mode of action for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Summer;8(2):159-76. Pubmed
  3. Olin J, Schneider L: Galantamine for Alzheimer’s disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(3):CD001747. Pubmed
  4. Lilienfeld S, Parys W: Galantamine: additional benefits to patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2000 Sep;11 Suppl 1:19-27. Pubmed
  5. Woodruff-Pak DS, Lander C, Geerts H: Nicotinic cholinergic modulation: galantamine as a prototype. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Winter;8(4):405-26. Pubmed
  6. Hansen RA, Gartlehner G, Kaufer DJ, Lohr KN, Carey T: Pubmed

4. Acetylcholine receptor subunit delta

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: allosteric modulator

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Acetylcholine receptor subunit delta Q07001 Details

References:

  1. Scott LJ, Goa KL: Galantamine: a review of its use in Alzheimer’s disease. Drugs. 2000 Nov;60(5):1095-122. Pubmed
  2. Lilienfeld S: Galantamine—a novel cholinergic drug with a unique dual mode of action for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Summer;8(2):159-76. Pubmed
  3. Olin J, Schneider L: Galantamine for Alzheimer’s disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(3):CD001747. Pubmed
  4. Lilienfeld S, Parys W: Galantamine: additional benefits to patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2000 Sep;11 Suppl 1:19-27. Pubmed
  5. Woodruff-Pak DS, Lander C, Geerts H: Nicotinic cholinergic modulation: galantamine as a prototype. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Winter;8(4):405-26. Pubmed
  6. Hansen RA, Gartlehner G, Kaufer DJ, Lohr KN, Carey T: Pubmed

5. Acetylcholine receptor subunit gamma

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: allosteric modulator

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Acetylcholine receptor subunit gamma P07510 Details

References:

  1. Scott LJ, Goa KL: Galantamine: a review of its use in Alzheimer’s disease. Drugs. 2000 Nov;60(5):1095-122. Pubmed
  2. Lilienfeld S: Galantamine—a novel cholinergic drug with a unique dual mode of action for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Summer;8(2):159-76. Pubmed
  3. Olin J, Schneider L: Galantamine for Alzheimer’s disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(3):CD001747. Pubmed
  4. Lilienfeld S, Parys W: Galantamine: additional benefits to patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2000 Sep;11 Suppl 1:19-27. Pubmed
  5. Woodruff-Pak DS, Lander C, Geerts H: Nicotinic cholinergic modulation: galantamine as a prototype. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Winter;8(4):405-26. Pubmed
  6. Hansen RA, Gartlehner G, Kaufer DJ, Lohr KN, Carey T: Pubmed

6. Acetylcholine receptor subunit epsilon

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: allosteric modulator

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Acetylcholine receptor subunit epsilon Q04844 Details

References:

  1. Scott LJ, Goa KL: Galantamine: a review of its use in Alzheimer’s disease. Drugs. 2000 Nov;60(5):1095-122. Pubmed
  2. Lilienfeld S: Galantamine—a novel cholinergic drug with a unique dual mode of action for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Summer;8(2):159-76. Pubmed
  3. Olin J, Schneider L: Galantamine for Alzheimer’s disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(3):CD001747. Pubmed
  4. Lilienfeld S, Parys W: Galantamine: additional benefits to patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2000 Sep;11 Suppl 1:19-27. Pubmed
  5. Woodruff-Pak DS, Lander C, Geerts H: Nicotinic cholinergic modulation: galantamine as a prototype. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Winter;8(4):405-26. Pubmed
  6. Hansen RA, Gartlehner G, Kaufer DJ, Lohr KN, Carey T: Pubmed

7. Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: allosteric modulator

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-2 Q15822 Details

References:

  1. Scott LJ, Goa KL: Galantamine: a review of its use in Alzheimer’s disease. Drugs. 2000 Nov;60(5):1095-122. Pubmed
  2. Lilienfeld S: Galantamine—a novel cholinergic drug with a unique dual mode of action for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Summer;8(2):159-76. Pubmed
  3. Olin J, Schneider L: Galantamine for Alzheimer’s disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(3):CD001747. Pubmed
  4. Lilienfeld S, Parys W: Galantamine: additional benefits to patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2000 Sep;11 Suppl 1:19-27. Pubmed
  5. Woodruff-Pak DS, Lander C, Geerts H: Nicotinic cholinergic modulation: galantamine as a prototype. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Winter;8(4):405-26. Pubmed
  6. Hansen RA, Gartlehner G, Kaufer DJ, Lohr KN, Carey T: Pubmed

8. Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-3

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: allosteric modulator

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-3 P32297 Details

References:

  1. Scott LJ, Goa KL: Galantamine: a review of its use in Alzheimer’s disease. Drugs. 2000 Nov;60(5):1095-122. Pubmed
  2. Lilienfeld S: Galantamine—a novel cholinergic drug with a unique dual mode of action for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Summer;8(2):159-76. Pubmed
  3. Olin J, Schneider L: Galantamine for Alzheimer’s disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(3):CD001747. Pubmed
  4. Lilienfeld S, Parys W: Galantamine: additional benefits to patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2000 Sep;11 Suppl 1:19-27. Pubmed
  5. Woodruff-Pak DS, Lander C, Geerts H: Nicotinic cholinergic modulation: galantamine as a prototype. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Winter;8(4):405-26. Pubmed
  6. Hansen RA, Gartlehner G, Kaufer DJ, Lohr KN, Carey T: Pubmed

9. Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: allosteric modulator

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4 P43681 Details

References:

  1. Scott LJ, Goa KL: Galantamine: a review of its use in Alzheimer’s disease. Drugs. 2000 Nov;60(5):1095-122. Pubmed
  2. Lilienfeld S: Galantamine—a novel cholinergic drug with a unique dual mode of action for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Summer;8(2):159-76. Pubmed
  3. Olin J, Schneider L: Galantamine for Alzheimer’s disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(3):CD001747. Pubmed
  4. Lilienfeld S, Parys W: Galantamine: additional benefits to patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2000 Sep;11 Suppl 1:19-27. Pubmed
  5. Woodruff-Pak DS, Lander C, Geerts H: Nicotinic cholinergic modulation: galantamine as a prototype. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Winter;8(4):405-26. Pubmed
  6. Hansen RA, Gartlehner G, Kaufer DJ, Lohr KN, Carey T: Pubmed

10. Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-5

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: allosteric modulator

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-5 P30532 Details

References:

  1. Scott LJ, Goa KL: Galantamine: a review of its use in Alzheimer’s disease. Drugs. 2000 Nov;60(5):1095-122. Pubmed
  2. Lilienfeld S: Galantamine—a novel cholinergic drug with a unique dual mode of action for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Summer;8(2):159-76. Pubmed
  3. Olin J, Schneider L: Galantamine for Alzheimer’s disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(3):CD001747. Pubmed
  4. Lilienfeld S, Parys W: Galantamine: additional benefits to patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2000 Sep;11 Suppl 1:19-27. Pubmed
  5. Woodruff-Pak DS, Lander C, Geerts H: Nicotinic cholinergic modulation: galantamine as a prototype. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Winter;8(4):405-26. Pubmed
  6. Hansen RA, Gartlehner G, Kaufer DJ, Lohr KN, Carey T: Pubmed

11. Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-6

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: allosteric modulator

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-6 Q15825 Details

References:

  1. Scott LJ, Goa KL: Galantamine: a review of its use in Alzheimer’s disease. Drugs. 2000 Nov;60(5):1095-122. Pubmed
  2. Lilienfeld S: Galantamine—a novel cholinergic drug with a unique dual mode of action for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Summer;8(2):159-76. Pubmed
  3. Olin J, Schneider L: Galantamine for Alzheimer’s disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(3):CD001747. Pubmed
  4. Lilienfeld S, Parys W: Galantamine: additional benefits to patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2000 Sep;11 Suppl 1:19-27. Pubmed
  5. Woodruff-Pak DS, Lander C, Geerts H: Nicotinic cholinergic modulation: galantamine as a prototype. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Winter;8(4):405-26. Pubmed
  6. Hansen RA, Gartlehner G, Kaufer DJ, Lohr KN, Carey T: Pubmed

12. Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-7

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: allosteric modulator

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-7 P36544 Details

References:

  1. Scott LJ, Goa KL: Galantamine: a review of its use in Alzheimer’s disease. Drugs. 2000 Nov;60(5):1095-122. Pubmed
  2. Lilienfeld S: Galantamine—a novel cholinergic drug with a unique dual mode of action for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Summer;8(2):159-76. Pubmed
  3. Olin J, Schneider L: Galantamine for Alzheimer’s disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(3):CD001747. Pubmed
  4. Lilienfeld S, Parys W: Galantamine: additional benefits to patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2000 Sep;11 Suppl 1:19-27. Pubmed
  5. Woodruff-Pak DS, Lander C, Geerts H: Nicotinic cholinergic modulation: galantamine as a prototype. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Winter;8(4):405-26. Pubmed
  6. Hansen RA, Gartlehner G, Kaufer DJ, Lohr KN, Carey T: Pubmed

13. Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-9

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: allosteric modulator

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-9 Q9UGM1 Details

References:

  1. Scott LJ, Goa KL: Galantamine: a review of its use in Alzheimer’s disease. Drugs. 2000 Nov;60(5):1095-122. Pubmed
  2. Lilienfeld S: Galantamine—a novel cholinergic drug with a unique dual mode of action for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Summer;8(2):159-76. Pubmed
  3. Olin J, Schneider L: Galantamine for Alzheimer’s disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(3):CD001747. Pubmed
  4. Lilienfeld S, Parys W: Galantamine: additional benefits to patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2000 Sep;11 Suppl 1:19-27. Pubmed
  5. Woodruff-Pak DS, Lander C, Geerts H: Nicotinic cholinergic modulation: galantamine as a prototype. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Winter;8(4):405-26. Pubmed
  6. Hansen RA, Gartlehner G, Kaufer DJ, Lohr KN, Carey T: Pubmed

14. Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-10

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: allosteric modulator

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-10 Q9GZZ6 Details

References:

  1. Scott LJ, Goa KL: Galantamine: a review of its use in Alzheimer’s disease. Drugs. 2000 Nov;60(5):1095-122. Pubmed
  2. Lilienfeld S: Galantamine—a novel cholinergic drug with a unique dual mode of action for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Summer;8(2):159-76. Pubmed
  3. Olin J, Schneider L: Galantamine for Alzheimer’s disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(3):CD001747. Pubmed
  4. Lilienfeld S, Parys W: Galantamine: additional benefits to patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2000 Sep;11 Suppl 1:19-27. Pubmed
  5. Woodruff-Pak DS, Lander C, Geerts H: Nicotinic cholinergic modulation: galantamine as a prototype. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Winter;8(4):405-26. Pubmed
  6. Hansen RA, Gartlehner G, Kaufer DJ, Lohr KN, Carey T: Pubmed

15. Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit beta-2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: allosteric modulator

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit beta-2 P17787 Details

References:

  1. Scott LJ, Goa KL: Galantamine: a review of its use in Alzheimer’s disease. Drugs. 2000 Nov;60(5):1095-122. Pubmed
  2. Lilienfeld S: Galantamine—a novel cholinergic drug with a unique dual mode of action for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Summer;8(2):159-76. Pubmed
  3. Olin J, Schneider L: Galantamine for Alzheimer’s disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(3):CD001747. Pubmed
  4. Lilienfeld S, Parys W: Galantamine: additional benefits to patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2000 Sep;11 Suppl 1:19-27. Pubmed
  5. Woodruff-Pak DS, Lander C, Geerts H: Nicotinic cholinergic modulation: galantamine as a prototype. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Winter;8(4):405-26. Pubmed
  6. Hansen RA, Gartlehner G, Kaufer DJ, Lohr KN, Carey T: Pubmed

16. Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit beta-3

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: allosteric modulator

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit beta-3 Q05901 Details

References:

  1. Scott LJ, Goa KL: Galantamine: a review of its use in Alzheimer’s disease. Drugs. 2000 Nov;60(5):1095-122. Pubmed
  2. Lilienfeld S: Galantamine—a novel cholinergic drug with a unique dual mode of action for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Summer;8(2):159-76. Pubmed
  3. Olin J, Schneider L: Galantamine for Alzheimer’s disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(3):CD001747. Pubmed
  4. Lilienfeld S, Parys W: Galantamine: additional benefits to patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2000 Sep;11 Suppl 1:19-27. Pubmed
  5. Woodruff-Pak DS, Lander C, Geerts H: Nicotinic cholinergic modulation: galantamine as a prototype. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Winter;8(4):405-26. Pubmed
  6. Hansen RA, Gartlehner G, Kaufer DJ, Lohr KN, Carey T: Pubmed

17. Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit beta-4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: allosteric modulator

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit beta-4 P30926 Details

References:

  1. Scott LJ, Goa KL: Galantamine: a review of its use in Alzheimer’s disease. Drugs. 2000 Nov;60(5):1095-122. Pubmed
  2. Lilienfeld S: Galantamine—a novel cholinergic drug with a unique dual mode of action for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Summer;8(2):159-76. Pubmed
  3. Olin J, Schneider L: Galantamine for Alzheimer’s disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(3):CD001747. Pubmed
  4. Lilienfeld S, Parys W: Galantamine: additional benefits to patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2000 Sep;11 Suppl 1:19-27. Pubmed
  5. Woodruff-Pak DS, Lander C, Geerts H: Nicotinic cholinergic modulation: galantamine as a prototype. CNS Drug Rev. 2002 Winter;8(4):405-26. Pubmed
  6. Hansen RA, Gartlehner G, Kaufer DJ, Lohr KN, Carey T: Pubmed

18. Cholinesterase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cholinesterase P06276 Details

References:

  1. Svoboda Z, Kvetina J, Kunesova G, Herink J, Bajgar J, Bartosova L, Zivny P, Palicka V: Effect of galantamine on acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities in the presence of L-carnitine in rat selected brain and peripheral tissues. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2006 Dec;27 Suppl 2:183-6. Pubmed
  2. Giacobini E: Selective inhibitors of butyrylcholinesterase: a valid alternative for therapy of Alzheimer’s disease? Drugs Aging. 2001;18(12):891-8. Pubmed
  3. Wilkinson DG: Galantamine: a new treatment for Alzheimer’s disease. Expert Rev Neurother. 2001 Nov;1(2):153-9. Pubmed

Enzymes

1. Cytochrome P450 3A4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A4 P08684 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

2. Cytochrome P450 2D6

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6 P10635 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

Comments
comments powered by Disqus
Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:11