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Identification
NameTolbutamide
Accession NumberDB01124  (APRD00267)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
Description

Tolbutamide is an oral antihyperglycemic agent used for the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). It is structurally similar to acetohexamide, chlorpropamide and tolazamide and belongs to the sulfonylurea class of insulin secretagogues, which act by stimulating β cells of the pancreas to release insulin. Sulfonylureas increase both basal insulin secretion and meal-stimulated insulin release. Medications in this class differ in their dose, rate of absorption, duration of action, route of elimination and binding site on their target pancreatic β cell receptor. Sulfonylureas also increase peripheral glucose utilization, decrease hepatic gluconeogenesis and may increase the number and sensitivity of insulin receptors. Sulfonylureas are associated with weight gain, though less so than insulin. Due to their mechanism of action, sulfonylureas may cause hypoglycemia and require consistent food intake to decrease this risk. The risk of hypoglycemia is increased in elderly, debilitated and malnourished individuals. Tolbutamide appears to be metabolized in the liver. Tolbutamide and its metabolites are excreted in urine (75-85%) and feces.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
1-Butyl-3-(P-methylphenylsulfonyl)ureaNot AvailableNot Available
1-Butyl-3-(P-tolylsulfonyl)ureaNot AvailableNot Available
1-Butyl-3-tosylureaNot AvailableNot Available
1-P-Toluenesulfonyl-3-butylureaNot AvailableNot Available
3-(P-Tolyl-4-sulfonyl)-1-butylureaNot AvailableNot Available
N-(4-Methylbenzenesulfonyl)-n'-butylureaNot AvailableNot Available
N-(4-Methylphenylsulfonyl)-n'-butylureaNot AvailableNot Available
N-(P-Methylbenzenesulfonyl)-n'-butylureaNot AvailableNot Available
N-(Sulfonyl-P-methylbenzene)-n'-N-butylureaNot AvailableNot Available
N-Butyl-n'-(4-methylphenylsulfonyl)ureaNot AvailableNot Available
N-Butyl-N'-(p-tolylsulfonyl)ureaNot AvailableNot Available
N-Butyl-n'-P-toluenesulfonylureaNot AvailableNot Available
N-N-Butyl-n'-tosylureaNot AvailableNot Available
Orinase (tn)Not AvailableNot Available
TolbutamidaNot AvailableNot Available
TolbutamideNot AvailableNot Available
TolbutamidumNot AvailableNot Available
TolylsulfonylbutylureaNot AvailableNot Available
Prescription ProductsNot Available
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Tolbutamidetablet500 mgoralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.1989-11-01Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Tolbutamidetablet500 mgoralAa Pharma IncNot AvailableNot AvailableCanada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
International Brands
NameCompany
ArtosinNot Available
ButamideNot Available
DiabetolNot Available
DirastanNot Available
GlycononNot Available
OrinaseNot Available
RastinonNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
CAS number64-77-7
WeightAverage: 270.348
Monoisotopic: 270.103813142
Chemical FormulaC12H18N2O3S
InChI KeyJLRGJRBPOGGCBT-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C12H18N2O3S/c1-3-4-9-13-12(15)14-18(16,17)11-7-5-10(2)6-8-11/h5-8H,3-4,9H2,1-2H3,(H2,13,14,15)
IUPAC Name
3-butyl-1-(4-methylbenzenesulfonyl)urea
SMILES
CCCCNC(=O)NS(=O)(=O)C1=CC=C(C)C=C1
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as benzenesulfonamides. These are organic compounds containing a sulfonamide group that is S-linked to a benzene ring.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassBenzenesulfonamides
Direct ParentBenzenesulfonamides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Tosyl compound
  • Benzenesulfonamide
  • Toluene
  • Sulfonylurea
  • Aminosulfonyl compound
  • Sulfonyl
  • Sulfonic acid derivative
  • Sulfonamide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organosulfur compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor treatment of NIDDM (non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus) in conjunction with diet and exercise.
PharmacodynamicsTolbutamide, a first-generation sulfonylurea antidiabetic agent, is used with diet to lower blood glucose levels in patients with diabetes mellitus type II. Tolbutamide is twice as potent as the related second-generation agent glipizide. Tolbutamide lowers blood sugar by stimulating the pancreas to secrete insulin and helping the body use insulin efficiently. The pancreas must be able to produce insulin for this drug to work.
Mechanism of actionSulfonylureas lower blood glucose in patients with NIDDM by directly stimulating the acute release of insulin from functioning beta cells of pancreatic islet tissue by an unknown process that involves a sulfonylurea receptor (receptor 1) on the beta cell. Sulfonylureas inhibit the ATP-potassium channels on the beta cell membrane and potassium efflux, which results in depolarization and calcium influx, calcium-calmodulin binding, kinase activation, and release of insulin-containing granules by exocytosis, an effect similar to that of glucose.
AbsorptionReadily absorbed following oral administration. Tolbutamide is detectable in plasma 30-60 minutes following oral administration of a single dose with peak plasma concentrations occurring within 3-5 hours. Absorption is unaltered if taken with food but is increased with high pH.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingApproximately 95% bound to plasma proteins.
Metabolism

Metabolized in the liver principally via oxidation of the p-methyl group producing the carboxyl metabolite, 1-butyl-3-p-carboxyphenylsulfonylurea. May also be metabolized to hydroxytolbutamide. Tolbutamide does not undergo acetylation like antibacterial sulfonamides as it does not have a p-amino group.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Tolbutamide
4-Hydroxy tolbutamideDetails
Route of eliminationUnchanged drug and metabolites are eliminated in the urine and feces. Approximately 75-85% of a single orally administered dose is excreted in the urine principally as the 1-butyl-3-p-carboxyphenylsulfonylurea within 24 hours.
Half lifeApproximately 7 hours with interindividual variations ranging from 4-25 hours. Tolbutamide has the shortest duration of action, 6-12 hours, of the antidiabetic sulfonylureas.
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityOral, mouse: LD50 = 2600 mg/kg
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated Effects
Interacting Gene/EnzymeSNP RS IDAllele nameDefining changeEffectReference(s)
Cytochrome P450 2C9
Gene symbol: CYP2C9
UniProt: P11712
rs1057910 CYP2C9*1C AllelePoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements8873220
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9959
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9321
Caco-2 permeable-0.6453
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.5333
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9349
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9131
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8852
CYP450 2C9 substrateSubstrate0.5304
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7558
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9443
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9071
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9504
CYP450 2C19 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9025
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9613
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.881
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9133
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.781
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.8811
Rat acute toxicity2.0629 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9561
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9511
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Tabletoral500 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Tolbutamide 500 mg tablet0.4USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point128.5 °CPhysProp
water solubility109 mg/L (at 37 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP2.34HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
logS-3.39ADME Research, USCD
pKa5.16SANGSTER (1994)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.202 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.04ALOGPS
logP2.3ChemAxon
logS-3.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.33ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area75.27 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity70.27 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability29.1 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Download (9.12 KB)
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Yan-Ping Chen, Pai-Ching Lin, “Tolbutamide Particle And Preparing Method Thereof And Method Of Reducing A Blood Glucose.” U.S. Patent US20120121707, issued May 17, 2012.

US20120121707
General Reference
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. Pubmed
External Links
ATC CodesA10BB03V04CA01
AHFS Codes
  • 68:20.20
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (73.9 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AcarboseAntidiabetic Agents may enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
AcetohexamideMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
Acetylsalicylic acidMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Blood Glucose Lowering Agents.
AlbiglutideAntidiabetic Agents may enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
AlogliptinMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
AprepitantAprepitant may decrease the serum concentration of TOLBUTamide.
AripiprazoleHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
Arsenic trioxideHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
ArticaineHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
AsenapineHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
AtazanavirHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
Azilsartan medoxomilThiazide Diuretics may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
BendroflumethiazideThiazide Diuretics may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
BosentanCYP2C9 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Bosentan.
BromocriptineAntidiabetic Agents may enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
BuforminMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of other Hypoglycemic Agents.
BumetanideHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
BuserelinHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
CanagliflozinMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
CarvedilolCYP2C9 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Carvedilol. Specifically, concentrations of the S-carvedilol enantiomer may be increased.
ChloramphenicolMay decrease the metabolism of Sulfonylureas.
ChlorothiazideThiazide Diuretics may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
ChlorpropamideMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
ChlorthalidoneThiazide Diuretics may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
CimetidineMay increase the serum concentration of Sulfonylureas.
ClozapineHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
CorticotropinHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
Cortisone acetateHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
Cyproterone acetateHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
DabrafenibMay decrease the serum concentration of CYP2C9 Substrates.
DanazolHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
DapagliflozinAntidiabetic Agents may enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
DarunavirHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
DesogestrelHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
DiazoxideHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
DihydrotestosteroneMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Blood Glucose Lowering Agents. Exceptions: Danazol.
DisopyramideMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
DronabinolCYP2C9 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Dronabinol.
DrospirenoneHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
DulaglutideAntidiabetic Agents may enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
EmpagliflozinAntidiabetic Agents may enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
EstropipateHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
Ethacrynic acidHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
Ethinyl EstradiolHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
EthynodiolHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
EtonogestrelHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
EverolimusHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
ExenatideMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of other Hypoglycemic Agents.
FluconazoleMay increase the serum concentration of Sulfonylureas.
FludrocortisoneHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
FosamprenavirHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
FosaprepitantMay decrease the serum concentration of TOLBUTamide.
FurosemideHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
GliclazideMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
GlimepirideMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
GlipizideMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
GliquidoneMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
Glucagon recombinantMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of other Hypoglycemic Agents.
GlyburideMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
GoserelinHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
HistrelinHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
HomoharringtonineHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
HydrochlorothiazideThiazide Diuretics may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
IloperidoneHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
IndapamideThiazide Diuretics may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
IndinavirHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
inhaled insulinMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
Insulin AspartMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
Insulin DetemirMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
Insulin GlargineMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
Insulin GlulisineMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
Insulin LisproMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
Insulin RegularMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
Insulin, isophaneMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
Insulin, porcineMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of other Hypoglycemic Agents.
LacosamideCYP2C9 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lacosamide.
LanreotideMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
LeflunomideLeflunomide may increase the serum concentration of TOLBUTamide. Specifically, the active metabolite of leflunomide (M1) may both increase total tolbutamide concentrations and increase the free fraction (i.e., non-protein bound) of tolbutamide. TOLBUTamide may increase the serum concentration of Leflunomide. Specifically, tolbutamide may increase the proportion of non-protein-bound (i.e., free fraction) M1, which is the active metabolite of leflunomide.
LeuprolideHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
LevonorgestrelHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
LinagliptinMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
LiraglutideAntidiabetic Agents may enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
LopinavirHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
LurasidoneHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
MecaserminMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
Medroxyprogesterone AcetateHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
Megestrol acetateHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
MestranolHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
MetforminAntidiabetic Agents may enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
MethotrimeprazineHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
MethyclothiazideThiazide Diuretics may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
MethylprednisoloneHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
MetolazoneThiazide Diuretics may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
MetreleptinMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Sulfonylureas.
MifepristoneMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
MiglitolAntidiabetic Agents may enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
MitiglinideMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of other Hypoglycemic Agents.
NateglinideMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
NelfinavirHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
NilotinibHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
NorelgestrominHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
NorethindroneHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
NorgestimateHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
OctreotideMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
OlanzapineHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
OspemifeneCYP2C9 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ospemifene.
OxandroloneMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Blood Glucose Lowering Agents. Exceptions: Danazol.
PaliperidoneHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
PasireotideMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
PegvisomantMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Blood Glucose Lowering Agents.
PentamidineMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
PhenforminMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of other Hypoglycemic Agents.
PioglitazoneMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of other Hypoglycemic Agents.
PiperazineHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
PipotiazineHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
PorfimerPhotosensitizing Agents may enhance the photosensitizing effect of Porfimer.
PramlintideAntidiabetic Agents may enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
PrednisoneHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
ProbenecidMay decrease the protein binding of Sulfonylureas. Probenecid may increase the serum concentration of Sulfonylureas.
ProgesteroneHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
QuetiapineHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
QuinineMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
RanitidineMay increase the serum concentration of Sulfonylureas.
RepaglinideMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
RisperidoneHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
RitonavirHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
RosiglitazoneAntidiabetic Agents may enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
Salicylate-sodiumMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Blood Glucose Lowering Agents.
SaquinavirHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
SaxagliptinMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
SirolimusHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
SitagliptinAntidiabetic Agents may enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
SulfadiazineMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
SulfamethoxazoleMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
SulfisoxazoleMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
SulodexideMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of other Hypoglycemic Agents.
SunitinibMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
TemsirolimusHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
TestosteroneMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Blood Glucose Lowering Agents. Exceptions: Danazol.
TipranavirHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
TolazamideMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
TorasemideHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
TriptorelinHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
VerteporfinPhotosensitizing Agents may enhance the photosensitizing effect of Verteporfin.
VildagliptinMay enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemic Agents.
VorinostatHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
ZiprasidoneHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

1. ATP-binding cassette sub-family C member 8

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
ATP-binding cassette sub-family C member 8 Q09428 Details

References:

  1. Mizuno CS, Chittiboyina AG, Kurtz TW, Pershadsingh HA, Avery MA: Type 2 diabetes and oral antihyperglycemic drugs. Curr Med Chem. 2008;15(1):61-74. Pubmed

2. ATP-sensitive inward rectifier potassium channel 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
ATP-sensitive inward rectifier potassium channel 1 P48048 Details

References:

  1. Proks P, Jones P, Ashcroft FM: Interaction of stilbene disulphonates with cloned K(ATP) channels. Br J Pharmacol. 2001 Mar;132(5):973-82. Pubmed
  2. Smith PA, Proks P: Inhibition of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel from mouse pancreatic beta-cells by surfactants. Br J Pharmacol. 1998 Jun;124(3):529-39. Pubmed
  3. Liu X, Singh BB, Ambudkar IS: ATP-dependent activation of K(Ca) and ROMK-type K(ATP) channels in human submandibular gland ductal cells. J Biol Chem. 1999 Aug 27;274(35):25121-9. Pubmed

Enzymes

1. Cytochrome P450 2C9

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2C9 P11712 Details

References:

  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. Pubmed
  2. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.
  3. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed
  4. Lasker JM, Wester MR, Aramsombatdee E, Raucy JL: Characterization of CYP2C19 and CYP2C9 from human liver: respective roles in microsomal tolbutamide, S-mephenytoin, and omeprazole hydroxylations. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1998 May 1;353(1):16-28. Pubmed

2. Cytochrome P450 2C8

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2C8 P10632 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

3. Cytochrome P450 2C19

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2C19 P33261 Details

References:

  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. Pubmed
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed
  3. Lasker JM, Wester MR, Aramsombatdee E, Raucy JL: Characterization of CYP2C19 and CYP2C9 from human liver: respective roles in microsomal tolbutamide, S-mephenytoin, and omeprazole hydroxylations. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1998 May 1;353(1):16-28. Pubmed

4. Cytochrome P450 2C18

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2C18 P33260 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

Transporters

1. Solute carrier family 15 member 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier family 15 member 1 P46059 Details

References:

  1. Terada T, Sawada K, Saito H, Hashimoto Y, Inui K: Inhibitory effect of novel oral hypoglycemic agent nateglinide (AY4166) on peptide transporters PEPT1 and PEPT2. Eur J Pharmacol. 2000 Mar 24;392(1-2):11-7. Pubmed

2. Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2 P46721 Details

References:

  1. Shitara Y, Sugiyama D, Kusuhara H, Kato Y, Abe T, Meier PJ, Itoh T, Sugiyama Y: Comparative inhibitory effects of different compounds on rat oatpl (slc21a1)- and Oatp2 (Slc21a5)-mediated transport. Pharm Res. 2002 Feb;19(2):147-53. Pubmed

3. Solute carrier family 15 member 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier family 15 member 2 Q16348 Details

References:

  1. Terada T, Sawada K, Saito H, Hashimoto Y, Inui K: Inhibitory effect of novel oral hypoglycemic agent nateglinide (AY4166) on peptide transporters PEPT1 and PEPT2. Eur J Pharmacol. 2000 Mar 24;392(1-2):11-7. Pubmed

4. Solute carrier family 22 member 6

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier family 22 member 6 Q4U2R8 Details

References:

  1. Uwai Y, Saito H, Hashimoto Y, Inui K: Inhibitory effect of anti-diabetic agents on rat organic anion transporter rOAT1. Eur J Pharmacol. 2000 Jun 16;398(2):193-7. Pubmed

5. Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2B1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2B1 O94956 Details

References:

  1. Satoh H, Yamashita F, Tsujimoto M, Murakami H, Koyabu N, Ohtani H, Sawada Y: Citrus juices inhibit the function of human organic anion-transporting polypeptide OATP-B. Drug Metab Dispos. 2005 Apr;33(4):518-23. Epub 2005 Jan 7. Pubmed

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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on February 10, 2014 12:12