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Identification
NameTobramycin
Accession NumberDB00684  (APRD00582)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Investigational
Description

An aminoglycoside, broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by Streptomyces tenebrarius. It is effective against gram-negative bacteria, especially the pseudomonas species. It is a 10% component of the antibiotic complex, nebramycin, produced by the same species. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
3'-Deoxykanamycin bNot AvailableNot Available
Nebramycin 6Not AvailableNot Available
Nebramycin factir 6Not AvailableNot Available
Nebramycin-Faktor 6Not AvailableIS
O-3-Amino-3-deoxy-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-4)-O-(2,6-diamino-2,3,6-trideoxy-alpha-D-ribohexopyranosyl-(1-4))-2-deoxy-D-streptamineNot AvailableNot Available
Tobracin (tn)Not AvailableNot Available
TobramicinaSpanishINN
TobramicinaItalianDCIT
TobramycinGermanINN
Tobramycine FrenchINN
TobramycinumLatinINN
Tobrex (tn)Not AvailableNot Available
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Tobrexsolution3 mg/mLophthalmicAlcon Laboratories, Inc.1981-03-15Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Tobrexointment3 mg/gophthalmicAlcon Laboratories, Inc.1981-06-28Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Tobisolution300 mg/5mLoralNovartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation1997-12-22Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Tobi Podhalercapsule28 mgoral; respiratory (inhalation)Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation2013-03-22Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Tobramycinsolution300 mg/5mLoralSandoz Inc2014-07-09Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Bethkissolution300 mg/4mLrespiratory (inhalation)Chiesi USA, Inc.2013-04-15Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Tobrexointment3 mg/gophthalmicSTAT RX LLC USA1981-11-25Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Tobrexointment3 mg/gophthalmicRebel Distributors Corp1981-11-25Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Kitabis Paksolution300 mg/5mLrespiratory (inhalation)Pari Respiratory Equipment2014-12-02Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Tobrexointment3 mg/gophthalmicA S Medication Solutions Llc1981-06-28Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Tobramycininjection, powder, for solution1200 mg/30mLintravenousAPP Pharmaceuticals, LLC2005-11-23Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Tobisolution300 mginhalationNovartis Pharmaceuticals Canada IncNot AvailableNot AvailableCanada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Tobramycin Sulfateinjection40 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousPfizer Laboratories Div Pfizer Inc2011-05-10Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Tobramycin Sulfateinjection40 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousPfizer Laboratories Div Pfizer Inc2011-05-10Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Tobramycin Sulfateinjection40 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousPfizer Laboratories Div Pfizer Inc2011-05-10Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Tobramycin Sulfateinjection40 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousPfizer Laboratories Div Pfizer Inc2011-05-10Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Tobramycinsolution300 mg/5mLrespiratory (inhalation)Teva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc2013-11-19Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Tobramycininjection, solution10 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousHospira, Inc.1991-04-30Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Tobramycininjection, solution40 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousHospira, Inc.1991-04-30Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Tobramycininjection, solution40 mg/mLintravenousHospira, Inc.1992-05-18Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Tobramycinsolution/ drops3 mg/mLophthalmicMajor Pharmaceuticals1993-11-29Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Tobramycinsolution/ drops3 mg/mLophthalmicSTAT Rx USA LLC1996-01-31Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Tobramycininjection, solution40 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousAkorn, Inc.2014-09-16Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Tobramycinsolution/ drops3 mg/mLophthalmicAkorn, Inc.1996-01-31Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Tobramycinsolution300 mg/5mLoralAkorn, Inc.2014-05-29Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Tobramycinsolution3 mg/mLophthalmicRebel Distributors Corp1994-05-25Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Tobramycinsolution3 mg/mLophthalmicBausch & Lomb Incorporated1993-11-29Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Tobramycininjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution1.2 g/30mLintravenousX Gen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2001-08-17Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Tobramycininjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution1.2 g/30mLintravenousX Gen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2001-08-17Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Tobramycinsolution3 mg/mLophthalmicRebel Distributors Corp1993-11-29Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Tobramycinsolution3 mg/mLophthalmicLake Erie Medical DBA Quaity Care Products LLC1994-05-25Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Tobramycinsolution3 mg/mLophthalmicUnit Dose Services1995-01-09Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Tobramycinsolution/ drops3 mg/mLophthalmicREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-09-26Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Tobramycinsolution/ drops3 mg/mLophthalmicREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-06-13Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Tobramycinsolution3 mg/mLophthalmicH.J. Harkins Company, Inc.1993-11-29Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Tobramycinsolution3 mg/mLophthalmicSandoz Inc.1995-01-09Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Tobramycinsolution3 mg/mLophthalmicDIRECT RX2014-01-01Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Tobramycinsolution3 mg/mLophthalmicProficient Rx LP1993-11-29Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Tobramycininjection, solution10 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousFresenius Kabi USA, LLC2004-11-30Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Tobramycininjection, solution40 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousFresenius Kabi USA, LLC2005-11-23Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Tobramycininjection, solution40 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousFresenius Kabi USA, LLC2005-11-23Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Tobramycininjection, solution40 mg/mLintravenousFresenius Kabi USA, LLC2004-11-30Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Tobramycininjection40 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousMylan Institutional LLC2008-03-12Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Tobramycininjection40 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousMylan Institutional LLC2011-05-10Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Tobramycininjection40 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousMylan Institutional LLC2008-03-12Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Tobramycininjection40 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousMylan Institutional LLC2011-05-10Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Tobramycinsolution3 mg/mLophthalmicPreferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc2012-02-28Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
International Brands
NameCompany
AktobAkorn
AlveoterolTetrafarm
AmgyKobec
BactobSolitaire
BelbarmicinaQuimica Luar
Bideon BioticFecofar
BiopticBausch & Lomb
BramitobTorrex
GernebcinInfectopharm
NebcinLilly
ObracinEuroCept
TobracinOpso Saline
TobramaxinAlcon
Brand mixtures
Brand NameIngredients
AmgydexTobramycin and Dexamethasone
AntibioptalTobramycin and Phenylephrine
BicrinolTobramycin and Dexamethasone
Bideon Biotic PlusTobramycin and Dexamethasone
TobradexTobramycin and Dexamethasone
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Tobramycin Sulfate
Thumb
  • InChI Key: ZEUUPKVZFKBXPW-TWDWGCDDSA-N
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 565.226507049
  • Average Mass: 565.593
DBSALT000317
Categories
CAS number32986-56-4
WeightAverage: 467.5145
Monoisotopic: 467.259127807
Chemical FormulaC18H37N5O9
InChI KeyNLVFBUXFDBBNBW-PBSUHMDJSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C18H37N5O9/c19-3-9-8(25)2-7(22)17(29-9)31-15-5(20)1-6(21)16(14(15)28)32-18-13(27)11(23)12(26)10(4-24)30-18/h5-18,24-28H,1-4,19-23H2/t5-,6+,7+,8-,9+,10+,11-,12+,13+,14-,15+,16-,17+,18+/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(2S,3R,4S,5S,6R)-4-amino-2-{[(1S,2S,3R,4S,6R)-4,6-diamino-3-{[(2R,3R,5S,6R)-3-amino-6-(aminomethyl)-5-hydroxyoxan-2-yl]oxy}-2-hydroxycyclohexyl]oxy}-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-3,5-diol
SMILES
NC[C@H]1O[C@H](O[C@@H]2[C@@H](N)C[C@@H](N)[C@H](O[C@H]3O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)[C@H](N)[C@H]3O)[C@H]2O)[C@H](N)C[C@@H]1O
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as amino sugars. These are sugars having one alcoholic hydroxy group replaced by an amino group; systematically known as x-amino-x-deoxymonosaccharides. These compounds do not include Glycosylamines.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganooxygen compounds
ClassCarbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates
Sub ClassAminosaccharides
Direct ParentAmino sugars
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • 4,6-disubstituted 2-deoxystreptamine
  • Aminoglycoside core
  • 2-deoxystreptamine aminoglycoside
  • Glucosamine
  • Amino sugar
  • O-glycosyl compound
  • Glycosyl compound
  • Cyclohexylamine
  • Cyclohexanol
  • Oxane
  • Monosaccharide
  • Cyclic alcohol
  • Secondary alcohol
  • 1,2-aminoalcohol
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Acetal
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Primary alcohol
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Amine
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the treatment of pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infections. Also being investigated for use in the treatment of sinus infections.
PharmacodynamicsTobramycin, an aminoglycoside antibiotic obtained from cultures of Streptomyces tenebrarius, is used in combination with other antibiotics to treat urinary tract infections, gynecologic infections, peritonitis, endocarditis, pneumonia, bacteremia and sepsis, respiratory infections including those associated with cystic fibrosis, osteomyelitis, and diabetic foot and other soft-tissue infections. It acts primarily by disrupting protein synthesis, leading to altered cell membrane permeability, progressive disruption of the cell envelope, and eventual cell death. Tobramycin has in vitro activity against a wide range of gram-negative organisms including Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Mechanism of actionTobramycin binds irreversibly to one of two aminoglycoside binding sites on the 30 S ribosomal subunit, inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis. Tobramycin may also destabilize bacterial memebrane by binding to 16 S 16 S r-RNA. An active transport mechanism for aminoglycoside uptake is necessary in the bacteria in order to attain a significant intracellular concentration of tobramycin.
AbsorptionThe bioavailability of tobramycin may vary because of individual differences in nebulizer performance and airway pathology.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeThe elimination half-life of tobramycin from serum is approximately 2 hours after intravenous (IV) administration.
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityLD50=441mg/kg (s.c. in mice)
Affected organisms
  • Enteric bacteria and other eubacteria
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Tobramycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00711
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption-0.9313
Blood Brain Barrier-0.9794
Caco-2 permeable-0.759
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.5933
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.7579
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9086
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8412
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8361
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8333
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6662
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9052
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9359
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-inhibitor0.923
CYP450 2C19 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9117
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9728
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9398
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7537
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9469
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9052
Rat acute toxicity1.7638 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9695
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.7522
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Alcon laboratories inc
  • Akorn inc
  • Alcon universal ltd
  • Altana inc
  • Bausch and lomb pharmaceuticals inc
  • Novex pharma
  • Falcon pharmaceuticals ltd
  • Novartis pharmaceuticals corp
  • Eli lilly and co
  • Akorn strides llc
  • Apothecon inc div bristol myers squibb
  • App pharmaceuticals llc
  • Astrazeneca lp
  • Baxter healthcare corp anesthesia and critical care
  • Hospira inc
  • Marsam pharmaceuticals llc
  • Teva parenteral medicines inc
  • X gen pharmaceuticals inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Capsuleoral; respiratory (inhalation)28 mg
Injectionintramuscular; intravenous40 mg/mL
Injection, powder, for solutionintravenous1200 mg/30mL
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionintravenous1.2 g/30mL
Injection, solutionintramuscular; intravenous10 mg/mL
Injection, solutionintramuscular; intravenous40 mg/mL
Injection, solutionintravenous40 mg/mL
Ointmentophthalmic3 mg/g
Solutioninhalation300 mg
Solutionophthalmic3 mg/mL
Solutionoral300 mg/5mL
Solutionrespiratory (inhalation)300 mg/4mL
Solutionrespiratory (inhalation)300 mg/5mL
Solution/ dropsophthalmic3 mg/mL
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Tobi (1 Box = 56, 5ml Ampules = 280ml Total) 280ml Plastic Container4461.42USD plastic
Tobramycin 1.2 gm vial338.25USD vial
TobraDex 0.3-0.1% Suspension 10ml Bottle200.43USD bottle
TobraDex 0.3-0.1% Ointment 3.5 gm Tube126.67USD tube
TobraDex 0.3-0.1% Suspension 5ml Bottle98.11USD bottle
Tobrex 0.3% Ointment 3.5 gm Tube80.02USD tube
Tobrex 0.3% Solution 5ml Bottle67.58USD bottle
TobraDex 0.3-0.1% Suspension 2.5ml Bottle54.99USD bottle
Tobramycin sulfate powder53.55USD g
Tobradex eye drops19.27USD ml
Tobi 300 mg/5 ml solution17.58USD ml
Tobramycin Sulfate 0.3% Solution 5ml Bottle15.99USD bottle
Tobrex 0.3% eye drops13.0USD ml
Tobi 60 mg/ml Solution11.4USD ml
Tobramycin Sulfate 40 mg/ml Solution3.6USD ml
Tobramycin 40 mg/ml3.14USD ml
Tobramycin 0.3% eye drops2.99USD ml
Aktob 0.3% eye drops2.85USD ml
Tobrex 0.3 % Ointment2.66USD g
Tobramycin 10 mg/ml2.26USD ml
Tobrex 0.3 % Solution1.88USD ml
Pms-Tobramycin 0.3 % Solution1.05USD ml
Sandoz Tobramycin 0.3 % Solution1.05USD ml
Tobramycin 60 mg/50 ml ns0.19USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
CountryPatent NumberApprovedExpires (estimated)
Canada24147372009-01-062021-06-26
United States51496941992-09-222009-09-22
United States55082691994-10-192014-10-19
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility1E+003 mg/mlNot Available
logP-5.8Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility53.7 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-3ALOGPS
logP-6.5ChemAxon
logS-0.94ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)12.54ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.83ChemAxon
Physiological Charge5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count14ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count10ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area268.17 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count6ChemAxon
Refractivity106.69 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability47.18 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Istvan Bakondi-Kovacs, “Metabolic controlled fermentation process for carbamoyl tobramycin production.” U.S. Patent US20020197683, issued December 26, 2002.

US20020197683
General ReferenceNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesJ01GB01S01AA12
AHFS Codes
  • 08:12.02
  • 52:04.04
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (414 KB)
MSDSDownload (73.3 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
Amphotericin BAmphotericin B may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Aminoglycosides.
AtracuriumMay enhance the respiratory depressant effect of Neuromuscular-Blocking Agents.
Botulinum Toxin Type AMay enhance the neuromuscular-blocking effect of AbobotulinumtoxinA.
Botulinum Toxin Type BMay enhance the neuromuscular-blocking effect of RimabotulinumtoxinB.
BumetanideLoop Diuretics may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Aminoglycosides. Specifically, nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity.
CapreomycinCapreomycin may enhance the neuromuscular-blocking effect of Aminoglycosides.
CarboplatinMay enhance the ototoxic effect of CARBOplatin. Especially with higher doses of carboplatin.
CefaclorCephalosporins (2nd Generation) may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Aminoglycosides.
CefdinirCephalosporins (3rd Generation) may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Aminoglycosides.
CefepimeCephalosporins (4th Generation) may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Aminoglycosides.
CefiximeCephalosporins (3rd Generation) may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Aminoglycosides.
CefotaximeCephalosporins (3rd Generation) may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Aminoglycosides.
CefotetanCephalosporins (2nd Generation) may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Aminoglycosides.
CefoxitinCephalosporins (2nd Generation) may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Aminoglycosides.
CefpodoximeCephalosporins (3rd Generation) may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Aminoglycosides.
CefprozilCephalosporins (2nd Generation) may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Aminoglycosides.
CeftazidimeCephalosporins (3rd Generation) may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Aminoglycosides.
CeftibutenCephalosporins (3rd Generation) may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Aminoglycosides.
CeftriaxoneCephalosporins (3rd Generation) may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Aminoglycosides.
CefuroximeCephalosporins (2nd Generation) may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Aminoglycosides.
CelecoxibNonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may decrease the excretion of Aminoglycosides. Data only in premature infants.
Cisatracurium BesylateMay enhance the respiratory depressant effect of Neuromuscular-Blocking Agents.
CisplatinCISplatin may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Aminoglycosides.
ClodronateMay enhance the hypocalcemic effect of Bisphosphonate Derivatives.
ColistimethateMay enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Colistimethate. Aminoglycosides may enhance the neuromuscular-blocking effect of Colistimethate.
ColistinMay enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Colistimethate. Aminoglycosides may enhance the neuromuscular-blocking effect of Colistimethate.
DiflunisalNonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may decrease the excretion of Aminoglycosides. Data only in premature infants.
DigoxinMay decrease the serum concentration of Cardiac Glycosides. This effect has only been demonstrated with oral aminoglycoside administration. Exceptions: Amikacin; Gentamicin (Systemic); Streptomycin; Tobramycin (Systemic, Oral Inhalation).
Ethacrynic acidLoop Diuretics may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Aminoglycosides. Specifically, nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity.
EtodolacNonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may decrease the excretion of Aminoglycosides. Data only in premature infants.
FenoprofenNonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may decrease the excretion of Aminoglycosides. Data only in premature infants.
FloctafenineNonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may decrease the excretion of Aminoglycosides. Data only in premature infants.
FoscarnetFoscarnet may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Aminoglycosides.
FurosemideLoop Diuretics may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Aminoglycosides. Specifically, nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity.
IbandronateMay enhance the hypocalcemic effect of Bisphosphonate Derivatives.
IbuprofenNonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may decrease the excretion of Aminoglycosides. Data only in premature infants.
IndomethacinNonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may decrease the excretion of Aminoglycosides. Data only in premature infants.
KetoprofenNonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may decrease the excretion of Aminoglycosides. Data only in premature infants.
KetorolacNonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may decrease the excretion of Aminoglycosides. Data only in premature infants.
MannitolMannitol may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Aminoglycosides.
Mefenamic acidNonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may decrease the excretion of Aminoglycosides. Data only in premature infants.
MeloxicamNonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may decrease the excretion of Aminoglycosides. Data only in premature infants.
NabumetoneNonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may decrease the excretion of Aminoglycosides. Data only in premature infants.
NaproxenNonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may decrease the excretion of Aminoglycosides. Data only in premature infants.
OxaprozinNonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may decrease the excretion of Aminoglycosides. Data only in premature infants.
PamidronateMay enhance the hypocalcemic effect of Bisphosphonate Derivatives.
PancuroniumMay enhance the respiratory depressant effect of Neuromuscular-Blocking Agents.
PiperacillinPenicillins may decrease the serum concentration of Aminoglycosides. Primarily associated with extended spectrum penicillins, and patients with renal dysfunction.
PiroxicamNonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may decrease the excretion of Aminoglycosides. Data only in premature infants.
RisedronateMay enhance the hypocalcemic effect of Bisphosphonate Derivatives.
RocuroniumMay enhance the respiratory depressant effect of Neuromuscular-Blocking Agents.
SuccinylcholineMay enhance the respiratory depressant effect of Neuromuscular-Blocking Agents.
SulindacNonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may decrease the excretion of Aminoglycosides. Data only in premature infants.
TenofovirTenofovir may increase the serum concentration of Aminoglycosides. Aminoglycosides may increase the serum concentration of Tenofovir.
Tiaprofenic acidNonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may decrease the excretion of Aminoglycosides. Data only in premature infants.
TicarcillinPenicillins may decrease the serum concentration of Aminoglycosides. Primarily associated with extended spectrum penicillins, and patients with renal dysfunction.
TiludronateMay enhance the hypocalcemic effect of Bisphosphonate Derivatives.
TolmetinNonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may decrease the excretion of Aminoglycosides. Data only in premature infants.
TorasemideLoop Diuretics may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Aminoglycosides. Specifically, nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity.
VancomycinVancomycin may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Aminoglycosides.
VecuroniumMay enhance the respiratory depressant effect of Neuromuscular-Blocking Agents.
ZoledronateMay enhance the hypocalcemic effect of Bisphosphonate Derivatives.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

1. 30S ribosomal protein S12

Kind: protein

Organism: Escherichia coli (strain K12)

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
30S ribosomal protein S12 P0A7S3 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Gill AE, Amyes SG: The contribution of a novel ribosomal S12 mutation to aminoglycoside resistance of Escherichia coli mutants. J Chemother. 2004 Aug;16(4):347-9. Pubmed
  4. Yang G, Trylska J, Tor Y, McCammon JA: Binding of aminoglycosidic antibiotics to the oligonucleotide A-site model and 30S ribosomal subunit: Poisson-Boltzmann model, thermal denaturation, and fluorescence studies. J Med Chem. 2006 Sep 7;49(18):5478-90. Pubmed

2. 16S rRNA

Kind: nucleotide

Organism: Enteric bacteria and other eubacteria

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Doi Y, de Oliveira Garcia D, Adams J, Paterson DL: Coproduction of novel 16S rRNA methylase RmtD and metallo-beta-lactamase SPM-1 in a panresistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate from Brazil. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007 Mar;51(3):852-6. Epub 2006 Dec 11. Pubmed
  4. Bogaerts P, Galimand M, Bauraing C, Deplano A, Vanhoof R, De Mendonca R, Rodriguez-Villalobos H, Struelens M, Glupczynski Y: Emergence of ArmA and RmtB aminoglycoside resistance 16S rRNA methylases in Belgium. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2007 Mar;59(3):459-64. Epub 2007 Jan 15. Pubmed
  5. Chen SY, Lin TH: A molecular dynamics study on binding recognition between several 4,5 and 4,6-linked aminoglycosides with A-site RNA. J Mol Recognit. 2009 Dec 22. Pubmed

Enzymes

1. Aminoglycoside 2'-N-acetyltransferase

Kind: protein

Organism: Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Aminoglycoside 2'-N-acetyltransferase P0A5N0 Details

References:

  1. Vetting MW, Hegde SS, Javid-Majd F, Blanchard JS, Roderick SL: Aminoglycoside 2’-N-acetyltransferase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis in complex with coenzyme A and aminoglycoside substrates. Nat Struct Biol. 2002 Sep;9(9):653-8. Pubmed

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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:11