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Identification
NameTobramycin
Accession NumberDB00684  (APRD00582)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Investigational
DescriptionAn aminoglycoside, broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by Streptomyces tenebrarius. It is effective against gram-negative bacteria, especially the pseudomonas species. It is a 10% component of the antibiotic complex, nebramycin, produced by the same species. [PubChem]
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
3'-Deoxykanamycin b
Nebramycin 6
Nebramycin factir 6
Nebramycin-Faktor 6
O-3-Amino-3-deoxy-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-4)-O-(2,6-diamino-2,3,6-trideoxy-alpha-D-ribohexopyranosyl-(1-4))-2-deoxy-D-streptamine
Tobracin (tn)
Tobramicina
Tobramicina
Tobramycin
Tobramycine
Tobramycinum
Tobrex (tn)
External Identifiers
  • Lilly 47663
  • SPRC-AB01
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Aj-tobramycinliquid40 mgintramuscular; intravenousAgila Jamp Canada IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Bethkissolution300 mg/4mLrespiratory (inhalation)Chiesi USA, Inc.2013-04-15Not applicableUs
Jamp-tobramycinliquid40 mgintramuscular; intravenousJamp Pharma Corporation2014-03-11Not applicableCanada
Kitabis Paksolution300 mg/5mLrespiratory (inhalation)Pari Respiratory Equipment2014-12-02Not applicableUs
Nebcin Inj 1.2gm/30mlliquid1.2 gintramuscular; intravenousEli Lilly Canada Inc1986-12-312003-05-12Canada
Nebcin Inj 10mg/mlliquid10 mgintramuscular; intravenousEli Lilly Canada Inc1975-12-312003-05-12Canada
Nebcin Inj 10mg/ml (vantage Vial)liquid10 mgintravenousEli Lilly Canada Inc1989-12-311997-05-20Canada
Nebcin Inj 40mg/mlliquid40 mgintramuscular; intravenousEli Lilly Canada Inc1975-12-312003-05-12Canada
Nebcin Inj 60mgliquid60 mgintramuscular; intravenousEli Lilly Canada Inc1978-12-311998-08-04Canada
Nebcin Inj 80mgliquid80 mgintramuscular; intravenousEli Lilly Canada Inc1978-12-311998-08-04Canada
PMS-tobramycin 0.3% Ophthalmic Solutionliquid3 mgophthalmicPharmascience Inc1999-02-18Not applicableCanada
Sandoz Tobramycin 0.3%solution0.3 %ophthalmicSandoz Canada Incorporated2000-08-21Not applicableCanada
Teva-tobramycinsolution60 mginhalationTeva Canada Limited2016-02-03Not applicableCanada
Tobisolution300 mg/5mLoralNovartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation1997-12-22Not applicableUs
Tobisolution300 mginhalationNovartis Pharmaceuticals Canada Inc1999-04-28Not applicableCanada
Tobi PodhalerInhalation powder, hard capsule28 mgInhalation useNovartis Europharm Ltd  2011-07-20Not applicableEu
Tobi PodhalerInhalation powder, hard capsule28 mgInhalation useNovartis Europharm Ltd  2011-07-20Not applicableEu
Tobi PodhalerInhalation powder, hard capsule28 mgInhalation useNovartis Europharm Ltd  2011-07-20Not applicableEu
Tobi Podhalercapsule28 mginhalationNovartis Pharmaceuticals Canada Inc2011-05-12Not applicableCanada
Tobi Podhalercapsule28 mg/1oral; respiratory (inhalation)Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation2013-03-22Not applicableUs
Tobramycinsolution300 mg/5mLoralSandoz Inc2014-07-09Not applicableUs
Tobramycininjection, powder, for solution1200 mg/30mLintravenousFresenius Kabi USA, LLC2005-11-23Not applicableUs
Tobramycin for Injectionpowder for solution1.2 gintravenousFresenius Kabi Canada Ltd1983-12-31Not applicableCanada
Tobramycin for Injection U.S.P.powder for solution1.2 gintravenousSterimax Inc2007-05-14Not applicableCanada
Tobramycin Inhalation Solutionsolution300 mginhalationSandoz Canada Incorporated2016-02-26Not applicableCanada
Tobramycin Injectionsolution10 mgintramuscular; intravenousFresenius Kabi Canada Ltd2003-09-08Not applicableCanada
Tobramycin Injectionsolution40 mgintramuscular; intravenousFresenius Kabi Canada Ltd1997-05-21Not applicableCanada
Tobramycin Injection USPliquid40 mgintramuscular; intravenousSandoz Canada Incorporated1999-12-20Not applicableCanada
Tobramycin Injection USPliquid10 mgintramuscular; intravenousSandoz Canada Incorporated1999-12-20Not applicableCanada
Tobramycin Injection, USPsolution40 mgintramuscular; intravenousMylan Pharmaceuticals Ulc2012-07-18Not applicableCanada
Tobramycin Ophthalmic Solution USP 0.3%liquid3 mgophthalmicBausch & Lomb Pharmaceuticals Inc.1999-09-012003-07-14Canada
Tobrexointment3 mg/gophthalmicRebel Distributors Corp1981-11-25Not applicableUs
Tobrexsolution/ drops3 mg/mLophthalmicAlcon Laboratories, Inc.1981-03-15Not applicableUs
Tobrexointment3 mg/gophthalmicAlcon Laboratories, Inc.1981-06-28Not applicableUs
Tobrexointment3 mg/gophthalmicA S Medication Solutions Llc1981-06-28Not applicableUs
Tobrexointment3 mg/gophthalmicSTAT RX LLC USA1981-11-25Not applicableUs
Tobrex 0.3% Ophthalmic Solliquid.3 %ophthalmicAlcon Canada Inc1981-12-31Not applicableCanada
Tobrex Ophthalmic Ont 3mg/gmointment3 mgophthalmicAlcon Canada Inc1984-12-31Not applicableCanada
Tobrexansolution0.3 %ophthalmicAlcon Canada IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-tobramycinsolution0.3 %ophthalmicApotex Inc2002-09-18Not applicableCanada
Tobramycininjection, solution10 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousHospira, Inc.1991-04-30Not applicableUs
Tobramycinsolution3 mg/mLophthalmicLake Erie Medical DBA Quaity Care Products LLC1994-05-25Not applicableUs
Tobramycinsolution3 mg/mLophthalmicPreferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc2012-02-28Not applicableUs
Tobramycinsolution/ drops3 mg/mLophthalmicAkorn, Inc.1996-01-31Not applicableUs
Tobramycininjection, solution40 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousFresenius Kabi USA, LLC2005-11-23Not applicableUs
Tobramycinsolution3 mg/mLophthalmicSandoz Inc.1995-01-09Not applicableUs
Tobramycininjection, solution40 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousTeva Parenteral Medicines, Inc.1992-02-01Not applicableUs
Tobramycinsolution/ drops3 mg/mLophthalmicBlenheim Pharmacal, Inc.2015-05-15Not applicableUs
Tobramycininjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution1.2 g/30mLintravenousX Gen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2001-08-17Not applicableUs
Tobramycininjection40 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousMylan Institutional LLC2011-05-10Not applicableUs
Tobramycinsolution300 mg/5mLrespiratory (inhalation)Teva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc2013-11-19Not applicableUs
Tobramycininjection, solution40 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousHospira, Inc.1991-04-30Not applicableUs
Tobramycinsolution3 mg/mLophthalmicUnit Dose Services1995-01-09Not applicableUs
Tobramycinsolution300 mg/5mLoralAkorn, Inc.2014-05-29Not applicableUs
Tobramycininjection, solution40 mg/mLintravenousFresenius Kabi USA, LLC2004-11-30Not applicableUs
Tobramycinsolution3 mg/mLoralDIRECT RX2014-01-01Not applicableUs
Tobramycinsolution/ drops3 mg/mLophthalmicMwi2015-03-27Not applicableUs
Tobramycininjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution1.2 g/30mLintravenousX Gen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2001-08-17Not applicableUs
Tobramycininjection40 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousMylan Institutional LLC2008-03-12Not applicableUs
Tobramycinsolution/ drops3 mg/mLophthalmicHenry Schein Inc.2015-05-13Not applicableUs
Tobramycininjection, solution40 mg/mLintravenousHospira, Inc.1992-05-18Not applicableUs
Tobramycinsolution/ drops3 mg/mLophthalmicREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-06-13Not applicableUs
Tobramycininjection1200 mg/30mLintravenousXellia Pharmaceuticals Ap S2014-04-10Not applicableUs
Tobramycinsolution300 mg/5mLrespiratory (inhalation)Amneal Pharmaceuticals of New York, LLC2014-07-13Not applicableUs
Tobramycinsolution3 mg/mLophthalmicRebel Distributors Corp1994-05-25Not applicableUs
Tobramycinsolution3 mg/mLophthalmicProficient Rx LP1993-11-29Not applicableUs
Tobramycinsolution/ drops3 mg/mLophthalmicSTAT Rx USA LLC1996-01-31Not applicableUs
Tobramycinsolution3 mg/mLophthalmicRebel Distributors Corp1993-11-29Not applicableUs
Tobramycininjection40 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousMylan Institutional LLC2011-05-10Not applicableUs
Tobramycinsolution3 mg/mLophthalmicH.J. Harkins Company, Inc.1993-11-29Not applicableUs
Tobramycininjection, solution40 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousTeva Parenteral Medicines, Inc.1992-02-01Not applicableUs
Tobramycinsolution/ drops3 mg/mLophthalmicMajor Pharmaceuticals1993-11-29Not applicableUs
Tobramycinsolution3 mg/mLophthalmicBausch & Lomb Incorporated1993-11-29Not applicableUs
Tobramycininjection40 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousMylan Institutional LLC2008-03-12Not applicableUs
Tobramycininjection, solution10 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousFresenius Kabi USA, LLC2004-11-30Not applicableUs
Tobramycininjection, solution40 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousAkorn, Inc.2014-09-16Not applicableUs
Tobramycin In Sodium Chlorideinjection, solution.8 mg/mLintravenousHospira, Inc.1990-07-31Not applicableUs
Tobramycin Sulfateinjection40 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousPfizer Laboratories Div Pfizer Inc2011-05-10Not applicableUs
Tobramycin Sulfateinjection40 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousPfizer Laboratories Div Pfizer Inc2011-05-10Not applicableUs
Tobramycin Sulfateinjection40 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousPfizer Laboratories Div Pfizer Inc2011-05-10Not applicableUs
Tobramycin Sulfateinjection40 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousPfizer Laboratories Div Pfizer Inc2011-05-10Not applicableUs
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
AktobAkorn
AlveoterolTetrafarm
AmgyKobec
BactobSolitaire
BelbarmicinaQuimica Luar
Bideon BioticFecofar
BiopticBausch & Lomb
BramitobTorrex
GernebcinInfectopharm
NebcinLilly
ObracinEuroCept
TobracinOpso Saline
TobramaxinAlcon
Brand mixtures
NameLabellerIngredients
TobradexAlcon Laboratories, Inc.
Tobradex Oph OintmentAlcon Canada Inc
Tobradex Oph SusAlcon Canada Inc
Tobradex STAlcon Laboratories, Inc.
Tobramycin and DexamethasoneRebel Distributors Corp
ZyletBausch & Lomb Incorporated
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Tobramycin Sulfate
Thumb
  • InChI Key: ZEUUPKVZFKBXPW-TWDWGCDDSA-N
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 565.226507049
  • Average Mass: 565.593
DBSALT000317
Categories
UNIIVZ8RRZ51VK
CAS number32986-56-4
WeightAverage: 467.5145
Monoisotopic: 467.259127807
Chemical FormulaC18H37N5O9
InChI KeyInChIKey=NLVFBUXFDBBNBW-PBSUHMDJSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C18H37N5O9/c19-3-9-8(25)2-7(22)17(29-9)31-15-5(20)1-6(21)16(14(15)28)32-18-13(27)11(23)12(26)10(4-24)30-18/h5-18,24-28H,1-4,19-23H2/t5-,6+,7+,8-,9+,10+,11-,12+,13+,14-,15+,16-,17+,18+/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(2S,3R,4S,5S,6R)-4-amino-2-{[(1S,2S,3R,4S,6R)-4,6-diamino-3-{[(2R,3R,5S,6R)-3-amino-6-(aminomethyl)-5-hydroxyoxan-2-yl]oxy}-2-hydroxycyclohexyl]oxy}-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-3,5-diol
SMILES
NC[[email protected]]1O[[email protected]](O[C@@H]2[C@@H](N)C[C@@H](N)[[email protected]](O[[email protected]]3O[[email protected]](CO)[C@@H](O)[[email protected]](N)[[email protected]]3O)[[email protected]]2O)[[email protected]](N)C[C@@H]1O
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as amino sugars. These are sugars having one alcoholic hydroxy group replaced by an amino group; systematically known as x-amino-x-deoxymonosaccharides. These compounds do not include Glycosylamines.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganooxygen compounds
ClassCarbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates
Sub ClassAminosaccharides
Direct ParentAmino sugars
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • 4,6-disubstituted 2-deoxystreptamine
  • Aminoglycoside core
  • 2-deoxystreptamine aminoglycoside
  • Glucosamine
  • Amino sugar
  • O-glycosyl compound
  • Glycosyl compound
  • Cyclohexylamine
  • Cyclohexanol
  • Oxane
  • Monosaccharide
  • Cyclic alcohol
  • Secondary alcohol
  • 1,2-aminoalcohol
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Acetal
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Primary alcohol
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Amine
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the treatment of pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infections. Also being investigated for use in the treatment of sinus infections.
PharmacodynamicsTobramycin, an aminoglycoside antibiotic obtained from cultures of Streptomyces tenebrarius, is used in combination with other antibiotics to treat urinary tract infections, gynecologic infections, peritonitis, endocarditis, pneumonia, bacteremia and sepsis, respiratory infections including those associated with cystic fibrosis, osteomyelitis, and diabetic foot and other soft-tissue infections. It acts primarily by disrupting protein synthesis, leading to altered cell membrane permeability, progressive disruption of the cell envelope, and eventual cell death. Tobramycin has in vitro activity against a wide range of gram-negative organisms including Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Mechanism of actionTobramycin binds irreversibly to one of two aminoglycoside binding sites on the 30 S ribosomal subunit, inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis. Tobramycin may also destabilize bacterial memebrane by binding to 16 S 16 S r-RNA. An active transport mechanism for aminoglycoside uptake is necessary in the bacteria in order to attain a significant intracellular concentration of tobramycin.
Related Articles
AbsorptionThe bioavailability of tobramycin may vary because of individual differences in nebulizer performance and airway pathology.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeThe elimination half-life of tobramycin from serum is approximately 2 hours after intravenous (IV) administration.
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityLD50=441mg/kg (s.c. in mice)
Affected organisms
  • Enteric bacteria and other eubacteria
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Tobramycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00711
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption-0.9313
Blood Brain Barrier-0.9794
Caco-2 permeable-0.759
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.5933
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.7579
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9086
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8412
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8361
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8333
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6662
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9052
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9359
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.923
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9117
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9728
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9398
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7537
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9469
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9052
Rat acute toxicity1.7638 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9695
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.7522
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Alcon laboratories inc
  • Akorn inc
  • Alcon universal ltd
  • Altana inc
  • Bausch and lomb pharmaceuticals inc
  • Novex pharma
  • Falcon pharmaceuticals ltd
  • Novartis pharmaceuticals corp
  • Eli lilly and co
  • Akorn strides llc
  • Apothecon inc div bristol myers squibb
  • App pharmaceuticals llc
  • Astrazeneca lp
  • Baxter healthcare corp anesthesia and critical care
  • Hospira inc
  • Marsam pharmaceuticals llc
  • Teva parenteral medicines inc
  • X gen pharmaceuticals inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Solutionrespiratory (inhalation)300 mg/4mL
Liquidintramuscular; intravenous1.2 g
Liquidintravenous10 mg
Liquidintramuscular; intravenous60 mg
Liquidintramuscular; intravenous80 mg
Liquidophthalmic3 mg
Solutionophthalmic0.3 %
Solutioninhalation60 mg
Solutioninhalation300 mg
Solutionoral300 mg/5mL
Capsuleinhalation28 mg
Capsuleoral; respiratory (inhalation)28 mg/1
Inhalation powder, hard capsuleInhalation use28 mg
Ointmentophthalmic
Suspensionophthalmic
Suspension/ dropsophthalmic
Injectionintravenous1200 mg/30mL
Injection, powder, for solutionintravenous1200 mg/30mL
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionintravenous1.2 g/30mL
Injection, solutionintramuscular; intravenous10 mg/mL
Injection, solutionintramuscular; intravenous40 mg/mL
Injection, solutionintravenous40 mg/mL
Solutionophthalmic3 mg/mL
Solutionoral3 mg/mL
Solutionrespiratory (inhalation)300 mg/5mL
Powder for solutionintravenous1.2 g
Injection, solutionintravenous.8 mg/mL
Solutionintramuscular; intravenous10 mg
Solutionintramuscular; intravenous40 mg
Liquidintramuscular; intravenous10 mg
Liquidintramuscular; intravenous40 mg
Injectionintramuscular; intravenous40 mg/mL
Ointmentophthalmic3 mg/g
Solution/ dropsophthalmic3 mg/mL
Liquidophthalmic.3 %
Ointmentophthalmic3 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Tobi (1 Box = 56, 5ml Ampules = 280ml Total) 280ml Plastic Container4461.42USD plastic
Tobramycin 1.2 gm vial338.25USD vial
TobraDex 0.3-0.1% Suspension 10ml Bottle200.43USD bottle
TobraDex 0.3-0.1% Ointment 3.5 gm Tube126.67USD tube
TobraDex 0.3-0.1% Suspension 5ml Bottle98.11USD bottle
Tobrex 0.3% Ointment 3.5 gm Tube80.02USD tube
Tobrex 0.3% Solution 5ml Bottle67.58USD bottle
TobraDex 0.3-0.1% Suspension 2.5ml Bottle54.99USD bottle
Tobramycin sulfate powder53.55USD g
Tobradex eye drops19.27USD ml
Tobi 300 mg/5 ml solution17.58USD ml
Tobramycin Sulfate 0.3% Solution 5ml Bottle15.99USD bottle
Tobrex 0.3% eye drops13.0USD ml
Tobi 60 mg/ml Solution11.4USD ml
Tobramycin Sulfate 40 mg/ml Solution3.6USD ml
Tobramycin 40 mg/ml3.14USD ml
Tobramycin 0.3% eye drops2.99USD ml
Aktob 0.3% eye drops2.85USD ml
Tobrex 0.3 % Ointment2.66USD g
Tobramycin 10 mg/ml2.26USD ml
Tobrex 0.3 % Solution1.88USD ml
Pms-Tobramycin 0.3 % Solution1.05USD ml
Sandoz Tobramycin 0.3 % Solution1.05USD ml
Tobramycin 60 mg/50 ml ns0.19USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
CA2414737 No2009-01-062021-06-26Canada
US5149694 No1992-09-222009-09-22Us
US5508269 No1994-10-192014-10-19Us
US6987094 No2002-09-222022-09-22Us
US7097827 No1996-04-162016-04-16Us
US7368102 No2002-12-192022-12-19Us
US7442388 No2000-05-102020-05-10Us
US7516741 No2004-01-112024-01-11Us
US7559325 No2005-10-272025-10-27Us
US7696178 No2003-03-172023-03-17Us
US7795316 No2008-08-032028-08-03Us
US7939502 No2002-06-142022-06-14Us
US8069851 No2004-09-242024-09-24Us
US8101582 No2007-12-192027-12-19Us
US8349294 No2000-05-102020-05-10Us
US8450287 No2007-12-192027-12-19Us
US8715623 No2002-12-192022-12-19Us
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility1E+003 mg/mlNot Available
logP-5.8Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility53.7 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-3ALOGPS
logP-6.5ChemAxon
logS-0.94ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)12.54ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.83ChemAxon
Physiological Charge5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count14ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count10ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area268.17 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count6ChemAxon
Refractivity106.69 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability47.18 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Istvan Bakondi-Kovacs, “Metabolic controlled fermentation process for carbamoyl tobramycin production.” U.S. Patent US20020197683, issued December 26, 2002.

US20020197683
General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesS01AA12J01GB01
AHFS Codes
  • 08:12.02
  • 52:04.04
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (414 KB)
MSDSDownload (73.3 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AceclofenacAceclofenac may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
AcetyldigitoxinThe serum concentration of Acetyldigitoxin can be decreased when it is combined with Tobramycin.
Acetylsalicylic acidAcetylsalicylic acid may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
AdapaleneAdapalene may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Alendronic acidTobramycin may increase the hypocalcemic activities of Alendronic acid.
AmdinocillinThe serum concentration of Tobramycin can be decreased when it is combined with Amdinocillin.
AmoxicillinThe serum concentration of Tobramycin can be decreased when it is combined with Amoxicillin.
Amphotericin BAmphotericin B may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Tobramycin.
AmpicillinThe serum concentration of Tobramycin can be decreased when it is combined with Ampicillin.
AntipyrineAntipyrine may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
ApremilastApremilast may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
AzapropazoneAzapropazone may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
AzelastineAzelastine may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
AzlocillinThe serum concentration of Tobramycin can be decreased when it is combined with Azlocillin.
BalsalazideBalsalazide may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
BenoxaprofenBenoxaprofen may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Benzathine benzylpenicillinThe serum concentration of Tobramycin can be decreased when it is combined with Benzathine benzylpenicillin.
BenzylpenicillinThe serum concentration of Tobramycin can be decreased when it is combined with Benzylpenicillin.
Benzylpenicillin PotassiumThe serum concentration of Tobramycin can be decreased when it is combined with Benzylpenicillin Potassium.
Botulinum Toxin Type ATobramycin may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.
Botulinum Toxin Type BTobramycin may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Botulinum Toxin Type B.
BromfenacBromfenac may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
BumetanideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bumetanide is combined with Tobramycin.
CapreomycinCapreomycin may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Tobramycin.
CarbenicillinThe serum concentration of Tobramycin can be decreased when it is combined with Carbenicillin.
CarboplatinTobramycin may increase the ototoxic activities of Carboplatin.
CarprofenCarprofen may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
CastanospermineCastanospermine may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
CelecoxibCelecoxib may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
ChloroquineChloroquine may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
CisplatinCisplatin may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Tobramycin.
ClodronateTobramycin may increase the hypocalcemic activities of Clodronate.
ClonixinClonixin may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
CloxacillinThe serum concentration of Tobramycin can be decreased when it is combined with Cloxacillin.
ColistimethateTobramycin may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Colistimethate.
CyclacillinThe serum concentration of Tobramycin can be decreased when it is combined with Cyclacillin.
CyclosporineTobramycin may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Cyclosporine.
D-LimoneneD-Limonene may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
DeslanosideThe serum concentration of Deslanoside can be decreased when it is combined with Tobramycin.
DiclofenacDiclofenac may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
DicloxacillinThe serum concentration of Tobramycin can be decreased when it is combined with Dicloxacillin.
DiflunisalDiflunisal may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
DigitoxinThe serum concentration of Digitoxin can be decreased when it is combined with Tobramycin.
DigoxinThe serum concentration of Digoxin can be decreased when it is combined with Tobramycin.
DroxicamDroxicam may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
EpirizoleEpirizole may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Etacrynic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etacrynic acid is combined with Tobramycin.
EtanerceptEtanercept may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Etidronic acidTobramycin may increase the hypocalcemic activities of Etidronic acid.
EtodolacEtodolac may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
EtofenamateEtofenamate may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
EtoricoxibEtoricoxib may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Evening primrose oilEvening primrose oil may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
exisulindexisulind may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
FenbufenFenbufen may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
FenoprofenFenoprofen may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
FloctafenineFloctafenine may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
FlucloxacillinThe serum concentration of Tobramycin can be decreased when it is combined with Flucloxacillin.
FlunixinFlunixin may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
FlurbiprofenFlurbiprofen may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
FoscarnetFoscarnet may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Tobramycin.
FurosemideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Furosemide is combined with Tobramycin.
HMPL-004HMPL-004 may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
IbandronateTobramycin may increase the hypocalcemic activities of Ibandronate.
IbuprofenIbuprofen may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
IbuproxamIbuproxam may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
IcatibantIcatibant may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
IndomethacinIndomethacin may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
IndoprofenIndoprofen may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
IsoxicamIsoxicam may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
KebuzoneKebuzone may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
KetoprofenKetoprofen may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
KetorolacKetorolac may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
LeflunomideLeflunomide may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
LornoxicamLornoxicam may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
LoxoprofenLoxoprofen may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
LumiracoxibLumiracoxib may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Magnesium salicylateMagnesium salicylate may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
MannitolMannitol may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Tobramycin.
MasoprocolMasoprocol may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
MecamylamineTobramycin may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Mecamylamine.
Meclofenamic acidMeclofenamic acid may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Mefenamic acidMefenamic acid may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
MeloxicamMeloxicam may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
MesalazineMesalazine may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
MetamizoleMetamizole may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
MeticillinThe serum concentration of Tobramycin can be decreased when it is combined with Meticillin.
MezlocillinThe serum concentration of Tobramycin can be decreased when it is combined with Mezlocillin.
Mycophenolate mofetilMycophenolate mofetil may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Mycophenolic acidMycophenolic acid may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
NabumetoneNabumetone may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
NafcillinThe serum concentration of Tobramycin can be decreased when it is combined with Nafcillin.
NaftifineNaftifine may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
NaproxenNaproxen may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
NCX 4016NCX 4016 may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
NepafenacNepafenac may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Niflumic AcidNiflumic Acid may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
NimesulideNimesulide may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
OlopatadineOlopatadine may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
OlsalazineOlsalazine may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
OrgoteinOrgotein may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
OuabainThe serum concentration of Ouabain can be decreased when it is combined with Tobramycin.
OxacillinThe serum concentration of Tobramycin can be decreased when it is combined with Oxacillin.
OxaprozinOxaprozin may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
OxyphenbutazoneOxyphenbutazone may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
PamidronateTobramycin may increase the hypocalcemic activities of Pamidronate.
ParecoxibParecoxib may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
PhenoxymethylpenicillinThe serum concentration of Tobramycin can be decreased when it is combined with Phenoxymethylpenicillin.
PhenylbutazonePhenylbutazone may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Picosulfuric acidThe therapeutic efficacy of Picosulfuric acid can be decreased when used in combination with Tobramycin.
PimecrolimusPimecrolimus may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
PiperacillinThe serum concentration of Tobramycin can be decreased when it is combined with Piperacillin.
PiretanideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Piretanide is combined with Tobramycin.
PirfenidonePirfenidone may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
PiroxicamPiroxicam may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
PivampicillinThe serum concentration of Tobramycin can be decreased when it is combined with Pivampicillin.
PivmecillinamThe serum concentration of Tobramycin can be decreased when it is combined with Pivmecillinam.
Procaine benzylpenicillinThe serum concentration of Tobramycin can be decreased when it is combined with Procaine benzylpenicillin.
PropacetamolPropacetamol may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
PTC299PTC299 may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
ResveratrolResveratrol may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
RisedronateTobramycin may increase the hypocalcemic activities of Risedronate.
RofecoxibRofecoxib may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
SalicylamideSalicylamide may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Salicylic acidSalicylic acid may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
SalsalateSalsalate may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
SeratrodastSeratrodast may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
SRT501SRT501 may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
SulbactamThe serum concentration of Tobramycin can be decreased when it is combined with Sulbactam.
SulfasalazineSulfasalazine may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
SulindacSulindac may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
SuprofenSuprofen may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Technetium Tc-99m MedronateTobramycin may increase the hypocalcemic activities of Technetium Tc-99m Medronate.
TenofovirThe serum concentration of Tobramycin can be increased when it is combined with Tenofovir.
TenoxicamTenoxicam may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
TepoxalinTepoxalin may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
TeriflunomideTeriflunomide may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Tiaprofenic acidTiaprofenic acid may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
TicarcillinThe serum concentration of Tobramycin can be decreased when it is combined with Ticarcillin.
TiludronateTobramycin may increase the hypocalcemic activities of Tiludronate.
Tolfenamic AcidTolfenamic Acid may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
TolmetinTolmetin may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
TorasemideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Torasemide is combined with Tobramycin.
TranilastTranilast may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Trisalicylate-cholineTrisalicylate-choline may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
ValdecoxibValdecoxib may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
VancomycinVancomycin may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Tobramycin.
ZaltoprofenZaltoprofen may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
ZileutonZileuton may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Zoledronic acidTobramycin may increase the hypocalcemic activities of Zoledronic acid.
ZomepiracZomepirac may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Trna binding
Specific Function:
With S4 and S5 plays an important role in translational accuracy.Interacts with and stabilizes bases of the 16S rRNA that are involved in tRNA selection in the A site and with the mRNA backbone. Located at the interface of the 30S and 50S subunits, it traverses the body of the 30S subunit contacting proteins on the other side and probably holding the rRNA structure together. The combined cluste...
Gene Name:
rpsL
Uniprot ID:
P0A7S3
Molecular Weight:
13736.995 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Gill AE, Amyes SG: The contribution of a novel ribosomal S12 mutation to aminoglycoside resistance of Escherichia coli mutants. J Chemother. 2004 Aug;16(4):347-9. [PubMed:15332709 ]
  4. Yang G, Trylska J, Tor Y, McCammon JA: Binding of aminoglycosidic antibiotics to the oligonucleotide A-site model and 30S ribosomal subunit: Poisson-Boltzmann model, thermal denaturation, and fluorescence studies. J Med Chem. 2006 Sep 7;49(18):5478-90. [PubMed:16942021 ]
2. 16S rRNA
Kind
Nucleotide
Organism
Enteric bacteria and other eubacteria
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Doi Y, de Oliveira Garcia D, Adams J, Paterson DL: Coproduction of novel 16S rRNA methylase RmtD and metallo-beta-lactamase SPM-1 in a panresistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate from Brazil. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007 Mar;51(3):852-6. Epub 2006 Dec 11. [PubMed:17158944 ]
  4. Bogaerts P, Galimand M, Bauraing C, Deplano A, Vanhoof R, De Mendonca R, Rodriguez-Villalobos H, Struelens M, Glupczynski Y: Emergence of ArmA and RmtB aminoglycoside resistance 16S rRNA methylases in Belgium. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2007 Mar;59(3):459-64. Epub 2007 Jan 15. [PubMed:17224412 ]
  5. Chen SY, Lin TH: A molecular dynamics study on binding recognition between several 4,5 and 4,6-linked aminoglycosides with A-site RNA. J Mol Recognit. 2010 Sep-Oct;23(5):423-34. doi: 10.1002/jmr.1008. [PubMed:20029836 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Involved in N-acetyltransferase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the coenzyme A-dependent acetylation of the 2' hydroxyl or amino group of a broad spectrum of aminoglycosides. It confers resistance to aminoglycosides
Gene Name:
aac
Uniprot ID:
P0A5N0
Molecular Weight:
20038.0 Da
References
  1. Vetting MW, Hegde SS, Javid-Majd F, Blanchard JS, Roderick SL: Aminoglycoside 2'-N-acetyltransferase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis in complex with coenzyme A and aminoglycoside substrates. Nat Struct Biol. 2002 Sep;9(9):653-8. [PubMed:12161746 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 30, 2016 02:34