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Identification
NameProcaine
Accession NumberDB00721  (APRD00650)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DescriptionA local anesthetic of the ester type that has a slow onset and a short duration of action. It is mainly used for infiltration anesthesia, peripheral nerve block, and spinal block. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1016). [PubChem]
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
2-Diethylaminoethyl p-aminobenzoate
4-Aminobenzoic acid 2-diethylaminoethyl ester
beta-(Diethylamino)ethyl 4-aminobenzoate
beta-(Diethylamino)ethyl P-aminobenzoate
Novocaine
p-Aminobenzoic acid 2-diethylaminoethyl ester
Procaina
Procaine
Procainum
Vitamin H3
β-(diethylamino)ethyl 4-aminobenzoate
β-(diethylamino)ethyl p-aminobenzoate
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Novocain 20 mg/mlsolution2 %block/infiltrationHospira Healthcare Corporation2001-06-012012-08-03Canada
Novocain Liq 2%liquid2 %block/infiltrationSanofi Canada, Inc.1920-12-312001-08-10Canada
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
NovocainNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Procaine Hydrochloride
Thumb
  • InChI Key: HCBIBCJNVBAKAB-UHFFFAOYSA-N
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 272.129155633
  • Average Mass: 272.771
DBSALT000551
Categories
UNII4Z8Y51M438
CAS number59-46-1
WeightAverage: 236.3101
Monoisotopic: 236.152477894
Chemical FormulaC13H20N2O2
InChI KeyInChIKey=MFDFERRIHVXMIY-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C13H20N2O2/c1-3-15(4-2)9-10-17-13(16)11-5-7-12(14)8-6-11/h5-8H,3-4,9-10,14H2,1-2H3
IUPAC Name
2-(diethylamino)ethyl 4-aminobenzoate
SMILES
CCN(CC)CCOC(=O)C1=CC=C(N)C=C1
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as benzoic acid esters. These are ester derivatives of benzoic acid.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassBenzoic acids and derivatives
Direct ParentBenzoic acid esters
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Benzoate ester
  • Aminobenzoic acid or derivatives
  • Benzylether
  • Substituted aniline
  • Benzoyl
  • Aniline
  • Primary aromatic amine
  • Tertiary aliphatic amine
  • Tertiary amine
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationUsed as a local anesthetic primarily in oral surgery
PharmacodynamicsProcaine is an anesthetic agent indicated for production of local or regional anesthesia, particularly for oral surgery. Procaine (like cocaine) has the advantage of constricting blood vessels which reduces bleeding, unlike other local anesthetics like lidocaine. Procaine is an ester anesthetic. It is metabolized in the plasma by the enzyme pseudocholinesterase through hydrolysis into para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), which is then excreted by the kidneys into the urine.
Mechanism of actionProcaine acts mainly by inhibiting sodium influx through voltage gated sodium channels in the neuronal cell membrane of peripheral nerves. When the influx of sodium is interrupted, an action potential cannot arise and signal conduction is thus inhibited. The receptor site is thought to be located at the cytoplasmic (inner) portion of the sodium channel. Procaine has also been shown to bind or antagonize the function of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors as well as nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and the serotonin receptor-ion channel complex.
Related Articles
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism

Hydrolysis by plasma esterases to PABA

Route of eliminationWith normal kidney function, the drug is excreted rapidly by tubular excretion.
Half life7.7 minutes
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Procaine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00402
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9747
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9533
Caco-2 permeable+0.6291
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.587
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9492
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9884
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.684
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8646
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.6643
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6456
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.6308
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9312
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorInhibitor0.8932
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9294
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8308
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.7918
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.6165
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.6462
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9449
Rat acute toxicity2.5160 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8728
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.6234
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Eli lilly and co
  • Consolidated pharmaceutical group inc
  • King pharmaceuticals inc
  • Parke davis div warner lambert co
  • Pfizer laboratories div pfizer inc
  • Hospira inc
  • Abraxis pharmaceutical products
  • Bel mar laboratories inc
  • Elkins sinn div ah robins co inc
  • Gd searle llc
  • Miles laboratories inc
  • Watson laboratories inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Solutionblock/infiltration2 %
Liquidblock/infiltration2 %
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Novocain 10% ampul2.4USD ml
Novocain 1% ampul1.79USD ml
Procaine hcl crystals1.76USD g
Nesacaine-mpf 3% vial1.34USD ml
Nesacaine-mpf 2% vial1.28USD ml
Nesacaine 2% vial0.74USD ml
Nesacaine 1% vial0.72USD ml
Chloroprocaine 3% vial0.33USD ml
Chloroprocaine 2% vial0.26USD ml
Procaine hcl 2% vial0.15USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point61 °CPhysProp
water solubility9450 mg/L (at 30 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP2.14AVDEEF,A (1997)
logS-1.4ADME Research, USCD
pKa8.05 (at 15 °C)PERRIN,DD (1965)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility6.81 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.1ALOGPS
logP1.88ChemAxon
logS-1.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)8.96ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area55.56 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count7ChemAxon
Refractivity70.3 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability26.81 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-000i-9200000000-44eb49be9b2baedfebddView in MoNA
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceUS812554
General References
  1. Gentry CL, Lukas RJ: Local anesthetics noncompetitively inhibit function of four distinct nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Dec;299(3):1038-48. [PubMed:11714893 ]
External Links
ATC CodesS01HA05N01BA52N01BA02C05AD05
AHFS Codes
  • 24:04.04.04
  • 72:00.00
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (73.1 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
7-NitroindazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with 7-Nitroindazole.
AcepromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Acepromazine.
AceprometazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Aceprometazine.
adipiplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with adipiplon.
AgomelatineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Agomelatine.
AlfaxaloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Alfaxalone.
AlfentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Alfentanil.
AlphacetylmethadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Alphacetylmethadol.
AlprazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alprazolam is combined with Procaine.
AmisulprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Amisulpride.
AmitriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Amitriptyline.
AmobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Amobarbital.
AmoxapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Amoxapine.
AmperozideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Amperozide.
AripiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Aripiprazole.
ArticaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Articaine.
AsenapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Asenapine.
AzaperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Azaperone.
AzelastineProcaine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Azelastine.
AzelastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Azelastine is combined with Procaine.
BaclofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Baclofen.
BarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Barbital.
BenzocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Benzocaine.
Benzyl alcoholThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Benzyl alcohol.
BrexpiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Brexpiprazole.
BrimonidineBrimonidine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Procaine.
BrimonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Brimonidine.
BromazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Bromazepam.
BrompheniramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Brompheniramine.
BrotizolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Brotizolam.
BupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bupivacaine is combined with Procaine.
BuprenorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Buprenorphine.
BuspironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Buspirone is combined with Procaine.
ButabarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butabarbital is combined with Procaine.
ButacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Butacaine.
ButalbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Butalbital.
ButambenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Butamben.
ButethalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Butethal.
ButorphanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butorphanol is combined with Procaine.
CarbamazepineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carbamazepine is combined with Procaine.
CarbinoxamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Carbinoxamine.
CarfentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Carfentanil.
CarisoprodolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Carisoprodol.
CetirizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Cetirizine.
Chloral hydrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Chloral hydrate.
ChlordiazepoxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlordiazepoxide is combined with Procaine.
ChlormezanoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Chlormezanone.
ChloroprocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Chloroprocaine.
ChlorphenamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Chlorphenamine.
ChlorpromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorpromazine is combined with Procaine.
ChlorprothixeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Chlorprothixene.
ChlorzoxazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Chlorzoxazone.
CinchocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cinchocaine is combined with Procaine.
CitalopramThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Citalopram.
ClemastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Clemastine.
ClidiniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Clidinium.
ClobazamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Clobazam.
clomethiazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with clomethiazole.
ClomipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Clomipramine.
ClonazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Clonazepam.
ClonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Clonidine.
ClorazepateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clorazepate is combined with Procaine.
ClozapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clozapine is combined with Procaine.
CocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Cocaine.
CodeineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Codeine is combined with Procaine.
CyclizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Cyclizine.
CyclobenzaprineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Cyclobenzaprine.
CyproheptadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Cyproheptadine.
DantroleneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Dantrolene.
DapiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dapiprazole is combined with Procaine.
DapoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Dapoxetine.
deramciclaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with deramciclane.
DesfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Desflurane.
DesipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Desipramine.
DesloratadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Desloratadine.
DetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Detomidine.
DexbrompheniramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Dexbrompheniramine.
DexmedetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dexmedetomidine is combined with Procaine.
DextromoramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Dextromoramide.
DextropropoxypheneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dextropropoxyphene is combined with Procaine.
DezocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Dezocine.
DiazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Diazepam.
DifenoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Difenoxin.
DihydrocodeineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Dihydrocodeine.
DihydroetorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Dihydroetorphine.
DihydromorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Dihydromorphine.
DimenhydrinateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Dimenhydrinate.
DiphenhydramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Diphenhydramine.
DiphenoxylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Diphenoxylate.
DoramectinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Doramectin.
DoxepinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Doxepin.
DoxylamineDoxylamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Procaine.
DoxylamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Doxylamine.
DPDPEThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with DPDPE.
DronabinolDronabinol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Procaine.
DroperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Droperidol is combined with Procaine.
DrotebanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Drotebanol.
DyclonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dyclonine is combined with Procaine.
EcgonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Ecgonine.
ECGONINE METHYL ESTERThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with ECGONINE METHYL ESTER.
EfavirenzThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Efavirenz.
EnfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Procaine.
EntacaponeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Entacapone.
EscitalopramThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Escitalopram.
EstazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Estazolam.
EszopicloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Eszopiclone is combined with Procaine.
EthanolProcaine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ethanol.
EthanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethanol is combined with Procaine.
EthchlorvynolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethchlorvynol is combined with Procaine.
EthosuximideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Ethosuximide.
EthotoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Ethotoin.
Ethyl carbamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Ethyl carbamate.
Ethyl loflazepateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Ethyl loflazepate.
EthylmorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Ethylmorphine.
EtidocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Etidocaine.
EtifoxineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Etifoxine.
EtizolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Etizolam.
EtomidateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etomidate is combined with Procaine.
EtoperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Etoperidone.
EtorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Etorphine.
EzogabineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Ezogabine.
FelbamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Felbamate.
FencamfamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Fencamfamine.
FenfluramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Fenfluramine.
FentanylThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Fentanyl.
FexofenadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Fexofenadine.
FlibanserinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Flibanserin.
FludiazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Fludiazepam.
FlunarizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Flunarizine.
FlunitrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Flunitrazepam.
FluoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Fluoxetine.
FlupentixolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Flupentixol.
FluphenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluphenazine is combined with Procaine.
FlurazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flurazepam is combined with Procaine.
FluspirileneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Fluspirilene.
Fluticasone PropionateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Fluticasone Propionate.
FluvoxamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Fluvoxamine.
FosphenytoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Fosphenytoin.
FospropofolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Fospropofol.
GabapentinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Gabapentin.
gabapentin enacarbilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with gabapentin enacarbil.
Gamma Hydroxybutyric AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
GlutethimideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Glutethimide.
GuanfacineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Guanfacine.
HalazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Halazepam.
HaloperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Haloperidol is combined with Procaine.
HalothaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Halothane.
HeroinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Heroin.
HexobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Hexobarbital.
HyaluronidaseThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hyaluronidase is combined with Procaine.
HydrocodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Hydrocodone.
HydromorphoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hydromorphone is combined with Procaine.
HydroxyzineHydroxyzine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Procaine.
HydroxyzineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Hydroxyzine.
IloperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Iloperidone.
ImipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Imipramine.
IndalpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Indalpine.
IsofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Isoflurane.
KetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Ketamine.
KetazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Ketazolam.
KetobemidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Ketobemidone.
LamotrigineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Lamotrigine.
LevetiracetamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Levetiracetam.
LevobupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Levobupivacaine.
LevocabastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Levocabastine.
LevocetirizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Levocetirizine.
LevodopaThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Levodopa.
Levomethadyl AcetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Levomethadyl Acetate.
LevomilnacipranThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Levomilnacipran.
LevorphanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Levorphanol.
LidocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lidocaine is combined with Procaine.
LithiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Lithium.
LofentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Lofentanil.
LoratadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Loratadine.
LorazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lorazepam is combined with Procaine.
LoxapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Loxapine is combined with Procaine.
Lu AA21004The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Lu AA21004.
LurasidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Lurasidone.
Magnesium SulfateMagnesium Sulfate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Procaine.
Magnesium SulfateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Magnesium Sulfate.
MaprotilineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Maprotiline.
MeclizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Meclizine.
MedetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Medetomidine.
MelatoninThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Melatonin.
MelperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Melperone.
MepivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Mepivacaine.
MeprobamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Meprobamate is combined with Procaine.
MesoridazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Mesoridazine.
MetaxaloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Metaxalone.
MethadoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methadone is combined with Procaine.
Methadyl AcetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Methadyl Acetate.
MethapyrileneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Methapyrilene.
MethaqualoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Methaqualone.
MethocarbamolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Methocarbamol.
MethohexitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methohexital is combined with Procaine.
MethotrimeprazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Methotrimeprazine.
MethoxyfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Methoxyflurane.
MethsuximideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Methsuximide.
MethylphenobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Methylphenobarbital.
MetyrosineProcaine may increase the sedative activities of Metyrosine.
MidazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Midazolam is combined with Procaine.
MilnacipranThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Milnacipran.
MinocyclineMinocycline may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Procaine.
MirtazapineProcaine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Mirtazapine.
MirtazapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mirtazapine is combined with Procaine.
MolindoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Molindone.
MorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Morphine is combined with Procaine.
NabiloneNabilone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Procaine.
NabiloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Nabilone.
NalbuphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Nalbuphine.
NitrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Nitrazepam.
Nitrous oxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Nitrous oxide.
NormethadoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Normethadone.
NortriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Nortriptyline.
OlanzapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Olanzapine.
OlopatadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Olopatadine.
OndansetronThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Ondansetron.
OpiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Opium.
OrphenadrineProcaine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Orphenadrine.
OrphenadrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Orphenadrine is combined with Procaine.
OsanetantThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Osanetant.
OxazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Oxazepam.
OxprenololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Oxprenolol.
OxybuprocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Oxybuprocaine.
OxycodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxycodone is combined with Procaine.
OxymorphoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Oxymorphone.
PaliperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Paliperidone.
ParaldehydeProcaine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Paraldehyde.
ParaldehydeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Paraldehyde is combined with Procaine.
ParoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Paroxetine.
PentazocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentazocine is combined with Procaine.
PentobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentobarbital is combined with Procaine.
PerampanelThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Perampanel.
PerospironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Perospirone.
PerphenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Perphenazine.
PethidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pethidine is combined with Procaine.
PhenobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Phenobarbital.
PhenoxyethanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Phenoxyethanol.
PhenytoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Phenytoin.
PimozideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Pimozide.
PipamperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Pipamperone.
PipotiazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Pipotiazine.
PizotifenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Pizotifen.
PomalidomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Pomalidomide.
PramipexoleProcaine may increase the sedative activities of Pramipexole.
PramocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Pramocaine.
PrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Prazepam.
PregabalinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pregabalin is combined with Procaine.
PrilocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Prilocaine.
PrimidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Primidone.
ProchlorperazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prochlorperazine is combined with Procaine.
PromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Promazine is combined with Procaine.
PromethazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Promethazine.
ProparacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Proparacaine.
PropofolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Propofol.
PropoxycaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Propoxycaine.
ProtriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Protriptyline.
PSD502The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with PSD502.
QuazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Quazepam.
QuetiapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Quetiapine.
RamelteonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Ramelteon.
RemifentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Remifentanil.
RemoxiprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Remoxipride is combined with Procaine.
ReserpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Reserpine is combined with Procaine.
RisperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Risperidone.
RomifidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Romifidine.
RopiniroleProcaine may increase the sedative activities of Ropinirole.
RopivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ropivacaine is combined with Procaine.
RotigotineProcaine may increase the sedative activities of Rotigotine.
RufinamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Procaine.
S-EthylisothioureaThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with S-Ethylisothiourea.
ScopolamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Scopolamine.
SecobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Secobarbital is combined with Procaine.
SertindoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Sertindole.
SertralineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Sertraline.
SevofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Sevoflurane.
Sodium oxybateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Sodium oxybate.
StiripentolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Stiripentol.
SufentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sufentanil is combined with Procaine.
SulfadiazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Sulfadiazine can be decreased when used in combination with Procaine.
SulfamethoxazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Sulfamethoxazole can be decreased when used in combination with Procaine.
SulfisoxazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Sulfisoxazole can be decreased when used in combination with Procaine.
SulpirideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sulpiride is combined with Procaine.
SuvorexantThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Suvorexant.
TapentadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Tapentadol.
TasimelteonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Tasimelteon.
Technetium Tc-99m tilmanoceptProcaine may decrease effectiveness of Technetium Tc-99m tilmanocept as a diagnostic agent.
TemazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Temazepam is combined with Procaine.
TetrabenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Tetrabenazine.
TetracaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Tetracaine.
TetrodotoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Tetrodotoxin.
ThalidomideProcaine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Thalidomide.
ThalidomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thalidomide is combined with Procaine.
ThiamylalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Thiamylal.
ThiopentalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thiopental is combined with Procaine.
ThioridazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thioridazine is combined with Procaine.
ThiothixeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Thiothixene.
TiagabineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Tiagabine.
TiletamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Tiletamine.
TizanidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Tizanidine.
TolcaponeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Tolcapone.
TopiramateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Topiramate.
TramadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Procaine.
Trans-2-PhenylcyclopropylamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Trans-2-Phenylcyclopropylamine.
TranylcypromineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Tranylcypromine.
TrazodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Trazodone.
TriazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Triazolam.
TrifluoperazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Trifluoperazine.
TriflupromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Triflupromazine is combined with Procaine.
TrimipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Trimipramine.
TriprolidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Triprolidine.
Valproic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Procaine.
VigabatrinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Vigabatrin.
VilazodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Vilazodone.
VortioxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Vortioxetine.
XylazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Xylazine.
ZaleplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Zaleplon.
ZiconotideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Ziconotide.
ZimelidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Zimelidine.
ZiprasidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ziprasidone is combined with Procaine.
ZolazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Zolazepam.
ZolpidemThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zolpidem is combined with Procaine.
ZonisamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Zonisamide.
ZopicloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Zopiclone.
ZotepineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Zotepine.
ZuclopenthixolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Zuclopenthixol.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function:
Tetrodotoxin-resistant channel that mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which sodium ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient. Plays a role in neuropathic pain mechanisms.
Gene Name:
SCN10A
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y5Y9
Molecular Weight:
220623.605 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Brau ME, Vogel W, Hempelmann G: Fundamental properties of local anesthetics: half-maximal blocking concentrations for tonic block of Na+ and K+ channels in peripheral nerve. Anesth Analg. 1998 Oct;87(4):885-9. [PubMed:9768788 ]
  4. Katalymov LL: [The effect of inhibitors of sodium permeability (novocaine and tetrodotoxin) on the trace depolarization of myelinated nerve fibers]. Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova. 1995 Sep;81(9):127-33. [PubMed:8581044 ]
  5. Creveling CR, Bell ME, Burke TR Jr, Chang E, Lewandowski-Lovenberg GA, Kim CH, Rice KC, Daly JW: Procaine isothiocyanate: an irreversible inhibitor of the specific binding of [3H]batrachotoxinin-A benzoate to sodium channels. Neurochem Res. 1990 Apr;15(4):441-8. [PubMed:2167458 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Protein phosphatase 2a binding
Specific Function:
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with reduced single-channel conductance, low calcium permeability and low voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine. May play a role in the development of dendritic spines. May play a role in PPP2CB-NMDAR mediated signaling mechanism (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GRIN3A
Uniprot ID:
Q8TCU5
Molecular Weight:
125464.07 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Hahnenkamp K, Durieux ME, Hahnenkamp A, Schauerte SK, Hoenemann CW, Vegh V, Theilmeier G, Hollmann MW: Local anaesthetics inhibit signalling of human NMDA receptors recombinantly expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes: role of protein kinase C. Br J Anaesth. 2006 Jan;96(1):77-87. Epub 2005 Nov 18. [PubMed:16299047 ]
  4. Nishizawa N, Shirasaki T, Nakao S, Matsuda H, Shingu K: The inhibition of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor channel by local anesthetics in mouse CA1 pyramidal neurons. Anesth Analg. 2002 Feb;94(2):325-30, table of contents. [PubMed:11812692 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Voltage-gated potassium channel activity
Specific Function:
This is one of the several different receptors for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. This receptor is a ligand-gated ion channel, which when activated causes fast, depolarizing responses in neurons. It is a cation-specific, but otherwise relatively nonselective, ion channel.
Gene Name:
HTR3A
Uniprot ID:
P46098
Molecular Weight:
55279.835 Da
References
  1. Fan P, Weight FF: Procaine impairs the function of 5-HT3 receptor-ion channel complex in rat sensory ganglion neurons. Neuropharmacology. 1994 Dec;33(12):1573-9. [PubMed:7539114 ]
  2. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Monoamine transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of dopamine by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name:
SLC6A3
Uniprot ID:
Q01959
Molecular Weight:
68494.255 Da
References
  1. Sato T, Kitayama S, Mitsuhata C, Ikeda T, Morita K, Dohi T: Selective inhibition of monoamine neurotransmitter transporters by synthetic local anesthetics. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2000 Feb;361(2):214-20. [PubMed:10685879 ]
  2. Wilcox KM, Kimmel HL, Lindsey KP, Votaw JR, Goodman MM, Howell LL: In vivo comparison of the reinforcing and dopamine transporter effects of local anesthetics in rhesus monkeys. Synapse. 2005 Dec 15;58(4):220-8. [PubMed:16206183 ]
  3. Kiyatkin EA, Brown PL: The role of peripheral and central sodium channels in mediating brain temperature fluctuations induced by intravenous cocaine. Brain Res. 2006 Oct 30;1117(1):38-53. Epub 2006 Sep 7. [PubMed:16956595 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Drug binding
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.
Gene Name:
CHRNA2
Uniprot ID:
Q15822
Molecular Weight:
59764.82 Da
References
  1. Wang H, Zhang Y, Li ST: The effect of local anesthetics on the inhibition of adult muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by nondepolarizing muscle relaxants. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010 Mar 25;630(1-3):29-33. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2009.12.028. Epub 2010 Jan 4. [PubMed:20045405 ]
6. DNA
Kind
Nucleotide
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
binder
General Function:
Used for biological information storage.
Specific Function:
DNA contains the instructions needed for an organism to develop, survive and reproduce.
Molecular Weight:
2.15 x 1012 Da
References
  1. Villar-Garea A, Fraga MF, Espada J, Esteller M: Procaine is a DNA-demethylating agent with growth-inhibitory effects in human cancer cells. Cancer Res. 2003 Aug 15;63(16):4984-9. [PubMed:12941824 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
binder
General Function:
Voltage-gated potassium channel activity
Specific Function:
Potassium channel activated by both membrane depolarization or increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) that mediates export of K(+). It is also activated by the concentration of cytosolic Mg(2+). Its activation dampens the excitatory events that elevate the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration and/or depolarize the cell membrane. It therefore contributes to repolarization of the membrane potential. Plays a key ...
Gene Name:
KCNMA1
Uniprot ID:
Q12791
Molecular Weight:
137558.115 Da
References
  1. Benham CD, Bolton TB, Lang RJ, Takewaki T: The mechanism of action of Ba2+ and TEA on single Ca2+-activated K+ -channels in arterial and intestinal smooth muscle cell membranes. Pflugers Arch. 1985 Feb;403(2):120-7. [PubMed:2580269 ]
8. Phospholipase A2
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
References
  1. Kunze H, Nahas N, Traynor JR, Wurl M: Effects of local anaesthetics on phospholipases. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1976 Jul 20;441(1):93-102. [PubMed:952985 ]
9. Lysophospholipase
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
References
  1. Kawashima Y, Nakagawa M, Suzuki Y, Uchiyama M: The relationship between chain elongation of palmitoyl-CoA and phospholipid content in rat liver microsomes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1976 Aug 23;441(2):173-80. [PubMed:952986 ]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Serotonin binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. MAOA preferentially oxidizes biogenic amines such as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), norepinephrine and epinephrine.
Components:
NameUniProt IDDetails
Amine oxidase [flavin-containing] AP21397 Details
Amine oxidase [flavin-containing] BP27338 Details
References
  1. MacFarlane MD: Procaine HCl (Gerovital H3): a weak, reversible, fully competitive inhibitor of monoamine oxidase. Fed Proc. 1975 Jan;34(1):108-10. [PubMed:1109354 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Identical protein binding
Specific Function:
Esterase with broad substrate specificity. Contributes to the inactivation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Can degrade neurotoxic organophosphate esters.
Gene Name:
BCHE
Uniprot ID:
P06276
Molecular Weight:
68417.575 Da
References
  1. Perez-Guillermo F, Delgado EM, Vidal CJ: Inhibition of human serum and rabbit muscle cholinesterase by local anesthetics. Biochem Pharmacol. 1987 Nov 1;36(21):3593-6. [PubMed:3675616 ]
  2. Dorokhov KE, Grigorian GL: [Binding of reversible spin-labeled inhibitors with an butyrylcholinesterase active center]. Biofizika. 1986 Sep-Oct;31(5):746-51. [PubMed:3022829 ]
Comments
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23