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Identification
NameZonisamide
Accession NumberDB00909  (APRD00004)
Typesmall molecule
Groupsapproved, investigational
Description

Zonisamide is a sulfonamide anticonvulsant approved for use as an adjunctive therapy in adults with partial-onset seizures. Zonisamide may be a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor although this is not one of the primary mechanisms of action. Zonisamide may act by blocking repetitive firing of voltage-gated sodium channels leading to a reduction of T-type calcium channel currents, or by binding allosterically to GABA receptors. This latter action may inhibit the uptake of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA while enhancing the uptake of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
ZonisamidaSpanishINN
ZonisamidumLatinINN
SaltsNot Available
Brand names
NameCompany
ExceglanNot Available
ExcegramNot Available
ExcegranNot Available
ZonegranNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
Categories
CAS number68291-97-4
WeightAverage: 212.226
Monoisotopic: 212.025562822
Chemical FormulaC8H8N2O3S
InChI KeyInChIKey=UBQNRHZMVUUOMG-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C8H8N2O3S/c9-14(11,12)5-7-6-3-1-2-4-8(6)13-10-7/h1-4H,5H2,(H2,9,11,12)
IUPAC Name
1,2-benzoxazol-3-ylmethanesulfonamide
SMILES
NS(=O)(=O)CC1=NOC2=CC=CC=C12
Mass SpecNot Available
Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
SuperclassHeterocyclic Compounds
ClassBenzisoxazoles
SubclassNot Available
Direct parentBenzisoxazoles
Alternative parentsBenzene and Substituted Derivatives; Sulfonyls; Sulfonamides; Isoxazoles; Polyamines
Substituentsbenzene; isoxazole; azole; sulfonamide; sulfonic acid derivative; sulfonyl; polyamine; organonitrogen compound
Classification descriptionThis compound belongs to the benzisoxazoles. These are aromatic compounds containing a benzene ring fused to an isoxazole ring.
Pharmacology
IndicationFor use as adjunctive treatment of partial seizures in adults with epilepsy.
PharmacodynamicsZonisamide is an antiseizure drug chemically classified as a sulfonamide and unrelated to other antiseizure agents. The precise mechanism by which zonisamide exerts its antiseizure effect is unknown, although it is believed that the drug blocks sodium and calcium channels, which leads to the suppression of neuronal hypersynchronization (i.e. convulsions). Sonisamide has also been found to potentiate dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmission but does not appear to potentiate syanptic activity by GABA (gamma amino butyric acid).
Mechanism of actionZonisamide binds to sodium channels and voltage sensitive calcium channels, which suppresses neuronal depolarization and hypersynchronization. Zonisamide also inhibits carbonic anhydrase to a weaker extent, but such an effect is not thought to contribute substantially to the drug's anticonvulsant activity.
AbsorptionVariable, yet relatively rapid rate of absorption with a time to peak concentration of 2.8-3.9 hours. Food has no effect on the bioavailability of zonisamide.
Volume of distribution
  • 1.45 L/kg
Protein binding40% (at concentrations of 1.0-7.0 µg/mL)
Metabolism

Primarily hepatic through cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 3A4 (CYP3A4). Undergoes acetylation and reduction, forming N-acetyl zonisamide, and the open-ring metabolite 2–sulfamoylacetyl phenol, respectively.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Zonisamide
2-sulfamoylacetylphenolDetails
Zonisamide
    N-acetyl zonisamideDetails
    Route of eliminationZonisamide is excreted primarily in urine as parent drug and as the glucuronide of a metabolite.
    Half life63 hours
    Clearance
    • 0.30 – 0.35 mL/min/kg [patients not receiving enzyme-inducing antiepilepsy drugs (AEDs)]
    • 0.35 – 0.5 mL/min/kg [Concomitant administration of phenytoin and carbamazepine]
    ToxicitySymptoms of overdose include diminished breathing, loss of consciousness, low blood pressure, and slow heartbeat.
    Affected organisms
    • Humans and other mammals
    PathwaysNot Available
    SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
    SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
    ADMET
    Predicted ADMET features
    Property Value Probability
    Human Intestinal Absorption + 1.0
    Blood Brain Barrier + 0.9755
    Caco-2 permeable - 0.6385
    P-glycoprotein substrate Non-substrate 0.8681
    P-glycoprotein inhibitor I Non-inhibitor 0.9258
    P-glycoprotein inhibitor II Non-inhibitor 0.9513
    Renal organic cation transporter Non-inhibitor 0.8463
    CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-substrate 0.8828
    CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-substrate 0.9116
    CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-substrate 0.5419
    CYP450 1A2 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.5762
    CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.697
    CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.8081
    CYP450 2C19 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.6007
    CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.8141
    CYP450 inhibitory promiscuity Low CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity 0.7315
    Ames test Non AMES toxic 0.6276
    Carcinogenicity Non-carcinogens 0.7572
    Biodegradation Not ready biodegradable 0.9708
    Rat acute toxicity 2.0592 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
    hERG inhibition (predictor I) Weak inhibitor 0.8549
    hERG inhibition (predictor II) Non-inhibitor 0.8937
    Pharmacoeconomics
    Manufacturers
    • Eisai inc
    • Alphapharm party ltd
    • Apotex inc etobicoke site
    • Banner pharmacaps inc
    • Barr laboratories inc
    • Corepharma llc
    • Dr reddys laboratories ltd
    • Glenmark generics inc usa
    • Invagen pharmaceuticals inc
    • Mutual pharmaceutical co inc
    • Mylan pharmaceuticals inc
    • Roxane laboratories inc
    • Sandoz inc
    • Sun pharmaceutical industries ltd
    • Teva pharmaceuticals usa
    • Watson laboratories inc
    • Wockhardt ltd
    • Zydus pharmaceuticals usa inc
    Packagers
    Dosage forms
    FormRouteStrength
    CapsuleOral
    Prices
    Unit descriptionCostUnit
    Zonegran 100 mg capsule3.33USDcapsule
    Zonisamide 100 mg capsule2.24USDcapsule
    Zonegran 50 mg capsule1.22USDcapsule
    Zonisamide 50 mg capsule1.12USDcapsule
    Zonegran 25 mg capsule0.94USDcapsule
    Zonisamide 25 mg capsule0.56USDcapsule
    DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
    PatentsNot Available
    Properties
    Statesolid
    Experimental Properties
    PropertyValueSource
    melting point161-163 °CNot Available
    water solubility0.8 mg/mLNot Available
    logP0.5Not Available
    pKa10.2Not Available
    Predicted Properties
    PropertyValueSource
    water solubility2.09e+00 g/lALOGPS
    logP0.67ALOGPS
    logP0.11ChemAxon
    logS-2ALOGPS
    pKa (strongest acidic)9.84ChemAxon
    pKa (strongest basic)-1.8ChemAxon
    physiological charge0ChemAxon
    hydrogen acceptor count3ChemAxon
    hydrogen donor count1ChemAxon
    polar surface area86.19ChemAxon
    rotatable bond count2ChemAxon
    refractivity50.3ChemAxon
    polarizability19.48ChemAxon
    number of rings2ChemAxon
    bioavailability1ChemAxon
    rule of fiveYesChemAxon
    Ghose filterYesChemAxon
    Veber's ruleNoChemAxon
    MDDR-like ruleNoChemAxon
    Spectra
    SpectraNot Available
    References
    Synthesis Reference

    Tamar Nidam, “Novel sulfonation method for zonisamide intermediate in zonisamide synthesis and their novel crystal forms.” U.S. Patent US20030114682, issued June 19, 2003.

    US20030114682
    General Reference
    1. Murata M, Horiuchi E, Kanazawa I: Zonisamide has beneficial effects on Parkinson’s disease patients. Neurosci Res. 2001 Dec;41(4):397-9. Pubmed
    2. Gadde KM, Franciscy DM, Wagner HR 2nd, Krishnan KR: Zonisamide for weight loss in obese adults: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2003 Apr 9;289(14):1820-5. Pubmed
    3. Hasegawa H: Utilization of zonisamide in patients with chronic pain or epilepsy refractory to other treatments: a retrospective, open label, uncontrolled study in a VA hospital. Curr Med Res Opin. 2004 May;20(5):577-80. Pubmed
    4. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. Pubmed
    5. Ueda Y, Doi T, Tokumaru J, Willmore LJ: Effect of zonisamide on molecular regulation of glutamate and GABA transporter proteins during epileptogenesis in rats with hippocampal seizures. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2003 Aug 19;116(1-2):1-6. Pubmed
    6. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. Pubmed
    7. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. Pubmed
    8. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. Pubmed
    9. Peters DH, Sorkin EM: Zonisamide. A review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and therapeutic potential in epilepsy. Drugs. 1993 May;45(5):760-87. Pubmed
    10. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. Pubmed
    External Links
    ResourceLink
    KEGG DrugD00538
    KEGG CompoundC07504
    PubChem Compound5734
    PubChem Substance46505278
    ChemSpider5532
    BindingDB10888
    ChEBI10127
    ChEMBLCHEMBL750
    Therapeutic Targets DatabaseDAP000500
    PharmGKBPA451978
    RxListhttp://www.rxlist.com/cgi/generic3/zonisamide.htm
    Drugs.comhttp://www.drugs.com/cdi/zonisamide.html
    PDRhealthhttp://www.pdrhealth.com/drug_info/rxdrugprofiles/drugs/zon1564.shtml
    WikipediaZonisamide
    ATC CodesN03AX15
    AHFS CodesNot Available
    PDB EntriesNot Available
    FDA labelshow(124 KB)
    MSDSshow(58.3 KB)
    Interactions
    Drug Interactions
    Drug
    AmprenavirAmprenavir, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zonisamide by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zonisamide if amprenavir is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
    AtazanavirAtazanavir, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zonisamide by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zonisamide if atazanavir is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
    BrinzolamideAs both brinzolamide and zonisamide are carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, there is an increased risk of adverse effects.The development of acid-base disorders with concurrent use of ophthalmic and oral carbonic anhydrase inhibitors has been reported. Avoid concurrent use of different carbonic anhydrase inhibitors when possible.
    ClarithromycinClarithromcyin, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zonisamide by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zonisamide if clarithromycin is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
    ConivaptanConivaptan, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zonisamide by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zonisamide if conivaptan is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
    DarunavirDarunavir, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zonisamide by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zonisamide if darunavir is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
    DelavirdineDelavirdine, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zonisamide by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zonisamide if delavirdine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
    FosamprenavirFosamprenavir, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zonisamide by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zonisamide if fosamprenavir is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
    ImatinibImatinib, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zonisamide by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zonisamide if imatinib is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
    IndinavirIndinavir, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zonisamide by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zonisamide if indinavir is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
    IsoniazidIsoniazid, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zonisamide by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zonisamide if isoniazid is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
    ItraconazoleItraconazole, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zonisamide by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zonisamide if itraconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
    KetoconazoleKetonconazole, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zonisamide by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zonisamide if ketoconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
    LopinavirLopinavir, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zonisamide by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zonisamide if lopinavir is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
    MefloquineMefloquine may decrease the serum concentration and therapeutic effect of zonisamide. Concomitant therapy is contraindicated in patients with history of convulsions.
    MethotrimeprazineAdditive CNS depressant effects. Reduce zonisamide dose by half upon initiation of methotrimeprazine. Zonisamide dose may be adjusted once methotrimeprazine dose has been established. Monitor for increased CNS depression.
    NefazodoneNefazodone, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zonisamide by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zonisamide if nefazodone is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
    NelfinavirNelfinavir, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zonisamide by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zonisamide if nelfinavir is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
    NicardipineNicardipine, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zonisamide by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zonisamide if nicardipine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
    PosaconazolePosaconazole, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zonisamide by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zonisamide if posaconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
    QuinidineQuinidine, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zonisamide by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zonisamide if quinidine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
    RitonavirRitonavir, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zonisamide by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zonisamide if ritonavir is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
    SaquinavirSaquinavir, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zonisamide by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zonisamide if saquinavir is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
    TelithromycinTelithromycin, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zonisamide by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zonisamide if telithromycin is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
    TriprolidineThe CNS depressants, Triprolidine and Zonisamide, may increase adverse/toxic effects due to additivity. Monitor for increased CNS depressant effects during concomitant therapy.
    VoriconazoleVoriconazole, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zonisamide by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zonisamide if voriconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
    Food InteractionsNot Available

    1. Sodium channel protein type 1 subunit alpha

    Kind: protein

    Organism: Human

    Pharmacological action: yes

    Actions: inhibitor

    Components

    Name UniProt ID Details
    Sodium channel protein type 1 subunit alpha P35498 Details

    References:

    1. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. Pubmed
    2. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. Pubmed
    3. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. Pubmed
    4. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases] Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. Pubmed
    5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. Epub 2009 Dec 4. Pubmed
    6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. Pubmed
    7. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. Pubmed
    8. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed

    2. Sodium channel protein type 2 subunit alpha

    Kind: protein

    Organism: Human

    Pharmacological action: yes

    Actions: inhibitor

    Components

    Name UniProt ID Details
    Sodium channel protein type 2 subunit alpha Q99250 Details

    References:

    1. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases] Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. Pubmed
    2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. Pubmed
    3. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. Pubmed
    4. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. Pubmed
    5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. Epub 2009 Dec 4. Pubmed
    6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. Pubmed
    7. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. Pubmed

    3. Sodium channel protein type 3 subunit alpha

    Kind: protein

    Organism: Human

    Pharmacological action: yes

    Actions: inhibitor

    Components

    Name UniProt ID Details
    Sodium channel protein type 3 subunit alpha Q9NY46 Details

    References:

    1. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases] Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. Pubmed
    2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. Pubmed
    3. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. Pubmed
    4. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. Pubmed
    5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. Epub 2009 Dec 4. Pubmed
    6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. Pubmed
    7. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. Pubmed

    4. Sodium channel protein type 4 subunit alpha

    Kind: protein

    Organism: Human

    Pharmacological action: yes

    Actions: inhibitor

    Components

    Name UniProt ID Details
    Sodium channel protein type 4 subunit alpha P35499 Details

    References:

    1. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases] Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. Pubmed
    2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. Pubmed
    3. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. Pubmed
    4. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. Pubmed
    5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. Epub 2009 Dec 4. Pubmed
    6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. Pubmed
    7. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. Pubmed

    5. Sodium channel protein type 5 subunit alpha

    Kind: protein

    Organism: Human

    Pharmacological action: yes

    Actions: inhibitor

    Components

    Name UniProt ID Details
    Sodium channel protein type 5 subunit alpha Q14524 Details

    References:

    1. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases] Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. Pubmed
    2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. Pubmed
    3. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. Pubmed
    4. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. Pubmed
    5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. Epub 2009 Dec 4. Pubmed
    6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. Pubmed
    7. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. Pubmed

    6. Sodium channel protein type 9 subunit alpha

    Kind: protein

    Organism: Human

    Pharmacological action: yes

    Actions: inhibitor

    Components

    Name UniProt ID Details
    Sodium channel protein type 9 subunit alpha Q15858 Details

    References:

    1. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases] Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. Pubmed
    2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. Pubmed
    3. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. Pubmed
    4. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. Pubmed
    5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. Epub 2009 Dec 4. Pubmed
    6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. Pubmed
    7. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. Pubmed

    7. Sodium channel protein type 11 subunit alpha

    Kind: protein

    Organism: Human

    Pharmacological action: yes

    Actions: inhibitor

    Components

    Name UniProt ID Details
    Sodium channel protein type 11 subunit alpha Q9UI33 Details

    References:

    1. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases] Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. Pubmed
    2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. Pubmed
    3. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. Pubmed
    4. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. Pubmed
    5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. Epub 2009 Dec 4. Pubmed
    6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. Pubmed
    7. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. Pubmed

    8. Sodium channel subunit beta-1

    Kind: protein

    Organism: Human

    Pharmacological action: yes

    Actions: inhibitor

    Components

    Name UniProt ID Details
    Sodium channel subunit beta-1 Q07699 Details

    References:

    1. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases] Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. Pubmed
    2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. Pubmed
    3. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. Pubmed
    4. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. Pubmed
    5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. Epub 2009 Dec 4. Pubmed
    6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. Pubmed
    7. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. Pubmed

    9. Sodium channel subunit beta-2

    Kind: protein

    Organism: Human

    Pharmacological action: yes

    Actions: inhibitor

    Components

    Name UniProt ID Details
    Sodium channel subunit beta-2 O60939 Details

    References:

    1. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases] Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. Pubmed
    2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. Pubmed
    3. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. Pubmed
    4. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. Pubmed
    5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. Epub 2009 Dec 4. Pubmed
    6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. Pubmed
    7. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. Pubmed

    10. Sodium channel subunit beta-3

    Kind: protein

    Organism: Human

    Pharmacological action: yes

    Actions: inhibitor

    Components

    Name UniProt ID Details
    Sodium channel subunit beta-3 Q9NY72 Details

    References:

    1. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases] Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. Pubmed
    2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. Pubmed
    3. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. Pubmed
    4. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. Pubmed
    5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. Epub 2009 Dec 4. Pubmed
    6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. Pubmed
    7. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. Pubmed

    11. Sodium channel subunit beta-4

    Kind: protein

    Organism: Human

    Pharmacological action: yes

    Actions: inhibitor

    Components

    Name UniProt ID Details
    Sodium channel subunit beta-4 Q8IWT1 Details

    References:

    1. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases] Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. Pubmed
    2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. Pubmed
    3. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. Pubmed
    4. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. Pubmed
    5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. Epub 2009 Dec 4. Pubmed
    6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. Pubmed
    7. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. Pubmed

    12. Voltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1G

    Kind: protein

    Organism: Human

    Pharmacological action: yes

    Actions: inhibitor

    Components

    Name UniProt ID Details
    Voltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1G O43497 Details

    References:

    1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
    2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
    3. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. Pubmed
    4. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. Pubmed
    5. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. Pubmed
    6. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases] Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. Pubmed
    7. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. Epub 2009 Dec 4. Pubmed
    8. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. Pubmed
    9. Murata M: Novel therapeutic effects of the anti-convulsant, zonisamide, on Parkinson’s disease. Curr Pharm Des. 2004;10(6):687-93. Pubmed
    10. Murata M: Zonisamide: a new drug for Parkinson’s disease. Drugs Today (Barc). 2010 Apr;46(4):251-8. Pubmed
    11. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. Pubmed
    12. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. Pubmed

    13. Voltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1H

    Kind: protein

    Organism: Human

    Pharmacological action: yes

    Actions: inhibitor

    Components

    Name UniProt ID Details
    Voltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1H O95180 Details

    References:

    1. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. Pubmed
    2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. Pubmed
    3. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. Pubmed
    4. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases] Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. Pubmed
    5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. Epub 2009 Dec 4. Pubmed
    6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. Pubmed
    7. Murata M: Novel therapeutic effects of the anti-convulsant, zonisamide, on Parkinson’s disease. Curr Pharm Des. 2004;10(6):687-93. Pubmed
    8. Murata M: Zonisamide: a new drug for Parkinson’s disease. Drugs Today (Barc). 2010 Apr;46(4):251-8. Pubmed
    9. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. Pubmed
    10. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. Pubmed

    14. Voltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1I

    Kind: protein

    Organism: Human

    Pharmacological action: yes

    Actions: inhibitor

    Components

    Name UniProt ID Details
    Voltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1I Q9P0X4 Details

    References:

    1. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. Pubmed
    2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. Pubmed
    3. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. Pubmed
    4. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases] Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. Pubmed
    5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. Epub 2009 Dec 4. Pubmed
    6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. Pubmed
    7. Murata M: Novel therapeutic effects of the anti-convulsant, zonisamide, on Parkinson’s disease. Curr Pharm Des. 2004;10(6):687-93. Pubmed
    8. Murata M: Zonisamide: a new drug for Parkinson’s disease. Drugs Today (Barc). 2010 Apr;46(4):251-8. Pubmed
    9. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. Pubmed
    10. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. Pubmed

    15. Carbonic anhydrase 1

    Kind: protein

    Organism: Human

    Pharmacological action: unknown

    Actions: inhibitor

    Components

    Name UniProt ID Details
    Carbonic anhydrase 1 P00915 Details

    References:

    1. De Simone G, Di Fiore A, Menchise V, Pedone C, Antel J, Casini A, Scozzafava A, Wurl M, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Zonisamide is an effective inhibitor of the cytosolic isozyme II and mitochondrial isozyme V: solution and X-ray crystallographic studies. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2005 May 2;15(9):2315-20. Pubmed
    2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. Pubmed
    3. Shank RP, Smith-Swintosky VL, Maryanoff BE: Carbonic anhydrase inhibition. Insight into the characteristics of zonisamide, topiramate, and the sulfamide cognate of topiramate. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2008 Apr;23(2):271-6. Pubmed
    4. Masuda Y, Karasawa T: Inhibitory effect of zonisamide on human carbonic anhydrase in vitro. Arzneimittelforschung. 1993 Apr;43(4):416-8. Pubmed
    5. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. Pubmed
    6. Temperini C, Cecchi A, Boyle NA, Scozzafava A, Cabeza JE, Wentworth P Jr, Blackburn GM, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Interaction of 2-N,N-dimethylamino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-5-methanesulfonamide with 12 mammalian isoforms: kinetic and X-ray crystallographic studies. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2008 Feb 1;18(3):999-1005. Epub 2007 Dec 15. Pubmed
    7. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. Pubmed
    8. Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. Pubmed

    16. Carbonic anhydrase 2

    Kind: protein

    Organism: Human

    Pharmacological action: unknown

    Actions: inhibitor

    Components

    Name UniProt ID Details
    Carbonic anhydrase 2 P00918 Details

    References:

    1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. Pubmed
    2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. Pubmed
    3. Shank RP, Smith-Swintosky VL, Maryanoff BE: Carbonic anhydrase inhibition. Insight into the characteristics of zonisamide, topiramate, and the sulfamide cognate of topiramate. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2008 Apr;23(2):271-6. Pubmed
    4. De Simone G, Di Fiore A, Menchise V, Pedone C, Antel J, Casini A, Scozzafava A, Wurl M, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Zonisamide is an effective inhibitor of the cytosolic isozyme II and mitochondrial isozyme V: solution and X-ray crystallographic studies. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2005 May 2;15(9):2315-20. Pubmed
    5. Masuda Y, Karasawa T: Inhibitory effect of zonisamide on human carbonic anhydrase in vitro. Arzneimittelforschung. 1993 Apr;43(4):416-8. Pubmed
    6. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. Pubmed
    7. Temperini C, Cecchi A, Boyle NA, Scozzafava A, Cabeza JE, Wentworth P Jr, Blackburn GM, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Interaction of 2-N,N-dimethylamino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-5-methanesulfonamide with 12 mammalian isoforms: kinetic and X-ray crystallographic studies. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2008 Feb 1;18(3):999-1005. Epub 2007 Dec 15. Pubmed
    8. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. Pubmed
    9. Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. Pubmed

    17. Carbonic anhydrase 3

    Kind: protein

    Organism: Human

    Pharmacological action: unknown

    Actions: inhibitor

    Components

    Name UniProt ID Details
    Carbonic anhydrase 3 P07451 Details

    References:

    1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. Pubmed
    2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. Pubmed
    3. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. Pubmed
    4. Temperini C, Cecchi A, Boyle NA, Scozzafava A, Cabeza JE, Wentworth P Jr, Blackburn GM, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Interaction of 2-N,N-dimethylamino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-5-methanesulfonamide with 12 mammalian isoforms: kinetic and X-ray crystallographic studies. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2008 Feb 1;18(3):999-1005. Epub 2007 Dec 15. Pubmed
    5. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. Pubmed
    6. Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. Pubmed

    18. Carbonic anhydrase 4

    Kind: protein

    Organism: Human

    Pharmacological action: unknown

    Actions: inhibitor

    Components

    Name UniProt ID Details
    Carbonic anhydrase 4 P22748 Details

    References:

    1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. Pubmed
    2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. Pubmed
    3. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. Pubmed
    4. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. Pubmed
    5. Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. Pubmed

    19. Carbonic anhydrase 5A, mitochondrial

    Kind: protein

    Organism: Human

    Pharmacological action: unknown

    Actions: inhibitor

    Components

    Name UniProt ID Details
    Carbonic anhydrase 5A, mitochondrial P35218 Details

    References:

    1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. Pubmed
    2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. Pubmed
    3. De Simone G, Di Fiore A, Menchise V, Pedone C, Antel J, Casini A, Scozzafava A, Wurl M, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Zonisamide is an effective inhibitor of the cytosolic isozyme II and mitochondrial isozyme V: solution and X-ray crystallographic studies. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2005 May 2;15(9):2315-20. Pubmed
    4. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. Pubmed
    5. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. Pubmed
    6. Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. Pubmed

    20. Carbonic anhydrase 5B, mitochondrial

    Kind: protein

    Organism: Human

    Pharmacological action: unknown

    Actions: inhibitor

    Components

    Name UniProt ID Details
    Carbonic anhydrase 5B, mitochondrial Q9Y2D0 Details

    References:

    1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. Pubmed
    2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. Pubmed
    3. De Simone G, Di Fiore A, Menchise V, Pedone C, Antel J, Casini A, Scozzafava A, Wurl M, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Zonisamide is an effective inhibitor of the cytosolic isozyme II and mitochondrial isozyme V: solution and X-ray crystallographic studies. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2005 May 2;15(9):2315-20. Pubmed
    4. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. Pubmed
    5. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. Pubmed
    6. Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. Pubmed

    21. Carbonic anhydrase 6

    Kind: protein

    Organism: Human

    Pharmacological action: unknown

    Actions: inhibitor

    Components

    Name UniProt ID Details
    Carbonic anhydrase 6 P23280 Details

    References:

    1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. Pubmed
    2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. Pubmed
    3. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. Pubmed
    4. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. Pubmed
    5. Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. Pubmed

    22. Carbonic anhydrase 7

    Kind: protein

    Organism: Human

    Pharmacological action: unknown

    Actions: inhibitor

    Components

    Name UniProt ID Details
    Carbonic anhydrase 7 P43166 Details

    References:

    1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. Pubmed
    2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. Pubmed
    3. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. Pubmed
    4. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. Pubmed
    5. Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. Pubmed

    23. Carbonic anhydrase-related protein

    Kind: protein

    Organism: Human

    Pharmacological action: unknown

    Actions: inhibitor

    Components

    Name UniProt ID Details
    Carbonic anhydrase-related protein P35219 Details

    References:

    1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. Pubmed
    2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. Pubmed
    3. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. Pubmed
    4. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. Pubmed
    5. Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. Pubmed

    24. Carbonic anhydrase 9

    Kind: protein

    Organism: Human

    Pharmacological action: unknown

    Actions: inhibitor

    Components

    Name UniProt ID Details
    Carbonic anhydrase 9 Q16790 Details

    References:

    1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. Pubmed
    2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. Pubmed
    3. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. Pubmed
    4. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. Pubmed
    5. Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. Pubmed

    25. Carbonic anhydrase-related protein 10

    Kind: protein

    Organism: Human

    Pharmacological action: unknown

    Actions: inhibitor

    Components

    Name UniProt ID Details
    Carbonic anhydrase-related protein 10 Q9NS85 Details

    References:

    1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. Pubmed
    2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. Pubmed
    3. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. Pubmed
    4. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. Pubmed
    5. Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. Pubmed

    26. Carbonic anhydrase-related protein 11

    Kind: protein

    Organism: Human

    Pharmacological action: unknown

    Actions: inhibitor

    Components

    Name UniProt ID Details
    Carbonic anhydrase-related protein 11 O75493 Details

    References:

    1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. Pubmed
    2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. Pubmed
    3. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. Pubmed
    4. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. Pubmed
    5. Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. Pubmed

    27. Carbonic anhydrase 12

    Kind: protein

    Organism: Human

    Pharmacological action: unknown

    Actions: inhibitor

    Components

    Name UniProt ID Details
    Carbonic anhydrase 12 O43570 Details

    References:

    1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. Pubmed
    2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. Pubmed
    3. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. Pubmed
    4. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. Pubmed
    5. Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. Pubmed

    28. Carbonic anhydrase 13

    Kind: protein

    Organism: Human

    Pharmacological action: unknown

    Actions: inhibitor

    Components

    Name UniProt ID Details
    Carbonic anhydrase 13 Q8N1Q1 Details

    References:

    1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. Pubmed
    2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. Pubmed
    3. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. Pubmed
    4. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. Pubmed
    5. Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. Pubmed

    29. Carbonic anhydrase 14

    Kind: protein

    Organism: Human

    Pharmacological action: unknown

    Actions: inhibitor

    Components

    Name UniProt ID Details
    Carbonic anhydrase 14 Q9ULX7 Details

    References:

    1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. Pubmed
    2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. Pubmed
    3. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. Pubmed
    4. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. Pubmed
    5. Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. Pubmed

    30. Amine oxidase [flavin-containing] B

    Kind: protein

    Organism: Human

    Pharmacological action: unknown

    Actions: inhibitor

    Components

    Name UniProt ID Details
    Amine oxidase [flavin-containing] B P27338 Details

    References:

    1. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. Epub 2009 Dec 4. Pubmed
    2. Murata M: Novel therapeutic effects of the anti-convulsant, zonisamide, on Parkinson’s disease. Curr Pharm Des. 2004;10(6):687-93. Pubmed
    3. Murata M, Horiuchi E, Kanazawa I: Zonisamide has beneficial effects on Parkinson’s disease patients. Neurosci Res. 2001 Dec;41(4):397-9. Pubmed
    4. Okada M, Kaneko S, Hirano T, Mizuno K, Kondo T, Otani K, Fukushima Y: Effects of zonisamide on dopaminergic system. Epilepsy Res. 1995 Nov;22(3):193-205. Pubmed
    5. Murata M: Zonisamide: a new drug for Parkinson’s disease. Drugs Today (Barc). 2010 Apr;46(4):251-8. Pubmed
    6. Okada M: [Effects of carbamazepine and zonisamide on dopaminergic system in rat striatum and hippocampus] Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi. 1994 Oct;14(5):337-54. Pubmed
    7. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. Pubmed

    31. Amine oxidase [flavin-containing] A

    Kind: protein

    Organism: Human

    Pharmacological action: unknown

    Actions: inhibitor

    Components

    Name UniProt ID Details
    Amine oxidase [flavin-containing] A P21397 Details

    References:

    1. Okada M, Kaneko S, Hirano T, Mizuno K, Kondo T, Otani K, Fukushima Y: Effects of zonisamide on dopaminergic system. Epilepsy Res. 1995 Nov;22(3):193-205. Pubmed
    2. Murata M: Zonisamide: a new drug for Parkinson’s disease. Drugs Today (Barc). 2010 Apr;46(4):251-8. Pubmed

    1. Cytochrome P450 3A4

    Kind: protein

    Organism: Human

    Pharmacological action: unknown

    Actions: substrate

    Components

    Name UniProt ID Details
    Cytochrome P450 3A4 P08684 Details

    References:

    1. Nakasa H, Komiya M, Ohmori S, Rikihisa T, Kiuchi M, Kitada M: Characterization of human liver microsomal cytochrome P450 involved in the reductive metabolism of zonisamide. Mol Pharmacol. 1993 Jul;44(1):216-21. Pubmed
    2. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. Pubmed
    3. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. Pubmed
    4. Nakasa H, Nakamura H, Ono S, Tsutsui M, Kiuchi M, Ohmori S, Kitada M: Prediction of drug-drug interactions of zonisamide metabolism in humans from in vitro data. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1998 Apr;54(2):177-83. Pubmed
    5. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

    2. Aldehyde oxidase

    Kind: protein

    Organism: Human

    Pharmacological action: unknown

    Actions: substrate

    Components

    Name UniProt ID Details
    Aldehyde oxidase Q06278 Details

    References:

    1. Sugihara K, Kitamura S, Tatsumi K: Involvement of mammalian liver cytosols and aldehyde oxidase in reductive metabolism of zonisamide. Drug Metab Dispos. 1996 Feb;24(2):199-202. Pubmed
    2. Kitamura S, Ohashi KNK, Sugihara K, Hosokawa R, Akagawa Y, Ohta S: Extremely high drug-reductase activity based on aldehyde oxidase in monkey liver. Biol Pharm Bull. 2001 Jul;24(7):856-9. Pubmed

    3. Cytochrome P450 2C19

    Kind: protein

    Organism: Human

    Pharmacological action: unknown

    Actions: inhibitor

    Components

    Name UniProt ID Details
    Cytochrome P450 2C19 P33261 Details

    References:

    1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

    Comments
    Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:12