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Identification
NameTriazolam
Accession NumberDB00897  (APRD00313)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
Description

Withdrawn in the United Kingdom due to risk of psychiatric adverse drug reactions. This drug continues to be available in the U.S. Internationally, triazolam is a Schedule IV drug under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Halcion
Triazolam
Triazolam
Triazolam
Triazolamum
External Identifiers
  • DEA No. 2887
  • U 33030
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Alti-triazolam Tab 0.125mgtablet.125 mgoralAltimed Pharma Inc.1987-12-312001-09-05Canada
Alti-triazolam Tab 0.25mgtablet.25 mgoralAltimed Pharma Inc.1987-12-312001-09-05Canada
Halciontablet0.125 mgoralPfizer Canada Inc1980-12-312006-08-02Canada
Halciontablet.25 mg/1oralPharmacia and Upjohn Company1982-11-15Not applicableUs
Halciontablet0.25 mgoralPfizer Canada Inc1978-12-312007-05-29Canada
Mylan-triazolamtablet0.25 mgoralMylan Pharmaceuticals Ulc1992-12-312011-03-04Canada
Mylan-triazolamtablet0.125 mgoralMylan Pharmaceuticals Ulc1992-12-312011-03-04Canada
Novo-triolam Tab 0.125mgtablet.125 mgoralNovopharm Limited1990-12-312005-08-10Canada
Novo-triolam Tab 0.25mgtablet.25 mgoralNovopharm Limited1990-12-312005-08-10Canada
Penta-triazolam Tabletstablet.125 mgoralPentapharm Ltd.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
Penta-triazolam Tabletstablet.25 mgoralPentapharm Ltd.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
Triazolamtablet.25 mg/1oralGreenstone LLC1982-11-15Not applicableUs
Triazolamtablet.125 mg/1oralGreenstone LLC1982-11-15Not applicableUs
Triazolamtablet0.125 mgoralAa Pharma Inc1989-12-312014-11-07Canada
Triazolamtablet.25 mg/1oralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.1982-11-15Not applicableUs
Triazolamtablet.25 mg/1oralA S Medication Solutions Llc1982-11-15Not applicableUs
Triazolamtablet.25 mg/1oralA S Medication Solutions Llc1982-11-15Not applicableUs
Triazolamtablet.25 mg/1oralSTAT Rx USA LLC1982-11-15Not applicableUs
Triazolamtablet0.25 mgoralAa Pharma Inc1989-12-31Not applicableCanada
Triazolam Tab 0.125mgtablet.125 mgoralPro Doc Limitee1990-12-312009-07-23Canada
Triazolam Tab 0.25mgtablet.25 mgoralPro Doc Limitee1990-12-312009-07-23Canada
Triazolam Tablets 0.125mgtablet0.125 mgoralPrempharm Inc1997-01-052005-08-05Canada
Triazolam Tablets 0.25mgtablet0.25 mgoralPrempharm Inc1997-04-302005-08-05Canada
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Triazolamtablet.125 mg/1oralRoxane Laboratories, Inc.2009-07-13Not applicableUs
Triazolamtablet.25 mg/1oralUnit Dose Services1994-06-01Not applicableUs
Triazolamtablet.25 mg/1oralLake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC2011-06-01Not applicableUs
Triazolamtablet.125 mg/1oralRebel Distributors Corp2009-07-13Not applicableUs
Triazolamtablet.25 mg/1oralPreferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2013-11-05Not applicableUs
Triazolamtablet.25 mg/1oralRebel Distributors Corp1994-06-01Not applicableUs
Triazolamtablet.25 mg/1oralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Inc.1994-06-01Not applicableUs
Triazolamtablet.25 mg/1oralRoxane Laboratories, Inc.1994-06-012016-01-30Us
Triazolamtablet.25 mg/1oralbryant ranch prepack1994-06-01Not applicableUs
Triazolamtablet.125 mg/1oralRoxane Laboratories, Inc.1994-06-01Not applicableUs
Triazolamtablet.25 mg/1oralA S Medication Solutions Llc1994-06-01Not applicableUs
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
Apo-TriazoApotex
ArringYungShin
AsasionChoseido Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd
AscomarnaNisshin Seiyaku K.K
SongarValeas S.p.A.
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNII1HM943223R
CAS number28911-01-5
WeightAverage: 343.21
Monoisotopic: 342.043901818
Chemical FormulaC17H12Cl2N4
InChI KeyInChIKey=JOFWLTCLBGQGBO-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C17H12Cl2N4/c1-10-21-22-16-9-20-17(12-4-2-3-5-14(12)19)13-8-11(18)6-7-15(13)23(10)16/h2-8H,9H2,1H3
IUPAC Name
12-chloro-9-(2-chlorophenyl)-3-methyl-2,4,5,8-tetraazatricyclo[8.4.0.0²,⁶]tetradeca-1(10),3,5,8,11,13-hexaene
SMILES
CC1=NN=C2CN=C(C3=CC=CC=C3Cl)C3=C(C=CC(Cl)=C3)N12
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as 1,4-benzodiazepines. These are organic compounds containing a benzene ring fused to a 1,4-azepine.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassBenzodiazepines
Sub Class1,4-benzodiazepines
Direct Parent1,4-benzodiazepines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • 1,4-benzodiazepine
  • Phenyl-1,3,4-triazole
  • Phenyl-1,2,4-triazole
  • Phenyltriazole
  • Halobenzene
  • Chlorobenzene
  • Benzenoid
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Aryl halide
  • Aryl chloride
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • 1,2,4-triazole
  • Triazole
  • Azole
  • Ketimine
  • Azacycle
  • Organic 1,3-dipolar compound
  • Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organochloride
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Imine
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the short-term treatment of insomnia.
PharmacodynamicsA short-acting benzodiazepine used as a hypnotic agent in the treatment of insomnia. Some countries temporarily withdrew triazolam from the market because of concerns about adverse reactions, mostly psychological, associated with higher dose ranges. Its use at lower doses with appropriate care and labeling has been reaffirmed by the FDA and most other countries. Triazolam has a shorter half-life than chlordiazepoxide, flurazepam, and prazepam and does not generate active metabolites.
Mechanism of actionBenzodiazepines bind nonspecifically to bezodiazepine receptors BNZ1, which mediates sleep, and BNZ2, which affects affects muscle relaxation, anticonvulsant activity, motor coordination, and memory. As benzodiazepine receptors are thought to be coupled to gamma-aminobutyric acid-A (GABAA) receptors, this enhances the effects of GABA by increasing GABA affinity for the GABA receptor. Binding of GABA to the site opens the chloride channel, resulting in a hyperpolarized cell membrane that prevents further excitation of the cell.
Related Articles
AbsorptionBioavailability is 44% (oral) and 53% (sublingual).
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism

Hepatic. Small amounts of unmetabolized triazolam appear in the urine.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Triazolam
4-hydroxytriazolamDetails
Triazolam
1'-hydroxytriazolamDetails
Route of eliminationTriazolam and its metabolites, principally as conjugated glucuronides, which are presumably inactive, are excreted primarily in the urine. Only small amounts of unmetabolized triazolam appear in the urine. The two primary metabolites accounted for 79.9% of urinary excretion.
Half life1.5-5.5 hours
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicitySymptoms of overdose include drowsiness, slurred speech, motor inco-ordination, coma, and respiratory depression.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+1.0
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9719
Caco-2 permeable+0.886
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.5252
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.6788
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.8331
Renal organic cation transporterInhibitor0.7628
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7898
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9208
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.751
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.8598
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorInhibitor0.815
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8226
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorInhibitor0.7117
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.5596
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9088
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9132
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.6714
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable1.0
Rat acute toxicity1.9971 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9638
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8806
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Pharmacia and upjohn co
  • Alphapharm party ltd
  • Roxane laboratories inc
  • Watson laboratories inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Tabletoral.25 mg/1
Tabletoral0.125 mg
Tabletoral.125 mg
Tabletoral.25 mg
Tabletoral.125 mg/1
Tabletoral0.25 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Halcion 10 0.25 mg tablet Bottle21.0USD bottle
Triazolam 10 0.125 mg tablet Bottle6.33USD bottle
Triazolam 10 0.25 mg tablet Bottle6.0USD bottle
Halcion 0.25 mg tablet1.99USD tablet
Halcion 0.125 mg tablet1.37USD tablet
Triazolam 0.25 mg tablet0.67USD tablet
Triazolam 0.125 mg tablet0.65USD tablet
Apo-Triazo 0.25 mg Tablet0.22USD tablet
Mylan-Triazolam 0.25 mg Tablet0.22USD tablet
Apo-Triazo 0.125 mg Tablet0.12USD tablet
Mylan-Triazolam 0.125 mg Tablet0.12USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point233-235 °CNot Available
water solubility4.53 mg/LNot Available
logP2.42BIOBYTE (1995)
logS-4.08ADME Research, USCD
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0183 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.94ALOGPS
logP2.89ChemAxon
logS-4.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)18.08ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)4.32ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area43.07 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity103.68 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability34.19 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0imr-4954000000-75bcea16a1182103168fView in MoNA
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General References
  1. Rickels K: The clinical use of hypnotics: indications for use and the need for a variety of hypnotics. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl. 1986;332:132-41. [PubMed:2883820 ]
  2. Oelschlager H: [Chemical and pharmacologic aspects of benzodiazepines]. Schweiz Rundsch Med Prax. 1989 Jul 4;78(27-28):766-72. [PubMed:2570451 ]
  3. Noguchi H, Kitazumi K, Mori M, Shiba T: Electroencephalographic properties of zaleplon, a non-benzodiazepine sedative/hypnotic, in rats. J Pharmacol Sci. 2004 Mar;94(3):246-51. [PubMed:15037809 ]
  4. Tokunaga S, Takeda Y, Shinomiya K, Hirase M, Kamei C: Effects of some H1-antagonists on the sleep-wake cycle in sleep-disturbed rats. J Pharmacol Sci. 2007 Feb;103(2):201-6. Epub 2007 Feb 8. [PubMed:17287588 ]
  5. Veje JO, Andersen K, Gjesing S, Kielgast H: [Prescription of tranquilizers and hypnotics in the municipality of Holbaek]. Ugeskr Laeger. 1989 Aug 21;151(34):2134-6. [PubMed:2773144 ]
External Links
ATC CodesN05CD05
AHFS Codes
  • 28:24.08
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (5.44 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AminophyllineThe therapeutic efficacy of Triazolam can be decreased when used in combination with Aminophylline.
AmodiaquineThe serum concentration of Amodiaquine can be increased when it is combined with Triazolam.
AprepitantThe serum concentration of Triazolam can be increased when it is combined with Aprepitant.
AtazanavirThe serum concentration of Triazolam can be increased when it is combined with Atazanavir.
AzelastineTriazolam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Azelastine.
BaclofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Triazolam.
BatimastatThe serum concentration of Triazolam can be increased when it is combined with Batimastat.
BexaroteneThe serum concentration of Triazolam can be decreased when it is combined with Bexarotene.
BoceprevirThe serum concentration of Triazolam can be increased when it is combined with Boceprevir.
BosentanThe serum concentration of Triazolam can be decreased when it is combined with Bosentan.
BrimonidineBrimonidine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Triazolam.
BuprenorphineTriazolam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Buprenorphine.
ClarithromycinThe serum concentration of Triazolam can be increased when it is combined with Clarithromycin.
ClozapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Triazolam is combined with Clozapine.
CobicistatThe serum concentration of Triazolam can be increased when it is combined with Cobicistat.
ConivaptanThe serum concentration of Triazolam can be increased when it is combined with Conivaptan.
DabrafenibThe serum concentration of Triazolam can be decreased when it is combined with Dabrafenib.
DarunavirThe serum concentration of Triazolam can be increased when it is combined with Darunavir.
DasatinibThe serum concentration of Triazolam can be increased when it is combined with Dasatinib.
DeferasiroxThe serum concentration of Triazolam can be decreased when it is combined with Deferasirox.
DexamethasoneThe serum concentration of Triazolam can be decreased when it is combined with Dexamethasone.
DoxylamineDoxylamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Triazolam.
DronabinolDronabinol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Triazolam.
DroperidolDroperidol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Triazolam.
DyphyllineThe therapeutic efficacy of Triazolam can be decreased when used in combination with Dyphylline.
ErythromycinThe serum concentration of Triazolam can be increased when it is combined with Erythromycin.
EthanolTriazolam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ethanol.
FluconazoleThe metabolism of Triazolam can be decreased when combined with Fluconazole.
FosamprenavirThe serum concentration of Triazolam can be increased when it is combined with Fosamprenavir.
FosaprepitantThe serum concentration of Triazolam can be increased when it is combined with Fosaprepitant.
FosphenytoinThe serum concentration of Fosphenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Triazolam.
Fusidic AcidThe serum concentration of Triazolam can be increased when it is combined with Fusidic Acid.
Gamma Hydroxybutyric AcidTriazolam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
HydrocodoneTriazolam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Hydrocodone.
HydroxyzineHydroxyzine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Triazolam.
IdelalisibThe serum concentration of Triazolam can be increased when it is combined with Idelalisib.
IndinavirThe serum concentration of Triazolam can be increased when it is combined with Indinavir.
IsoflurophateThe serum concentration of Triazolam can be increased when it is combined with Isoflurophate.
ItraconazoleThe serum concentration of Triazolam can be increased when it is combined with Itraconazole.
IvacaftorThe serum concentration of Triazolam can be increased when it is combined with Ivacaftor.
KetoconazoleThe serum concentration of Triazolam can be increased when it is combined with Ketoconazole.
LorazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lorazepam is combined with Triazolam.
LuliconazoleThe serum concentration of Triazolam can be increased when it is combined with Luliconazole.
Magnesium SulfateMagnesium Sulfate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Triazolam.
MethadoneTriazolam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Methadone.
MethotrimeprazineTriazolam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Methotrimeprazine.
MetyrosineTriazolam may increase the sedative activities of Metyrosine.
MifepristoneThe serum concentration of Triazolam can be increased when it is combined with Mifepristone.
MinocyclineMinocycline may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Triazolam.
MirtazapineTriazolam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Mirtazapine.
MitotaneThe serum concentration of Triazolam can be decreased when it is combined with Mitotane.
NabiloneNabilone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Triazolam.
NelfinavirThe serum concentration of Triazolam can be increased when it is combined with Nelfinavir.
NetupitantThe serum concentration of Triazolam can be increased when it is combined with Netupitant.
OlanzapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Olanzapine is combined with Triazolam.
OrphenadrineTriazolam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Orphenadrine.
PalbociclibThe serum concentration of Triazolam can be increased when it is combined with Palbociclib.
ParaldehydeTriazolam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Paraldehyde.
ParoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Triazolam is combined with Paroxetine.
PerampanelPerampanel may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Triazolam.
PhenytoinThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Triazolam.
PramipexoleTriazolam may increase the sedative activities of Pramipexole.
RitonavirThe serum concentration of Triazolam can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
RopiniroleTriazolam may increase the sedative activities of Ropinirole.
RotigotineTriazolam may increase the sedative activities of Rotigotine.
RufinamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Triazolam.
SaquinavirThe serum concentration of Triazolam can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
SiltuximabThe serum concentration of Triazolam can be decreased when it is combined with Siltuximab.
SimeprevirThe serum concentration of Triazolam can be increased when it is combined with Simeprevir.
Sodium oxybateTriazolam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Sodium oxybate.
St. John's WortThe serum concentration of Triazolam can be decreased when it is combined with St. John's Wort.
StiripentolThe serum concentration of Triazolam can be increased when it is combined with Stiripentol.
SuvorexantTriazolam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Suvorexant.
TapentadolTapentadol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Triazolam.
TeduglutideThe serum concentration of Triazolam can be increased when it is combined with Teduglutide.
TelaprevirThe serum concentration of Triazolam can be increased when it is combined with Telaprevir.
TelithromycinThe serum concentration of Triazolam can be increased when it is combined with Telithromycin.
ThalidomideTriazolam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Thalidomide.
TheophyllineThe therapeutic efficacy of Triazolam can be decreased when used in combination with Theophylline.
TipranavirThe serum concentration of Triazolam can be increased when it is combined with Tipranavir.
TocilizumabThe serum concentration of Triazolam can be decreased when it is combined with Tocilizumab.
YohimbineThe therapeutic efficacy of Triazolam can be decreased when used in combination with Yohimbine.
ZolpidemTriazolam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
potentiator
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel (By si...
Gene Name:
GABRA1
Uniprot ID:
P14867
Molecular Weight:
51801.395 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090 ]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
potentiator
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA2
Uniprot ID:
P47869
Molecular Weight:
51325.85 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090 ]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
potentiator
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA3
Uniprot ID:
P34903
Molecular Weight:
55164.055 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090 ]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
potentiator
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA4
Uniprot ID:
P48169
Molecular Weight:
61622.645 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090 ]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
potentiator
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA5
Uniprot ID:
P31644
Molecular Weight:
52145.645 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090 ]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
potentiator
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA6
Uniprot ID:
Q16445
Molecular Weight:
51023.69 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090 ]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
potentiator
General Function:
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel (By si...
Gene Name:
GABRB1
Uniprot ID:
P18505
Molecular Weight:
54234.085 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090 ]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
potentiator
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRB2
Uniprot ID:
P47870
Molecular Weight:
59149.895 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090 ]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
potentiator
General Function:
Gaba-gated chloride ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRB3
Uniprot ID:
P28472
Molecular Weight:
54115.04 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090 ]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
potentiator
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRG1
Uniprot ID:
Q8N1C3
Molecular Weight:
53594.49 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090 ]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
potentiator
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRG2
Uniprot ID:
P18507
Molecular Weight:
54161.78 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090 ]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
potentiator
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRG3
Uniprot ID:
Q99928
Molecular Weight:
54288.16 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090 ]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
potentiator
General Function:
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRD
Uniprot ID:
O14764
Molecular Weight:
50707.835 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090 ]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
potentiator
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRE
Uniprot ID:
P78334
Molecular Weight:
57971.175 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090 ]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
potentiator
General Function:
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. In the uterus, the function of the receptor appears to be related to tissue contractility. The binding of this pI subunit with other GABA(A) receptor subunits alters the sensitivity of recombinant receptors to ...
Gene Name:
GABRP
Uniprot ID:
O00591
Molecular Weight:
50639.735 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090 ]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
potentiator
General Function:
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. Rho-1 GABA receptor could play a role in retinal neurotransmission.
Gene Name:
GABRR1
Uniprot ID:
P24046
Molecular Weight:
55882.91 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090 ]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
potentiator
General Function:
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. Rho-2 GABA receptor could play a role in retinal neurotransmission.
Gene Name:
GABRR2
Uniprot ID:
P28476
Molecular Weight:
54150.41 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090 ]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
potentiator
General Function:
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRR3
Uniprot ID:
A8MPY1
Molecular Weight:
54271.1 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090 ]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
potentiator
General Function:
Transmembrane signaling receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRQ
Uniprot ID:
Q9UN88
Molecular Weight:
72020.875 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090 ]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
other
General Function:
Cholesterol binding
Specific Function:
Can bind protoporphyrin IX and may play a role in the transport of porphyrins and heme (By similarity). Promotes the transport of cholesterol across mitochondrial membranes and may play a role in lipid metabolism (PubMed:24814875), but its precise physiological role is controversial. It is apparently not required for steroid hormone biosynthesis. Was initially identified as peripheral-type benz...
Gene Name:
TSPO
Uniprot ID:
P30536
Molecular Weight:
18827.81 Da
References
  1. Park CH, Carboni E, Wood PL, Gee KW: Characterization of peripheral benzodiazepine type sites in a cultured murine BV-2 microglial cell line. Glia. 1996 Jan;16(1):65-70. [PubMed:8787774 ]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
positive allosteric modulator
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel (By similarity).
Components:
NameUniProt IDDetails
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1P14867 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2P47869 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3P34903 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4P48169 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5P31644 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6Q16445 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-1P18505 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2P47870 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-3P28472 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit deltaO14764 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit epsilonP78334 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-1Q8N1C3 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2P18507 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-3Q99928 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit piO00591 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit thetaQ9UN88 Details
References
  1. ChEMBL Compound Report Card [Link]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiot...
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  2. Williams JA, Ring BJ, Cantrell VE, Jones DR, Eckstein J, Ruterbories K, Hamman MA, Hall SD, Wrighton SA: Comparative metabolic capabilities of CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP3A7. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 Aug;30(8):883-91. [PubMed:12124305 ]
  3. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Oxygen binding
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID:
P20815
Molecular Weight:
57108.065 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  2. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Oxygen binding
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A7
Uniprot ID:
P24462
Molecular Weight:
57525.03 Da
References
  1. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. In the epoxidation of arachidonic acid it generates only 14,15- and 11,12-cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. It is the principal enzyme...
Gene Name:
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID:
P10632
Molecular Weight:
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenyto...
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular Weight:
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on October 06, 2013 22:28