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Identification
NamePhenelzine
Accession NumberDB00780  (APRD00099)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
Description

An irreversible non-selective inhibitor of monoamine oxidase. May be used to treat major depressive disorder.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
AlazineNot AvailableIS
FenelzinaSpanishINN
MonofenNot AvailableIS
NardilNot AvailableNot Available
PhenelzinGermanINN
PhénelzineFrenchINN
PhenelzinumLatinINN
SID11111653Not AvailableNot Available
SID11111654Not AvailableNot Available
SID50111200Not AvailableNot Available
SID90341694Not AvailableNot Available
β-PhenylethylhydrazineNot AvailableIS
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Nardiltablet, film coated15 mgoralParke Davis Div Of Pfizer Inc1961-06-09Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Phenelzine Sulfatetablet, film coated15 mgoralGreenstone LLC1961-06-09Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Nardiltablet15 mgoralErfa Canada 2012 IncNot AvailableNot AvailableCanada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Phenelzine Sulfatetablet15 mgoralNovel Laboratories, Inc.2011-02-14Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Phenelzine Sulfatetablet15 mgoralGAVIS Pharmaceuticals, LLC2010-12-14Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Phenelzine Sulfatetablet15 mgoralGolden State Medical Supply, Inc.2010-12-14Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
International Brands
NameCompany
MargylDIM
NardelzinePfizer
Brand mixturesNot Available
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Phenelzine Sulfate
ThumbNot applicableDBSALT000954
Phenelzine Sulphate
ThumbNot applicableDBSALT000955
Categories
CAS number51-71-8
WeightAverage: 136.1943
Monoisotopic: 136.100048394
Chemical FormulaC8H12N2
InChI KeyRMUCZJUITONUFY-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C8H12N2/c9-10-7-6-8-4-2-1-3-5-8/h1-5,10H,6-7,9H2
IUPAC Name
(2-phenylethyl)hydrazine
SMILES
NNCCC1=CC=CC=C1
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenethylamines. These are compounds containing a phenethylamine moiety, which consists of a phenyl group substituted at the second position by an ethan-1-amine.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassPhenethylamines
Direct ParentPhenethylamines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Phenethylamine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Hydrazine derivative
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the treatment of major depressive disorder. Has also been used with some success in the management of bulimia nervosa.
PharmacodynamicsPhenelzine belongs to a class of antidepressants called monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). MAO is an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of a number of amines, including serotonin, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine. Two isoforms of MAO, A and B, are found in the body. MAO-A is mainly found within cells located in the periphery and catalyzes the breakdown of serotonin, norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine and tyramine. MAO-B acts on phenylethylamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine and tyramine, is localized extracellularly and is found predominantly in the brain. While the mechanism of MAOIs is still unclear, it is thought that they act by increasing free serotonin and norepinephrine concentrations and/or by altering the concentrations of other amines in the CNS. It has been postulated that depression is caused by low levels of serotonin and/or norepinephrine and that increasing serotonergic and norepinephrinergic neurotransmission results in relief of depressive symptoms. MAO A inhibition is thought to be more relevant to antidepressant activity than MAO B inhibition. Selective MAO B inhibitors, such as selegiline, have no antidepressant effects. Response to therapy generally occurs 2 - 4 weeks following onset though some patients may not experience symptom relief for up to 8 weeks.
Mechanism of actionAlthough the exact mechanism of action has not been determined, it appears that the irreversible, nonselective inhibition of MAO by phenelzine relieves depressive symptoms by causing an increase in the levels of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine in the neuron.
AbsorptionReadily absorbed after oral administration.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism

Hepatic. Acetylation of phenelzine appears to be a minor metabolic pathway. Beta-phenylethylamine is a metabolite of phenelzine, and there is indirect evidence that phenelzine may also be ring-hydroxylated and N-methylated.

Route of eliminationNARDIL ® is extensively metabolized, primarily by oxidation via monoamine oxidase.
Half life1.2-11.6 hours following single dose administration. Multiple-dose pharmacokinetics have not been studied.
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicitySymptoms of overdose include drowsiness, dizziness, faintness, irritability, hyperactivity, agitation, severe headache, hallucinations, trismus, opisthotonos, convulsions and coma, rapid and irregular pulse, hypertension, hypotension and vascular collapse, precordial pain, respiratory depression and failure, hyperpyrexia, diaphoresis, and cool, clammy skin. Hypertensive crisis may occur with the ingestion of tyramine-rich foods such as cured meats, poultry or fish, aged cheeses, concentrated soy products, tap beer and wine, yeast extracts, broad bean pods and fava beans and sauerkraut.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9926
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9405
Caco-2 permeable+0.6863
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.6728
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9439
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9767
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.6026
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.9166
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.5788
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.8056
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.9107
CYP450 2C9 substrateInhibitor0.8945
CYP450 2D6 substrateInhibitor0.8932
CYP450 2C19 substrateInhibitor0.8995
CYP450 3A4 substrateInhibitor0.7961
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.7748
Ames testAMES toxic0.6836
CarcinogenicityCarcinogens 0.699
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.8301
Rat acute toxicity2.6507 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.7405
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8735
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Parke davis div warner lambert co
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Tabletoral15 mg
Tablet, film coatedoral15 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Phenelzine sulfate powder51.0USD g
Nardil 15 mg tablet0.95USD tablet
Nardil 15 mg Tablet0.39USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point< 25 °CPhysProp
boiling point74 °C at 1.00E-01 mm HgPhysProp
water solubility29.1 g/LNot Available
logP1.1Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility11.1 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1.2ALOGPS
logP1.2ChemAxon
logS-1.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)5.55ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area38.05 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity54.26 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability15.8 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
SpectraMS
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General Reference
  1. Nolen WA: [Classical monoamine oxidase inhibitor: not registered for, but still a place in the treatment of depression] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2003 Oct 4;147(40):1940-3. Pubmed
  2. Sowa BN, Holt A, Todd KG, Baker GB: Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, their structural analogues, and neuroprotection. Indian J Exp Biol. 2004 Sep;42(9):851-7. Pubmed
External Links
ATC CodesN06AF03
AHFS Codes
  • 28:16.04.12
PDB Entries
FDA labelDownload (38.9 KB)
MSDSNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AcepromazineSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
AcetophenazineSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
AclidiniumMay enhance the anticholinergic effect of Anticholinergic Agents.
AltretamineMay enhance the orthostatic hypotensive effect of MAO Inhibitors.
AmisulprideSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
AmphetamineMAO Inhibitors may enhance the hypertensive effect of Amphetamines. While linezolid and tedizolid may interact via this mechanism, management recommendations differ from other monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Refer to monographs specific to those agents for details.
ApraclonidineMAO Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Apraclonidine. MAO Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Apraclonidine.
AripiprazoleSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
AtomoxetineMAO Inhibitors may enhance the neurotoxic (central) effect of AtoMOXetine.
BenzquinamideSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
BetahistineMAO Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Betahistine.
BezafibrateMAO Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Bezafibrate.
BuprenorphineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of MAO Inhibitors.
BupropionMAO Inhibitors may enhance the hypertensive effect of BuPROPion.
BuspironeMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of MAO Inhibitors. Specifically, blood pressure elevations been reported.
CarbamazepineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of MAO Inhibitors.
CarphenazineSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
CathinoneMAO Inhibitors may enhance the hypertensive effect of Amphetamines. While linezolid and tedizolid may interact via this mechanism, management recommendations differ from other monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Refer to monographs specific to those agents for details.
ChlormezanoneSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
ChlorpromazineSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
ChlorprothixeneSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
ClozapineSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
CyclobenzaprineMay enhance the serotonergic effect of MAO Inhibitors. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
CyproheptadineMAO Inhibitors may enhance the anticholinergic effect of Cyproheptadine. Cyproheptadine may diminish the serotonergic effect of MAO Inhibitors.
DapoxetineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Serotonin Modulators.
DexmethylphenidateMAO Inhibitors may enhance the hypertensive effect of Dexmethylphenidate.
DextromethorphanMAO Inhibitors may enhance the serotonergic effect of Dextromethorphan. This may cause serotonin syndrome.
DiethylpropionMAO Inhibitors may enhance the hypertensive effect of Diethylpropion.
DomperidoneMAO Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Domperidone. MAO Inhibitors may diminish the therapeutic effect of Domperidone. Domperidone may diminish the therapeutic effect of MAO Inhibitors.
DoxapramMAO Inhibitors may enhance the hypertensive effect of Doxapram.
DoxylamineMAO Inhibitors may enhance the anticholinergic effect of Doxylamine.
DroperidolSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
FencamfamineSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
FlupentixolSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
FluphenazineSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
FluspirileneSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
HaloperidolSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
HydrocodoneMAO Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Hydrocodone.
HydromorphoneMAO Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of HYDROmorphone.
IsomethepteneMAO Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Isometheptene.
ItoprideAnticholinergic Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Itopride.
LevonordefrinMAO Inhibitors may enhance the hypertensive effect of Levonordefrin.
LinezolidMAO Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Linezolid.
LithiumMAO Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Lithium.
LoxapineSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
MaprotilineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of MAO Inhibitors.
MequitazineMAO Inhibitors may enhance the anticholinergic effect of Mequitazine.
MesoridazineSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
MethadoneMAO Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Methadone.
MethotrimeprazineSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
MethyldopaMAO Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Methyldopa.
MethylphenidateMAO Inhibitors may enhance the hypertensive effect of Methylphenidate.
MetoclopramideSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Metoclopramide. This may be manifest as symptoms consistent with serotonin syndrome or neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
MianserinMAO Inhibitors may enhance the neurotoxic effect of Mianserin.
MirabegronAnticholinergic Agents may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Mirabegron.
MirtazapineMAO Inhibitors may enhance the neurotoxic (central) effect of Mirtazapine. While methylene blue and linezolid are expected to interact, specific recommendations for their use differ from other monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Refer to monographs specific to those agents for details.
MolindoneSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
NorepinephrineMAO Inhibitors may enhance the hypertensive effect of Norepinephrine.
OlanzapineSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
OndansetronSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
OxycodoneMAO Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of OxyCODONE.
OxymorphoneMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of MAO Inhibitors.
PaliperidoneSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
PerphenazineSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
PimozideSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
PiperacetazineSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
PizotifenMAO Inhibitors may enhance the anticholinergic effect of Pizotifen.
Potassium ChlorideAnticholinergic Agents may enhance the ulcerogenic effect of Potassium Chloride.
PramlintideMay enhance the anticholinergic effect of Anticholinergic Agents. These effects are specific to the GI tract.
ProchlorperazineSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
PromazineSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
QuetiapineSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
RemoxiprideSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
ReserpineSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
RisperidoneSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
SecretinAnticholinergic Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Secretin.
SertindoleSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
SuccinylcholineMay enhance the neuromuscular-blocking effect of Succinylcholine.
SulpirideSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
TapentadolMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of MAO Inhibitors.
TetrabenazineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of MAO Inhibitors.
ThioridazineSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
ThiothixeneSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
TiotropiumAnticholinergic Agents may enhance the anticholinergic effect of Tiotropium.
TopiramateAnticholinergic Agents may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Topiramate.
TramadolMay enhance the neuroexcitatory and/or seizure-potentiating effect of MAO Inhibitors. TraMADol may enhance the serotonergic effect of MAO Inhibitors.
TrifluoperazineSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
TriflupromazineSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
ZiprasidoneSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
ZuclopenthixolSerotonin Modulators may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome.
Food Interactions
  • Avoid aged foods (cheese, red wine), pickled foods, cured foods (bacon/ham), chocolate, fava beans, beer, unless approved by your physician.
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Avoid excessive quantities of coffee or tea (Caffeine).
  • Avoid St.John's Wort.
  • Take without regard to meals.

Targets

1. Amine oxidase [flavin-containing] A

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Amine oxidase [flavin-containing] A P21397 Details

References:

  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed
  2. Chiche F, Le Guillou M, Chetrite G, Lasnier F, Dugail I, Carpene C, Moldes M, Feve B: Antidepressant phenelzine alters differentiation of cultured human and mouse preadipocytes. Mol Pharmacol. 2009 May;75(5):1052-61. Epub 2009 Feb 6. Pubmed
  3. Chenu F, El Mansari M, Blier P: Long-term administration of monoamine oxidase inhibitors alters the firing rate and pattern of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2009 May;12(4):475-85. Epub 2008 Aug 13. Pubmed
  4. Wooters TE, Bardo MT: The monoamine oxidase inhibitor phenelzine enhances the discriminative stimulus effect of nicotine in rats. Behav Pharmacol. 2007 Nov;18(7):601-8. Pubmed
  5. Volz HP, Gleiter CH: Monoamine oxidase inhibitors. A perspective on their use in the elderly. Drugs Aging. 1998 Nov;13(5):341-55. Pubmed
  6. Nolen WA: [Classical monoamine oxidase inhibitor: not registered for, but still a place in the treatment of depression] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2003 Oct 4;147(40):1940-3. Pubmed
  7. Pickar D, Murphy DL, Cohen RM, Campbell IC, Lipper S: Selective and nonselective monoamine oxidase inhibitors: behavioral disturbances during their administration to depressed patients. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1982 May;39(5):535-40. Pubmed
  8. MacKenzie EM, Grant SL, Baker GB, Wood PL: Phenelzine causes an increase in brain ornithine that is prevented by prior monoamine oxidase inhibition. Neurochem Res. 2008 Mar;33(3):430-6. Epub 2007 Aug 31. Pubmed
  9. McIntyre RS, Soczynska JK, Konarski JZ, Kennedy SH: The effect of antidepressants on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity: synthesis and mechanisms. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2006 Jan;5(1):157-68. Pubmed

2. Amine oxidase [flavin-containing] B

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Amine oxidase [flavin-containing] B P27338 Details

References:

  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed
  2. Chiche F, Le Guillou M, Chetrite G, Lasnier F, Dugail I, Carpene C, Moldes M, Feve B: Antidepressant phenelzine alters differentiation of cultured human and mouse preadipocytes. Mol Pharmacol. 2009 May;75(5):1052-61. Epub 2009 Feb 6. Pubmed
  3. Chenu F, El Mansari M, Blier P: Long-term administration of monoamine oxidase inhibitors alters the firing rate and pattern of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2009 May;12(4):475-85. Epub 2008 Aug 13. Pubmed
  4. Wooters TE, Bardo MT: The monoamine oxidase inhibitor phenelzine enhances the discriminative stimulus effect of nicotine in rats. Behav Pharmacol. 2007 Nov;18(7):601-8. Pubmed
  5. Volz HP, Gleiter CH: Monoamine oxidase inhibitors. A perspective on their use in the elderly. Drugs Aging. 1998 Nov;13(5):341-55. Pubmed
  6. Nolen WA: [Classical monoamine oxidase inhibitor: not registered for, but still a place in the treatment of depression] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2003 Oct 4;147(40):1940-3. Pubmed
  7. Pickar D, Murphy DL, Cohen RM, Campbell IC, Lipper S: Selective and nonselective monoamine oxidase inhibitors: behavioral disturbances during their administration to depressed patients. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1982 May;39(5):535-40. Pubmed
  8. McIntyre RS, Soczynska JK, Konarski JZ, Kennedy SH: The effect of antidepressants on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity: synthesis and mechanisms. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2006 Jan;5(1):157-68. Pubmed

3. Membrane primary amine oxidase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Membrane primary amine oxidase Q16853 Details

References:

  1. Tipnis UR, Tao M, Boor PJ: Purification and characterization of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase from porcine aorta. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 1992 Aug-Sep;38(5-6):575-84. Pubmed
  2. Kumar D, Trent MB, Boor PJ: Allylamine and beta-aminopropionitrile induced aortic medial necrosis: mechanisms of synergism. Toxicology. 1998 Feb 6;125(2-3):107-15. Pubmed
  3. Chiche F, Le Guillou M, Chetrite G, Lasnier F, Dugail I, Carpene C, Moldes M, Feve B: Antidepressant phenelzine alters differentiation of cultured human and mouse preadipocytes. Mol Pharmacol. 2009 May;75(5):1052-61. Epub 2009 Feb 6. Pubmed
  4. Biasi D, Caramaschi P, Pacor ML, Carletto A, Melchiori S, Manzo T, Bambara LM: [Multiple osseous avascular necrosis in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus with antiphospholipid antibody positivity] Recenti Prog Med. 1995 Nov;86(11):449-50. Pubmed
  5. MacKenzie EM, Grant SL, Baker GB, Wood PL: Phenelzine causes an increase in brain ornithine that is prevented by prior monoamine oxidase inhibition. Neurochem Res. 2008 Mar;33(3):430-6. Epub 2007 Aug 31. Pubmed
  6. Lizcano JM, Fernandez de Arriba A, Tipton KF, Unzeta M: Inhibition of bovine lung semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) by some hydrazine derivatives. Biochem Pharmacol. 1996 Jul 26;52(2):187-95. Pubmed

4. 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase, mitochondrial P80404 Details

References:

  1. MacKenzie EM, Grant SL, Baker GB, Wood PL: Phenelzine causes an increase in brain ornithine that is prevented by prior monoamine oxidase inhibition. Neurochem Res. 2008 Mar;33(3):430-6. Epub 2007 Aug 31. Pubmed
  2. Tanay VA, Parent MB, Wong JT, Paslawski T, Martin IL, Baker GB: Effects of the antidepressant/antipanic drug phenelzine on alanine and alanine transaminase in rat brain. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2001 Aug;21(4):325-39. Pubmed
  3. McKenna KF, McManus DJ, Baker GB, Coutts RT: Chronic administration of the antidepressant phenelzine and its N-acetyl analogue: effects on GABAergic function. J Neural Transm Suppl. 1994;41:115-22. Pubmed
  4. McManus DJ, Baker GB, Martin IL, Greenshaw AJ, McKenna KF: Effects of the antidepressant/antipanic drug phenelzine on GABA concentrations and GABA-transaminase activity in rat brain. Biochem Pharmacol. 1992 Jun 9;43(11):2486-9. Pubmed
  5. Todd KG, Baker GB: GABA-elevating effects of the antidepressant/antipanic drug phenelzine in brain: effects of pretreatment with tranylcypromine, (-)-deprenyl and clorgyline. J Affect Disord. 1995 Dec 13;35(3):125-9. Pubmed
  6. Todd KG, Baker GB: Neurochemical effects of the monoamine oxidase inhibitor phenelzine on brain GABA and alanine: A comparison with vigabatrin. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2008 May 16;11(2):14s-21s. Pubmed
  7. McKenna KF, Baker GB, Coutts RT: N2-acetylphenelzine: effects on rat brain GABA, alanine and biogenic amines. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 1991 May;343(5):478-82. Pubmed

5. Alanine aminotransferase 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Alanine aminotransferase 1 P24298 Details

References:

  1. Todd KG, Baker GB: Neurochemical effects of the monoamine oxidase inhibitor phenelzine on brain GABA and alanine: A comparison with vigabatrin. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2008 May 16;11(2):14s-21s. Pubmed
  2. Tanay VA, Parent MB, Wong JT, Paslawski T, Martin IL, Baker GB: Effects of the antidepressant/antipanic drug phenelzine on alanine and alanine transaminase in rat brain. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2001 Aug;21(4):325-39. Pubmed
  3. McKenna KF, Baker GB, Coutts RT: N2-acetylphenelzine: effects on rat brain GABA, alanine and biogenic amines. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 1991 May;343(5):478-82. Pubmed

6. Alanine aminotransferase 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Alanine aminotransferase 2 Q8TD30 Details

References:

  1. Todd KG, Baker GB: Neurochemical effects of the monoamine oxidase inhibitor phenelzine on brain GABA and alanine: A comparison with vigabatrin. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2008 May 16;11(2):14s-21s. Pubmed
  2. Tanay VA, Parent MB, Wong JT, Paslawski T, Martin IL, Baker GB: Effects of the antidepressant/antipanic drug phenelzine on alanine and alanine transaminase in rat brain. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2001 Aug;21(4):325-39. Pubmed
  3. McKenna KF, Baker GB, Coutts RT: N2-acetylphenelzine: effects on rat brain GABA, alanine and biogenic amines. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 1991 May;343(5):478-82. Pubmed

7. Glutamic acid decarboxylase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutamic acid decarboxylase Q9UGI5 Details

References:

  1. McKenna KF, McManus DJ, Baker GB, Coutts RT: Chronic administration of the antidepressant phenelzine and its N-acetyl analogue: effects on GABAergic function. J Neural Transm Suppl. 1994;41:115-22. Pubmed

Enzymes

1. Amine oxidase [flavin-containing] A

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Amine oxidase [flavin-containing] A P21397 Details

References:

  1. MacKenzie EM, Grant SL, Baker GB, Wood PL: Phenelzine causes an increase in brain ornithine that is prevented by prior monoamine oxidase inhibition. Neurochem Res. 2008 Mar;33(3):430-6. Epub 2007 Aug 31. Pubmed

2. Amine oxidase [flavin-containing] B

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Amine oxidase [flavin-containing] B P27338 Details

References:

  1. MacKenzie EM, Grant SL, Baker GB, Wood PL: Phenelzine causes an increase in brain ornithine that is prevented by prior monoamine oxidase inhibition. Neurochem Res. 2008 Mar;33(3):430-6. Epub 2007 Aug 31. Pubmed
  2. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed

3. Cytochrome P450 2E1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inducer

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2E1 P05181 Details

References:

  1. Runge-Morris M, Feng Y, Zangar RC, Novak RF: Effects of hydrazine, phenelzine, and hydralazine treatment on rat hepatic and renal drug-metabolizing enzyme expression. Drug Metab Dispos. 1996 Jul;24(7):734-7. Pubmed

4. Cytochrome P450 2C19

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2C19 P33261 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

5. Cytochrome P450 2C8

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2C8 P10632 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

6. Cytochrome P450 3A4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A4 P08684 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

7. Cytochrome P450 3A43

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A43 Q9HB55 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

8. Cytochrome P450 3A5

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A5 P20815 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

9. Cytochrome P450 3A7

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A7 P24462 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:12