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Identification
NameZonisamide
Accession NumberDB00909  (APRD00004)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Investigational
Description

Zonisamide is a sulfonamide anticonvulsant approved for use as an adjunctive therapy in adults with partial-onset seizures. Zonisamide may be a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor although this is not one of the primary mechanisms of action. Zonisamide may act by blocking repetitive firing of voltage-gated sodium channels leading to a reduction of T-type calcium channel currents, or by binding allosterically to GABA receptors. This latter action may inhibit the uptake of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA while enhancing the uptake of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
1,2-Benzisoxazole-3-methanesulfonamide
3-(Sulfamoylmethyl)-1,2-benzisoxazole
Benzo[D]isoxazol-3-yl-methanesulfonamide
Zonisamida
Zonisamidum
External Identifiers Not Available
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Zonegrancapsule100 mg/1oralConcordia Pharmaceuticals Inc.2000-03-27Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Zonegrancapsule25 mg/1oralEisai Inc.2000-03-27Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Zonegrancapsule100 mg/1oralEisai Inc.2000-03-27Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Zonegrancapsule25 mg/1oralConcordia Pharmaceuticals Inc.2000-03-27Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Direct Rxcapsule100 mg/1oralDIRECT RX2015-01-01Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Zonisamidecapsule50 mg/1oralGlenmark Pharmaceuticals Inc., Usa2006-01-30Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Zonisamidecapsule100 mg/1oralMylan Institutional Inc.2006-01-25Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Zonisamidecapsule25 mg/1oralEon Labs, Inc.2005-12-22Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Zonisamidecapsule50 mg/1oralbryant ranch prepack2006-07-27Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Zonisamidecapsule100 mg/1oralSTAT Rx USA LLC2006-03-17Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Zonisamidecapsule50 mg/1oralWockhardt Limited2006-07-27Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Zonisamidecapsule100 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2013-07-192016-07-31Us 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Zonisamidecapsule25 mg/1oralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2012-10-22Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Zonisamidecapsule100 mg/1oralDIRECT RX2014-01-01Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Zonisamidecapsule25 mg/1oralbryant ranch prepack2006-03-17Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Zonisamidecapsule100 mg/1oralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2012-10-22Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Zonisamidecapsule25 mg/1oralWockhardt Limited2006-07-27Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Zonisamidecapsule100 mg/1oralBlue Point Laboratories2014-03-13Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Zonisamidecapsule100 mg/1oralLake Erie Medical & Surgical Supply DBA Quality Care Products LLC2012-02-14Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Zonisamidecapsule50 mg/1oralDIRECT RX2015-01-01Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Zonisamidecapsule100 mg/1oralbryant ranch prepack2006-03-17Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Zonisamidecapsule100 mg/1oralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2012-10-22Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Zonisamidecapsule50 mg/1oralDr. Reddy's Laboratories Limited2005-12-22Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Zonisamidecapsule50 mg/1oralBlue Point Laboratories2014-03-13Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Zonisamidecapsule100 mg/1oralAidarex Pharmaceuticals LLC2005-12-22Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Zonisamidecapsule100 mg/1oralApotex Corp.2005-12-22Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Zonisamidecapsule100 mg/1oralProficient Rx LP2006-01-30Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Zonisamidecapsule50 mg/1oralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2012-10-22Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Zonisamidecapsule25 mg/1oralDr. Reddy's Laboratories Limited2005-12-22Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Zonisamidecapsule100 mg/1oralCamber Pharmaceuticals2012-02-21Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Zonisamidecapsule50 mg/1oralApotex Corp.2005-12-22Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Zonisamidecapsule25 mg/1oralBlue Point Laboratories2014-03-13Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Zonisamidecapsule25 mg/1oralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2012-10-22Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Zonisamidecapsule100 mg/1oralDr. Reddy's Laboratories Limited2005-12-22Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Zonisamidecapsule100 mg/1oralSun Pharmaceutical Industries Limited2006-03-17Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Zonisamidecapsule50 mg/1oralRebel Distributors Corp2006-03-17Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Zonisamidecapsule25 mg/1oralApotex Corp.2005-12-22Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Zonisamidecapsule100 mg/1oralWockhardt USA LLC.2005-12-22Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Zonisamidecapsule100 mg/1oralEon Labs, Inc.2005-12-22Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Zonisamidecapsule100 mg/1oralExelan Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2006-07-05Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Zonisamidecapsule50 mg/1oralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2010-12-29Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Zonisamidecapsule50 mg/1oralSun Pharmaceutical Industries Limited2006-03-17Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Zonisamidecapsule100 mg/1oralLake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC2012-10-22Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Zonisamidecapsule50 mg/1oralWockhardt USA LLC.2006-07-27Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Zonisamidecapsule100 mg/1oralRebel Distributors Corp2006-03-17Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Zonisamidecapsule25 mg/1oralGlenmark Pharmaceuticals Inc., Usa2006-01-30Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Zonisamidecapsule100 mg/1oralAv Pak2014-07-02Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Zonisamidecapsule50 mg/1oralDIRECT RX2014-01-01Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Zonisamidecapsule100 mg/1oralGlenmark Pharmaceuticals Inc., Usa2006-01-30Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Zonisamidecapsule100 mg/1oralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2007-07-11Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Zonisamidecapsule25 mg/1oralSun Pharmaceutical Industries Limited2006-03-17Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Zonisamidecapsule50 mg/1oralEon Labs, Inc.2005-12-22Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Zonisamidecapsule25 mg/1oralWockhardt USA LLC.2006-07-27Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Zonisamidecapsule25 mg/1oralSTAT Rx USA LLC2006-07-27Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Zonisamidecapsule100 mg/1oralWockhardt Limited2005-12-22Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Zonisamidecapsule100 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2014-12-15Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Zonisamidecapsule100 mg/1oralAv Pak2005-12-222016-01-15Us 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Zonisamidecapsule50 mg/1oralDIRECT RX2015-01-01Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
International Brands
NameCompany
ExceglanNot Available
ExcegramNot Available
ExcegranNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNII459384H98V
CAS number68291-97-4
WeightAverage: 212.226
Monoisotopic: 212.025562822
Chemical FormulaC8H8N2O3S
InChI KeyInChIKey=UBQNRHZMVUUOMG-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C8H8N2O3S/c9-14(11,12)5-7-6-3-1-2-4-8(6)13-10-7/h1-4H,5H2,(H2,9,11,12)
IUPAC Name
1,2-benzoxazol-3-ylmethanesulfonamide
SMILES
NS(=O)(=O)CC1=NOC2=CC=CC=C12
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as benzisoxazoles. These are aromatic compounds containing a benzene ring fused to an isoxazole ring. Isoxazole is five-membered ring with three carbon atoms, and an oxygen atom next to a nitrogen atom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassBenzisoxazoles
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentBenzisoxazoles
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Benzisoxazole
  • Benzenoid
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Aminosulfonyl compound
  • Sulfonyl
  • Sulfonic acid derivative
  • Sulfonamide
  • Oxazole
  • Isoxazole
  • Azole
  • Oxacycle
  • Azacycle
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organosulfur compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor use as adjunctive treatment of partial seizures in adults with epilepsy.
PharmacodynamicsZonisamide is an antiseizure drug chemically classified as a sulfonamide and unrelated to other antiseizure agents. The precise mechanism by which zonisamide exerts its antiseizure effect is unknown, although it is believed that the drug blocks sodium and calcium channels, which leads to the suppression of neuronal hypersynchronization (i.e. convulsions). Sonisamide has also been found to potentiate dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmission but does not appear to potentiate syanptic activity by GABA (gamma amino butyric acid).
Mechanism of actionZonisamide binds to sodium channels and voltage sensitive calcium channels, which suppresses neuronal depolarization and hypersynchronization. Zonisamide also inhibits carbonic anhydrase to a weaker extent, but such an effect is not thought to contribute substantially to the drug's anticonvulsant activity.
AbsorptionVariable, yet relatively rapid rate of absorption with a time to peak concentration of 2.8-3.9 hours. Food has no effect on the bioavailability of zonisamide.
Volume of distribution
  • 1.45 L/kg
Protein binding40% (at concentrations of 1.0-7.0 µg/mL)
Metabolism

Primarily hepatic through cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 3A4 (CYP3A4). Undergoes acetylation and reduction, forming N-acetyl zonisamide, and the open-ring metabolite 2–sulfamoylacetyl phenol, respectively.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Zonisamide
2-sulfamoylacetylphenolDetails
Zonisamide
Not Available
N-acetyl zonisamideDetails
Route of eliminationZonisamide is excreted primarily in urine as parent drug and as the glucuronide of a metabolite.
Half life63 hours
Clearance
  • 0.30 – 0.35 mL/min/kg [patients not receiving enzyme-inducing antiepilepsy drugs (AEDs)]
  • 0.35 – 0.5 mL/min/kg [Concomitant administration of phenytoin and carbamazepine]
ToxicitySymptoms of overdose include diminished breathing, loss of consciousness, low blood pressure, and slow heartbeat.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+1.0
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9755
Caco-2 permeable-0.6385
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.8681
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9258
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9513
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8463
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8828
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.5419
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.5762
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.697
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8081
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.6007
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8141
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.7315
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.6276
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.7572
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9708
Rat acute toxicity2.0592 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8549
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8937
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Eisai inc
  • Alphapharm party ltd
  • Apotex inc etobicoke site
  • Banner pharmacaps inc
  • Barr laboratories inc
  • Corepharma llc
  • Dr reddys laboratories ltd
  • Glenmark generics inc usa
  • Invagen pharmaceuticals inc
  • Mutual pharmaceutical co inc
  • Mylan pharmaceuticals inc
  • Roxane laboratories inc
  • Sandoz inc
  • Sun pharmaceutical industries ltd
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • Wockhardt ltd
  • Zydus pharmaceuticals usa inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Capsuleoral100 mg/1
Capsuleoral25 mg/1
Capsuleoral50 mg/1
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Zonegran 100 mg capsule3.33USD capsule
Zonisamide 100 mg capsule2.24USD capsule
Zonegran 50 mg capsule1.22USD capsule
Zonisamide 50 mg capsule1.12USD capsule
Zonegran 25 mg capsule0.94USD capsule
Zonisamide 25 mg capsule0.56USD capsule
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point161-163 °CNot Available
water solubility0.8 mg/mLNot Available
logP0.5Not Available
pKa10.2Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility2.09 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.67ALOGPS
logP0.11ChemAxon
logS-2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)9.84ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-1.8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area86.19 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity50.3 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability19.48 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Tamar Nidam, “Novel sulfonation method for zonisamide intermediate in zonisamide synthesis and their novel crystal forms.” U.S. Patent US20030114682, issued June 19, 2003.

US20030114682
General References
  1. Murata M, Horiuchi E, Kanazawa I: Zonisamide has beneficial effects on Parkinson’s disease patients. Neurosci Res. 2001 Dec;41(4):397-9. Pubmed
  2. Gadde KM, Franciscy DM, Wagner HR 2nd, Krishnan KR: Zonisamide for weight loss in obese adults: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2003 Apr 9;289(14):1820-5. Pubmed
  3. Hasegawa H: Utilization of zonisamide in patients with chronic pain or epilepsy refractory to other treatments: a retrospective, open label, uncontrolled study in a VA hospital. Curr Med Res Opin. 2004 May;20(5):577-80. Pubmed
  4. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. Pubmed
  5. Ueda Y, Doi T, Tokumaru J, Willmore LJ: Effect of zonisamide on molecular regulation of glutamate and GABA transporter proteins during epileptogenesis in rats with hippocampal seizures. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2003 Aug 19;116(1-2):1-6. Pubmed
  6. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. Pubmed
  7. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. Pubmed
  8. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. Pubmed
  9. Peters DH, Sorkin EM: Zonisamide. A review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and therapeutic potential in epilepsy. Drugs. 1993 May;45(5):760-87. Pubmed
  10. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. Pubmed
External Links
ATC CodesN03AX15
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (124 KB)
MSDSDownload (58.3 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AcetazolamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acetazolamide is combined with Zonisamide.
Acetylsalicylic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acetylsalicylic acid is combined with Zonisamide.
AmphetamineZonisamide may decrease the excretion rate of Amphetamine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
AprepitantThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be increased when it is combined with Aprepitant.
AzelastineZonisamide may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Azelastine.
BaclofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Zonisamide.
BexaroteneThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be decreased when it is combined with Bexarotene.
BosentanThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be decreased when it is combined with Bosentan.
BrimonidineBrimonidine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zonisamide.
BuprenorphineZonisamide may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Buprenorphine.
CathinoneZonisamide may decrease the excretion rate of Cathinone which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
ConivaptanThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be increased when it is combined with Conivaptan.
DabrafenibThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be decreased when it is combined with Dabrafenib.
DasatinibThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be increased when it is combined with Dasatinib.
DeferasiroxThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be decreased when it is combined with Deferasirox.
DiclofenamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diclofenamide is combined with Zonisamide.
DoxylamineDoxylamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zonisamide.
DronabinolDronabinol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zonisamide.
DroperidolDroperidol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zonisamide.
EthanolZonisamide may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ethanol.
EthoxzolamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethoxzolamide is combined with Zonisamide.
FlecainideThe serum concentration of Flecainide can be increased when it is combined with Zonisamide.
FluconazoleThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Fluconazole.
FosaprepitantThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be increased when it is combined with Fosaprepitant.
FosphenytoinThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be decreased when it is combined with Fosphenytoin.
Fusidic AcidThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be increased when it is combined with Fusidic Acid.
HexamethylenetetramineThe therapeutic efficacy of Hexamethylenetetramine can be decreased when used in combination with Zonisamide.
HydrocodoneZonisamide may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Hydrocodone.
HydroxyzineHydroxyzine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zonisamide.
IdelalisibThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be increased when it is combined with Idelalisib.
IvacaftorThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be increased when it is combined with Ivacaftor.
LithiumThe serum concentration of Lithium can be decreased when it is combined with Zonisamide.
LorazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lorazepam is combined with Zonisamide.
LuliconazoleThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be increased when it is combined with Luliconazole.
Magnesium SulfateMagnesium Sulfate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zonisamide.
MefloquineThe therapeutic efficacy of Zonisamide can be decreased when used in combination with Mefloquine.
MemantineZonisamide may decrease the excretion rate of Memantine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
MetforminThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Metformin.
MethotrimeprazineZonisamide may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Methotrimeprazine.
MetyrosineZonisamide may increase the sedative activities of Metyrosine.
MianserinThe therapeutic efficacy of Zonisamide can be decreased when used in combination with Mianserin.
MifepristoneThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be increased when it is combined with Mifepristone.
MinocyclineMinocycline may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zonisamide.
MirtazapineZonisamide may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Mirtazapine.
MitotaneThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be decreased when it is combined with Mitotane.
NabiloneNabilone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zonisamide.
NelfinavirThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Nelfinavir.
NetupitantThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be increased when it is combined with Netupitant.
OrlistatThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.
OrphenadrineZonisamide may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Orphenadrine.
PalbociclibThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be increased when it is combined with Palbociclib.
ParaldehydeZonisamide may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Paraldehyde.
ParoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Paroxetine.
PerampanelPerampanel may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zonisamide.
PhenobarbitalThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.
PhenytoinThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
PramipexoleZonisamide may increase the sedative activities of Pramipexole.
QuinidineZonisamide may decrease the excretion rate of Quinidine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
RopiniroleZonisamide may increase the sedative activities of Ropinirole.
RotigotineZonisamide may increase the sedative activities of Rotigotine.
RufinamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Zonisamide.
Salicylate-sodiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Salicylate-sodium is combined with Zonisamide.
SiltuximabThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be decreased when it is combined with Siltuximab.
SimeprevirThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be increased when it is combined with Simeprevir.
Sodium oxybateSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zonisamide.
St. John's WortThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be decreased when it is combined with St. John's Wort.
StiripentolThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be increased when it is combined with Stiripentol.
SuvorexantZonisamide may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Suvorexant.
TapentadolTapentadol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zonisamide.
ThalidomideZonisamide may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Thalidomide.
TocilizumabThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be decreased when it is combined with Tocilizumab.
ZolpidemZonisamide may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

1. Sodium channel protein type 1 subunit alpha

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Sodium channel protein type 1 subunit alpha P35498 Details

References:

  1. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. Pubmed
  2. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. Pubmed
  3. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. Pubmed
  4. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases] Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. Pubmed
  5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. Epub 2009 Dec 4. Pubmed
  6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. Pubmed
  7. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. Pubmed
  8. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed

2. Sodium channel protein type 2 subunit alpha

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Sodium channel protein type 2 subunit alpha Q99250 Details

References:

  1. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases] Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. Pubmed
  2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. Pubmed
  3. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. Pubmed
  4. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. Pubmed
  5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. Epub 2009 Dec 4. Pubmed
  6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. Pubmed
  7. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. Pubmed

3. Sodium channel protein type 3 subunit alpha

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Sodium channel protein type 3 subunit alpha Q9NY46 Details

References:

  1. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases] Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. Pubmed
  2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. Pubmed
  3. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. Pubmed
  4. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. Pubmed
  5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. Epub 2009 Dec 4. Pubmed
  6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. Pubmed
  7. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. Pubmed

4. Sodium channel protein type 4 subunit alpha

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Sodium channel protein type 4 subunit alpha P35499 Details

References:

  1. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases] Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. Pubmed
  2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. Pubmed
  3. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. Pubmed
  4. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. Pubmed
  5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. Epub 2009 Dec 4. Pubmed
  6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. Pubmed
  7. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. Pubmed

5. Sodium channel protein type 5 subunit alpha

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Sodium channel protein type 5 subunit alpha Q14524 Details

References:

  1. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases] Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. Pubmed
  2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. Pubmed
  3. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. Pubmed
  4. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. Pubmed
  5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. Epub 2009 Dec 4. Pubmed
  6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. Pubmed
  7. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. Pubmed

6. Sodium channel protein type 9 subunit alpha

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Sodium channel protein type 9 subunit alpha Q15858 Details

References:

  1. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases] Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. Pubmed
  2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. Pubmed
  3. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. Pubmed
  4. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. Pubmed
  5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. Epub 2009 Dec 4. Pubmed
  6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. Pubmed
  7. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. Pubmed

7. Sodium channel protein type 11 subunit alpha

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Sodium channel protein type 11 subunit alpha Q9UI33 Details

References:

  1. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases] Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. Pubmed
  2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. Pubmed
  3. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. Pubmed
  4. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. Pubmed
  5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. Epub 2009 Dec 4. Pubmed
  6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. Pubmed
  7. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. Pubmed

8. Sodium channel subunit beta-1

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Sodium channel subunit beta-1 Q07699 Details

References:

  1. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases] Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. Pubmed
  2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. Pubmed
  3. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. Pubmed
  4. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. Pubmed
  5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. Epub 2009 Dec 4. Pubmed
  6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. Pubmed
  7. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. Pubmed

9. Sodium channel subunit beta-2

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Sodium channel subunit beta-2 O60939 Details

References:

  1. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases] Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. Pubmed
  2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. Pubmed
  3. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. Pubmed
  4. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. Pubmed
  5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. Epub 2009 Dec 4. Pubmed
  6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. Pubmed
  7. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. Pubmed

10. Sodium channel subunit beta-3

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Sodium channel subunit beta-3 Q9NY72 Details

References:

  1. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases] Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. Pubmed
  2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. Pubmed
  3. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. Pubmed
  4. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. Pubmed
  5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. Epub 2009 Dec 4. Pubmed
  6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. Pubmed
  7. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. Pubmed

11. Sodium channel subunit beta-4

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Sodium channel subunit beta-4 Q8IWT1 Details

References:

  1. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases] Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. Pubmed
  2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. Pubmed
  3. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. Pubmed
  4. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. Pubmed
  5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. Epub 2009 Dec 4. Pubmed
  6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. Pubmed
  7. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. Pubmed

12. Voltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1G

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Voltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1G O43497 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. Pubmed
  4. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. Pubmed
  5. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. Pubmed
  6. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases] Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. Pubmed
  7. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. Epub 2009 Dec 4. Pubmed
  8. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. Pubmed
  9. Murata M: Novel therapeutic effects of the anti-convulsant, zonisamide, on Parkinson’s disease. Curr Pharm Des. 2004;10(6):687-93. Pubmed
  10. Murata M: Zonisamide: a new drug for Parkinson’s disease. Drugs Today (Barc). 2010 Apr;46(4):251-8. Pubmed
  11. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. Pubmed
  12. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. Pubmed

13. Voltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1H

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Voltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1H O95180 Details

References:

  1. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. Pubmed
  2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. Pubmed
  3. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. Pubmed
  4. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases] Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. Pubmed
  5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. Epub 2009 Dec 4. Pubmed
  6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. Pubmed
  7. Murata M: Novel therapeutic effects of the anti-convulsant, zonisamide, on Parkinson’s disease. Curr Pharm Des. 2004;10(6):687-93. Pubmed
  8. Murata M: Zonisamide: a new drug for Parkinson’s disease. Drugs Today (Barc). 2010 Apr;46(4):251-8. Pubmed
  9. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. Pubmed
  10. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. Pubmed

14. Voltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1I

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Voltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1I Q9P0X4 Details

References:

  1. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. Pubmed
  2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. Pubmed
  3. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. Pubmed
  4. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases] Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. Pubmed
  5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. Epub 2009 Dec 4. Pubmed
  6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. Pubmed
  7. Murata M: Novel therapeutic effects of the anti-convulsant, zonisamide, on Parkinson’s disease. Curr Pharm Des. 2004;10(6):687-93. Pubmed
  8. Murata M: Zonisamide: a new drug for Parkinson’s disease. Drugs Today (Barc). 2010 Apr;46(4):251-8. Pubmed
  9. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. Pubmed
  10. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. Pubmed

15. Carbonic anhydrase 1

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Carbonic anhydrase 1 P00915 Details

References:

  1. De Simone G, Di Fiore A, Menchise V, Pedone C, Antel J, Casini A, Scozzafava A, Wurl M, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Zonisamide is an effective inhibitor of the cytosolic isozyme II and mitochondrial isozyme V: solution and X-ray crystallographic studies. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2005 May 2;15(9):2315-20. Pubmed
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. Pubmed
  3. Shank RP, Smith-Swintosky VL, Maryanoff BE: Carbonic anhydrase inhibition. Insight into the characteristics of zonisamide, topiramate, and the sulfamide cognate of topiramate. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2008 Apr;23(2):271-6. Pubmed
  4. Masuda Y, Karasawa T: Inhibitory effect of zonisamide on human carbonic anhydrase in vitro. Arzneimittelforschung. 1993 Apr;43(4):416-8. Pubmed
  5. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. Pubmed
  6. Temperini C, Cecchi A, Boyle NA, Scozzafava A, Cabeza JE, Wentworth P Jr, Blackburn GM, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Interaction of 2-N,N-dimethylamino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-5-methanesulfonamide with 12 mammalian isoforms: kinetic and X-ray crystallographic studies. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2008 Feb 1;18(3):999-1005. Epub 2007 Dec 15. Pubmed
  7. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. Pubmed
  8. Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. Pubmed

16. Carbonic anhydrase 2

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Carbonic anhydrase 2 P00918 Details

References:

  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. Pubmed
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. Pubmed
  3. Shank RP, Smith-Swintosky VL, Maryanoff BE: Carbonic anhydrase inhibition. Insight into the characteristics of zonisamide, topiramate, and the sulfamide cognate of topiramate. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2008 Apr;23(2):271-6. Pubmed
  4. De Simone G, Di Fiore A, Menchise V, Pedone C, Antel J, Casini A, Scozzafava A, Wurl M, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Zonisamide is an effective inhibitor of the cytosolic isozyme II and mitochondrial isozyme V: solution and X-ray crystallographic studies. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2005 May 2;15(9):2315-20. Pubmed
  5. Masuda Y, Karasawa T: Inhibitory effect of zonisamide on human carbonic anhydrase in vitro. Arzneimittelforschung. 1993 Apr;43(4):416-8. Pubmed
  6. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. Pubmed
  7. Temperini C, Cecchi A, Boyle NA, Scozzafava A, Cabeza JE, Wentworth P Jr, Blackburn GM, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Interaction of 2-N,N-dimethylamino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-5-methanesulfonamide with 12 mammalian isoforms: kinetic and X-ray crystallographic studies. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2008 Feb 1;18(3):999-1005. Epub 2007 Dec 15. Pubmed
  8. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. Pubmed
  9. Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. Pubmed

17. Carbonic anhydrase 3

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Carbonic anhydrase 3 P07451 Details

References:

  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. Pubmed
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. Pubmed
  3. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. Pubmed
  4. Temperini C, Cecchi A, Boyle NA, Scozzafava A, Cabeza JE, Wentworth P Jr, Blackburn GM, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Interaction of 2-N,N-dimethylamino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-5-methanesulfonamide with 12 mammalian isoforms: kinetic and X-ray crystallographic studies. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2008 Feb 1;18(3):999-1005. Epub 2007 Dec 15. Pubmed
  5. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. Pubmed
  6. Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. Pubmed

18. Carbonic anhydrase 4

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Carbonic anhydrase 4 P22748 Details

References:

  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. Pubmed
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. Pubmed
  3. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. Pubmed
  4. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. Pubmed
  5. Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. Pubmed

19. Carbonic anhydrase 5A, mitochondrial

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Carbonic anhydrase 5A, mitochondrial P35218 Details

References:

  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. Pubmed
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. Pubmed
  3. De Simone G, Di Fiore A, Menchise V, Pedone C, Antel J, Casini A, Scozzafava A, Wurl M, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Zonisamide is an effective inhibitor of the cytosolic isozyme II and mitochondrial isozyme V: solution and X-ray crystallographic studies. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2005 May 2;15(9):2315-20. Pubmed
  4. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. Pubmed
  5. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. Pubmed
  6. Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. Pubmed

20. Carbonic anhydrase 5B, mitochondrial

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Carbonic anhydrase 5B, mitochondrial Q9Y2D0 Details

References:

  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. Pubmed
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. Pubmed
  3. De Simone G, Di Fiore A, Menchise V, Pedone C, Antel J, Casini A, Scozzafava A, Wurl M, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Zonisamide is an effective inhibitor of the cytosolic isozyme II and mitochondrial isozyme V: solution and X-ray crystallographic studies. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2005 May 2;15(9):2315-20. Pubmed
  4. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. Pubmed
  5. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. Pubmed
  6. Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. Pubmed

21. Carbonic anhydrase 6

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Carbonic anhydrase 6 P23280 Details

References:

  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. Pubmed
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. Pubmed
  3. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. Pubmed
  4. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. Pubmed
  5. Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. Pubmed

22. Carbonic anhydrase 7

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Carbonic anhydrase 7 P43166 Details

References:

  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. Pubmed
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. Pubmed
  3. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. Pubmed
  4. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. Pubmed
  5. Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. Pubmed

23. Carbonic anhydrase-related protein

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Carbonic anhydrase-related protein P35219 Details

References:

  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. Pubmed
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. Pubmed
  3. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. Pubmed
  4. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. Pubmed
  5. Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. Pubmed

24. Carbonic anhydrase 9

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Carbonic anhydrase 9 Q16790 Details

References:

  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. Pubmed
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. Pubmed
  3. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. Pubmed
  4. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. Pubmed
  5. Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. Pubmed

25. Carbonic anhydrase-related protein 10

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Carbonic anhydrase-related protein 10 Q9NS85 Details

References:

  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. Pubmed
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. Pubmed
  3. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. Pubmed
  4. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. Pubmed
  5. Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. Pubmed

26. Carbonic anhydrase-related protein 11

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Carbonic anhydrase-related protein 11 O75493 Details

References:

  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. Pubmed
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. Pubmed
  3. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. Pubmed
  4. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. Pubmed
  5. Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. Pubmed

27. Carbonic anhydrase 12

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Carbonic anhydrase 12 O43570 Details

References:

  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. Pubmed
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. Pubmed
  3. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. Pubmed
  4. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. Pubmed
  5. Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. Pubmed

28. Carbonic anhydrase 13

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Carbonic anhydrase 13 Q8N1Q1 Details

References:

  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. Pubmed
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. Pubmed
  3. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. Pubmed
  4. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. Pubmed
  5. Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. Pubmed

29. Carbonic anhydrase 14

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Carbonic anhydrase 14 Q9ULX7 Details

References:

  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. Pubmed
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. Pubmed
  3. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. Pubmed
  4. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. Pubmed
  5. Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. Pubmed

30. Amine oxidase [flavin-containing] B

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Amine oxidase [flavin-containing] B P27338 Details

References:

  1. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. Epub 2009 Dec 4. Pubmed
  2. Murata M: Novel therapeutic effects of the anti-convulsant, zonisamide, on Parkinson’s disease. Curr Pharm Des. 2004;10(6):687-93. Pubmed
  3. Murata M, Horiuchi E, Kanazawa I: Zonisamide has beneficial effects on Parkinson’s disease patients. Neurosci Res. 2001 Dec;41(4):397-9. Pubmed
  4. Okada M, Kaneko S, Hirano T, Mizuno K, Kondo T, Otani K, Fukushima Y: Effects of zonisamide on dopaminergic system. Epilepsy Res. 1995 Nov;22(3):193-205. Pubmed
  5. Murata M: Zonisamide: a new drug for Parkinson’s disease. Drugs Today (Barc). 2010 Apr;46(4):251-8. Pubmed
  6. Okada M: [Effects of carbamazepine and zonisamide on dopaminergic system in rat striatum and hippocampus] Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi. 1994 Oct;14(5):337-54. Pubmed
  7. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. Pubmed

31. Amine oxidase [flavin-containing] A

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Amine oxidase [flavin-containing] A P21397 Details

References:

  1. Okada M, Kaneko S, Hirano T, Mizuno K, Kondo T, Otani K, Fukushima Y: Effects of zonisamide on dopaminergic system. Epilepsy Res. 1995 Nov;22(3):193-205. Pubmed
  2. Murata M: Zonisamide: a new drug for Parkinson’s disease. Drugs Today (Barc). 2010 Apr;46(4):251-8. Pubmed

Enzymes

1. Cytochrome P450 3A4

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A4 P08684 Details

References:

  1. Nakasa H, Komiya M, Ohmori S, Rikihisa T, Kiuchi M, Kitada M: Characterization of human liver microsomal cytochrome P450 involved in the reductive metabolism of zonisamide. Mol Pharmacol. 1993 Jul;44(1):216-21. Pubmed
  2. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. Pubmed
  3. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. Pubmed
  4. Nakasa H, Nakamura H, Ono S, Tsutsui M, Kiuchi M, Ohmori S, Kitada M: Prediction of drug-drug interactions of zonisamide metabolism in humans from in vitro data. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1998 Apr;54(2):177-83. Pubmed
  5. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

2. Aldehyde oxidase

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Aldehyde oxidase Q06278 Details

References:

  1. Sugihara K, Kitamura S, Tatsumi K: Involvement of mammalian liver cytosols and aldehyde oxidase in reductive metabolism of zonisamide. Drug Metab Dispos. 1996 Feb;24(2):199-202. Pubmed
  2. Kitamura S, Ohashi KNK, Sugihara K, Hosokawa R, Akagawa Y, Ohta S: Extremely high drug-reductase activity based on aldehyde oxidase in monkey liver. Biol Pharm Bull. 2001 Jul;24(7):856-9. Pubmed

3. Cytochrome P450 2C19

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2C19 P33261 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:12