You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on DrugBank.
Identification
NameClopidogrel
Accession NumberDB00758  (APRD00444)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Nutraceutical
Description

Clopidogrel, an antiplatelet agent structurally and pharmacologically similar to ticlopidine, is used to inhibit blood clots in a variety of conditions such as peripheral vascular disease, coronary artery disease, and cerebrovascular disease. Clopidogrel is sold under the name Plavix by Sanofi and Bristol-Myers Squibb. The drug is an irreversible inhibitor of the P2Y12 adenosine diphosphate receptor found on the membranes of platelet cells. Clopidogrel use is associated with several serious adverse drug reactions such as severe neutropenia, various forms of hemorrhage, and cardiovascular edema.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
(+)-Clopidogrel
Clopidogrelum
External Identifiers
  • SR-25990C
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Abbott-clopidogreltablet75 mgoralAbbott Laboratories, Limited2014-03-172015-12-31Canada
Accel-clopidogreltablet300 mgoralAccel Pharma IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Accel-clopidogreltablet75 mgoralAccel Pharma Inc2014-09-042015-11-09Canada
Act Clopidogreltablet75 mgoralActavis Pharma Company2011-12-07Not applicableCanada
Ag-clopidogreltablet75 mgoralAngita Pharma Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
Auro-clopidogreltablet75 mgoralAuro Pharma Inc2014-02-06Not applicableCanada
Clopidogreltablet75 mgoralSivem Pharmaceuticals Ulc2012-06-11Not applicableCanada
Clopidogreltablet75 mgoralSanis Health Inc2013-02-13Not applicableCanada
Clopidogreltablet75 mgoralPro Doc Limitee2012-11-22Not applicableCanada
Dom-clopidogreltablet75 mgoralDominion Pharmacal2012-09-26Not applicableCanada
Ipg-clopidogreltablet300 mgoralInternational Pharmaceutical Generics LtdNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Ipg-clopidogreltablet75 mgoralInternational Pharmaceutical Generics LtdNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Jamp-clopidogreltablet75 mgoralJamp Pharma Corporation2014-01-15Not applicableCanada
Mar-clopidogreltablet300 mgoralMarcan Pharmaceuticals IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Mar-clopidogreltablet75 mgoralMarcan Pharmaceuticals Inc2015-01-21Not applicableCanada
Mint-clopidogreltablet75 mgoralMint Pharmaceuticals Inc2013-07-18Not applicableCanada
Mint-clopidogreltablet300 mgoralMint Pharmaceuticals IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Mylan-clopidogreltablet300 mgoralMylan Pharmaceuticals UlcNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Mylan-clopidogreltablet75 mgoralMylan Pharmaceuticals Ulc2011-12-07Not applicableCanada
Plavixtablet, film coated75 mg/1oralContract Pharmacy Services Pa1999-02-26Not applicableUs
Plavixtablet, film coated75 mg/1oralSTAT Rx USA LLC1900-01-01Not applicableUs
Plavixtablet, film coated75 mg/1oralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2000-11-21Not applicableUs
Plavixtablet, film coated300 mg/1oralBristol Myers Squibb/Sanofi Pharmaceuticals Partnership1900-01-01Not applicableUs
Plavixtablet, film coated75 mg/1oralA S Medication Solutions Llc1999-02-26Not applicableUs
Plavixtablet, film coated75 mg/1oralBristol Myers Squibb/Sanofi Pharmaceuticals Partnership1900-01-01Not applicableUs
Plavixtablet, film coated75 mg/1oralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2009-07-01Not applicableUs
Plavixtablet, film coated75 mg/1oralbryant ranch prepack1900-01-01Not applicableUs
Plavixtablet, film coated75 mg/1oralLake Erie Medical & Surgical Supply DBA Quality Care Products LLC2011-12-13Not applicableUs
Plavixtablet, film coated75 mg/1oralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.1900-01-01Not applicableUs
Plavixtablet, film coated75 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-03-192016-03-11Us
Plavixtablet, film coated300 mg/1oralCardinal Health1997-11-17Not applicableUs
Plavixtablet75 mgoralSanofi Aventis Canada Inc1998-10-13Not applicableCanada
Plavixtablet300 mgoralSanofi Aventis Canada Inc2009-09-30Not applicableCanada
Plavixtablet, film coated75 mg/1oralRebel Distributors Corp1900-01-01Not applicableUs
Plavixtablet, film coated75 mg/1oralCardinal Health2007-09-20Not applicableUs
PMS-clopidogreltablet75 mgoralPharmascience Inc2011-12-14Not applicableCanada
Q-clopidogreltablet75 mgoralQd Pharmaceuticals UlcNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Ran-clopidogreltablet75 mgoralRanbaxy Pharmaceuticals Canada Inc.2012-04-30Not applicableCanada
Rbx-clopidogreltablet75 mgoralRanbaxy Pharmaceuticals Canada Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
Riva Clopidogreltablet75 mgoralLaboratoire Riva Inc2012-07-24Not applicableCanada
Sandoz Clopidogreltablet75 mgoralSandoz Canada Incorporated2011-12-07Not applicableCanada
Teva-clopidogreltablet75 mgoralTeva Canada Limited2011-12-14Not applicableCanada
Teva-clopidogreltablet300 mgoralTeva Canada Limited2013-01-02Not applicableCanada
Torrent-clopidogreltablet75 mgoralTorrent Pharmaceuticals LimitedNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-clopidogreltablet300 mgoralApotex Inc2013-01-21Not applicableCanada
Apo-clopidogreltablet75 mgoralApotex Inc2011-12-19Not applicableCanada
Clopidogreltablet, film coated75 mg/1oralAurobindo Pharma Limited2012-05-17Not applicableUs
Clopidogreltablet, film coated75 mg/1oralApotex Corp.2012-05-17Not applicableUs
Clopidogreltablet, film coated75 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2014-03-14Not applicableUs
Clopidogreltablet, film coated300 mg/1oralCamber Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2015-06-18Not applicableUs
Clopidogreltablet, film coated75 mg/1oralTeva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc2012-05-17Not applicableUs
Clopidogreltablet, film coated75 mg/1oralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2014-11-01Not applicableUs
Clopidogreltablet, film coated75 mg/1oralAccord Healthcare Inc.2013-05-15Not applicableUs
Clopidogreltablet, film coated75 mg/1oralDIRECT RX2014-01-01Not applicableUs
Clopidogreltablet, film coated300 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2012-11-282015-12-29Us
Clopidogreltablet, film coated75 mg/1oralClinical Solutions Wholesale2012-05-17Not applicableUs
Clopidogreltablet75 mg/1oralAmneal Pharmaceuticals of New York, LLC2013-09-30Not applicableUs
Clopidogreltablet75 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2015-05-23Not applicableUs
Clopidogreltablet, film coated300 mg/1oralWockhardt Limited2012-11-13Not applicableUs
Clopidogreltablet, film coated300 mg/1oralWockhardt USA LLC.2012-11-13Not applicableUs
Clopidogreltablet, film coated75 mg/1oralCitron Pharma LLC2012-05-17Not applicableUs
Clopidogreltablet300 mg/1oralVensun Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2014-11-01Not applicableUs
Clopidogreltablet, film coated75 mg/1oralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2013-01-01Not applicableUs
Clopidogreltablet, film coated75 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2014-12-18Not applicableUs
Clopidogreltablet, film coated75 mg/1oralLegacy Pharmaceutical Packaging2012-05-172016-01-31Us
Clopidogreltablet, film coated300 mg/1oralMajor Pharmaceuticals2015-04-06Not applicableUs
Clopidogreltablet, film coated75 mg/1oralWockhardt Limited2012-05-22Not applicableUs
Clopidogreltablet, film coated75 mg/1oralWockhardt USA LLC.2012-05-22Not applicableUs
Clopidogreltablet75 mg/1oralVensun Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2014-11-01Not applicableUs
Clopidogreltablet, film coated75 mg/1oralSt Marys Medical Park Pharmacy2014-04-21Not applicableUs
Clopidogreltablet, film coated75 mg/1oralLegacy Pharmaceutical Packaging2012-05-17Not applicableUs
Clopidogreltablet, film coated75 mg/1oralUnit Dose Services2012-05-17Not applicableUs
Clopidogreltablet, film coated75 mg/1oralReady Meds2012-05-17Not applicableUs
Clopidogreltablet75 mg/1oralMacleods Pharmaceuticals Limited2012-10-16Not applicableUs
Clopidogreltablet, film coated75 mg/1oralCardinal Health2012-05-17Not applicableUs
Clopidogreltablet, film coated75 mg/1oralApotex Corp.2012-05-17Not applicableUs
Clopidogreltablet, film coated75 mg/1oralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2012-05-17Not applicableUs
Clopidogreltablet, film coated75 mg/1oralbryant ranch prepack2012-05-17Not applicableUs
Clopidogreltablet, film coated75 mg/1oralAidarex Pharmaceuticals LLC2012-05-17Not applicableUs
Clopidogreltablet, film coated75 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-05-06Not applicableUs
Clopidogreltablet, film coated75 mg/1oralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2014-11-01Not applicableUs
Clopidogreltablet, film coated75 mg/1oralMed Vantx, Inc.2012-05-17Not applicableUs
Clopidogreltablet, film coated75 mg/1oralCamber Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2015-06-18Not applicableUs
Clopidogreltablet, film coated300 mg/1oralApotex Corp.2014-03-04Not applicableUs
Clopidogreltablet, film coated300 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2014-03-28Not applicableUs
Clopidogreltablet, film coated75 mg/1oralInternational Laboratories, Inc.2013-12-02Not applicableUs
Clopidogreltablet, film coated300 mg/1oralAccord Healthcare Inc.2013-05-15Not applicableUs
Clopidogreltablet, film coated75 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2012-06-142015-12-29Us
Clopidogrel Bisulfatetablet, film coated75 mg/1oralSun Pharma Global FZE2012-05-18Not applicableUs
Clopidogrel Bisulfatetablet, film coated75 mg/1oralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2014-11-01Not applicableUs
Clopidogrel Bisulfatetablet, film coated300 mg/1oralGolden State Medical Supply, Inc.2014-09-15Not applicableUs
Clopidogrel Bisulfatetablet, film coated300 mg/1oralBlenheim Pharmacal, Inc.2016-03-01Not applicableUs
Clopidogrel Bisulfatetablet75 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-02-182016-04-05Us
Clopidogrel Bisulfatetablet75 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-03-012016-04-05Us
Clopidogrel Bisulfatetablet, film coated300 mg/1oralCardinal Health2012-05-17Not applicableUs
Clopidogrel Bisulfatetablet, film coated75 mg/1oralProficient Rx LP2014-04-01Not applicableUs
Clopidogrel Bisulfatetablet75 mg/1oralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2012-05-17Not applicableUs
Clopidogrel Bisulfatetablet, film coated75 mg/1oralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2013-01-01Not applicableUs
Clopidogrel Bisulfatetablet, film coated300 mg/1oralMylan Institutional Inc.2012-05-17Not applicableUs
Clopidogrel Bisulfatetablet75 mg/1oralCardinal Health2012-05-17Not applicableUs
Clopidogrel Bisulfatetablet, film coated75 mg/1oralPreferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2012-05-17Not applicableUs
Clopidogrel Bisulfatetablet75 mg/1oralTorrent Pharmaceuticals Limited2012-05-17Not applicableUs
Clopidogrel Bisulfatetablet, film coated300 mg/1oralDr.Reddy's Laboratories Limited2012-05-17Not applicableUs
Clopidogrel Bisulfatetablet, film coated75 mg/1oralMylan Institutional Inc.2012-05-17Not applicableUs
Clopidogrel Bisulfatetablet, film coated300 mg/1oralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2012-05-17Not applicableUs
Clopidogrel Bisulfatetablet, film coated75 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2014-06-03Not applicableUs
Clopidogrel Bisulfatetablet, film coated75 mg/1oralDr.Reddy's Laboratories Limited2012-05-17Not applicableUs
Clopidogrel Bisulfatetablet75 mg/1oralMajor Pharmaceuticals2012-05-17Not applicableUs
Clopidogrel Bisulfatetablet, film coated75 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2014-03-17Not applicableUs
Clopidogrel Bisulfatetablet, film coated75 mg/1oralCarilion Materials Management2012-05-17Not applicableUs
Clopidogrel Bisulfatetablet, film coated75 mg/1oralScie Gen Pharmaceuticals Inc2014-04-01Not applicableUs
Clopidogrel Bisulfatetablet, film coated75 mg/1oralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2012-05-25Not applicableUs
Clopidogrel Bisulfatetablet, film coated75 mg/1oralCardinal Health2012-05-17Not applicableUs
Clopidogrel Bisulfatetablet75 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-02-20Not applicableUs
Clopidogrel Bisulfatetablet, film coated75 mg/1oralGolden State Medical Supply, Inc.2012-05-17Not applicableUs
Clopidogrel Bisulfatetablet, film coated75 mg/1oralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2012-05-17Not applicableUs
Clopidogrel Bisulfatetablet, film coated300 mg/1oralScie Gen Pharmaceuticals Inc2014-04-01Not applicableUs
Clopidogrel Bisulfatetablet, film coated75 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-03-262016-04-05Us
Clopidogrel Bisulfatetablet, film coated75 mg/1oralCardinal Health2012-06-08Not applicableUs
Clopidogrel Bisulfatetablet, film coated75 mg/1oralBlenheim Pharmacal, Inc.2014-02-14Not applicableUs
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International BrandsNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Clopidogrel Bisulfate
120202-66-6
Thumb
  • InChI Key: FDEODCTUSIWGLK-RSAXXLAASA-N
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 419.0264064
  • Average Mass: 419.9
DBSALT000029
Categories
UNIIA74586SNO7
CAS number113665-84-2
WeightAverage: 321.822
Monoisotopic: 321.059027158
Chemical FormulaC16H16ClNO2S
InChI KeyInChIKey=GKTWGGQPFAXNFI-HNNXBMFYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C16H16ClNO2S/c1-20-16(19)15(12-4-2-3-5-13(12)17)18-8-6-14-11(10-18)7-9-21-14/h2-5,7,9,15H,6,8,10H2,1H3/t15-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
methyl (2S)-2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-{4H,5H,6H,7H-thieno[3,2-c]pyridin-5-yl}acetate
SMILES
[H][C@@](N1CCC2=C(C1)C=CS2)(C(=O)OC)C1=CC=CC=C1Cl
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alpha amino acid esters. These are ester derivatives of alpha amino acids.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentAlpha amino acid esters
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Alpha-amino acid ester
  • Phenylacetate
  • Thienopyridine
  • Aralkylamine
  • Halobenzene
  • Chlorobenzene
  • Benzenoid
  • Pyridine
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Aryl halide
  • Aryl chloride
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Methyl ester
  • Thiophene
  • Tertiary aliphatic amine
  • Tertiary amine
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organochloride
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the reduction of atherosclerotic events (myocardial infarction, stroke, and vascular death) in patients with atherosclerosis documented by recent stroke, recent myocardial infarction, or established peripheral arterial disease.
PharmacodynamicsSince clopidogrel is a prodrug, it must be metabolized by CYP450 enzymes to produce the active metabolite that inhibits platelet aggregation. This active metabolite selectively inhibits adenosine diphosphate (ADP) binding to its platelet P2Y12 receptor and subsequently the ADP-mediated activation of the glycoprotein GPIIb/IIIa complex, thereby inhibiting platelet aggregation.
Mechanism of actionThe active metabolite of clopidogrel prevents binding of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to its platelet receptor, impairing the ADP-mediated activation of the glycoprotein GPIIb/IIIa complex. It is proposed that the inhibition involves a defect in the mobilization from the storage sites of the platelet granules to the outer membrane. he drug specifically and irreversibly inhibits the P2Y12 subtype of ADP receptor, which is important in aggregation of platelets and cross-linking by the protein fibrin. No direct interference occurs with the GPIIb/IIIa receptor. As the glycoprotein GPIIb/IIIa complex is the major receptor for fibrinogen, its impaired activation prevents fibrinogen binding to platelets and inhibits platelet aggregation. By blocking the amplification of platelet activation by released ADP, platelet aggregation induced by agonists other than ADP is also inhibited by the active metabolite of clopidogrel.
Related Articles
AbsorptionAbsorption is at least 50% based on urinary excretion of clopidogrel-related metabolites. Bioavailability has not been found to be affected by food.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein binding98%
Metabolism

Hepatic, extensive and rapid, by hydrolysis to the main circulating metabolite, a carboxylic acid derivative, which accounts for approximately 85% of the circulating drug-related compounds. A glucuronic acid derivative of the carboxylic acid derivative has also been found in plasma and urine. Neither the parent compound nor the carboxylic acid derivative has a platelet inhibiting effect.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Clopidogrel
2-OxoclopidogrelDetails
2-Oxoclopidogrel
Not Available
Active Metabolite of ClopidogrelDetails
Clopidogrel
Not Available
Clopidogrel carboxylic acid derivativeDetails
Route of eliminationFollowing an oral dose of 14C-labeled clopidogrel in humans, approximately 50% of total radioactivity was excreted in urine and approximately 46% in feces over the 5 days post-dosing.
Half lifeCarboxylic acid derivative: 8 hours (after single and multiple doses). Covalent binding to platelets has accounted for 2% of radiolabeled clopidogrel with a half-life of 11 days.
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityA single dose of clopidogrel at 1500 or 2000 mg/kg was lethal to mice and rats, with 3000 mg/kg lethal to baboons. Symptoms included vomiting, breathing difficulty, hemorrhage, and prostration.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Clopidogrel Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00260
Clopidogrel Metabolism PathwayDrug metabolismSMP00610
SNP Mediated Effects
Interacting Gene/EnzymeSNP RS IDAllele nameDefining changeEffectReference(s)
Cytochrome P450 2C9
Gene symbol: CYP2C9
UniProt: P11712
rs1057910 CYP2C9*1C AllelePoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements, higher risk for drug-drug interactions17900275
Cytochrome P450 2C19
Gene symbol: CYP2C19
UniProt: P33261
rs4244285 CYP2C19*2A Allele, homozygotePoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements, higher risk for drug-drug interactions17900275
Cytochrome P450 2C19
Gene symbol: CYP2C19
UniProt: P33261
rs4244285 CYP2C19*2G > APatients are poor metabolizers of clopidogrel. More likely to experience poor cardiovascular outcomes.8195181
Cytochrome P450 2C19
Gene symbol: CYP2C19
UniProt: P33261
rs4244285 CYP2C19*2G > APatients are poor metabolizers of clopidogrel. More likely to experience poor cardiovascular outcomes.19706858
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+1.0
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9847
Caco-2 permeable+0.5777
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.6664
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.6556
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.5558
Renal organic cation transporterInhibitor0.6368
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7407
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.6339
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.724
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.5223
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorInhibitor0.5712
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorInhibitor0.8071
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7389
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9188
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7112
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9597
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9911
Rat acute toxicity2.4887 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.7548
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.6329
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Dr reddys laboratories inc
  • Sanofi aventis us llc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Tabletoral300 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedoral300 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedoral75 mg/1
Tabletoral75 mg/1
Tabletoral300 mg
Tabletoral75 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Plavix 300 mg tablet24.86USD tablet
Plavix 75 mg tablet9.23USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
CA1336777 No1995-08-222012-08-22Canada
CA2334870 No2005-03-152019-06-10Canada
US4847265 No1994-11-172011-11-17Us
US6429210 Yes1999-12-102019-12-10Us
US6504030 Yes1999-12-102019-12-10Us
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point158 °CNot Available
water solubility50.78 mg/LNot Available
logP2.5Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0118 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.84ALOGPS
logP4.03ChemAxon
logS-4.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)5.14ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area29.54 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity84.93 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability33.19 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Download (71.9 KB)
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Revital Lifshitz-Liron, “Novel crystal forms III, IV, V, and novel amorphous form of clopidogrel hydrogensulfate, processes for their preparation, processes for the preparation of form I, compositions containing the new forms and methods of administering the new forms.” U.S. Patent US20030114479, issued June 19, 2003.

US20030114479
General References
  1. Chan FK, Ching JY, Hung LC, Wong VW, Leung VK, Kung NN, Hui AJ, Wu JC, Leung WK, Lee VW, Lee KK, Lee YT, Lau JY, To KF, Chan HL, Chung SC, Sung JJ: Clopidogrel versus aspirin and esomeprazole to prevent recurrent ulcer bleeding. N Engl J Med. 2005 Jan 20;352(3):238-44. [PubMed:15659723 ]
  2. Perry CG, Shuldiner AR: Pharmacogenomics of anti-platelet therapy: how much evidence is enough for clinical implementation? J Hum Genet. 2013 Jun;58(6):339-45. doi: 10.1038/jhg.2013.41. Epub 2013 May 23. [PubMed:23697979 ]
  3. Furlong MT, Savant I, Yuan M, Scott L, Mylott W, Mariannino T, Kadiyala P, Roongta V, Arnold ME: A validated HPLC-MS/MS assay for quantifying unstable pharmacologically active metabolites of clopidogrel in human plasma: application to a clinical pharmacokinetic study. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 May 1;926:36-41. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.02.031. Epub 2013 Mar 1. [PubMed:23542721 ]
External Links
ATC CodesB01AC04
AHFS Codes
  • 20:12.18
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (402 KB)
MSDSDownload (57.4 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AbciximabClopidogrel may increase the anticoagulant activities of Abciximab.
AbirateroneThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Clopidogrel can be reduced when Clopidogrel is used in combination with Abiraterone resulting in a loss in efficacy.
AcenocoumarolClopidogrel may increase the anticoagulant activities of Acenocoumarol.
Acetylsalicylic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clopidogrel is combined with Acetylsalicylic acid.
AlteplaseClopidogrel may increase the anticoagulant activities of Alteplase.
AmiodaroneThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Clopidogrel can be reduced when Clopidogrel is used in combination with Amiodarone resulting in a loss in efficacy.
AmlodipineThe therapeutic efficacy of Clopidogrel can be decreased when used in combination with Amlodipine.
AmodiaquineThe serum concentration of Amodiaquine can be increased when it is combined with Clopidogrel.
AmrinoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Clopidogrel can be decreased when used in combination with Amrinone.
AnistreplaseClopidogrel may increase the anticoagulant activities of Anistreplase.
ApixabanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clopidogrel is combined with Apixaban.
ArmodafinilThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Clopidogrel can be reduced when Clopidogrel is used in combination with Armodafinil resulting in a loss in efficacy.
BepridilThe therapeutic efficacy of Clopidogrel can be decreased when used in combination with Bepridil.
BortezomibThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Clopidogrel can be reduced when Clopidogrel is used in combination with Bortezomib resulting in a loss in efficacy.
BupropionThe serum concentration of Bupropion can be increased when it is combined with Clopidogrel.
CangrelorCangrelor may decrease the antiplatelet activities of Clopidogrel.
ChloramphenicolThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Clopidogrel can be reduced when Clopidogrel is used in combination with Chloramphenicol resulting in a loss in efficacy.
CimetidineThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Clopidogrel can be reduced when Clopidogrel is used in combination with Cimetidine resulting in a loss in efficacy.
Citric AcidClopidogrel may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
ClarithromycinThe therapeutic efficacy of Clopidogrel can be decreased when used in combination with Clarithromycin.
CollagenaseThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clopidogrel is combined with Collagenase.
Dabigatran etexilateClopidogrel may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dabigatran etexilate.
DalteparinClopidogrel may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dalteparin.
DasatinibDasatinib may increase the anticoagulant activities of Clopidogrel.
DelavirdineThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Clopidogrel can be reduced when Clopidogrel is used in combination with Delavirdine resulting in a loss in efficacy.
Deoxycholic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clopidogrel is combined with Deoxycholic Acid.
DicoumarolClopidogrel may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dicoumarol.
DiltiazemThe therapeutic efficacy of Clopidogrel can be decreased when used in combination with Diltiazem.
Edetic AcidClopidogrel may increase the anticoagulant activities of Edetic Acid.
EfavirenzThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Clopidogrel can be reduced when Clopidogrel is used in combination with Efavirenz resulting in a loss in efficacy.
EnoxaparinClopidogrel may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
EnzalutamideThe serum concentration of Enzalutamide can be increased when it is combined with Clopidogrel.
ErythromycinThe therapeutic efficacy of Clopidogrel can be decreased when used in combination with Erythromycin.
Eslicarbazepine acetateThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Clopidogrel can be reduced when Clopidogrel is used in combination with Eslicarbazepine acetate resulting in a loss in efficacy.
EsomeprazoleEsomeprazole may decrease the antiplatelet activities of Clopidogrel.
Ethyl biscoumacetateClopidogrel may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ethyl biscoumacetate.
EtravirineThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Clopidogrel can be reduced when Clopidogrel is used in combination with Etravirine resulting in a loss in efficacy.
FelodipineThe therapeutic efficacy of Clopidogrel can be decreased when used in combination with Felodipine.
FluconazoleThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Clopidogrel can be reduced when Clopidogrel is used in combination with Fluconazole resulting in a loss in efficacy.
FlunarizineThe therapeutic efficacy of Clopidogrel can be decreased when used in combination with Flunarizine.
FluoxetineThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Clopidogrel can be reduced when Clopidogrel is used in combination with Fluoxetine resulting in a loss in efficacy.
FluvoxamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluvoxamine is combined with Clopidogrel.
Fondaparinux sodiumClopidogrel may increase the anticoagulant activities of Fondaparinux sodium.
GabapentinThe therapeutic efficacy of Clopidogrel can be decreased when used in combination with Gabapentin.
GemfibrozilThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Clopidogrel can be reduced when Clopidogrel is used in combination with Gemfibrozil resulting in a loss in efficacy.
GlucosamineGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Clopidogrel.
HeparinClopidogrel may increase the anticoagulant activities of Heparin.
Ibritumomab tiuxetanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clopidogrel is combined with Ibritumomab.
IbrutinibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ibrutinib is combined with Clopidogrel.
IsoniazidThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Clopidogrel can be reduced when Clopidogrel is used in combination with Isoniazid resulting in a loss in efficacy.
IsradipineThe therapeutic efficacy of Clopidogrel can be decreased when used in combination with Isradipine.
KetoconazoleThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Clopidogrel can be reduced when Clopidogrel is used in combination with Ketoconazole resulting in a loss in efficacy.
LamotrigineThe therapeutic efficacy of Clopidogrel can be decreased when used in combination with Lamotrigine.
LansoprazoleThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Clopidogrel can be reduced when Clopidogrel is used in combination with Lansoprazole resulting in a loss in efficacy.
LercanidipineThe therapeutic efficacy of Clopidogrel can be decreased when used in combination with Lercanidipine.
LimaprostLimaprost may increase the antiplatelet activities of Clopidogrel.
LuliconazoleThe serum concentration of Clopidogrel can be increased when it is combined with Luliconazole.
Magnesium SulfateThe therapeutic efficacy of Clopidogrel can be decreased when used in combination with Magnesium Sulfate.
MethadoneThe metabolism of Methadone can be decreased when combined with Clopidogrel.
MoclobemideThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Clopidogrel can be reduced when Clopidogrel is used in combination with Moclobemide resulting in a loss in efficacy.
ModafinilThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Clopidogrel can be reduced when Clopidogrel is used in combination with Modafinil resulting in a loss in efficacy.
MorphineMorphine may decrease the antiplatelet activities of Clopidogrel.
NicardipineThe therapeutic efficacy of Clopidogrel can be decreased when used in combination with Nicardipine.
NifedipineThe therapeutic efficacy of Clopidogrel can be decreased when used in combination with Nifedipine.
NimodipineThe therapeutic efficacy of Clopidogrel can be decreased when used in combination with Nimodipine.
NisoldipineThe therapeutic efficacy of Clopidogrel can be decreased when used in combination with Nisoldipine.
NitrendipineThe therapeutic efficacy of Clopidogrel can be decreased when used in combination with Nitrendipine.
ObinutuzumabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clopidogrel is combined with Obinutuzumab.
Omega-3 fatty acidsOmega-3 fatty acids may increase the antiplatelet activities of Clopidogrel.
OmeprazoleOmeprazole may decrease the antiplatelet activities of Clopidogrel.
PantoprazoleThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Clopidogrel can be reduced when Clopidogrel is used in combination with Pantoprazole resulting in a loss in efficacy.
Pentosan PolysulfateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentosan Polysulfate is combined with Clopidogrel.
PentoxifyllinePentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Clopidogrel.
PerhexilineThe therapeutic efficacy of Clopidogrel can be decreased when used in combination with Perhexiline.
PhenindioneClopidogrel may increase the anticoagulant activities of Phenindione.
PhenprocoumonClopidogrel may increase the anticoagulant activities of Phenprocoumon.
PioglitazoneThe serum concentration of Pioglitazone can be increased when it is combined with Clopidogrel.
PrenylamineThe therapeutic efficacy of Clopidogrel can be decreased when used in combination with Prenylamine.
RabeprazoleThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Clopidogrel can be reduced when Clopidogrel is used in combination with Rabeprazole resulting in a loss in efficacy.
RepaglinideThe serum concentration of Repaglinide can be increased when it is combined with Clopidogrel.
ReteplaseClopidogrel may increase the anticoagulant activities of Reteplase.
RidogrelClopidogrel may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ridogrel.
RifabutinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rifabutin is combined with Clopidogrel.
RifampicinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rifampicin is combined with Clopidogrel.
RifapentineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rifapentine is combined with Clopidogrel.
RisedronateThe therapeutic efficacy of Clopidogrel can be decreased when used in combination with Risedronate.
RitonavirThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Clopidogrel.
RivaroxabanClopidogrel may increase the anticoagulant activities of Rivaroxaban.
RosuvastatinThe serum concentration of Rosuvastatin can be increased when it is combined with Clopidogrel.
SertralineThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Clopidogrel can be reduced when Clopidogrel is used in combination with Sertraline resulting in a loss in efficacy.
StiripentolThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Clopidogrel can be reduced when Clopidogrel is used in combination with Stiripentol resulting in a loss in efficacy.
StreptokinaseClopidogrel may increase the anticoagulant activities of Streptokinase.
SulodexideClopidogrel may increase the anticoagulant activities of Sulodexide.
TAK-390MRThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Clopidogrel can be reduced when Clopidogrel is used in combination with TAK-390MR resulting in a loss in efficacy.
TelithromycinThe therapeutic efficacy of Clopidogrel can be decreased when used in combination with Telithromycin.
TenecteplaseClopidogrel may increase the anticoagulant activities of Tenecteplase.
TiclopidineThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Clopidogrel can be reduced when Clopidogrel is used in combination with Ticlopidine resulting in a loss in efficacy.
TipranavirTipranavir may increase the antiplatelet activities of Clopidogrel.
TorasemideThe metabolism of Torasemide can be decreased when combined with Clopidogrel.
TositumomabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clopidogrel is combined with Tositumomab.
TranylcypromineThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Clopidogrel can be reduced when Clopidogrel is used in combination with Tranylcypromine resulting in a loss in efficacy.
TreprostinilClopidogrel may increase the anticoagulant activities of Treprostinil.
UrokinaseClopidogrel may increase the anticoagulant activities of Urokinase.
VerapamilThe therapeutic efficacy of Clopidogrel can be decreased when used in combination with Verapamil.
Vitamin EVitamin E may increase the antiplatelet activities of Clopidogrel.
VoriconazoleThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Clopidogrel can be reduced when Clopidogrel is used in combination with Voriconazole resulting in a loss in efficacy.
WarfarinClopidogrel may increase the anticoagulant activities of Warfarin.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity
Specific Function:
Receptor for ADP and ATP coupled to G-proteins that inhibit the adenylyl cyclase second messenger system. Not activated by UDP and UTP. Required for normal platelet aggregation and blood coagulation.
Gene Name:
P2RY12
Uniprot ID:
Q9H244
Molecular Weight:
39438.355 Da
References
  1. Dorsam RT, Murugappan S, Ding Z, Kunapuli SP: Clopidogrel: interactions with the P2Y12 receptor and clinical relevance. Hematology. 2003 Dec;8(6):359-65. [PubMed:14668029 ]
  2. Herbert JM, Savi P: P2Y12, a new platelet ADP receptor, target of clopidogrel. Semin Vasc Med. 2003 May;3(2):113-22. [PubMed:15199474 ]
  3. Taubert D, Kastrati A, Harlfinger S, Gorchakova O, Lazar A, von Beckerath N, Schomig A, Schomig E: Pharmacokinetics of clopidogrel after administration of a high loading dose. Thromb Haemost. 2004 Aug;92(2):311-6. [PubMed:15269827 ]
  4. Wang L, Jacobsen SE, Bengtsson A, Erlinge D: P2 receptor mRNA expression profiles in human lymphocytes, monocytes and CD34+ stem and progenitor cells. BMC Immunol. 2004 Aug 3;5:16. [PubMed:15291969 ]
  5. Wihlborg AK, Wang L, Braun OO, Eyjolfsson A, Gustafsson R, Gudbjartsson T, Erlinge D: ADP receptor P2Y12 is expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells and stimulates contraction in human blood vessels. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2004 Oct;24(10):1810-5. Epub 2004 Aug 12. [PubMed:15308557 ]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
  7. Gladding P, Webster M, Zeng I, Farrell H, Stewart J, Ruygrok P, Ormiston J, El-Jack S, Armstrong G, Kay P, Scott D, Gunes A, Dahl ML: The pharmacogenetics and pharmacodynamics of clopidogrel response: an analysis from the PRINC (Plavix Response in Coronary Intervention) trial. JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2008 Dec;1(6):620-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jcin.2008.09.008. [PubMed:19463375 ]
  8. Savi P, Zachayus JL, Delesque-Touchard N, Labouret C, Herve C, Uzabiaga MF, Pereillo JM, Culouscou JM, Bono F, Ferrara P, Herbert JM: The active metabolite of Clopidogrel disrupts P2Y12 receptor oligomers and partitions them out of lipid rafts. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Jul 18;103(29):11069-74. Epub 2006 Jul 11. [PubMed:16835302 ]
  9. van Gestel MA, Heemskerk JW, Slaaf DW, Heijnen VV, Reneman RS, oude Egbrink MG: In vivo blockade of platelet ADP receptor P2Y12 reduces embolus and thrombus formation but not thrombus stability. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2003 Mar 1;23(3):518-23. Epub 2003 Jan 23. [PubMed:12615691 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiot...
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
  2. Saw J, Steinhubl SR, Berger PB, Kereiakes DJ, Serebruany VL, Brennan D, Topol EJ: Lack of adverse clopidogrel-atorvastatin clinical interaction from secondary analysis of a randomized, placebo-controlled clopidogrel trial. Circulation. 2003 Aug 26;108(8):921-4. Epub 2003 Aug 18. [PubMed:12925453 ]
  3. Neubauer H, Gunesdogan B, Hanefeld C, Spiecker M, Mugge A: Lipophilic statins interfere with the inhibitory effects of clopidogrel on platelet function--a flow cytometry study. Eur Heart J. 2003 Oct;24(19):1744-9. [PubMed:14522569 ]
  4. Lau WC, Gurbel PA, Watkins PB, Neer CJ, Hopp AS, Carville DG, Guyer KE, Tait AR, Bates ER: Contribution of hepatic cytochrome P450 3A4 metabolic activity to the phenomenon of clopidogrel resistance. Circulation. 2004 Jan 20;109(2):166-71. Epub 2004 Jan 5. [PubMed:14707025 ]
  5. Mukherjee D, Kline-Rogers E, Fang J, Munir K, Eagle KA: Lack of clopidogrel-CYP3A4 statin interaction in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Heart. 2005 Jan;91(1):23-6. [PubMed:15604326 ]
  6. Poulsen TS, Vinholt P, Mickley H, Korsholm L, Kristensen SR, Damkier P: Existence of a clinically relevant interaction between clopidogrel and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors? Re-evaluating the evidence. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2005 Feb;96(2):103-10. [PubMed:15679472 ]
  7. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  8. Clarke TA, Waskell LA: The metabolism of clopidogrel is catalyzed by human cytochrome P450 3A and is inhibited by atorvastatin. Drug Metab Dispos. 2003 Jan;31(1):53-9. [PubMed:12485953 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase.
Gene Name:
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID:
P20813
Molecular Weight:
56277.81 Da
References
  1. Walsky RL, Astuccio AV, Obach RS: Evaluation of 227 drugs for in vitro inhibition of cytochrome P450 2B6. J Clin Pharmacol. 2006 Dec;46(12):1426-38. [PubMed:17101742 ]
  2. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
  3. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Oxygen binding
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID:
P20815
Molecular Weight:
57108.065 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine.
Gene Name:
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID:
P33261
Molecular Weight:
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  3. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenyto...
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular Weight:
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N...
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular Weight:
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. In the epoxidation of arachidonic acid it generates only 14,15- and 11,12-cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. It is the principal enzyme...
Gene Name:
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID:
P10632
Molecular Weight:
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Triglyceride lipase activity
Specific Function:
Involved in the detoxification of xenobiotics and in the activation of ester and amide prodrugs. Hydrolyzes aromatic and aliphatic esters, but has no catalytic activity toward amides or a fatty acyl-CoA ester. Hydrolyzes the methyl ester group of cocaine to form benzoylecgonine. Catalyzes the transesterification of cocaine to form cocaethylene. Displays fatty acid ethyl ester synthase activity,...
Gene Name:
CES1
Uniprot ID:
P23141
Molecular Weight:
62520.62 Da
References
  1. Zhu HJ, Wang X, Gawronski BE, Brinda BJ, Angiolillo DJ, Markowitz JS: Carboxylesterase 1 as a determinant of clopidogrel metabolism and activation. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2013 Mar;344(3):665-72. doi: 10.1124/jpet.112.201640. Epub 2012 Dec 28. [PubMed:23275066 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular Weight:
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Taubert D, von Beckerath N, Grimberg G, Lazar A, Jung N, Goeser T, Kastrati A, Schomig A, Schomig E: Impact of P-glycoprotein on clopidogrel absorption. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2006 Nov;80(5):486-501. [PubMed:17112805 ]
Comments
comments powered by Disqus
Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on July 27, 2016 03:12