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Identification
NameZonisamide
Accession NumberDB00909  (APRD00004)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Investigational
DescriptionZonisamide is a sulfonamide anticonvulsant approved for use as an adjunctive therapy in adults with partial-onset seizures. Zonisamide may be a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor although this is not one of the primary mechanisms of action. Zonisamide may act by blocking repetitive firing of voltage-gated sodium channels leading to a reduction of T-type calcium channel currents, or by binding allosterically to GABA receptors. This latter action may inhibit the uptake of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA while enhancing the uptake of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
1,2-Benzisoxazole-3-methanesulfonamide
3-(Sulfamoylmethyl)-1,2-benzisoxazole
Benzo[D]isoxazol-3-yl-methanesulfonamide
Zonisamida
Zonisamidum
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Zonegrancapsule100 mg/1oralEisai Inc.2000-03-27Not applicableUs
Zonegrancapsule25 mg/1oralEisai Inc.2000-03-27Not applicableUs
Zonegrancapsule100 mg/1oralConcordia Pharmaceuticals Inc.2000-03-27Not applicableUs
Zonegrancapsule25 mg/1oralConcordia Pharmaceuticals Inc.2000-03-27Not applicableUs
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Direct Rxcapsule100 mg/1oralDIRECT RX2015-01-01Not applicableUs
Zonisamidecapsule100 mg/1oralSTAT Rx USA LLC2006-03-17Not applicableUs
Zonisamidecapsule50 mg/1oralDr. Reddy's Laboratories Limited2005-12-22Not applicableUs
Zonisamidecapsule100 mg/1oralSun Pharmaceutical Industries Limited2006-03-17Not applicableUs
Zonisamidecapsule100 mg/1oralGlenmark Pharmaceuticals Inc., Usa2006-01-30Not applicableUs
Zonisamidecapsule25 mg/1oralEon Labs, Inc.2005-12-22Not applicableUs
Zonisamidecapsule100 mg/1oralAv Pak2005-12-222016-01-15Us
Zonisamidecapsule50 mg/1oralDIRECT RX2015-01-01Not applicableUs
Zonisamidecapsule25 mg/1oralBlue Point Laboratories2014-03-13Not applicableUs
Zonisamidecapsule100 mg/1oralLake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC2012-10-22Not applicableUs
Zonisamidecapsule50 mg/1oralbryant ranch prepack2006-07-27Not applicableUs
Zonisamidecapsule100 mg/1oralCamber Pharmaceuticals2012-02-21Not applicableUs
Zonisamidecapsule50 mg/1oralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2010-12-29Not applicableUs
Zonisamidecapsule100 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2014-12-15Not applicableUs
Zonisamidecapsule50 mg/1oralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2012-10-22Not applicableUs
Zonisamidecapsule25 mg/1oralSTAT Rx USA LLC2006-07-27Not applicableUs
Zonisamidecapsule25 mg/1oralWockhardt Limited2006-07-27Not applicableUs
Zonisamidecapsule100 mg/1oralProficient Rx LP2006-01-30Not applicableUs
Zonisamidecapsule100 mg/1oralExelan Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2006-07-05Not applicableUs
Zonisamidecapsule50 mg/1oralBlue Point Laboratories2014-03-13Not applicableUs
Zonisamidecapsule50 mg/1oralEon Labs, Inc.2005-12-22Not applicableUs
Zonisamidecapsule100 mg/1oralAv Pak2014-07-02Not applicableUs
Zonisamidecapsule100 mg/1oralDIRECT RX2014-01-01Not applicableUs
Zonisamidecapsule25 mg/1oralApotex Corp.2005-12-22Not applicableUs
Zonisamidecapsule25 mg/1oralWockhardt USA LLC.2006-07-27Not applicableUs
Zonisamidecapsule100 mg/1oralAidarex Pharmaceuticals LLC2005-12-22Not applicableUs
Zonisamidecapsule100 mg/1oralDr. Reddy's Laboratories Limited2005-12-22Not applicableUs
Zonisamidecapsule25 mg/1oralSun Pharmaceutical Industries Limited2006-03-17Not applicableUs
Zonisamidecapsule25 mg/1oralGlenmark Pharmaceuticals Inc., Usa2006-01-30Not applicableUs
Zonisamidecapsule100 mg/1oralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2012-10-22Not applicableUs
Zonisamidecapsule25 mg/1oralLake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC2006-01-30Not applicableUs
Zonisamidecapsule100 mg/1oralRebel Distributors Corp2006-03-17Not applicableUs
Zonisamidecapsule50 mg/1oralWockhardt Limited2006-07-27Not applicableUs
Zonisamidecapsule100 mg/1oralbryant ranch prepack2006-03-17Not applicableUs
Zonisamidecapsule50 mg/1oralDIRECT RX2015-01-01Not applicableUs
Zonisamidecapsule100 mg/1oralBlue Point Laboratories2014-03-13Not applicableUs
Zonisamidecapsule100 mg/1oralEon Labs, Inc.2005-12-22Not applicableUs
Zonisamidecapsule100 mg/1oralMylan Institutional Inc.2006-01-25Not applicableUs
Zonisamidecapsule50 mg/1oralApotex Corp.2005-12-22Not applicableUs
Zonisamidecapsule50 mg/1oralWockhardt USA LLC.2006-07-27Not applicableUs
Zonisamidecapsule100 mg/1oralLake Erie Medical & Surgical Supply DBA Quality Care Products LLC2012-02-14Not applicableUs
Zonisamidecapsule25 mg/1oralDr. Reddy's Laboratories Limited2005-12-22Not applicableUs
Zonisamidecapsule50 mg/1oralSun Pharmaceutical Industries Limited2006-03-17Not applicableUs
Zonisamidecapsule50 mg/1oralGlenmark Pharmaceuticals Inc., Usa2006-01-30Not applicableUs
Zonisamidecapsule100 mg/1oralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2012-10-22Not applicableUs
Zonisamidecapsule100 mg/1oralWockhardt Limited2005-12-22Not applicableUs
Zonisamidecapsule25 mg/1oralbryant ranch prepack2006-03-17Not applicableUs
Zonisamidecapsule50 mg/1oralRebel Distributors Corp2006-03-17Not applicableUs
Zonisamidecapsule100 mg/1oralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2007-07-11Not applicableUs
Zonisamidecapsule50 mg/1oralDIRECT RX2014-01-01Not applicableUs
Zonisamidecapsule100 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2013-07-19Not applicableUs
Zonisamidecapsule25 mg/1oralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2012-10-22Not applicableUs
Zonisamidecapsule100 mg/1oralApotex Corp.2005-12-22Not applicableUs
Zonisamidecapsule100 mg/1oralWockhardt USA LLC.2005-12-22Not applicableUs
Zonisamidecapsule25 mg/1oralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2012-10-22Not applicableUs
Zonisamide MylanCapsule, hard100 mgOral useMylan S.A.S.2016-03-31Not applicableEu
Zonisamide MylanCapsule, hard50 mgOral useMylan S.A.S.2016-03-31Not applicableEu
Zonisamide MylanCapsule, hard25 mgOral useMylan S.A.S.2016-03-31Not applicableEu
Zonisamide MylanCapsule, hard100 mgOral useMylan S.A.S.2016-03-31Not applicableEu
Zonisamide MylanCapsule, hard50 mgOral useMylan S.A.S.2016-03-31Not applicableEu
Zonisamide MylanCapsule, hard25 mgOral useMylan S.A.S.2016-03-31Not applicableEu
Zonisamide MylanCapsule, hard100 mgOral useMylan S.A.S.2016-03-31Not applicableEu
Zonisamide MylanCapsule, hard50 mgOral useMylan S.A.S.2016-03-31Not applicableEu
Zonisamide MylanCapsule, hard25 mgOral useMylan S.A.S.2016-03-31Not applicableEu
Zonisamide MylanCapsule, hard100 mgOral useMylan S.A.S.2016-03-31Not applicableEu
Zonisamide MylanCapsule, hard25 mgOral useMylan S.A.S.2016-03-31Not applicableEu
Zonisamide MylanCapsule, hard100 mgOral useMylan S.A.S.2016-03-31Not applicableEu
Zonisamide MylanCapsule, hard50 mgOral useMylan S.A.S.2016-03-31Not applicableEu
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
ExceglanNot Available
ExcegramNot Available
ExcegranNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNII459384H98V
CAS number68291-97-4
WeightAverage: 212.226
Monoisotopic: 212.025562822
Chemical FormulaC8H8N2O3S
InChI KeyInChIKey=UBQNRHZMVUUOMG-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C8H8N2O3S/c9-14(11,12)5-7-6-3-1-2-4-8(6)13-10-7/h1-4H,5H2,(H2,9,11,12)
IUPAC Name
1,2-benzoxazol-3-ylmethanesulfonamide
SMILES
NS(=O)(=O)CC1=NOC2=CC=CC=C12
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as benzisoxazoles. These are aromatic compounds containing a benzene ring fused to an isoxazole ring. Isoxazole is five-membered ring with three carbon atoms, and an oxygen atom next to a nitrogen atom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassBenzisoxazoles
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentBenzisoxazoles
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Benzisoxazole
  • Benzenoid
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Aminosulfonyl compound
  • Sulfonyl
  • Sulfonic acid derivative
  • Sulfonamide
  • Oxazole
  • Isoxazole
  • Azole
  • Oxacycle
  • Azacycle
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organosulfur compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor use as adjunctive treatment of partial seizures in adults with epilepsy.
PharmacodynamicsZonisamide is an antiseizure drug chemically classified as a sulfonamide and unrelated to other antiseizure agents. The precise mechanism by which zonisamide exerts its antiseizure effect is unknown, although it is believed that the drug blocks sodium and calcium channels, which leads to the suppression of neuronal hypersynchronization (i.e. convulsions). Sonisamide has also been found to potentiate dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmission but does not appear to potentiate syanptic activity by GABA (gamma amino butyric acid).
Mechanism of actionZonisamide binds to sodium channels and voltage sensitive calcium channels, which suppresses neuronal depolarization and hypersynchronization. Zonisamide also inhibits carbonic anhydrase to a weaker extent, but such an effect is not thought to contribute substantially to the drug's anticonvulsant activity.
Related Articles
AbsorptionVariable, yet relatively rapid rate of absorption with a time to peak concentration of 2.8-3.9 hours. Food has no effect on the bioavailability of zonisamide.
Volume of distribution
  • 1.45 L/kg
Protein binding40% (at concentrations of 1.0-7.0 µg/mL)
Metabolism

Primarily hepatic through cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 3A4 (CYP3A4). Undergoes acetylation and reduction, forming N-acetyl zonisamide, and the open-ring metabolite 2–sulfamoylacetyl phenol, respectively.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Zonisamide
2-sulfamoylacetylphenolDetails
Zonisamide
Not Available
N-acetyl zonisamideDetails
Route of eliminationZonisamide is excreted primarily in urine as parent drug and as the glucuronide of a metabolite.
Half life63 hours
Clearance
  • 0.30 – 0.35 mL/min/kg [patients not receiving enzyme-inducing antiepilepsy drugs (AEDs)]
  • 0.35 – 0.5 mL/min/kg [Concomitant administration of phenytoin and carbamazepine]
ToxicitySymptoms of overdose include diminished breathing, loss of consciousness, low blood pressure, and slow heartbeat.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+1.0
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9755
Caco-2 permeable-0.6385
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.8681
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9258
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9513
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8463
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8828
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.5419
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.5762
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.697
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8081
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.6007
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8141
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.7315
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.6276
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.7572
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9708
Rat acute toxicity2.0592 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8549
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8937
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Eisai inc
  • Alphapharm party ltd
  • Apotex inc etobicoke site
  • Banner pharmacaps inc
  • Barr laboratories inc
  • Corepharma llc
  • Dr reddys laboratories ltd
  • Glenmark generics inc usa
  • Invagen pharmaceuticals inc
  • Mutual pharmaceutical co inc
  • Mylan pharmaceuticals inc
  • Roxane laboratories inc
  • Sandoz inc
  • Sun pharmaceutical industries ltd
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • Wockhardt ltd
  • Zydus pharmaceuticals usa inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Capsuleoral100 mg/1
Capsuleoral25 mg/1
Capsuleoral50 mg/1
Capsule, hardOral use100 mg
Capsule, hardOral use25 mg
Capsule, hardOral use50 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Zonegran 100 mg capsule3.33USD capsule
Zonisamide 100 mg capsule2.24USD capsule
Zonegran 50 mg capsule1.22USD capsule
Zonisamide 50 mg capsule1.12USD capsule
Zonegran 25 mg capsule0.94USD capsule
Zonisamide 25 mg capsule0.56USD capsule
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point161-163 °CNot Available
water solubility0.8 mg/mLNot Available
logP0.5Not Available
pKa10.2Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility2.09 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.67ALOGPS
logP0.11ChemAxon
logS-2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)9.84ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-1.8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area86.19 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity50.3 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability19.48 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Tamar Nidam, “Novel sulfonation method for zonisamide intermediate in zonisamide synthesis and their novel crystal forms.” U.S. Patent US20030114682, issued June 19, 2003.

US20030114682
General References
  1. Murata M, Horiuchi E, Kanazawa I: Zonisamide has beneficial effects on Parkinson's disease patients. Neurosci Res. 2001 Dec;41(4):397-9. [PubMed:11755227 ]
  2. Gadde KM, Franciscy DM, Wagner HR 2nd, Krishnan KR: Zonisamide for weight loss in obese adults: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2003 Apr 9;289(14):1820-5. [PubMed:12684361 ]
  3. Hasegawa H: Utilization of zonisamide in patients with chronic pain or epilepsy refractory to other treatments: a retrospective, open label, uncontrolled study in a VA hospital. Curr Med Res Opin. 2004 May;20(5):577-80. [PubMed:15140322 ]
  4. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. [PubMed:15511691 ]
  5. Ueda Y, Doi T, Tokumaru J, Willmore LJ: Effect of zonisamide on molecular regulation of glutamate and GABA transporter proteins during epileptogenesis in rats with hippocampal seizures. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2003 Aug 19;116(1-2):1-6. [PubMed:12941455 ]
  6. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [PubMed:18782051 ]
  7. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. doi: 10.1517/14656560903468728. [PubMed:20001433 ]
  8. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. doi: 10.1517/17425255.4.4.493 . [PubMed:18433351 ]
  9. Peters DH, Sorkin EM: Zonisamide. A review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and therapeutic potential in epilepsy. Drugs. 1993 May;45(5):760-87. [PubMed:7686468 ]
  10. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. [PubMed:14704463 ]
External Links
ATC CodesN03AX15
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (124 KB)
MSDSDownload (58.3 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
7-NitroindazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when 7-Nitroindazole is combined with Zonisamide.
AcepromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acepromazine is combined with Zonisamide.
AceprometazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aceprometazine is combined with Zonisamide.
adipiplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when adipiplon is combined with Zonisamide.
AgomelatineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Agomelatine is combined with Zonisamide.
AlfaxaloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alfaxalone is combined with Zonisamide.
AlfentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alfentanil is combined with Zonisamide.
AlphacetylmethadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alphacetylmethadol is combined with Zonisamide.
AlprazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alprazolam is combined with Zonisamide.
AmiodaroneThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Amiodarone.
AmisulprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amisulpride is combined with Zonisamide.
AmitriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amitriptyline is combined with Zonisamide.
AmobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amobarbital is combined with Zonisamide.
AmoxapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Amoxapine.
AmperozideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amperozide is combined with Zonisamide.
AprepitantThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be increased when it is combined with Aprepitant.
AripiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aripiprazole is combined with Zonisamide.
ArticaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Articaine is combined with Zonisamide.
AsenapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Asenapine is combined with Zonisamide.
AtazanavirThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Atazanavir.
AtomoxetineThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Atomoxetine.
AzaperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Azaperone is combined with Zonisamide.
AzelastineZonisamide may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Azelastine.
AzelastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Azelastine is combined with Zonisamide.
BaclofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Zonisamide.
BarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Barbital is combined with Zonisamide.
BenzocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benzocaine is combined with Zonisamide.
Benzyl alcoholThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benzyl alcohol is combined with Zonisamide.
BexaroteneThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be decreased when it is combined with Bexarotene.
BoceprevirThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Boceprevir.
BortezomibThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Bortezomib.
BosentanThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be decreased when it is combined with Bosentan.
BrexpiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Brexpiprazole.
BrimonidineBrimonidine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zonisamide.
BrimonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Brimonidine.
BromazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bromazepam is combined with Zonisamide.
BrompheniramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Brompheniramine is combined with Zonisamide.
BrotizolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Brotizolam is combined with Zonisamide.
BupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bupivacaine is combined with Zonisamide.
BuprenorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Buprenorphine is combined with Zonisamide.
BuspironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Buspirone is combined with Zonisamide.
ButabarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butabarbital is combined with Zonisamide.
ButacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butacaine is combined with Zonisamide.
ButalbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butalbital is combined with Zonisamide.
ButambenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butamben is combined with Zonisamide.
ButethalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butethal is combined with Zonisamide.
ButorphanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butorphanol is combined with Zonisamide.
CarbamazepineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carbamazepine is combined with Zonisamide.
CarbinoxamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carbinoxamine is combined with Zonisamide.
CarfentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carfentanil is combined with Zonisamide.
CarisoprodolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carisoprodol is combined with Zonisamide.
CeritinibThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be increased when it is combined with Ceritinib.
CetirizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cetirizine is combined with Zonisamide.
Chloral hydrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chloral hydrate is combined with Zonisamide.
ChlordiazepoxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlordiazepoxide is combined with Zonisamide.
ChlormezanoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlormezanone is combined with Zonisamide.
ChloroprocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chloroprocaine is combined with Zonisamide.
ChlorphenamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Chlorphenamine.
ChlorpromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorpromazine is combined with Zonisamide.
ChlorprothixeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorprothixene is combined with Zonisamide.
ChlorzoxazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorzoxazone is combined with Zonisamide.
CilostazolThe serum concentration of Cilostazol can be increased when it is combined with Zonisamide.
CinchocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cinchocaine is combined with Zonisamide.
CitalopramThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Citalopram.
ClarithromycinThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Clarithromycin.
ClemastineThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Clemastine.
ClemastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Clemastine.
ClidiniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clidinium is combined with Zonisamide.
ClobazamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clobazam is combined with Zonisamide.
clomethiazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when clomethiazole is combined with Zonisamide.
ClomipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Clomipramine.
ClonazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Clonazepam.
ClonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clonidine is combined with Zonisamide.
ClorazepateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clorazepate is combined with Zonisamide.
ClotrimazoleThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Clotrimazole.
ClozapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clozapine is combined with Zonisamide.
CobicistatThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Cobicistat.
CocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cocaine is combined with Zonisamide.
CodeineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Codeine is combined with Zonisamide.
ConivaptanThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be increased when it is combined with Conivaptan.
CrizotinibThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Crizotinib.
CyclizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Cyclizine.
CyclobenzaprineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cyclobenzaprine is combined with Zonisamide.
CyclosporineThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Cyclosporine.
CyproheptadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cyproheptadine is combined with Zonisamide.
DabrafenibThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be decreased when it is combined with Dabrafenib.
DantroleneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Dantrolene.
DapiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dapiprazole is combined with Zonisamide.
DapoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Dapoxetine.
DarunavirThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Darunavir.
DasatinibThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be increased when it is combined with Dasatinib.
DeferasiroxThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be decreased when it is combined with Deferasirox.
DelavirdineThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Delavirdine.
deramciclaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when deramciclane is combined with Zonisamide.
DesfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Desflurane is combined with Zonisamide.
DesipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Desipramine.
DesloratadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Desloratadine.
DetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Detomidine is combined with Zonisamide.
DexamethasoneThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be decreased when it is combined with Dexamethasone.
DexbrompheniramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dexbrompheniramine is combined with Zonisamide.
DexmedetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dexmedetomidine is combined with Zonisamide.
DextromoramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dextromoramide is combined with Zonisamide.
DextropropoxypheneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dextropropoxyphene is combined with Zonisamide.
DezocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dezocine is combined with Zonisamide.
DiazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diazepam is combined with Zonisamide.
DifenoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Difenoxin.
DihydrocodeineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dihydrocodeine is combined with Zonisamide.
DihydroergotamineThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Dihydroergotamine.
DihydroetorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dihydroetorphine is combined with Zonisamide.
DihydromorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dihydromorphine is combined with Zonisamide.
DiltiazemThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Diltiazem.
DimenhydrinateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Dimenhydrinate.
DiphenhydramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diphenhydramine is combined with Zonisamide.
DiphenoxylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diphenoxylate is combined with Zonisamide.
DoramectinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Doramectin is combined with Zonisamide.
DoxepinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Doxepin.
DoxycyclineThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Doxycycline.
DoxylamineDoxylamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zonisamide.
DoxylamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Doxylamine.
DPDPEThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when DPDPE is combined with Zonisamide.
DronabinolDronabinol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zonisamide.
DronedaroneThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Dronedarone.
DroperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Droperidol is combined with Zonisamide.
DrotebanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Drotebanol is combined with Zonisamide.
DyclonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dyclonine is combined with Zonisamide.
EcgonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ecgonine is combined with Zonisamide.
ECGONINE METHYL ESTERThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when ECGONINE METHYL ESTER is combined with Zonisamide.
EfavirenzThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be decreased when it is combined with Efavirenz.
EfavirenzThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Efavirenz.
EnfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Zonisamide.
EntacaponeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Entacapone is combined with Zonisamide.
EnzalutamideThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be decreased when it is combined with Enzalutamide.
ErythromycinThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Erythromycin.
EscitalopramThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Escitalopram.
Eslicarbazepine acetateThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be decreased when it is combined with Eslicarbazepine acetate.
EstazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Estazolam is combined with Zonisamide.
EszopicloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Eszopiclone is combined with Zonisamide.
EthanolZonisamide may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ethanol.
EthanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethanol is combined with Zonisamide.
EthchlorvynolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethchlorvynol is combined with Zonisamide.
EthosuximideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethosuximide is combined with Zonisamide.
EthotoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethotoin is combined with Zonisamide.
Ethyl carbamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethyl carbamate is combined with Zonisamide.
Ethyl loflazepateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethyl loflazepate is combined with Zonisamide.
EthylmorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethylmorphine is combined with Zonisamide.
EtidocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etidocaine is combined with Zonisamide.
EtifoxineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etifoxine is combined with Zonisamide.
EtizolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etizolam is combined with Zonisamide.
EtomidateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etomidate is combined with Zonisamide.
EtoperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Etoperidone.
EtorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etorphine is combined with Zonisamide.
EtravirineThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be decreased when it is combined with Etravirine.
EzogabineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Ezogabine.
FelbamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Felbamate.
FencamfamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fencamfamine is combined with Zonisamide.
FenfluramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Fenfluramine.
FentanylThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fentanyl is combined with Zonisamide.
FexofenadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Fexofenadine.
FlibanserinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Flibanserin.
FluconazoleThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Fluconazole.
FludiazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fludiazepam is combined with Zonisamide.
FlunarizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Flunarizine.
FlunitrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flunitrazepam is combined with Zonisamide.
FluoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Fluoxetine.
FlupentixolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flupentixol is combined with Zonisamide.
FluphenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluphenazine is combined with Zonisamide.
FlurazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flurazepam is combined with Zonisamide.
FluspirileneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluspirilene is combined with Zonisamide.
Fluticasone PropionateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluticasone Propionate is combined with Zonisamide.
FluvoxamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Fluvoxamine.
FluvoxamineThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Fluvoxamine.
FosamprenavirThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Fosamprenavir.
FosaprepitantThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be increased when it is combined with Fosaprepitant.
FosphenytoinThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be decreased when it is combined with Fosphenytoin.
FosphenytoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Fosphenytoin.
FospropofolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fospropofol is combined with Zonisamide.
Fusidic AcidThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be increased when it is combined with Fusidic Acid.
GabapentinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gabapentin is combined with Zonisamide.
gabapentin enacarbilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with gabapentin enacarbil.
Gamma Hydroxybutyric AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Zonisamide.
GlutethimideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Glutethimide is combined with Zonisamide.
GuanfacineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Guanfacine.
HalazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Halazepam is combined with Zonisamide.
HaloperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Haloperidol is combined with Zonisamide.
HalothaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Halothane is combined with Zonisamide.
HeroinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Heroin is combined with Zonisamide.
HexobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hexobarbital is combined with Zonisamide.
HydrocodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hydrocodone is combined with Zonisamide.
HydromorphoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hydromorphone is combined with Zonisamide.
HydroxyzineHydroxyzine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zonisamide.
HydroxyzineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Hydroxyzine.
IdelalisibThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be increased when it is combined with Idelalisib.
IloperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Iloperidone.
ImatinibThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Imatinib.
ImipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Imipramine is combined with Zonisamide.
IndalpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Indalpine.
IndinavirThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Indinavir.
IsavuconazoniumThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Isavuconazonium.
IsofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Zonisamide.
IsradipineThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Isradipine.
ItraconazoleThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Itraconazole.
IvacaftorThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be increased when it is combined with Ivacaftor.
KetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Zonisamide.
KetazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Zonisamide.
KetobemidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketobemidone is combined with Zonisamide.
KetoconazoleThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Ketoconazole.
LamotrigineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lamotrigine is combined with Zonisamide.
LevetiracetamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Levetiracetam.
LevobupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Zonisamide.
LevocabastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Levocabastine.
LevocetirizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Levocetirizine.
LevodopaThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Levodopa.
Levomethadyl AcetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levomethadyl Acetate is combined with Zonisamide.
LevomilnacipranThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Levomilnacipran.
LevorphanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levorphanol is combined with Zonisamide.
LidocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lidocaine is combined with Zonisamide.
LithiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lithium is combined with Zonisamide.
LofentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lofentanil is combined with Zonisamide.
LopinavirThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Lopinavir.
LoratadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Loratadine is combined with Zonisamide.
LorazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lorazepam is combined with Zonisamide.
LovastatinThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Lovastatin.
LoxapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Loxapine is combined with Zonisamide.
Lu AA21004The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Lu AA21004.
LuliconazoleThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be increased when it is combined with Luliconazole.
LurasidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lurasidone is combined with Zonisamide.
Magnesium SulfateMagnesium Sulfate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zonisamide.
Magnesium SulfateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Magnesium Sulfate.
MaprotilineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Maprotiline.
MeclizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Meclizine is combined with Zonisamide.
MedetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Medetomidine is combined with Zonisamide.
MefloquineThe therapeutic efficacy of Zonisamide can be decreased when used in combination with Mefloquine.
MelatoninThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Melatonin is combined with Zonisamide.
MelperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Melperone is combined with Zonisamide.
MepivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mepivacaine is combined with Zonisamide.
MeprobamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Meprobamate is combined with Zonisamide.
MesoridazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mesoridazine is combined with Zonisamide.
MetaxaloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metaxalone is combined with Zonisamide.
MethadoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methadone is combined with Zonisamide.
Methadyl AcetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methadyl Acetate is combined with Zonisamide.
MethapyrileneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methapyrilene is combined with Zonisamide.
MethaqualoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methaqualone is combined with Zonisamide.
MethocarbamolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methocarbamol is combined with Zonisamide.
MethohexitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methohexital is combined with Zonisamide.
MethotrimeprazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methotrimeprazine is combined with Zonisamide.
MethoxyfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methoxyflurane is combined with Zonisamide.
MethsuximideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Methsuximide.
MethylphenobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methylphenobarbital is combined with Zonisamide.
MetyrosineZonisamide may increase the sedative activities of Metyrosine.
MianserinThe therapeutic efficacy of Zonisamide can be decreased when used in combination with Mianserin.
MidazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Midazolam is combined with Zonisamide.
MifepristoneThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Mifepristone.
MilnacipranThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Milnacipran.
MinocyclineMinocycline may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zonisamide.
MirtazapineZonisamide may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Mirtazapine.
MirtazapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mirtazapine is combined with Zonisamide.
MitotaneThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be decreased when it is combined with Mitotane.
ModafinilThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be decreased when it is combined with Modafinil.
MolindoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Molindone is combined with Zonisamide.
MorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Morphine is combined with Zonisamide.
NabiloneNabilone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zonisamide.
NabiloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Nabilone.
NafcillinThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be decreased when it is combined with Nafcillin.
NalbuphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nalbuphine is combined with Zonisamide.
NefazodoneThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Nefazodone.
NelfinavirThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Nelfinavir.
NetupitantThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be increased when it is combined with Netupitant.
NevirapineThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Nevirapine.
NilotinibThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Nilotinib.
NitrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitrazepam is combined with Zonisamide.
Nitrous oxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitrous oxide is combined with Zonisamide.
NormethadoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Normethadone is combined with Zonisamide.
NortriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nortriptyline is combined with Zonisamide.
OlanzapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Olanzapine.
OlaparibThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Olaparib.
OlopatadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Olopatadine is combined with Zonisamide.
OndansetronThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ondansetron is combined with Zonisamide.
OpiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Zonisamide.
OrlistatThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.
OrphenadrineZonisamide may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Orphenadrine.
OrphenadrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Orphenadrine is combined with Zonisamide.
OsanetantThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Osanetant is combined with Zonisamide.
OsimertinibThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be increased when it is combined with Osimertinib.
OxazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxazepam is combined with Zonisamide.
OxprenololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxprenolol is combined with Zonisamide.
OxybuprocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxybuprocaine is combined with Zonisamide.
OxycodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxycodone is combined with Zonisamide.
OxymorphoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxymorphone is combined with Zonisamide.
PalbociclibThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be increased when it is combined with Palbociclib.
PaliperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Paliperidone is combined with Zonisamide.
ParaldehydeZonisamide may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Paraldehyde.
ParaldehydeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Paraldehyde is combined with Zonisamide.
ParoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Paroxetine.
PentazocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentazocine is combined with Zonisamide.
PentobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentobarbital is combined with Zonisamide.
PerampanelThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Perampanel.
PerospironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Perospirone is combined with Zonisamide.
PerphenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Perphenazine is combined with Zonisamide.
PethidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pethidine is combined with Zonisamide.
PhenobarbitalThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.
PhenobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Phenobarbital.
PhenoxyethanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenoxyethanol is combined with Zonisamide.
PhenytoinThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
PhenytoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Phenytoin.
PimozideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pimozide is combined with Zonisamide.
PipamperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pipamperone is combined with Zonisamide.
PipotiazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Pipotiazine.
PizotifenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Pizotifen.
PomalidomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Pomalidomide.
PosaconazoleThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Posaconazole.
PramipexoleZonisamide may increase the sedative activities of Pramipexole.
PramocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pramocaine is combined with Zonisamide.
PrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prazepam is combined with Zonisamide.
PregabalinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pregabalin is combined with Zonisamide.
PrilocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prilocaine is combined with Zonisamide.
PrimidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Primidone is combined with Zonisamide.
ProcaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Zonisamide.
ProchlorperazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prochlorperazine is combined with Zonisamide.
PromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Promazine is combined with Zonisamide.
PromethazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Promethazine.
ProparacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Proparacaine is combined with Zonisamide.
PropofolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Propofol is combined with Zonisamide.
PropoxycaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Propoxycaine is combined with Zonisamide.
ProtriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Protriptyline is combined with Zonisamide.
PSD502The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when PSD502 is combined with Zonisamide.
QuazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Quazepam is combined with Zonisamide.
QuetiapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Quetiapine is combined with Zonisamide.
RamelteonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Ramelteon.
RanolazineThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Ranolazine.
RemifentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Remifentanil is combined with Zonisamide.
RemoxiprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Remoxipride is combined with Zonisamide.
ReserpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Reserpine is combined with Zonisamide.
RifabutinThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be increased when combined with Rifabutin.
RifampicinThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be increased when combined with Rifampicin.
RifapentineThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be increased when combined with Rifapentine.
RisperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Risperidone is combined with Zonisamide.
RitonavirThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.
RomifidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Romifidine is combined with Zonisamide.
RopiniroleZonisamide may increase the sedative activities of Ropinirole.
RopivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ropivacaine is combined with Zonisamide.
RotigotineZonisamide may increase the sedative activities of Rotigotine.
RufinamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Zonisamide.
S-EthylisothioureaThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when S-Ethylisothiourea is combined with Zonisamide.
SaquinavirThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Saquinavir.
ScopolamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Scopolamine is combined with Zonisamide.
SecobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Secobarbital is combined with Zonisamide.
SertindoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sertindole is combined with Zonisamide.
SertralineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Sertraline.
SevofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sevoflurane is combined with Zonisamide.
SildenafilThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Sildenafil.
SiltuximabThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be decreased when it is combined with Siltuximab.
SimeprevirThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be increased when it is combined with Simeprevir.
Sodium oxybateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sodium oxybate is combined with Zonisamide.
St. John's WortThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be decreased when it is combined with St. John's Wort.
StiripentolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Stiripentol.
SufentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sufentanil is combined with Zonisamide.
SulfisoxazoleThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Sulfisoxazole.
SulpirideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sulpiride is combined with Zonisamide.
SuvorexantThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Suvorexant.
TapentadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Tapentadol.
TasimelteonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Tasimelteon.
TelaprevirThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Telaprevir.
TelithromycinThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Telithromycin.
TemazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Temazepam is combined with Zonisamide.
TetrabenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Tetrabenazine.
TetracaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tetracaine is combined with Zonisamide.
TetrodotoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tetrodotoxin is combined with Zonisamide.
ThalidomideZonisamide may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Thalidomide.
ThalidomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thalidomide is combined with Zonisamide.
ThiamylalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thiamylal is combined with Zonisamide.
ThiopentalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thiopental is combined with Zonisamide.
ThioridazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thioridazine is combined with Zonisamide.
ThiothixeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thiothixene is combined with Zonisamide.
TiagabineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tiagabine is combined with Zonisamide.
TiclopidineThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Ticlopidine.
TiletamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tiletamine is combined with Zonisamide.
TizanidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tizanidine is combined with Zonisamide.
TocilizumabThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be decreased when it is combined with Tocilizumab.
TolcaponeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tolcapone is combined with Zonisamide.
TopiramateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Zonisamide.
TramadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Zonisamide.
Trans-2-PhenylcyclopropylamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trans-2-Phenylcyclopropylamine is combined with Zonisamide.
TranylcypromineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tranylcypromine is combined with Zonisamide.
TrazodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Trazodone.
TriazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Triazolam is combined with Zonisamide.
TrifluoperazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trifluoperazine is combined with Zonisamide.
TriflupromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Triflupromazine is combined with Zonisamide.
TrimipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trimipramine is combined with Zonisamide.
TriprolidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Triprolidine is combined with Zonisamide.
Valproic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Zonisamide.
VenlafaxineThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Venlafaxine.
VerapamilThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.
VigabatrinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Vigabatrin.
VilazodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Vilazodone.
VoriconazoleThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Voriconazole.
VortioxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Vortioxetine.
XylazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Xylazine is combined with Zonisamide.
ZaleplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zaleplon is combined with Zonisamide.
ZiconotideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Ziconotide.
ZimelidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Zimelidine.
ZiprasidoneThe metabolism of Zonisamide can be decreased when combined with Ziprasidone.
ZiprasidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Ziprasidone.
ZolazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zolazepam is combined with Zonisamide.
ZolpidemThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zolpidem is combined with Zonisamide.
ZopicloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Zonisamide.
ZotepineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zotepine is combined with Zonisamide.
ZuclopenthixolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zuclopenthixol is combined with Zonisamide.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient.
Gene Name:
SCN1A
Uniprot ID:
P35498
Molecular Weight:
228969.49 Da
References
  1. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. doi: 10.1517/17425255.4.4.493 . [PubMed:18433351 ]
  2. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. doi: 10.1517/14656560903468728. [PubMed:20001433 ]
  3. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. [PubMed:14704463 ]
  4. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases]. Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. [PubMed:20025128 ]
  5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.11.018. Epub 2009 Dec 4. [PubMed:19948168 ]
  6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. [PubMed:15511691 ]
  7. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. [PubMed:19557119 ]
  8. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient.
Gene Name:
SCN2A
Uniprot ID:
Q99250
Molecular Weight:
227972.64 Da
References
  1. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases]. Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. [PubMed:20025128 ]
  2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. doi: 10.1517/17425255.4.4.493 . [PubMed:18433351 ]
  3. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. doi: 10.1517/14656560903468728. [PubMed:20001433 ]
  4. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. [PubMed:14704463 ]
  5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.11.018. Epub 2009 Dec 4. [PubMed:19948168 ]
  6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. [PubMed:15511691 ]
  7. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. [PubMed:19557119 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient.
Gene Name:
SCN3A
Uniprot ID:
Q9NY46
Molecular Weight:
226291.905 Da
References
  1. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases]. Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. [PubMed:20025128 ]
  2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. doi: 10.1517/17425255.4.4.493 . [PubMed:18433351 ]
  3. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. doi: 10.1517/14656560903468728. [PubMed:20001433 ]
  4. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. [PubMed:14704463 ]
  5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.11.018. Epub 2009 Dec 4. [PubMed:19948168 ]
  6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. [PubMed:15511691 ]
  7. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. [PubMed:19557119 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function:
This protein mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient. This sodium channel may be present in both denervated and innervated skeleta...
Gene Name:
SCN4A
Uniprot ID:
P35499
Molecular Weight:
208059.175 Da
References
  1. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases]. Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. [PubMed:20025128 ]
  2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. doi: 10.1517/17425255.4.4.493 . [PubMed:18433351 ]
  3. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. doi: 10.1517/14656560903468728. [PubMed:20001433 ]
  4. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. [PubMed:14704463 ]
  5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.11.018. Epub 2009 Dec 4. [PubMed:19948168 ]
  6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. [PubMed:15511691 ]
  7. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. [PubMed:19557119 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity involved in sa node cell action potential
Specific Function:
This protein mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient. It is a tetrodotoxin-resistant Na(+) channel isoform. This channel is respon...
Gene Name:
SCN5A
Uniprot ID:
Q14524
Molecular Weight:
226937.475 Da
References
  1. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases]. Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. [PubMed:20025128 ]
  2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. doi: 10.1517/17425255.4.4.493 . [PubMed:18433351 ]
  3. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. doi: 10.1517/14656560903468728. [PubMed:20001433 ]
  4. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. [PubMed:14704463 ]
  5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.11.018. Epub 2009 Dec 4. [PubMed:19948168 ]
  6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. [PubMed:15511691 ]
  7. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. [PubMed:19557119 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient. It is a tetrodotoxin-sensitive Na(+) channel isoform. Plays a role in pain mechanisms, es...
Gene Name:
SCN9A
Uniprot ID:
Q15858
Molecular Weight:
226370.175 Da
References
  1. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases]. Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. [PubMed:20025128 ]
  2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. doi: 10.1517/17425255.4.4.493 . [PubMed:18433351 ]
  3. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. doi: 10.1517/14656560903468728. [PubMed:20001433 ]
  4. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. [PubMed:14704463 ]
  5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.11.018. Epub 2009 Dec 4. [PubMed:19948168 ]
  6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. [PubMed:15511691 ]
  7. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. [PubMed:19557119 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function:
This protein mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which sodium ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient. It is a tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium channel isoform. Also involved, with ...
Gene Name:
SCN11A
Uniprot ID:
Q9UI33
Molecular Weight:
204919.66 Da
References
  1. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases]. Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. [PubMed:20025128 ]
  2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. doi: 10.1517/17425255.4.4.493 . [PubMed:18433351 ]
  3. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. doi: 10.1517/14656560903468728. [PubMed:20001433 ]
  4. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. [PubMed:14704463 ]
  5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.11.018. Epub 2009 Dec 4. [PubMed:19948168 ]
  6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. [PubMed:15511691 ]
  7. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. [PubMed:19557119 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity involved in purkinje myocyte action potential
Specific Function:
Crucial in the assembly, expression, and functional modulation of the heterotrimeric complex of the sodium channel. The subunit beta-1 can modulate multiple alpha subunit isoforms from brain, skeletal muscle, and heart. Its association with neurofascin may target the sodium channels to the nodes of Ranvier of developing axons and retain these channels at the nodes in mature myelinated axons.Iso...
Gene Name:
SCN1B
Uniprot ID:
Q07699
Molecular Weight:
24706.955 Da
References
  1. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases]. Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. [PubMed:20025128 ]
  2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. doi: 10.1517/17425255.4.4.493 . [PubMed:18433351 ]
  3. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. doi: 10.1517/14656560903468728. [PubMed:20001433 ]
  4. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. [PubMed:14704463 ]
  5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.11.018. Epub 2009 Dec 4. [PubMed:19948168 ]
  6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. [PubMed:15511691 ]
  7. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. [PubMed:19557119 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity involved in cardiac muscle cell action potential
Specific Function:
Crucial in the assembly, expression, and functional modulation of the heterotrimeric complex of the sodium channel. The subunit beta-2 causes an increase in the plasma membrane surface area and in its folding into microvilli. Interacts with TNR may play a crucial role in clustering and regulation of activity of sodium channels at nodes of Ranvier (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SCN2B
Uniprot ID:
O60939
Molecular Weight:
24325.69 Da
References
  1. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases]. Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. [PubMed:20025128 ]
  2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. doi: 10.1517/17425255.4.4.493 . [PubMed:18433351 ]
  3. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. doi: 10.1517/14656560903468728. [PubMed:20001433 ]
  4. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. [PubMed:14704463 ]
  5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.11.018. Epub 2009 Dec 4. [PubMed:19948168 ]
  6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. [PubMed:15511691 ]
  7. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. [PubMed:19557119 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity involved in cardiac muscle cell action potential
Specific Function:
Modulates channel gating kinetics. Causes unique persistent sodium currents. Inactivates the sodium channel opening more slowly than the subunit beta-1. Its association with neurofascin may target the sodium channels to the nodes of Ranvier of developing axons and retain these channels at the nodes in mature myelinated axons (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SCN3B
Uniprot ID:
Q9NY72
Molecular Weight:
24702.08 Da
References
  1. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases]. Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. [PubMed:20025128 ]
  2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. doi: 10.1517/17425255.4.4.493 . [PubMed:18433351 ]
  3. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. doi: 10.1517/14656560903468728. [PubMed:20001433 ]
  4. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. [PubMed:14704463 ]
  5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.11.018. Epub 2009 Dec 4. [PubMed:19948168 ]
  6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. [PubMed:15511691 ]
  7. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. [PubMed:19557119 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity involved in cardiac muscle cell action potential
Specific Function:
Modulates channel gating kinetics. Causes negative shifts in the voltage dependence of activation of certain alpha sodium channels, but does not affect the voltage dependence of inactivation. Modulates the suceptibility of the sodium channel to inhibition by toxic peptides from spider, scorpion, wasp and sea anemone venom.
Gene Name:
SCN4B
Uniprot ID:
Q8IWT1
Molecular Weight:
24968.755 Da
References
  1. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases]. Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. [PubMed:20025128 ]
  2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. doi: 10.1517/17425255.4.4.493 . [PubMed:18433351 ]
  3. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. doi: 10.1517/14656560903468728. [PubMed:20001433 ]
  4. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. [PubMed:14704463 ]
  5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.11.018. Epub 2009 Dec 4. [PubMed:19948168 ]
  6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. [PubMed:15511691 ]
  7. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. [PubMed:19557119 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Scaffold protein binding
Specific Function:
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. The isoform alpha-1G gives rise to T-type calcium currents. T-type calcium channels belong to the "low-v...
Gene Name:
CACNA1G
Uniprot ID:
O43497
Molecular Weight:
262468.62 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. doi: 10.1517/17425255.4.4.493 . [PubMed:18433351 ]
  4. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. doi: 10.1517/14656560903468728. [PubMed:20001433 ]
  5. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. [PubMed:14704463 ]
  6. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases]. Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. [PubMed:20025128 ]
  7. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.11.018. Epub 2009 Dec 4. [PubMed:19948168 ]
  8. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. [PubMed:15511691 ]
  9. Murata M: Novel therapeutic effects of the anti-convulsant, zonisamide, on Parkinson's disease. Curr Pharm Des. 2004;10(6):687-93. [PubMed:14965331 ]
  10. Murata M: Zonisamide: a new drug for Parkinson's disease. Drugs Today (Barc). 2010 Apr;46(4):251-8. doi: 10.1358/dot.2010.46.4.1490077. [PubMed:20502722 ]
  11. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. [PubMed:19557119 ]
  12. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [PubMed:17762320 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Scaffold protein binding
Specific Function:
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. The isoform alpha-1H gives rise to T-type calcium currents. T-type calcium channels belong to the "low-v...
Gene Name:
CACNA1H
Uniprot ID:
O95180
Molecular Weight:
259160.2 Da
References
  1. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. doi: 10.1517/14656560903468728. [PubMed:20001433 ]
  2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. doi: 10.1517/17425255.4.4.493 . [PubMed:18433351 ]
  3. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. [PubMed:14704463 ]
  4. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases]. Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. [PubMed:20025128 ]
  5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.11.018. Epub 2009 Dec 4. [PubMed:19948168 ]
  6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. [PubMed:15511691 ]
  7. Murata M: Novel therapeutic effects of the anti-convulsant, zonisamide, on Parkinson's disease. Curr Pharm Des. 2004;10(6):687-93. [PubMed:14965331 ]
  8. Murata M: Zonisamide: a new drug for Parkinson's disease. Drugs Today (Barc). 2010 Apr;46(4):251-8. doi: 10.1358/dot.2010.46.4.1490077. [PubMed:20502722 ]
  9. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. [PubMed:19557119 ]
  10. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [PubMed:17762320 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. Isoform alpha-1I gives rise to T-type calcium currents. T-type calcium channels belong to the "low-volta...
Gene Name:
CACNA1I
Uniprot ID:
Q9P0X4
Molecular Weight:
245100.8 Da
References
  1. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. doi: 10.1517/14656560903468728. [PubMed:20001433 ]
  2. Kothare SV, Kaleyias J: Zonisamide: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Apr;4(4):493-506. doi: 10.1517/17425255.4.4.493 . [PubMed:18433351 ]
  3. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Malek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ: Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;55(5):683-9. [PubMed:14704463 ]
  4. Janszky J: [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases]. Ideggyogy Sz. 2009 Nov 30;62(11-12):383-9. [PubMed:20025128 ]
  5. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.11.018. Epub 2009 Dec 4. [PubMed:19948168 ]
  6. Leppik IE: Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics. Seizure. 2004 Dec;13 Suppl 1:S5-9; discussion S10. [PubMed:15511691 ]
  7. Murata M: Novel therapeutic effects of the anti-convulsant, zonisamide, on Parkinson's disease. Curr Pharm Des. 2004;10(6):687-93. [PubMed:14965331 ]
  8. Murata M: Zonisamide: a new drug for Parkinson's disease. Drugs Today (Barc). 2010 Apr;46(4):251-8. doi: 10.1358/dot.2010.46.4.1490077. [PubMed:20502722 ]
  9. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. [PubMed:19557119 ]
  10. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [PubMed:17762320 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrates cyanamide to urea.
Gene Name:
CA1
Uniprot ID:
P00915
Molecular Weight:
28870.0 Da
References
  1. De Simone G, Di Fiore A, Menchise V, Pedone C, Antel J, Casini A, Scozzafava A, Wurl M, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Zonisamide is an effective inhibitor of the cytosolic isozyme II and mitochondrial isozyme V: solution and X-ray crystallographic studies. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2005 May 2;15(9):2315-20. [PubMed:15837316 ]
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. doi: 10.1517/14728214.13.2.383 . [PubMed:18537527 ]
  3. Shank RP, Smith-Swintosky VL, Maryanoff BE: Carbonic anhydrase inhibition. Insight into the characteristics of zonisamide, topiramate, and the sulfamide cognate of topiramate. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2008 Apr;23(2):271-6. doi: 10.1080/14756360701507001 . [PubMed:18343915 ]
  4. Masuda Y, Karasawa T: Inhibitory effect of zonisamide on human carbonic anhydrase in vitro. Arzneimittelforschung. 1993 Apr;43(4):416-8. [PubMed:8494570 ]
  5. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [PubMed:18782051 ]
  6. Temperini C, Cecchi A, Boyle NA, Scozzafava A, Cabeza JE, Wentworth P Jr, Blackburn GM, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Interaction of 2-N,N-dimethylamino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-5-methanesulfonamide with 12 mammalian isoforms: kinetic and X-ray crystallographic studies. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2008 Feb 1;18(3):999-1005. Epub 2007 Dec 15. [PubMed:18162396 ]
  7. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [PubMed:17762320 ]
  8. Authors unspecified: Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. [PubMed:17582922 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye. Contributes to intracellular pH regulation in the duodenal upper villous epithelium during proton-coupled peptide absorption. Stimulates the chloride-bicarbonate ex...
Gene Name:
CA2
Uniprot ID:
P00918
Molecular Weight:
29245.895 Da
References
  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2009.00857.x. [PubMed:19703035 ]
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. doi: 10.1517/14728214.13.2.383 . [PubMed:18537527 ]
  3. Shank RP, Smith-Swintosky VL, Maryanoff BE: Carbonic anhydrase inhibition. Insight into the characteristics of zonisamide, topiramate, and the sulfamide cognate of topiramate. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2008 Apr;23(2):271-6. doi: 10.1080/14756360701507001 . [PubMed:18343915 ]
  4. De Simone G, Di Fiore A, Menchise V, Pedone C, Antel J, Casini A, Scozzafava A, Wurl M, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Zonisamide is an effective inhibitor of the cytosolic isozyme II and mitochondrial isozyme V: solution and X-ray crystallographic studies. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2005 May 2;15(9):2315-20. [PubMed:15837316 ]
  5. Masuda Y, Karasawa T: Inhibitory effect of zonisamide on human carbonic anhydrase in vitro. Arzneimittelforschung. 1993 Apr;43(4):416-8. [PubMed:8494570 ]
  6. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [PubMed:18782051 ]
  7. Temperini C, Cecchi A, Boyle NA, Scozzafava A, Cabeza JE, Wentworth P Jr, Blackburn GM, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Interaction of 2-N,N-dimethylamino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-5-methanesulfonamide with 12 mammalian isoforms: kinetic and X-ray crystallographic studies. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2008 Feb 1;18(3):999-1005. Epub 2007 Dec 15. [PubMed:18162396 ]
  8. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [PubMed:17762320 ]
  9. Authors unspecified: Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. [PubMed:17582922 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide.
Gene Name:
CA3
Uniprot ID:
P07451
Molecular Weight:
29557.215 Da
References
  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2009.00857.x. [PubMed:19703035 ]
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. doi: 10.1517/14728214.13.2.383 . [PubMed:18537527 ]
  3. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [PubMed:18782051 ]
  4. Temperini C, Cecchi A, Boyle NA, Scozzafava A, Cabeza JE, Wentworth P Jr, Blackburn GM, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Interaction of 2-N,N-dimethylamino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-5-methanesulfonamide with 12 mammalian isoforms: kinetic and X-ray crystallographic studies. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2008 Feb 1;18(3):999-1005. Epub 2007 Dec 15. [PubMed:18162396 ]
  5. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [PubMed:17762320 ]
  6. Authors unspecified: Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. [PubMed:17582922 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. May stimulate the sodium/bicarbonate transporter activity of SLC4A4 that acts in pH homeostasis. It is essential for acid overload removal from the retina and retina epithelium, and acid release in the choriocapillaris in the choroid.
Gene Name:
CA4
Uniprot ID:
P22748
Molecular Weight:
35032.075 Da
References
  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2009.00857.x. [PubMed:19703035 ]
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. doi: 10.1517/14728214.13.2.383 . [PubMed:18537527 ]
  3. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [PubMed:18782051 ]
  4. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [PubMed:17762320 ]
  5. Authors unspecified: Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. [PubMed:17582922 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Low activity.
Gene Name:
CA5A
Uniprot ID:
P35218
Molecular Weight:
34750.21 Da
References
  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2009.00857.x. [PubMed:19703035 ]
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. doi: 10.1517/14728214.13.2.383 . [PubMed:18537527 ]
  3. De Simone G, Di Fiore A, Menchise V, Pedone C, Antel J, Casini A, Scozzafava A, Wurl M, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Zonisamide is an effective inhibitor of the cytosolic isozyme II and mitochondrial isozyme V: solution and X-ray crystallographic studies. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2005 May 2;15(9):2315-20. [PubMed:15837316 ]
  4. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [PubMed:18782051 ]
  5. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [PubMed:17762320 ]
  6. Authors unspecified: Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. [PubMed:17582922 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide.
Gene Name:
CA5B
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y2D0
Molecular Weight:
36433.43 Da
References
  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2009.00857.x. [PubMed:19703035 ]
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. doi: 10.1517/14728214.13.2.383 . [PubMed:18537527 ]
  3. De Simone G, Di Fiore A, Menchise V, Pedone C, Antel J, Casini A, Scozzafava A, Wurl M, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Zonisamide is an effective inhibitor of the cytosolic isozyme II and mitochondrial isozyme V: solution and X-ray crystallographic studies. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2005 May 2;15(9):2315-20. [PubMed:15837316 ]
  4. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [PubMed:18782051 ]
  5. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [PubMed:17762320 ]
  6. Authors unspecified: Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. [PubMed:17582922 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Its role in saliva is unknown.
Gene Name:
CA6
Uniprot ID:
P23280
Molecular Weight:
35366.615 Da
References
  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2009.00857.x. [PubMed:19703035 ]
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. doi: 10.1517/14728214.13.2.383 . [PubMed:18537527 ]
  3. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [PubMed:18782051 ]
  4. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [PubMed:17762320 ]
  5. Authors unspecified: Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. [PubMed:17582922 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide.
Gene Name:
CA7
Uniprot ID:
P43166
Molecular Weight:
29658.235 Da
References
  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2009.00857.x. [PubMed:19703035 ]
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. doi: 10.1517/14728214.13.2.383 . [PubMed:18537527 ]
  3. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [PubMed:18782051 ]
  4. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [PubMed:17762320 ]
  5. Authors unspecified: Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. [PubMed:17582922 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Does not have a carbonic anhydrase catalytic activity.
Gene Name:
CA8
Uniprot ID:
P35219
Molecular Weight:
32972.915 Da
References
  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2009.00857.x. [PubMed:19703035 ]
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. doi: 10.1517/14728214.13.2.383 . [PubMed:18537527 ]
  3. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [PubMed:18782051 ]
  4. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [PubMed:17762320 ]
  5. Authors unspecified: Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. [PubMed:17582922 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Participates in pH regulation. May be involved in the control of cell proliferation and transformation. Appears to be a novel specific biomarker for a cervical neoplasia.
Gene Name:
CA9
Uniprot ID:
Q16790
Molecular Weight:
49697.36 Da
References
  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2009.00857.x. [PubMed:19703035 ]
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. doi: 10.1517/14728214.13.2.383 . [PubMed:18537527 ]
  3. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [PubMed:18782051 ]
  4. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [PubMed:17762320 ]
  5. Authors unspecified: Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. [PubMed:17582922 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
Does not have a catalytic activity.
Gene Name:
CA10
Uniprot ID:
Q9NS85
Molecular Weight:
37562.655 Da
References
  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2009.00857.x. [PubMed:19703035 ]
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. doi: 10.1517/14728214.13.2.383 . [PubMed:18537527 ]
  3. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [PubMed:18782051 ]
  4. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [PubMed:17762320 ]
  5. Authors unspecified: Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. [PubMed:17582922 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
Does not have a catalytic activity.
Gene Name:
CA11
Uniprot ID:
O75493
Molecular Weight:
36237.885 Da
References
  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2009.00857.x. [PubMed:19703035 ]
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. doi: 10.1517/14728214.13.2.383 . [PubMed:18537527 ]
  3. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [PubMed:18782051 ]
  4. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [PubMed:17762320 ]
  5. Authors unspecified: Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. [PubMed:17582922 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide.
Gene Name:
CA12
Uniprot ID:
O43570
Molecular Weight:
39450.615 Da
References
  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2009.00857.x. [PubMed:19703035 ]
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. doi: 10.1517/14728214.13.2.383 . [PubMed:18537527 ]
  3. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [PubMed:18782051 ]
  4. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [PubMed:17762320 ]
  5. Authors unspecified: Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. [PubMed:17582922 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide.
Gene Name:
CA13
Uniprot ID:
Q8N1Q1
Molecular Weight:
29442.895 Da
References
  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2009.00857.x. [PubMed:19703035 ]
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. doi: 10.1517/14728214.13.2.383 . [PubMed:18537527 ]
  3. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [PubMed:18782051 ]
  4. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [PubMed:17762320 ]
  5. Authors unspecified: Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. [PubMed:17582922 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide.
Gene Name:
CA14
Uniprot ID:
Q9ULX7
Molecular Weight:
37667.37 Da
References
  1. De Simone G, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Which carbonic anhydrases are targeted by the antiepileptic sulfonamides and sulfamates? Chem Biol Drug Des. 2009 Sep;74(3):317-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2009.00857.x. [PubMed:19703035 ]
  2. Supuran CT, Di Fiore A, De Simone G: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors as emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008 Jun;13(2):383-92. doi: 10.1517/14728214.13.2.383 . [PubMed:18537527 ]
  3. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [PubMed:18782051 ]
  4. Biton V: Clinical pharmacology and mechanism of action of zonisamide. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(4):230-40. [PubMed:17762320 ]
  5. Authors unspecified: Zonisamide: new drug. No advantage in refractory partial epilepsy. Prescrire Int. 2007 Jun;16(89):95-7. [PubMed:17582922 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Primary amine oxidase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. MAOB preferentially degrades benzylamine and phenylethylamine.
Gene Name:
MAOB
Uniprot ID:
P27338
Molecular Weight:
58762.475 Da
References
  1. Sonsalla PK, Wong LY, Winnik B, Buckley B: The antiepileptic drug zonisamide inhibits MAO-B and attenuates MPTP toxicity in mice: clinical relevance. Exp Neurol. 2010 Feb;221(2):329-34. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.11.018. Epub 2009 Dec 4. [PubMed:19948168 ]
  2. Murata M: Novel therapeutic effects of the anti-convulsant, zonisamide, on Parkinson's disease. Curr Pharm Des. 2004;10(6):687-93. [PubMed:14965331 ]
  3. Murata M, Horiuchi E, Kanazawa I: Zonisamide has beneficial effects on Parkinson's disease patients. Neurosci Res. 2001 Dec;41(4):397-9. [PubMed:11755227 ]
  4. Okada M, Kaneko S, Hirano T, Mizuno K, Kondo T, Otani K, Fukushima Y: Effects of zonisamide on dopaminergic system. Epilepsy Res. 1995 Nov;22(3):193-205. [PubMed:8991786 ]
  5. Murata M: Zonisamide: a new drug for Parkinson's disease. Drugs Today (Barc). 2010 Apr;46(4):251-8. doi: 10.1358/dot.2010.46.4.1490077. [PubMed:20502722 ]
  6. Okada M: [Effects of carbamazepine and zonisamide on dopaminergic system in rat striatum and hippocampus]. Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi. 1994 Oct;14(5):337-54. [PubMed:7856330 ]
  7. Farooq MU, Moore PW, Bhatt A, Aburashed R, Kassab MY: Therapeutic role of zonisamide in neuropsychiatric disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008 Sep;8(10):968-75. [PubMed:18782051 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Serotonin binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. MAOA preferentially oxidizes biogenic amines such as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), norepinephrine and epinephrine.
Gene Name:
MAOA
Uniprot ID:
P21397
Molecular Weight:
59681.27 Da
References
  1. Okada M, Kaneko S, Hirano T, Mizuno K, Kondo T, Otani K, Fukushima Y: Effects of zonisamide on dopaminergic system. Epilepsy Res. 1995 Nov;22(3):193-205. [PubMed:8991786 ]
  2. Murata M: Zonisamide: a new drug for Parkinson's disease. Drugs Today (Barc). 2010 Apr;46(4):251-8. doi: 10.1358/dot.2010.46.4.1490077. [PubMed:20502722 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiot...
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Nakasa H, Komiya M, Ohmori S, Rikihisa T, Kiuchi M, Kitada M: Characterization of human liver microsomal cytochrome P450 involved in the reductive metabolism of zonisamide. Mol Pharmacol. 1993 Jul;44(1):216-21. [PubMed:8341274 ]
  2. Schulze-Bonhage A: Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;11(1):115-26. doi: 10.1517/14656560903468728. [PubMed:20001433 ]
  3. Zaccara G, Specchio LM: Long-term safety and effectiveness of zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2009;5:249-59. Epub 2009 May 20. [PubMed:19557119 ]
  4. Nakasa H, Nakamura H, Ono S, Tsutsui M, Kiuchi M, Ohmori S, Kitada M: Prediction of drug-drug interactions of zonisamide metabolism in humans from in vitro data. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1998 Apr;54(2):177-83. [PubMed:9626925 ]
  5. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Xanthine dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
Oxidase with broad substrate specificity, oxidizing aromatic azaheterocycles, such as N1-methylnicotinamide and N-methylphthalazinium, as well as aldehydes, such as benzaldehyde, retinal, pyridoxal, and vanillin. Plays a key role in the metabolism of xenobiotics and drugs containing aromatic azaheterocyclic substituents. Participates in the bioactivation of prodrugs such as famciclovir, catalyz...
Gene Name:
AOX1
Uniprot ID:
Q06278
Molecular Weight:
147916.735 Da
References
  1. Sugihara K, Kitamura S, Tatsumi K: Involvement of mammalian liver cytosols and aldehyde oxidase in reductive metabolism of zonisamide. Drug Metab Dispos. 1996 Feb;24(2):199-202. [PubMed:8742231 ]
  2. Kitamura S, Ohashi KNK, Sugihara K, Hosokawa R, Akagawa Y, Ohta S: Extremely high drug-reductase activity based on aldehyde oxidase in monkey liver. Biol Pharm Bull. 2001 Jul;24(7):856-9. [PubMed:11456132 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine.
Gene Name:
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID:
P33261
Molecular Weight:
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23