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Identification
NameDaunorubicin
Accession NumberDB00694  (APRD00521)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
DescriptionA very toxic anthracycline aminoglycoside antineoplastic isolated from Streptomyces peucetius and others, used in treatment of leukemia and other neoplasms. [PubChem]
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
(+)-Daunomycin
(8S-cis)-8-Acetyl-10-((3-amino-2,3,6-trideoxy-alpha-L-lyxo-hexopyrannosyl)oxy)-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-6,8,11-trihydroxy-1-methoxy-5,12-napthacenedione
Acetyladriamycin
Daunomycin
Daunorubicin
Daunorubicina
Daunorubicine
Daunorubicinum
Leukaemomycin C
Rubidomycin
External Identifiers
  • DNR
  • FI 6339
  • NSC 82151
  • RCRA Waste No. U059
  • RP 13057
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Cerubidine 20mg/vialpowder for solution20 mgintravenousErfa Canada 2012 Inc1971-12-31Not applicableCanada
Daunorubicin Hydrochloride for Injectionpowder for solution20 mgintravenousTeva Canada Limited1998-03-04Not applicableCanada
Daunoxomeinjection, lipid complex2 mg/mLintravenousGalen US Inc2012-02-13Not applicableUs
Daunoxome Liposomal - IV 2mg/ml, 50mg/vialsuspension2 mgintravenousGilead Sciences Inc1997-09-222001-09-21Canada
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Daunorubicin Hydrochlorideinjection, solution5 mg/mLintravenousTeva Parenteral Medicines, Inc.2004-04-01Not applicableUs
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
CerubidinSanofi-Aventis
CerubidineSanofi-Aventis
CérubidineSanofi-Aventis
DaunoblastinPfizer
DaunoblastinaPfizer
DaunorrubicinaGP-Pharm
MaxidaunoVarifarma
Brand mixturesNot Available
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Daunorubicin citrate
ThumbNot applicableDBSALT001476
Daunorubicin Hydrochloride
Thumb
  • InChI Key: GUGHGUXZJWAIAS-UHFFFAOYNA-N
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 563.155823892
  • Average Mass: 563.981
DBSALT000665
Categories
UNIIZS7284E0ZP
CAS number20830-81-3
WeightAverage: 527.5199
Monoisotopic: 527.179146153
Chemical FormulaC27H29NO10
InChI KeyInChIKey=STQGQHZAVUOBTE-VGBVRHCVSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C27H29NO10/c1-10-22(30)14(28)7-17(37-10)38-16-9-27(35,11(2)29)8-13-19(16)26(34)21-20(24(13)32)23(31)12-5-4-6-15(36-3)18(12)25(21)33/h4-6,10,14,16-17,22,30,32,34-35H,7-9,28H2,1-3H3/t10-,14-,16-,17-,22+,27-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(8S,10S)-8-acetyl-10-{[(2R,4S,5S,6S)-4-amino-5-hydroxy-6-methyloxan-2-yl]oxy}-6,8,11-trihydroxy-1-methoxy-5,7,8,9,10,12-hexahydrotetracene-5,12-dione
SMILES
COC1=CC=CC2=C1C(=O)C1=C(O)C3=C(C[C@](O)(C[C@@H]3O[[email protected]]3C[[email protected]](N)[[email protected]](O)[[email protected]](C)O3)C(C)=O)C(O)=C1C2=O
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as anthracyclines. These are polyketides containing a tetracenequinone ring structure with a sugar attached by glycosidic linkage.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassPhenylpropanoids and polyketides
ClassAnthracyclines
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentAnthracyclines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Anthracyclinone-skeleton
  • Anthracycline
  • Tetracenequinone
  • 1,4-anthraquinone
  • 9,10-anthraquinone
  • Anthracene
  • Amino sugar
  • Tetralin
  • Aryl ketone
  • Hydroquinone
  • Anisole
  • Amino saccharide
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Benzenoid
  • Oxane
  • Monosaccharide
  • Saccharide
  • Vinylogous acid
  • Tertiary alcohol
  • Alpha-hydroxy ketone
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Polyol
  • Ketone
  • 1,2-aminoalcohol
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Ether
  • Acetal
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Alcohol
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor remission induction in acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (myelogenous, monocytic, erythroid) of adults and for remission induction in acute lymphocytic leukemia of children and adults.
PharmacodynamicsDaunorubicin is an antineoplastic in the anthracycline class. General properties of drugs in this class include: interaction with DNA in a variety of different ways including intercalation (squeezing between the base pairs), DNA strand breakage and inhibition with the enzyme topoisomerase II. Most of these compounds have been isolated from natural sources and antibiotics. However, they lack the specificity of the antimicrobial antibiotics and thus produce significant toxicity. The anthracyclines are among the most important antitumor drugs available. Doxorubicin is widely used for the treatment of several solid tumors while daunorubicin and idarubicin are used exclusively for the treatment of leukemia. Daunorubicin may also inhibit polymerase activity, affect regulation of gene expression, and produce free radical damage to DNA. Daunorubicin possesses an antitumor effect against a wide spectrum of tumors, either grafted or spontaneous. The anthracyclines are cell cycle-nonspecific.
Mechanism of actionDaunorubicin has antimitotic and cytotoxic activity through a number of proposed mechanisms of action: Daunorubicin forms complexes with DNA by intercalation between base pairs, and it inhibits topoisomerase II activity by stabilizing the DNA-topoisomerase II complex, preventing the religation portion of the ligation-religation reaction that topoisomerase II catalyzes.
Related Articles
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein binding97% binding-albumin
Metabolism

Hepatic

Route of eliminationTwenty-five percent of an administered dose of daunorubicin hydrochloride is eliminated in an active form by urinary excretion and an estimated 40% by biliary excretion.
Half life18.5 hours
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityLD50=20 mg/kg (mice, IV); LD50=13 mg/kg (rat, IV)
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug Reactions
Interacting Gene/EnzymeSNP RS IDAllele nameDefining changeAdverse ReactionReference(s)
Cytochrome P450 1B1
Gene symbol: CYP1B1
UniProt: Q16678
rs10932125 Not AvailableG alleleMyelosuppression, cardiac toxicity, cytotoxicty18451141
Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein D0
Gene symbol: HNRNPD
UniProt: Q14103
rs3750518 Not AvailableA alleleMyelosuppression, cardiac toxicity, cytotoxicty18451141
SEC14-like protein 3
Gene symbol: SEC14L3
UniProt: Q9UDX4
rs6603859 Not AvailableT alleleMyelosuppression, cardiac toxicity, cytotoxicty18451141
Inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase subunit epsilon
Gene symbol: IKBKE
UniProt: Q14164
rs7929521 Not AvailableA alleleMyelosuppression, cardiac toxicity, cytotoxicty18451141
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption-0.6524
Blood Brain Barrier-0.9869
Caco-2 permeable-0.7227
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.7862
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.636
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9136
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9213
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7987
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.5951
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.8777
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9448
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9527
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9157
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9543
Ames testAMES toxic0.9224
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9521
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9844
Rat acute toxicity3.2275 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9888
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8916
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Gilead sciences inc
  • Bedford laboratories div ben venue laboratories inc
  • Sanofi aventis us llc
  • Wyeth ayerst research
  • App pharmaceuticals llc
  • Teva parenteral medicines inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Powder for solutionintravenous20 mg
Injection, solutionintravenous5 mg/mL
Injection, lipid complexintravenous2 mg/mL
Suspensionintravenous2 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Daunorubicin 20 mg/4 ml vial163.01USD ml
Cerubidine 20 mg vial50.4USD vial
Daunorubicin 50 mg/10 ml vial42.45USD ml
Daunoxome 2 mg/ml vial13.06USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point208-209 °CPhysProp
water solubility39.2 mg/LNot Available
logP1.83SANGSTER (1993)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.627 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1.68ALOGPS
logP1.73ChemAxon
logS-2.9ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)9.53ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)8.94ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count11ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count5ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area185.84 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity132.89 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability52.94 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings5ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Sylvie Pinnert, Leon Ninet, Jean Preud’Homme, “Antibiotic daunorubicin and its preparation.” U.S. Patent US3989598, issued March, 1965.

US3989598
General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesL01DB02
AHFS Codes
  • 10:00.00
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (36.2 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AbirateroneThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Abiraterone.
AcebutololThe serum concentration of Acebutolol can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
AceclofenacAceclofenac may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
AcetaminophenThe serum concentration of Acetaminophen can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
AcetaminophenThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Acetaminophen.
AcetyldigitoxinAcetyldigitoxin may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Daunorubicin.
AcetyldigitoxinThe serum concentration of Acetyldigitoxin can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
Acetylsalicylic acidAcetylsalicylic acid may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Acetylsalicylic acidThe serum concentration of Acetylsalicylic acid can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
AdapaleneAdapalene may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
AfatinibThe serum concentration of Afatinib can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
AfatinibThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Afatinib.
AlbendazoleThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Albendazole.
AldosteroneThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Aldosterone.
AlectinibThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Alectinib.
Alendronic acidDaunorubicin may increase the hypocalcemic activities of Alendronic acid.
AlfentanilThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Alfentanil.
AlitretinoinThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
AmantadineThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
AmbrisentanThe serum concentration of Ambrisentan can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
AmdinocillinThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Amdinocillin.
Aminohippuric acidThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Aminohippuric acid.
AmiodaroneThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Amiodarone.
AmitriptylineThe serum concentration of Amitriptyline can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
AmitriptylineThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Amitriptyline.
AmlodipineThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Amlodipine.
AmoxicillinThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Amoxicillin.
Amphotericin BAmphotericin B may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Daunorubicin.
AmpicillinThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Ampicillin.
AmprenavirThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Amprenavir.
AmsacrineThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Amsacrine.
AntipyrineAntipyrine may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
ApixabanThe serum concentration of Apixaban can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
ApremilastApremilast may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
AprepitantThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Aprepitant.
Arsenic trioxideThe serum concentration of Arsenic trioxide can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
AstemizoleThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Astemizole.
AtazanavirThe serum concentration of Atazanavir can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
AtazanavirThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Atazanavir.
AtenololThe serum concentration of Atenolol can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
AtenololThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Atenolol.
AtomoxetineThe metabolism of Daunorubicin can be decreased when combined with Atomoxetine.
AtorvastatinThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Atorvastatin.
AxitinibThe serum concentration of Axitinib can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
AzapropazoneAzapropazone may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
AzelastineAzelastine may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
AzithromycinThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Azithromycin.
AzlocillinThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Azlocillin.
BalsalazideBalsalazide may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
BenoxaprofenBenoxaprofen may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Benzathine benzylpenicillinThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Benzathine benzylpenicillin.
BenzocaineThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Benzocaine.
BenzylpenicillinThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Benzylpenicillin.
Benzylpenicillin PotassiumThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Benzylpenicillin Potassium.
BepridilThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Bepridil.
BetamethasoneThe serum concentration of Betamethasone can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
BevacizumabBevacizumab may increase the cardiotoxic activities of Daunorubicin.
BexaroteneThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Bexarotene.
BiperidenThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Biperiden.
BoceprevirThe metabolism of Daunorubicin can be decreased when combined with Boceprevir.
BoceprevirThe serum concentration of Boceprevir can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
BortezomibThe metabolism of Daunorubicin can be decreased when combined with Bortezomib.
BosentanThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Bosentan.
BosutinibThe serum concentration of Bosutinib can be increased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
Botulinum Toxin Type ADaunorubicin may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.
Botulinum Toxin Type BDaunorubicin may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Botulinum Toxin Type B.
Brentuximab vedotinThe serum concentration of Brentuximab vedotin can be increased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
BromfenacBromfenac may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
BromocriptineThe serum concentration of Bromocriptine can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
BromocriptineThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Bromocriptine.
BumetanideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bumetanide is combined with Daunorubicin.
BuprenorphineThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Buprenorphine.
BupropionThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Bupropion.
BuspironeThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Buspirone.
CabazitaxelThe serum concentration of Cabazitaxel can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
CabazitaxelThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Cabazitaxel.
CaffeineThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
CaffeineThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.
CamptothecinThe serum concentration of Camptothecin can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
CanagliflozinThe serum concentration of Canagliflozin can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
CanagliflozinThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Canagliflozin.
CandesartanThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Candesartan.
CapreomycinCapreomycin may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Daunorubicin.
CaptoprilThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Captopril.
CarbamazepineThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Carbamazepine.
CarbenicillinThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Carbenicillin.
CarboplatinDaunorubicin may increase the ototoxic activities of Carboplatin.
CarfilzomibThe serum concentration of Carfilzomib can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
CarprofenCarprofen may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
CarvedilolThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Carvedilol.
CaspofunginThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Caspofungin.
CastanospermineCastanospermine may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
CelecoxibCelecoxib may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
CeritinibThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Ceritinib.
CeritinibThe serum concentration of Ceritinib can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
CerivastatinThe serum concentration of Cerivastatin can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
ChloroquineChloroquine may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
ChlorpromazineThe serum concentration of Chlorpromazine can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
ChlorpromazineThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Chlorpromazine.
ChlorpropamideThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Chlorpropamide.
ChlorprothixeneThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Chlorprothixene.
CholesterolThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Cholesterol.
Cholic AcidThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Cholic Acid.
CilazaprilThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Cilazapril.
CimetidineThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Cimetidine.
CiprofloxacinThe serum concentration of Ciprofloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
CiprofloxacinThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Ciprofloxacin.
CisplatinCisplatin may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Daunorubicin.
CisplatinThe serum concentration of Cisplatin can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
CitalopramThe serum concentration of Citalopram can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
CitalopramThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Citalopram.
ClarithromycinThe serum concentration of Clarithromycin can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
ClarithromycinThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Clarithromycin.
ClemastineThe metabolism of Daunorubicin can be decreased when combined with Clemastine.
ClobazamThe serum concentration of Clobazam can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
ClodronateDaunorubicin may increase the hypocalcemic activities of Clodronate.
ClofazimineThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Clofazimine.
ClomifeneThe serum concentration of Clomifene can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
ClomipramineThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Clomipramine.
ClonidineThe serum concentration of Clonidine can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
ClonixinClonixin may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
ClopidogrelThe serum concentration of Clopidogrel can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
ClotrimazoleThe metabolism of Daunorubicin can be decreased when combined with Clotrimazole.
CloxacillinThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Cloxacillin.
ClozapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Daunorubicin is combined with Clozapine.
CobicistatThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Cobicistat.
CobimetinibThe serum concentration of Cobimetinib can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
ColchicineThe serum concentration of Colchicine can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
ColchicineThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Colchicine.
ColforsinThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Colforsin.
ColistimethateDaunorubicin may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Colistimethate.
ConivaptanThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Conivaptan.
Conjugated Equine EstrogensThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
CrizotinibThe metabolism of Daunorubicin can be decreased when combined with Crizotinib.
CrizotinibThe serum concentration of Crizotinib can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
CyclacillinThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Cyclacillin.
CyclophosphamideCyclophosphamide may increase the cardiotoxic activities of Daunorubicin.
CyclosporineDaunorubicin may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Cyclosporine.
CyclosporineThe metabolism of Daunorubicin can be decreased when combined with Cyclosporine.
Cyproterone acetateThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Cyproterone acetate.
D-LimoneneD-Limonene may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Dabigatran etexilateThe serum concentration of Dabigatran etexilate can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
DabrafenibThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Dabrafenib.
DaclatasvirThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Daclatasvir.
DactinomycinThe serum concentration of Dactinomycin can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
DactinomycinThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Dactinomycin.
DapagliflozinThe serum concentration of Dapagliflozin can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
DarunavirThe metabolism of Daunorubicin can be decreased when combined with Darunavir.
DasatinibThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Dasatinib.
DasatinibThe serum concentration of Dasatinib can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
DebrisoquinThe serum concentration of Debrisoquin can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
DeferasiroxThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Deferasirox.
DelavirdineThe metabolism of Daunorubicin can be decreased when combined with Delavirdine.
DenosumabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Denosumab is combined with Daunorubicin.
DesipramineThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Desipramine.
DeslanosideDeslanoside may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Daunorubicin.
DeslanosideThe serum concentration of Deslanoside can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
DesloratadineThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Desloratadine.
DexamethasoneThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Dexamethasone.
DextromethorphanThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Dextromethorphan.
DiazepamThe serum concentration of Diazepam can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
DiclofenacDiclofenac may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
DicloxacillinThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Dicloxacillin.
DiethylstilbestrolThe serum concentration of Diethylstilbestrol can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
DiflunisalDiflunisal may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
DigitoxinDigitoxin may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Daunorubicin.
DigitoxinThe serum concentration of Digitoxin can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
DigoxinDigoxin may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Daunorubicin.
DigoxinThe serum concentration of Digoxin can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
DihydroergotamineThe metabolism of Daunorubicin can be decreased when combined with Dihydroergotamine.
DihydrotestosteroneThe serum concentration of Dihydrotestosterone can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
DiltiazemThe metabolism of Daunorubicin can be decreased when combined with Diltiazem.
DiltiazemThe serum concentration of Diltiazem can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
DipyridamoleThe serum concentration of Dipyridamole can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
DipyridamoleThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Dipyridamole.
DocetaxelThe serum concentration of Docetaxel can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
DocetaxelThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Docetaxel is combined with Daunorubicin.
DomperidoneThe serum concentration of Domperidone can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
DoxazosinThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Doxazosin.
DoxepinThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Doxepin.
DoxorubicinThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
DoxycyclineThe metabolism of Daunorubicin can be decreased when combined with Doxycycline.
DronabinolThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Dronabinol.
DronedaroneThe metabolism of Daunorubicin can be decreased when combined with Dronedarone.
DroxicamDroxicam may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
EdoxabanThe serum concentration of Edoxaban can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
EfavirenzThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Efavirenz.
ElbasvirThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Elbasvir.
EletriptanThe serum concentration of Eletriptan can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
EltrombopagThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Eltrombopag.
EnalaprilThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Enalapril.
EnzalutamideThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Enzalutamide.
EpinastineThe serum concentration of Epinastine can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
EpirizoleEpirizole may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
ErgonovineThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Ergonovine.
ErgotamineThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Ergotamine.
ErlotinibThe serum concentration of Erlotinib can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
ErythromycinThe metabolism of Daunorubicin can be decreased when combined with Erythromycin.
ErythromycinThe serum concentration of Erythromycin can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
Eslicarbazepine acetateThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Eslicarbazepine acetate.
EstradiolThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
EstramustineThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Estramustine.
EstriolThe serum concentration of Estriol can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
EstroneThe serum concentration of Estrone can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
Etacrynic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etacrynic acid is combined with Daunorubicin.
EtanerceptEtanercept may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Ethinyl EstradiolThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
Etidronic acidDaunorubicin may increase the hypocalcemic activities of Etidronic acid.
EtodolacEtodolac may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
EtofenamateEtofenamate may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
EtoposideThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
EtoposideThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
EtoricoxibEtoricoxib may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
EtravirineThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Etravirine.
Evening primrose oilEvening primrose oil may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
EverolimusThe serum concentration of Everolimus can be increased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
exisulindexisulind may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
EzetimibeThe serum concentration of Ezetimibe can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
FelodipineThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Felodipine.
FenbufenFenbufen may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
FenoprofenFenoprofen may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
FentanylThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Fentanyl.
FesoterodineThe serum concentration of Fesoterodine can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
FexofenadineThe serum concentration of Fexofenadine can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
FexofenadineThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Fexofenadine.
FidaxomicinThe serum concentration of Fidaxomicin can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
FidaxomicinThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Fidaxomicin.
FingolimodDaunorubicin may increase the immunosuppressive activities of Fingolimod.
FloctafenineFloctafenine may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
FlucloxacillinThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Flucloxacillin.
FluconazoleThe metabolism of Daunorubicin can be decreased when combined with Fluconazole.
FlunixinFlunixin may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
FluoxetineThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Fluoxetine.
FlupentixolThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Flupentixol.
FluphenazineThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Fluphenazine.
FlurazepamThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Flurazepam.
FlurbiprofenFlurbiprofen may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Fluticasone furoateThe serum concentration of Fluticasone furoate can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
FluvoxamineThe metabolism of Daunorubicin can be decreased when combined with Fluvoxamine.
FosamprenavirThe metabolism of Daunorubicin can be decreased when combined with Fosamprenavir.
FosaprepitantThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Fosaprepitant.
FoscarnetFoscarnet may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Daunorubicin.
FosphenytoinThe metabolism of Daunorubicin can be increased when combined with Fosphenytoin.
FurosemideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Furosemide is combined with Daunorubicin.
Fusidic AcidThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Fusidic Acid.
GefitinibThe serum concentration of Gefitinib can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
GefitinibThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Gefitinib.
GemcitabineThe serum concentration of Gemcitabine can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
GenisteinThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Genistein.
GlyburideThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Glyburide.
GlycerolThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Glycerol.
Gramicidin DThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
GrazoprevirThe serum concentration of Grazoprevir can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
GrepafloxacinThe serum concentration of Grepafloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
GrepafloxacinThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Grepafloxacin.
HaloperidolThe serum concentration of Haloperidol can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
HaloperidolThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Haloperidol.
HMPL-004HMPL-004 may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
HydrocortisoneThe serum concentration of Hydrocortisone can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
HydrocortisoneThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Hydrocortisone.
IbandronateDaunorubicin may increase the hypocalcemic activities of Ibandronate.
IbuprofenIbuprofen may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
IbuprofenThe serum concentration of Ibuprofen can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
IbuproxamIbuproxam may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
IcatibantIcatibant may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
IdelalisibThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Idelalisib.
IdelalisibThe serum concentration of Idelalisib can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
ImatinibThe metabolism of Daunorubicin can be decreased when combined with Imatinib.
ImatinibThe serum concentration of Imatinib can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
ImipramineThe serum concentration of Imipramine can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
ImipramineThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Imipramine.
IndacaterolThe serum concentration of Indacaterol can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
IndinavirThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Indinavir.
IndomethacinIndomethacin may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
IndomethacinThe serum concentration of Indomethacin can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
IndoprofenIndoprofen may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
IrinotecanThe serum concentration of Irinotecan can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
IsavuconazoniumThe metabolism of Daunorubicin can be decreased when combined with Isavuconazonium.
IsoxicamIsoxicam may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
IsradipineThe metabolism of Daunorubicin can be decreased when combined with Isradipine.
ItraconazoleThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Itraconazole.
IvacaftorThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Ivacaftor.
IvermectinThe serum concentration of Ivermectin can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
IvermectinThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Ivermectin.
KebuzoneKebuzone may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
KetamineThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Ketamine.
KetazolamThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
KetoconazoleThe serum concentration of Ketoconazole can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
KetoconazoleThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Ketoconazole.
KetoprofenKetoprofen may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
KetorolacKetorolac may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
LamivudineThe serum concentration of Lamivudine can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
LamotrigineThe serum concentration of Lamotrigine can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
LansoprazoleThe serum concentration of Lansoprazole can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
LansoprazoleThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Lansoprazole.
LapatinibThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Lapatinib.
LedipasvirThe serum concentration of Ledipasvir can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
LeflunomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Daunorubicin is combined with Leflunomide.
LeflunomideLeflunomide may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
LenalidomideThe serum concentration of Lenalidomide can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
LenvatinibThe serum concentration of Lenvatinib can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
LevetiracetamThe serum concentration of Levetiracetam can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
LevofloxacinThe serum concentration of Levofloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
LevofloxacinThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Levofloxacin.
LevomilnacipranThe serum concentration of Levomilnacipran can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
LevothyroxineThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Levothyroxine.
LidocaineThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Lidocaine.
LinagliptinThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
LiothyronineThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Liothyronine.
LiotrixThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Liotrix.
LisinoprilThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Lisinopril.
LomitapideThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Lomitapide.
LoperamideThe serum concentration of Loperamide can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
LoperamideThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Loperamide.
LopinavirThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Lopinavir.
LoratadineThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Loratadine.
LornoxicamLornoxicam may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
LosartanThe serum concentration of Losartan can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
LosartanThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Losartan.
LovastatinThe metabolism of Daunorubicin can be decreased when combined with Lovastatin.
LoxoprofenLoxoprofen may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
LuliconazoleThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Luliconazole.
LumacaftorThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Lumacaftor.
LumiracoxibLumiracoxib may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Magnesium salicylateMagnesium salicylate may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
MannitolMannitol may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Daunorubicin.
MannitolThe serum concentration of Mannitol can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
MaprotilineThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Maprotiline.
MasoprocolMasoprocol may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
MebendazoleThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Mebendazole.
MecamylamineDaunorubicin may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Mecamylamine.
Meclofenamic acidMeclofenamic acid may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Mefenamic acidMefenamic acid may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
MefloquineThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Mefloquine.
Megestrol acetateThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Megestrol acetate.
MeloxicamMeloxicam may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
MeprobamateThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Meprobamate.
MesalazineMesalazine may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
MetamizoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metamizole is combined with Daunorubicin.
MethadoneThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Methadone.
MethotrexateThe serum concentration of Methotrexate can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
MethylprednisoloneThe serum concentration of Methylprednisolone can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
MeticillinThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Meticillin.
MetoprololThe serum concentration of Metoprolol can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
MetoprololThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Metoprolol.
MexiletineThe metabolism of Daunorubicin can be decreased when combined with Mexiletine.
MezlocillinThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Mezlocillin.
MibefradilThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Mibefradil.
MiconazoleThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Miconazole.
MidazolamThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Midazolam.
MifepristoneThe metabolism of Daunorubicin can be decreased when combined with Mifepristone.
MirabegronThe serum concentration of Mirabegron can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
MitomycinThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Mitomycin.
MitotaneThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Mitotane.
MitoxantroneThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.
ModafinilThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Modafinil.
MorphineThe serum concentration of Morphine can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
MorphineThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Morphine.
Mycophenolate mofetilMycophenolate mofetil may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Mycophenolate mofetilThe serum concentration of Mycophenolate mofetil can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
Mycophenolic acidMycophenolic acid may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
NabumetoneNabumetone may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
NadololThe serum concentration of Nadolol can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
NafcillinThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Nafcillin.
NaftifineNaftifine may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
NaloxegolThe serum concentration of Naloxegol can be increased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
NaloxoneThe serum concentration of Naloxone can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
NaltrexoneThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Naltrexone.
NaproxenNaproxen may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
NaringeninThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Naringenin.
NatalizumabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Daunorubicin is combined with Natalizumab.
NCX 4016NCX 4016 may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
NefazodoneThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Nefazodone.
NelfinavirThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Nelfinavir.
NeostigmineThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Neostigmine.
NepafenacNepafenac may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
NetupitantThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Netupitant.
NevirapineThe metabolism of Daunorubicin can be decreased when combined with Nevirapine.
NicardipineThe serum concentration of Nicardipine can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
NicardipineThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Nicardipine.
NifedipineThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Nifedipine.
Niflumic AcidNiflumic Acid may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
NilotinibThe metabolism of Daunorubicin can be decreased when combined with Nilotinib.
NilotinibThe serum concentration of Nilotinib can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
NimesulideNimesulide may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
NintedanibThe serum concentration of Nintedanib can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
NisoldipineThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Nisoldipine.
NitrazepamThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Nitrazepam.
NitrendipineThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Nitrendipine.
NizatidineThe serum concentration of Nizatidine can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
NorethisteroneThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Norethisterone.
OlanzapineThe serum concentration of Olanzapine can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
OlaparibThe metabolism of Daunorubicin can be decreased when combined with Olaparib.
OlopatadineOlopatadine may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
OlsalazineOlsalazine may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
OmbitasvirThe serum concentration of Ombitasvir can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
OmeprazoleThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Omeprazole.
OrgoteinOrgotein may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
OsimertinibThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Osimertinib.
OsimertinibThe serum concentration of Osimertinib can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
OuabainOuabain may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Daunorubicin.
OuabainThe serum concentration of Ouabain can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
OxacillinThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Oxacillin.
OxaprozinOxaprozin may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
OxyphenbutazoneOxyphenbutazone may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
P-NitrophenolThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with P-Nitrophenol.
PaclitaxelThe serum concentration of Paclitaxel can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
PaclitaxelThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Paclitaxel.
PalbociclibThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Palbociclib.
Palmitic AcidThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Palmitic Acid.
PamidronateDaunorubicin may increase the hypocalcemic activities of Pamidronate.
PanobinostatThe serum concentration of Panobinostat can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
PantoprazoleThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Pantoprazole.
ParecoxibParecoxib may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
ParoxetineThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Paroxetine.
PazopanibThe serum concentration of Pazopanib can be increased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
Peginterferon alfa-2bThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Peginterferon alfa-2b.
PentobarbitalThe metabolism of Daunorubicin can be increased when combined with Pentobarbital.
PerindoprilThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.
PhenobarbitalThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.
PhenoxymethylpenicillinThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Phenoxymethylpenicillin.
PhenylbutazonePhenylbutazone may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
PhenytoinThe metabolism of Daunorubicin can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
PhenytoinThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
PimecrolimusThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pimecrolimus is combined with Daunorubicin.
PimozideThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Pimozide.
PiperacillinThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Piperacillin.
PiretanideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Piretanide is combined with Daunorubicin.
PirfenidonePirfenidone may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
PiroxicamPiroxicam may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
PitavastatinThe serum concentration of Pitavastatin can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
PivampicillinThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Pivampicillin.
PivmecillinamThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Pivmecillinam.
Platelet Activating FactorThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Platelet Activating Factor.
PomalidomideThe serum concentration of Pomalidomide can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
PonatinibThe serum concentration of Ponatinib can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
PonatinibThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Ponatinib.
PosaconazoleThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Posaconazole.
PravastatinThe serum concentration of Pravastatin can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
PravastatinThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Pravastatin.
PrazosinThe serum concentration of Prazosin can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
PrazosinThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Prazosin.
PrednisoloneThe serum concentration of Prednisolone can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
PrednisoneThe serum concentration of Prednisone can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
PrednisoneThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Prednisone.
PrimidoneThe metabolism of Daunorubicin can be increased when combined with Primidone.
ProbenecidThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Probenecid.
Procaine benzylpenicillinThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Procaine benzylpenicillin.
ProgesteroneThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Progesterone.
PromethazineThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Promethazine.
PropacetamolPropacetamol may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
PropafenoneThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Propafenone.
PropranololThe serum concentration of Propranolol can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
PropranololThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Propranolol.
ProtriptylineThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Protriptyline.
PrucaloprideThe serum concentration of Prucalopride can be increased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
PTC299PTC299 may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
QuercetinThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Quercetin.
QuetiapineThe serum concentration of Quetiapine can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
QuinacrineThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Quinacrine.
QuinidineThe serum concentration of Quinidine can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
QuinidineThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Quinidine.
QuinineThe serum concentration of Quinine can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
QuinineThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Quinine.
Rabies vaccineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Daunorubicin is combined with Rabies vaccine.
RanitidineThe serum concentration of Ranitidine can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
RanitidineThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Ranitidine.
RanolazineThe serum concentration of Ranolazine can be increased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
ReboxetineThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Reboxetine.
RegorafenibThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Regorafenib.
ReserpineThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Reserpine.
ResveratrolResveratrol may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
RifabutinThe metabolism of Daunorubicin can be increased when combined with Rifabutin.
RifampicinThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Rifampicin.
RifapentineThe metabolism of Daunorubicin can be increased when combined with Rifapentine.
RifaximinThe serum concentration of Rifaximin can be increased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
RilpivirineThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Rilpivirine.
RisedronateDaunorubicin may increase the hypocalcemic activities of Risedronate.
RisperidoneThe serum concentration of Risperidone can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
RitonavirThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
RivaroxabanThe serum concentration of Rivaroxaban can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
RofecoxibRofecoxib may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
RoflumilastRoflumilast may increase the immunosuppressive activities of Daunorubicin.
RolapitantThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Rolapitant.
RomidepsinThe serum concentration of Romidepsin can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
RopiniroleThe metabolism of Daunorubicin can be decreased when combined with Ropinirole.
SalicylamideSalicylamide may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Salicylic acidSalicylic acid may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Salicylic acidThe serum concentration of Salicylic acid can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
SalsalateSalsalate may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
SaquinavirThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
ScopolamineThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Scopolamine.
SelegilineThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Selegiline.
SelexipagThe serum concentration of Selexipag can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
SeratrodastSeratrodast may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
SertralineThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Sertraline.
SildenafilThe metabolism of Daunorubicin can be decreased when combined with Sildenafil.
SilodosinThe serum concentration of Silodosin can be increased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
SiltuximabThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Siltuximab.
SimeprevirThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Simeprevir.
SimeprevirThe serum concentration of Simeprevir can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
SimvastatinThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Simvastatin.
Sipuleucel-TThe therapeutic efficacy of Sipuleucel-T can be decreased when used in combination with Daunorubicin.
SirolimusThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Sirolimus.
SitagliptinThe serum concentration of Sitagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
SofosbuvirThe serum concentration of Sofosbuvir can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
SorafenibThe serum concentration of Sorafenib can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
SorafenibThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Sorafenib.
SparfloxacinThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
SphingosineThe serum concentration of Sphingosine can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
SpironolactoneThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Spironolactone.
SRT501SRT501 may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
St. John's WortThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with St. John's Wort.
StaurosporineThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Staurosporine.
StiripentolThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Stiripentol.
StreptozocinThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Streptozocin.
SulbactamThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Sulbactam.
SulfasalazineSulfasalazine may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
SulfinpyrazoneThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Sulfinpyrazone.
SulfisoxazoleThe metabolism of Daunorubicin can be decreased when combined with Sulfisoxazole.
SulindacSulindac may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
SumatriptanThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Sumatriptan.
SunitinibThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Sunitinib.
SuprofenSuprofen may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
TacrineThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Tacrine.
TacrolimusThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tacrolimus is combined with Daunorubicin.
TacrolimusThe serum concentration of Tacrolimus can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
TamoxifenThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Tamoxifen.
Taurocholic AcidThe serum concentration of Taurocholic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
Taurocholic AcidThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Taurocholic Acid.
Technetium Tc-99m MedronateDaunorubicin may increase the hypocalcemic activities of Technetium Tc-99m Medronate.
Technetium Tc-99m sestamibiThe serum concentration of Technetium Tc-99m sestamibi can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
TelaprevirThe metabolism of Daunorubicin can be decreased when combined with Telaprevir.
TelaprevirThe serum concentration of Telaprevir can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
TelithromycinThe metabolism of Daunorubicin can be decreased when combined with Telithromycin.
TelmisartanThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Telmisartan.
TemsirolimusThe serum concentration of Temsirolimus can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
TemsirolimusThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Temsirolimus.
TenofovirThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Tenofovir.
TenoxicamTenoxicam may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
TepoxalinTepoxalin may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
TerazosinThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Terazosin.
TerfenadineThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Terfenadine.
TeriflunomideThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Teriflunomide.
TesmilifeneThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Tesmilifene.
TestosteroneThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Testosterone.
TheophyllineThe metabolism of Daunorubicin can be decreased when combined with Theophylline.
Tiaprofenic acidTiaprofenic acid may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
TicagrelorThe serum concentration of Ticagrelor can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
TicagrelorThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Ticagrelor.
TicarcillinThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Ticarcillin.
TiclopidineThe metabolism of Daunorubicin can be decreased when combined with Ticlopidine.
TiludronateDaunorubicin may increase the hypocalcemic activities of Tiludronate.
TimololThe serum concentration of Timolol can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
TocilizumabThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Tocilizumab.
TofacitinibDaunorubicin may increase the immunosuppressive activities of Tofacitinib.
Tolfenamic AcidTolfenamic Acid may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
TolmetinTolmetin may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
TolvaptanThe serum concentration of Tolvaptan can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
TolvaptanThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Tolvaptan.
TopotecanThe serum concentration of Topotecan can be increased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
TorasemideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Torasemide is combined with Daunorubicin.
ToremifeneThe serum concentration of Toremifene can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
TranilastTranilast may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
TrastuzumabTrastuzumab may increase the neutropenic activities of Daunorubicin.
Trastuzumab emtansineThe serum concentration of Trastuzumab emtansine can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
TrazodoneThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Trazodone.
TrifluoperazineThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Trifluoperazine.
TriflupromazineThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Triflupromazine.
TrimethoprimThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Trimethoprim.
TrimipramineThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Trimipramine.
Trisalicylate-cholineTrisalicylate-choline may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
TroleandomycinThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Troleandomycin.
UlipristalThe serum concentration of Ulipristal can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
UmeclidiniumThe serum concentration of Umeclidinium can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
ValdecoxibValdecoxib may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
VancomycinVancomycin may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Daunorubicin.
VecuroniumThe serum concentration of Vecuronium can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
VemurafenibThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Vemurafenib.
VenlafaxineThe metabolism of Daunorubicin can be decreased when combined with Venlafaxine.
VenlafaxineThe serum concentration of Venlafaxine can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
VerapamilThe metabolism of Daunorubicin can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.
VerapamilThe serum concentration of Verapamil can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
VinblastineThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Vinblastine.
VincristineThe serum concentration of Vincristine can be increased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
VincristineThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Vincristine.
VinorelbineThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Vinorelbine.
VismodegibThe serum concentration of Vismodegib can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
VoriconazoleThe metabolism of Daunorubicin can be decreased when combined with Voriconazole.
ZaltoprofenZaltoprofen may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
ZidovudineThe serum concentration of Zidovudine can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
ZileutonZileuton may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
ZimelidineThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Zimelidine.
ZiprasidoneThe metabolism of Daunorubicin can be decreased when combined with Ziprasidone.
Zoledronic acidDaunorubicin may increase the hypocalcemic activities of Zoledronic acid.
ZomepiracZomepirac may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

1. DNA
Kind
Nucleotide
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
intercalation
General Function:
Used for biological information storage.
Specific Function:
DNA contains the instructions needed for an organism to develop, survive and reproduce.
Molecular Weight:
2.15 x 1012 Da
References
  1. Aubel-Sadron G, Londos-Gagliardi D: Daunorubicin and doxorubicin, anthracycline antibiotics, a physicochemical and biological review. Biochimie. 1984 May;66(5):333-52. [PubMed:6380596 ]
  2. Zunino F, Capranico G: DNA topoisomerase II as the primary target of anti-tumor anthracyclines. Anticancer Drug Des. 1990 Nov;5(4):307-17. [PubMed:1963303 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Ubiquitin binding
Specific Function:
Control of topological states of DNA by transient breakage and subsequent rejoining of DNA strands. Topoisomerase II makes double-strand breaks. Essential during mitosis and meiosis for proper segregation of daughter chromosomes. May play a role in regulating the period length of ARNTL/BMAL1 transcriptional oscillation (By similarity).
Gene Name:
TOP2A
Uniprot ID:
P11388
Molecular Weight:
174383.88 Da
References
  1. Aubel-Sadron G, Londos-Gagliardi D: Daunorubicin and doxorubicin, anthracycline antibiotics, a physicochemical and biological review. Biochimie. 1984 May;66(5):333-52. [PubMed:6380596 ]
  2. Zunino F, Capranico G: DNA topoisomerase II as the primary target of anti-tumor anthracyclines. Anticancer Drug Des. 1990 Nov;5(4):307-17. [PubMed:1963303 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Protein kinase c binding
Specific Function:
Control of topological states of DNA by transient breakage and subsequent rejoining of DNA strands. Topoisomerase II makes double-strand breaks.
Gene Name:
TOP2B
Uniprot ID:
Q02880
Molecular Weight:
183265.825 Da
References
  1. Aubel-Sadron G, Londos-Gagliardi D: Daunorubicin and doxorubicin, anthracycline antibiotics, a physicochemical and biological review. Biochimie. 1984 May;66(5):333-52. [PubMed:6380596 ]
  2. Zunino F, Capranico G: DNA topoisomerase II as the primary target of anti-tumor anthracyclines. Anticancer Drug Des. 1990 Nov;5(4):307-17. [PubMed:1963303 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiot...
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inducer
General Function:
Oxygen binding
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID:
P20815
Molecular Weight:
57108.065 Da
References
  1. Wang T, Chen FY, Han JY, Shao NX, Ou-Yuang RR: [Study of CYP3A5 in drug resistance mechanisms in acute leukemia]. Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. 2003 Jun;24(6):286-9. [PubMed:12859862 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N...
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular Weight:
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Vitamin d 24-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP1A1
Uniprot ID:
P04798
Molecular Weight:
58164.815 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Oxygen binding
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, retinoid and xenobiotics. Preferentially oxidizes 17beta-estradiol to the carcinogenic 4-hydroxy derivative, and a variety of procarcinogenic compou...
Gene Name:
CYP1B1
Uniprot ID:
Q16678
Molecular Weight:
60845.33 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Xanthine oxidase activity
Specific Function:
Key enzyme in purine degradation. Catalyzes the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine. Catalyzes the oxidation of xanthine to uric acid. Contributes to the generation of reactive oxygen species. Has also low oxidase activity towards aldehydes (in vitro).
Gene Name:
XDH
Uniprot ID:
P47989
Molecular Weight:
146422.99 Da
References
  1. Yee SB, Pritsos CA: Comparison of oxygen radical generation from the reductive activation of doxorubicin, streptonigrin, and menadione by xanthine oxidase and xanthine dehydrogenase. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1997 Nov 15;347(2):235-41. [PubMed:9367530 ]
  2. Yee SB, Pritsos CA: Reductive activation of doxorubicin by xanthine dehydrogenase from EMT6 mouse mammary carcinoma tumors. Chem Biol Interact. 1997 May 2;104(2-3):87-101. [PubMed:9212777 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, nad(p)h as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function:
This enzyme is required for electron transfer from NADP to cytochrome P450 in microsomes. It can also provide electron transfer to heme oxygenase and cytochrome B5.
Gene Name:
POR
Uniprot ID:
P16435
Molecular Weight:
76689.12 Da
References
  1. Bachur NR, Gordon SL, Gee MV, Kon H: NADPH cytochrome P-450 reductase activation of quinone anticancer agents to free radicals. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979 Feb;76(2):954-7. [PubMed:34156 ]
  2. Di Re J, Lee C, Riddick DS: Lack of mechanism-based inactivation of rat hepatic microsomal cytochromes P450 by doxorubicin. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1999 Aug;77(8):589-97. [PubMed:10543722 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitorinducer
General Function:
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular Weight:
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Zhou G, Kuo MT: Wild-type p53-mediated induction of rat mdr1b expression by the anticancer drug daunorubicin. J Biol Chem. 1998 Jun 19;273(25):15387-94. [PubMed:9624121 ]
  2. Gao J, Murase O, Schowen RL, Aube J, Borchardt RT: A functional assay for quantitation of the apparent affinities of ligands of P-glycoprotein in Caco-2 cells. Pharm Res. 2001 Feb;18(2):171-6. [PubMed:11405287 ]
  3. Polli JW, Wring SA, Humphreys JE, Huang L, Morgan JB, Webster LO, Serabjit-Singh CS: Rational use of in vitro P-glycoprotein assays in drug discovery. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Nov;299(2):620-8. [PubMed:11602674 ]
  4. Tang F, Horie K, Borchardt RT: Are MDCK cells transfected with the human MDR1 gene a good model of the human intestinal mucosa? Pharm Res. 2002 Jun;19(6):765-72. [PubMed:12134945 ]
  5. Takara K, Tanigawara Y, Komada F, Nishiguchi K, Sakaeda T, Okumura K: Cellular pharmacokinetic aspects of reversal effect of itraconazole on P-glycoprotein-mediated resistance of anticancer drugs. Biol Pharm Bull. 1999 Dec;22(12):1355-9. [PubMed:10746169 ]
  6. Tang F, Ouyang H, Yang JZ, Borchardt RT: Bidirectional transport of rhodamine 123 and Hoechst 33342, fluorescence probes of the binding sites on P-glycoprotein, across MDCK-MDR1 cell monolayers. J Pharm Sci. 2004 May;93(5):1185-94. [PubMed:15067695 ]
  7. Adachi Y, Suzuki H, Sugiyama Y: Comparative studies on in vitro methods for evaluating in vivo function of MDR1 P-glycoprotein. Pharm Res. 2001 Dec;18(12):1660-8. [PubMed:11785684 ]
  8. Lecureur V, Sun D, Hargrove P, Schuetz EG, Kim RB, Lan LB, Schuetz JD: Cloning and expression of murine sister of P-glycoprotein reveals a more discriminating transporter than MDR1/P-glycoprotein. Mol Pharmacol. 2000 Jan;57(1):24-35. [PubMed:10617675 ]
  9. Takara K, Sakaeda T, Kakumoto M, Tanigawara Y, Kobayashi H, Okumura K, Ohnishi N, Yokoyama T: Effects of alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist doxazosin on MDR1-mediated multidrug resistance and transcellular transport. Oncol Res. 2009;17(11-12):527-33. [PubMed:19806783 ]
  10. Borska S, Sopel M, Chmielewska M, Zabel M, Dziegiel P: Quercetin as a potential modulator of P-glycoprotein expression and function in cells of human pancreatic carcinoma line resistant to daunorubicin. Molecules. 2010 Feb 9;15(2):857-70. doi: 10.3390/molecules15020857. [PubMed:20335952 ]
  11. Perez-Victoria JM, Chiquero MJ, Conseil G, Dayan G, Di Pietro A, Barron D, Castanys S, Gamarro F: Correlation between the affinity of flavonoids binding to the cytosolic site of Leishmania tropica multidrug transporter and their efficiency to revert parasite resistance to daunomycin. Biochemistry. 1999 Feb 9;38(6):1736-43. [PubMed:10026252 ]
  12. Pallis M, Turzanski J, Harrison G, Wheatley K, Langabeer S, Burnett AK, Russell NH: Use of standardized flow cytometric determinants of multidrug resistance to analyse response to remission induction chemotherapy in patients with acute myeloblastic leukaemia. Br J Haematol. 1999 Feb;104(2):307-12. [PubMed:10050713 ]
  13. Chiodini B, Bassan R, Barbui T: Cellular uptake and antiproliferative effects of therapeutic concentrations of idarubicin or daunorubicin and their alcohol metabolites, with or without cyclosporin A, in MDR1+ human leukemic cells. Leuk Lymphoma. 1999 May;33(5-6):485-97. [PubMed:10342576 ]
  14. Romsicki Y, Sharom FJ: The membrane lipid environment modulates drug interactions with the P-glycoprotein multidrug transporter. Biochemistry. 1999 May 25;38(21):6887-96. [PubMed:10346910 ]
  15. Hiessbock R, Wolf C, Richter E, Hitzler M, Chiba P, Kratzel M, Ecker G: Synthesis and in vitro multidrug resistance modulating activity of a series of dihydrobenzopyrans and tetrahydroquinolines. J Med Chem. 1999 Jun 3;42(11):1921-6. [PubMed:10354400 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates export of organic anions and drugs from the cytoplasm. Mediates ATP-dependent transport of glutathione and glutathione conjugates, leukotriene C4, estradiol-17-beta-o-glucuronide, methotrexate, antiviral drugs and other xenobiotics. Confers resistance to anticancer drugs. Hydrolyzes ATP with low efficiency.
Gene Name:
ABCC1
Uniprot ID:
P33527
Molecular Weight:
171589.5 Da
References
  1. Loe DW, Almquist KC, Cole SP, Deeley RG: ATP-dependent 17 beta-estradiol 17-(beta-D-glucuronide) transport by multidrug resistance protein (MRP). Inhibition by cholestatic steroids. J Biol Chem. 1996 Apr 19;271(16):9683-9. [PubMed:8621644 ]
  2. Heijn M, Hooijberg JH, Scheffer GL, Szabo G, Westerhoff HV, Lankelma J: Anthracyclines modulate multidrug resistance protein (MRP) mediated organic anion transport. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1997 May 22;1326(1):12-22. [PubMed:9188796 ]
  3. Priebe W, Krawczyk M, Kuo MT, Yamane Y, Savaraj N, Ishikawa T: Doxorubicin- and daunorubicin-glutathione conjugates, but not unconjugated drugs, competitively inhibit leukotriene C4 transport mediated by MRP/GS-X pump. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998 Jun 29;247(3):859-63. [PubMed:9647783 ]
  4. Godinot N, Iversen PW, Tabas L, Xia X, Williams DC, Dantzig AH, Perry WL 3rd: Cloning and functional characterization of the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1/ABCC1) from the cynomolgus monkey. Mol Cancer Ther. 2003 Mar;2(3):307-16. [PubMed:12657726 ]
  5. Nunoya K, Grant CE, Zhang D, Cole SP, Deeley RG: Molecular cloning and pharmacological characterization of rat multidrug resistance protein 1 (mrp1). Drug Metab Dispos. 2003 Aug;31(8):1016-26. [PubMed:12867490 ]
  6. Versantvoort CH, Broxterman HJ, Lankelma J, Feller N, Pinedo HM: Competitive inhibition by genistein and ATP dependence of daunorubicin transport in intact MRP overexpressing human small cell lung cancer cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 1994 Sep 15;48(6):1129-36. [PubMed:7945406 ]
  7. Yazaki K, Yamanaka N, Masuno T, Konagai S, Shitan N, Kaneko S, Ueda K, Sato F: Heterologous expression of a mammalian ABC transporter in plant and its application to phytoremediation. Plant Mol Biol. 2006 Jun;61(3):491-503. [PubMed:16830181 ]
  8. Stride BD, Grant CE, Loe DW, Hipfner DR, Cole SP, Deeley RG: Pharmacological characterization of the murine and human orthologs of multidrug-resistance protein in transfected human embryonic kidney cells. Mol Pharmacol. 1997 Sep;52(3):344-53. [PubMed:9281595 ]
  9. Nabekura T, Yamaki T, Hiroi T, Ueno K, Kitagawa S: Inhibition of anticancer drug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein by rosemary phytochemicals. Pharmacol Res. 2010 Mar;61(3):259-63. doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2009.11.010. Epub 2009 Nov 26. [PubMed:19944162 ]
  10. Renes J, de Vries EG, Nienhuis EF, Jansen PL, Muller M: ATP- and glutathione-dependent transport of chemotherapeutic drugs by the multidrug resistance protein MRP1. Br J Pharmacol. 1999 Feb;126(3):681-8. [PubMed:10188979 ]
  11. Hooijberg JH, Pinedo HM, Vrasdonk C, Priebe W, Lankelma J, Broxterman HJ: The effect of glutathione on the ATPase activity of MRP1 in its natural membranes. FEBS Lett. 2000 Mar 3;469(1):47-51. [PubMed:10708754 ]
  12. Marbeuf-Gueye C, Salerno M, Quidu P, Garnier-Suillerot A: Inhibition of the P-glycoprotein- and multidrug resistance protein-mediated efflux of anthracyclines and calceinacetoxymethyl ester by PAK-104P. Eur J Pharmacol. 2000 Mar 17;391(3):207-16. [PubMed:10729360 ]
  13. Evers R, Kool M, Smith AJ, van Deemter L, de Haas M, Borst P: Inhibitory effect of the reversal agents V-104, GF120918 and Pluronic L61 on MDR1 Pgp-, MRP1- and MRP2-mediated transport. Br J Cancer. 2000 Aug;83(3):366-74. [PubMed:10917553 ]
  14. Evers R, de Haas M, Sparidans R, Beijnen J, Wielinga PR, Lankelma J, Borst P: Vinblastine and sulfinpyrazone export by the multidrug resistance protein MRP2 is associated with glutathione export. Br J Cancer. 2000 Aug;83(3):375-83. [PubMed:10917554 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates hepatobiliary excretion of numerous organic anions. May function as a cellular cisplatin transporter.
Gene Name:
ABCC2
Uniprot ID:
Q92887
Molecular Weight:
174205.64 Da
References
  1. Tang F, Horie K, Borchardt RT: Are MDCK cells transfected with the human MRP2 gene a good model of the human intestinal mucosa? Pharm Res. 2002 Jun;19(6):773-9. [PubMed:12134946 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Quaternary ammonium group transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates tubular uptake of organic compounds from circulation. Mediates the influx of agmatine, dopamine, noradrenaline (norepinephrine), serotonin, choline, famotidine, ranitidine, histamin, creatinine, amantadine, memantine, acriflavine, 4-[4-(dimethylamino)-styryl]-N-methylpyridinium ASP, amiloride, metformin, N-1-methylnicotinamide (NMN), tetraethylammonium (TEA), 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridiniu...
Gene Name:
SLC22A2
Uniprot ID:
O15244
Molecular Weight:
62579.99 Da
References
  1. Pan BF, Sweet DH, Pritchard JB, Chen R, Nelson JA: A transfected cell model for the renal toxin transporter, rOCT2. Toxicol Sci. 1999 Feb;47(2):181-6. [PubMed:10220855 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Isoform 1: May participate directly in the active transport of drugs into subcellular organelles or influence drug distribution indirectly. Transports glutathione conjugates as leukotriene-c4 (LTC4) and N-ethylmaleimide S-glutathione (NEM-GS).Isoform 2: Inhibits TNF-alpha-mediated apoptosis through blocking one or more caspases.
Gene Name:
ABCC6
Uniprot ID:
O95255
Molecular Weight:
164904.81 Da
References
  1. Belinsky MG, Chen ZS, Shchaveleva I, Zeng H, Kruh GD: Characterization of the drug resistance and transport properties of multidrug resistance protein 6 (MRP6, ABCC6). Cancer Res. 2002 Nov 1;62(21):6172-7. [PubMed:12414644 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Involved in the ATP-dependent secretion of bile salts into the canaliculus of hepatocytes.
Gene Name:
ABCB11
Uniprot ID:
O95342
Molecular Weight:
146405.83 Da
References
  1. Wang EJ, Casciano CN, Clement RP, Johnson WW: Fluorescent substrates of sister-P-glycoprotein (BSEP) evaluated as markers of active transport and inhibition: evidence for contingent unequal binding sites. Pharm Res. 2003 Apr;20(4):537-44. [PubMed:12739759 ]
  2. Lecureur V, Sun D, Hargrove P, Schuetz EG, Kim RB, Lan LB, Schuetz JD: Cloning and expression of murine sister of P-glycoprotein reveals a more discriminating transporter than MDR1/P-glycoprotein. Mol Pharmacol. 2000 Jan;57(1):24-35. [PubMed:10617675 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Atpase activity, coupled to transmembrane movement of substances
Specific Function:
ATP-dependent transporter probably involved in cellular detoxification through lipophilic anion extrusion.
Gene Name:
ABCC10
Uniprot ID:
Q5T3U5
Molecular Weight:
161627.375 Da
References
  1. Hopper-Borge E, Xu X, Shen T, Shi Z, Chen ZS, Kruh GD: Human multidrug resistance protein 7 (ABCC10) is a resistance factor for nucleoside analogues and epothilone B. Cancer Res. 2009 Jan 1;69(1):178-84. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-1420. [PubMed:19118001 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function:
High-capacity urate exporter functioning in both renal and extrarenal urate excretion. Plays a role in porphyrin homeostasis as it is able to mediates the export of protoporhyrin IX (PPIX) both from mitochondria to cytosol and from cytosol to extracellular space, and cellular export of hemin, and heme. Xenobiotic transporter that may play an important role in the exclusion of xenobiotics from t...
Gene Name:
ABCG2
Uniprot ID:
Q9UNQ0
Molecular Weight:
72313.47 Da
References
  1. Janvilisri T, Venter H, Shahi S, Reuter G, Balakrishnan L, van Veen HW: Sterol transport by the human breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2) expressed in Lactococcus lactis. J Biol Chem. 2003 Jun 6;278(23):20645-51. Epub 2003 Mar 28. [PubMed:12668685 ]
  2. Ozvegy C, Litman T, Szakacs G, Nagy Z, Bates S, Varadi A, Sarkadi B: Functional characterization of the human multidrug transporter, ABCG2, expressed in insect cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001 Jul 6;285(1):111-7. [PubMed:11437380 ]
  3. Nakanishi T, Doyle LA, Hassel B, Wei Y, Bauer KS, Wu S, Pumplin DW, Fang HB, Ross DD: Functional characterization of human breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, ABCG2) expressed in the oocytes of Xenopus laevis. Mol Pharmacol. 2003 Dec;64(6):1452-62. [PubMed:14645676 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23