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Identification
NamePioglitazone
Accession NumberDB01132  (APRD00653)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Investigational
Description

Pioglitazone is used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2. Pioglitazone selectively stimulates nuclear receptor peroxisone proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma). It modulates the transcription of the insulin-sensitive genes involved in the control of glucose and lipid metabolism in the lipidic, muscular tissues and in the liver.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
(+-)-5-((4-(2-(5-Ethyl-2-pyridinyl)ethoxy)phenyl)methyl)-2,4-thiazolidinedione
Pioglitazona
Pioglitazone
Pioglitazonum
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Accel Pioglitazonetablet45 mgoralAccel Pharma Inc2009-06-02Not applicableCanada
Accel Pioglitazonetablet30 mgoralAccel Pharma Inc2009-06-02Not applicableCanada
Accel Pioglitazonetablet15 mgoralAccel Pharma Inc2009-06-02Not applicableCanada
Ach-pioglitazonetablet15 mgoralAccord Healthcare Inc2012-10-12Not applicableCanada
Ach-pioglitazonetablet45 mgoralAccord Healthcare Inc2010-06-11Not applicableCanada
Ach-pioglitazonetablet30 mgoralAccord Healthcare Inc2010-06-11Not applicableCanada
Act Pioglitazonetablet45 mgoralActavis Pharma Company2007-12-05Not applicableCanada
Act Pioglitazonetablet30 mgoralActavis Pharma Company2007-12-05Not applicableCanada
Act Pioglitazonetablet15 mgoralActavis Pharma Company2007-12-05Not applicableCanada
Actostablet30 mg/1oralCardinal Health1999-07-15Not applicableUs
Actostablet15 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-04-02Not applicableUs
Actostablet45 mg/1oralCardinal Health1999-07-15Not applicableUs
Actostablet15 mg/1oralCardinal Health1999-07-15Not applicableUs
Actostablet45 mg/1oralLake Erie Medical & Surgical Supply DBA Quality Care Products LLC2012-02-17Not applicableUs
Actostablet45 mg/1oralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2009-10-22Not applicableUs
Actostablet30 mg/1oralLake Erie Medical & Surgical Supply DBA Quality Care Products LLC2012-02-17Not applicableUs
Actostablet45 mg/1oralTakeda Pharmaceuticals America, Inc.1999-07-15Not applicableUs
Actostablet30 mg/1oralTakeda Pharmaceuticals America, Inc.1999-07-15Not applicableUs
Actostablet30 mg/1oralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2005-03-04Not applicableUs
Actostablet15 mg/1oralLake Erie Medical & Surgical Supply DBA Quality Care Products LLC2012-02-17Not applicableUs
Actostablet15 mg/1oralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2007-11-20Not applicableUs
Actostablet30 mg/1oralRebel Distributors Corp.1999-07-15Not applicableUs
Actostablet15 mg/1oralTakeda Pharmaceuticals America, Inc.1999-07-15Not applicableUs
Actostablet15 mg/1oralRebel Distributors Corp.1999-07-15Not applicableUs
Actostablet15 mg/1occlusive dressing techniqueDispensing Solutions, Inc.1999-07-15Not applicableUs
Actostablet30 mg/1occlusive dressing techniqueDispensing Solutions, Inc.1999-07-15Not applicableUs
Actos (15mg)tablet15 mgoralTakeda Canada Inc2000-08-28Not applicableCanada
Actos (30mg)tablet30 mgoralTakeda Canada Inc2000-08-28Not applicableCanada
Actos (45mg)tablet45 mgoralTakeda Canada Inc2000-08-28Not applicableCanada
Ag-pioglitazonetablet45 mgoralAngita Pharma Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
Ag-pioglitazonetablet30 mgoralAngita Pharma Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
Auro-pioglitazonetablet45 mgoralAuro Pharma Inc2012-07-24Not applicableCanada
Auro-pioglitazonetablet30 mgoralAuro Pharma Inc2012-07-24Not applicableCanada
Auro-pioglitazonetablet15 mgoralAuro Pharma Inc2012-07-24Not applicableCanada
Ava-pioglitazonetablet45 mgoralAvanstra Inc2011-09-192014-08-21Canada
Ava-pioglitazonetablet30 mgoralAvanstra Inc2011-09-192014-08-21Canada
Ava-pioglitazonetablet15 mgoralAvanstra Inc2011-10-242014-08-21Canada
Dom-pioglitazonetablet30 mgoralDominion Pharmacal2010-01-13Not applicableCanada
Dom-pioglitazonetablet15 mgoralDominion Pharmacal2010-01-13Not applicableCanada
Dom-pioglitazonetablet45 mgoralDominion Pharmacal2010-01-13Not applicableCanada
Jamp-pioglitazonetablet45 mgoralJamp Pharma Corporation2011-06-09Not applicableCanada
Jamp-pioglitazonetablet30 mgoralJamp Pharma Corporation2011-06-09Not applicableCanada
Jamp-pioglitazonetablet15 mgoralJamp Pharma Corporation2014-12-12Not applicableCanada
Mint-pioglitazonetablet15 mgoralMint Pharmaceuticals Inc2009-07-21Not applicableCanada
Mint-pioglitazonetablet45 mgoralMint Pharmaceuticals Inc2009-07-21Not applicableCanada
Mint-pioglitazonetablet30 mgoralMint Pharmaceuticals Inc2009-07-21Not applicableCanada
Mylan-pioglitazonetablet30 mgoralMylan Pharmaceuticals Ulc2007-12-05Not applicableCanada
Mylan-pioglitazonetablet15 mgoralMylan Pharmaceuticals Ulc2007-12-05Not applicableCanada
Mylan-pioglitazonetablet45 mgoralMylan Pharmaceuticals Ulc2007-12-05Not applicableCanada
PHL-pioglitazonetablet45 mgoralPharmel Inc2009-08-28Not applicableCanada
PHL-pioglitazonetablet30 mgoralPharmel Inc2009-08-28Not applicableCanada
PHL-pioglitazonetablet15 mgoralPharmel Inc2009-08-28Not applicableCanada
Pioglitazonetablet45 mg/1oralTeva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc2012-08-17Not applicableUs
Pioglitazonetablet15 mg/1oralCarilion Materials Management2012-08-17Not applicableUs
Pioglitazonetablet15 mg/1oralMed Vantx, Inc.2012-08-17Not applicableUs
Pioglitazonetablet45 mgoralMeliapharm Inc2011-05-062014-06-25Canada
Pioglitazonetablet45 mgoralAccel Pharma IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Pioglitazonetablet30 mgoralMeliapharm Inc2011-05-062014-06-25Canada
Pioglitazonetablet30 mgoralAccel Pharma IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Pioglitazonetablet15 mgoralMeliapharm Inc2011-05-062014-06-25Canada
Pioglitazonetablet15 mgoralAccel Pharma IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Pioglitazonetablet15 mg/1oralInternational Labs, Inc.2013-12-08Not applicableUs
Pioglitazonetablet45 mg/1oralRanbaxy Pharmaceuticals Inc.2012-08-17Not applicableUs
Pioglitazonetablet30 mg/1oralInternational Labs, Inc.2013-12-08Not applicableUs
Pioglitazonetablet15 mg/1oralTeva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc2012-08-17Not applicableUs
Pioglitazonetablet30 mg/1oralRanbaxy Pharmaceuticals Inc.2012-08-17Not applicableUs
Pioglitazonetablet45 mg/1oralInternational Labs, Inc.2013-12-08Not applicableUs
Pioglitazonetablet30 mg/1oralTeva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc2012-08-17Not applicableUs
Pioglitazonetablet30 mg/1oralCarilion Materials Management2012-08-17Not applicableUs
Pioglitazonetablet15 mg/1oralRanbaxy Pharmaceuticals Inc.2012-08-17Not applicableUs
Pioglitazone HCltablet45 mgoralSivem Pharmaceuticals Ulc2012-04-23Not applicableCanada
Pioglitazone HCltablet30 mgoralSivem Pharmaceuticals Ulc2012-04-23Not applicableCanada
Pioglitazone HCltablet15 mgoralSivem Pharmaceuticals Ulc2012-04-23Not applicableCanada
Pioglitazone Hydrochloridetablet45 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2013-06-252015-12-29Us
Pioglitazone Hydrochloridetablet30 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2013-06-252015-12-29Us
Pioglitazone Hydrochloridetablet15 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2013-06-252015-12-29Us
PMS-pioglitazonetablet45 mgoralPharmascience Inc2007-12-05Not applicableCanada
PMS-pioglitazonetablet30 mgoralPharmascience Inc2007-12-05Not applicableCanada
PMS-pioglitazonetablet15 mgoralPharmascience Inc2007-12-05Not applicableCanada
Pro-pioglitazonetablet45 mgoralPro Doc Limitee2008-10-27Not applicableCanada
Pro-pioglitazonetablet30 mgoralPro Doc Limitee2008-10-27Not applicableCanada
Pro-pioglitazonetablet15 mgoralPro Doc Limitee2008-10-27Not applicableCanada
Ran-pioglitazonetablet45 mgoralRanbaxy Pharmaceuticals Canada Inc.2012-04-30Not applicableCanada
Ran-pioglitazonetablet45 mgoralRanbaxy Pharmaceuticals Canada Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
Ran-pioglitazonetablet30 mgoralRanbaxy Pharmaceuticals Canada Inc.2012-04-30Not applicableCanada
Ran-pioglitazonetablet15 mgoralRanbaxy Pharmaceuticals Canada Inc.2012-04-30Not applicableCanada
Ratio-pioglitazonetablet30 mgoralRatiopharm Inc Division Of Teva Canada Limited2007-12-052015-10-26Canada
Ratio-pioglitazonetablet45 mgoralRatiopharm Inc Division Of Teva Canada Limited2007-12-052015-10-26Canada
Ratio-pioglitazonetablet15 mgoralRatiopharm Inc Division Of Teva Canada Limited2007-12-052015-10-26Canada
Sandoz Pioglitazonetablet45 mgoralSandoz Canada Incorporated2007-12-05Not applicableCanada
Sandoz Pioglitazonetablet30 mgoralSandoz Canada Incorporated2007-12-05Not applicableCanada
Sandoz Pioglitazonetablet15 mgoralSandoz Canada Incorporated2007-12-05Not applicableCanada
Teva-pioglitazonetablet45 mgoralTeva Canada Limited2007-12-05Not applicableCanada
Teva-pioglitazonetablet30 mgoralTeva Canada Limited2007-12-05Not applicableCanada
Teva-pioglitazonetablet15 mgoralTeva Canada Limited2007-12-05Not applicableCanada
Torrent-pioglitazonetablet30 mgoralTorrent Pharmaceuticals LimitedNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Torrent-pioglitazonetablet15 mgoralTorrent Pharmaceuticals LimitedNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Torrent-pioglitazonetablet45 mgoralTorrent Pharmaceuticals LimitedNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Van-pioglitazonetablet15 mgoralVanc Pharmaceuticals Inc2015-07-10Not applicableCanada
Van-pioglitazonetablet45 mgoralVanc Pharmaceuticals Inc2015-07-10Not applicableCanada
Van-pioglitazonetablet30 mgoralVanc Pharmaceuticals Inc2015-07-10Not applicableCanada
Zym-pioglitazonetablet45 mgoralZymcan Pharmaceuticals Inc2009-12-292014-06-16Canada
Zym-pioglitazonetablet30 mgoralZymcan Pharmaceuticals Inc2009-12-292014-06-16Canada
Zym-pioglitazonetablet15 mgoralZymcan Pharmaceuticals Inc2009-12-292014-06-16Canada
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-pioglitazonetablet45 mgoralApotex Inc2007-12-05Not applicableCanada
Apo-pioglitazonetablet30 mgoralApotex Inc2007-12-05Not applicableCanada
Apo-pioglitazonetablet15 mgoralApotex Inc2007-12-05Not applicableCanada
Pioglitazonetablet30 mg/1oralMacleods Pharmaceuticals Limited2013-02-14Not applicableUs
Pioglitazonetablet15 mg/1oralTeva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc2015-01-01Not applicableUs
Pioglitazonetablet45 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2014-01-222015-12-31Us
Pioglitazonetablet30 mg/1oralInternational Labs, Inc.2015-05-01Not applicableUs
Pioglitazonetablet45 mg/1oralMacleods Pharmaceuticals Limited2013-02-14Not applicableUs
Pioglitazonetablet30 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2014-01-222015-12-31Us
Pioglitazonetablet15 mg/1oralRanbaxy Pharmaceuticals Inc2013-02-072016-01-21Us
Pioglitazonetablet45 mg/1oralInternational Labs, Inc.2015-05-01Not applicableUs
Pioglitazonetablet15 mg/1oralMacleods Pharmaceuticals Limited2013-02-14Not applicableUs
Pioglitazonetablet45 mg/1oralWockhardt USA LLC.2013-02-13Not applicableUs
Pioglitazonetablet15 mg/1oralClinical Solutions Wholesale2013-03-01Not applicableUs
Pioglitazonetablet30 mg/1oralWockhardt USA LLC.2013-02-13Not applicableUs
Pioglitazonetablet45 mg/1oralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2012-08-17Not applicableUs
Pioglitazonetablet15 mg/1oralWockhardt USA LLC.2013-02-13Not applicableUs
Pioglitazonetablet30 mg/1oralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2012-08-17Not applicableUs
Pioglitazonetablet45 mg/1oralWockhardt Limited2013-02-13Not applicableUs
Pioglitazonetablet45 mg/1oralSandoz Inc2013-03-01Not applicableUs
Pioglitazonetablet15 mg/1oralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2012-08-17Not applicableUs
Pioglitazonetablet30 mg/1oralWockhardt Limited2013-02-13Not applicableUs
Pioglitazonetablet45 mg/1oralMylan Institutional Inc.2012-09-06Not applicableUs
Pioglitazonetablet15 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2014-01-222016-02-29Us
Pioglitazonetablet30 mg/1oralSandoz Inc2013-03-01Not applicableUs
Pioglitazonetablet45 mg/1oralTeva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc2015-01-01Not applicableUs
Pioglitazonetablet15 mg/1oralWockhardt Limited2013-02-13Not applicableUs
Pioglitazonetablet30 mg/1oralMylan Institutional Inc.2012-09-06Not applicableUs
Pioglitazonetablet45 mg/1oralRanbaxy Pharmaceuticals Inc2013-02-072016-01-21Us
Pioglitazonetablet15 mg/1oralSandoz Inc2013-03-01Not applicableUs
Pioglitazonetablet30 mg/1oralTeva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc2015-01-01Not applicableUs
Pioglitazonetablet15 mg/1oralInternational Labs, Inc.2015-05-01Not applicableUs
Pioglitazonetablet15 mg/1oralMylan Institutional Inc.2012-09-06Not applicableUs
Pioglitazonetablet30 mg/1oralRanbaxy Pharmaceuticals Inc2013-02-072016-01-21Us
Pioglitazone Hydrochloridetablet45 mg/1oralActavis Pharma, Inc.2012-10-26Not applicableUs
Pioglitazone Hydrochloridetablet45 mg/1oralLucid Pharma Llc2013-02-13Not applicableUs
Pioglitazone Hydrochloridetablet45 mg/1oralGolden State Medical Supply2013-02-13Not applicableUs
Pioglitazone Hydrochloridetablet30 mg/1oralAurobindo Pharma Limited2013-02-13Not applicableUs
Pioglitazone Hydrochloridetablet30 mg/1oralActavis Pharma, Inc.2012-10-26Not applicableUs
Pioglitazone Hydrochloridetablet30 mg/1oralLucid Pharma Llc2013-02-13Not applicableUs
Pioglitazone Hydrochloridetablet30 mg/1oralGolden State Medical Supply2013-02-13Not applicableUs
Pioglitazone Hydrochloridetablet45 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2013-06-202015-12-30Us
Pioglitazone Hydrochloridetablet15 mg/1oralAurobindo Pharma Limited2013-02-13Not applicableUs
Pioglitazone Hydrochloridetablet15 mg/1oralLucid Pharma Llc2013-02-13Not applicableUs
Pioglitazone Hydrochloridetablet15 mg/1oralGolden State Medical Supply2013-02-13Not applicableUs
Pioglitazone Hydrochloridetablet45 mg/1oralBreckenridge Pharmaceutical, Inc.2013-02-13Not applicableUs
Pioglitazone Hydrochloridetablet30 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2013-06-202015-12-30Us
Pioglitazone Hydrochloridetablet15 mg/1oralActavis Pharma, Inc.2012-10-26Not applicableUs
Pioglitazone Hydrochloridetablet30 mg/1oralBreckenridge Pharmaceutical, Inc.2013-02-13Not applicableUs
Pioglitazone Hydrochloridetablet15 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2013-06-202015-12-30Us
Pioglitazone Hydrochloridetablet30 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2016-01-25Not applicableUs
Pioglitazone Hydrochloridetablet15 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2015-04-15Not applicableUs
Pioglitazone Hydrochloridetablet15 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2016-01-25Not applicableUs
Pioglitazone Hydrochloridetablet15 mg/1oralBreckenridge Pharmaceutical, Inc.2013-02-13Not applicableUs
Pioglitazone Hydrochloridetablet45 mg/1oralAccord Healthcare Inc.2013-02-13Not applicableUs
Pioglitazone Hydrochloridetablet15 mg/1oralbryant ranch prepack2013-02-13Not applicableUs
Pioglitazone Hydrochloridetablet30 mg/1oralAccord Healthcare Inc.2013-02-13Not applicableUs
Pioglitazone Hydrochloridetablet15 mg/1oralDispensing Solutions, Inc.2013-02-13Not applicableUs
Pioglitazone Hydrochloridetablet15 mg/1oralAccord Healthcare Inc.2013-02-13Not applicableUs
Pioglitazone Hydrochloridetablet45 mg/1oralAurobindo Pharma Limited2013-02-13Not applicableUs
Pioglitazonehydrochloridetablet15 mg/1oralTorrent Pharmaceuticals Limited2013-02-13Not applicableUs
Pioglitazonehydrochloridetablet45 mg/1oralTorrent Pharmaceuticals Limited2013-02-13Not applicableUs
Pioglitazonehydrochloridetablet30 mg/1oralTorrent Pharmaceuticals Limited2013-02-13Not applicableUs
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
ActostNot Available
GlustinNot Available
Brand mixtures
NameLabellerIngredients
Actoplus MetPhysicians Total Care, Inc.
Actoplus Met XRTakeda Pharmaceuticals America, Inc.
Alogliptin and PioglitazonePerrigo New York Inc
DuetactTakeda Pharmaceuticals America, Inc.
OseniTakeda Canada Inc
Pioglitazone and GlimepiridePrasco Laboratories
Pioglitazone and MetforminSandoz Inc
Pioglitazone and Metformin HydrochlorideTeva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc
Pioglitazone and Metformin HydrocholrideTEVA PHARMACEUTICALS USA
Pioglitazone HCl and Metformin HClTorrent Pharmaceuticals Limited
Pioglitazone Hydrochloride and GlimepirideSandoz Inc
Pioglitazone Hydrochloride and Metformin HydrochlorideMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Pioglitazone Hydrochloride
Thumb
  • InChI Key: GHUUBYQTCDQWRA-UHFFFAOYNA-N
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 392.096140945
  • Average Mass: 392.9
DBSALT000555
Categories
UNIIX4OV71U42S
CAS number111025-46-8
WeightAverage: 356.439
Monoisotopic: 356.119463206
Chemical FormulaC19H20N2O3S
InChI KeyInChIKey=HYAFETHFCAUJAY-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C19H20N2O3S/c1-2-13-3-6-15(20-12-13)9-10-24-16-7-4-14(5-8-16)11-17-18(22)21-19(23)25-17/h3-8,12,17H,2,9-11H2,1H3,(H,21,22,23)
IUPAC Name
5-({4-[2-(5-ethylpyridin-2-yl)ethoxy]phenyl}methyl)-1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione
SMILES
CCC1=CN=C(CCOC2=CC=C(CC3SC(=O)NC3=O)C=C2)C=C1
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenol ethers. These are aromatic compounds containing an ether group substituted with a benzene ring.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassPhenol ethers
Direct ParentPhenol ethers
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Phenol ether
  • Thiazolidinedione
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Pyridine
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Thiazolidine
  • Carboxamide group
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Thioether
  • Ether
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Pharmacology
IndicationTreatment of Type II diabetes mellitus
PharmacodynamicsPioglitazone, a member of the drug group known as the thiazolidinediones or "insulin sensitizers", is not chemically or functionally related to the alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, the biguanides, or the sulfonylureas. Pioglitazone targets insulin resistance and, hence, is used alone or in combination with insulin, metformin, or asulfonylurea as an antidiabetic agent.
Mechanism of actionPioglitazone acts as an agonist at peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPAR) in target tissues for insulin action such as adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver. Activation of PPAR-gamma receptors increases the transcription of insulin-responsive genes involved in the control of glucose production, transport, and utilization. In this way, pioglitazone both enhances tissue sensitivity to insulin and reduces hepatic gluconeogenesis. Thus, insulin resistance associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus is improved without an increase in insulin secretion by pancreatic β cells.
Related Articles
AbsorptionFollowing oral administration, in the fasting state, pioglitazone is first measurable in serum within 30 minutes, with peak concentrations observed within 2 hours. Food slightly delays the time to peak serum concentration to 3 to 4 hours, but does not alter the extent of absorption.
Volume of distribution
  • 0.63 ± 0.41 L/kg
Protein binding> 99%
Metabolism

Hepatic

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Pioglitazone
Not Available
Pioglitazone metabolite M-IDetails
Pioglitazone
Pioglitazone metabolite M-IIDetails
Pioglitazone metabolite M-II
Not Available
Pioglitazone metabolite M-II metaboliteDetails
Pioglitazone metabolite M-II
Pioglitazone metabolite M-XIDetails
Pioglitazone
Pioglitazone metabolite M-VIDetails
Pioglitazone
Pioglitazone metabolite M-VDetails
Pioglitazone metabolite M-V
Not Available
Pioglitazone metabolite M-VIDetails
Pioglitazone
Pioglitazone metabolite M-IVDetails
Pioglitazone metabolite M-IV
Not Available
Pioglitazone metabolite M-IIIDetails
Pioglitazone metabolite M-IV
Pioglitazone metabolite M-XIDetails
Route of eliminationFollowing oral administration, approximately 15% to 30% of the pioglitazone dose is recovered in the urine. Renal elimination of pioglitazone is negligible, and the drug is excreted primarily as metabolites and their conjugates. It is presumed that most of the oral dose is excreted into the bile either unchanged or as metabolites and eliminated in the feces.
Half life3-7 hours
Clearance
  • apparent cl=5 – 7 L/h [oral administration]
ToxicityHypogycemia; LD50=mg/kg (orally in rat)
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9952
Blood Brain Barrier+0.8753
Caco-2 permeable-0.5659
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.6358
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.5708
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9673
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.6018
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7898
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.5267
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.8384
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorInhibitor0.6353
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8085
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorInhibitor0.6967
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.6035
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8864
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7303
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9171
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.7884
Rat acute toxicity2.0115 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9341
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8498
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseoral
Tabletocclusive dressing technique15 mg/1
Tabletocclusive dressing technique30 mg/1
Tabletoral15 mg
Tabletoral30 mg
Tabletoral45 mg
Tabletoral15 mg/1
Tabletoral30 mg/1
Tabletoral45 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedoral
Tabletoral
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Actos 30 mg tablet12.48USD tablet
Actos 45 mg tablet11.22USD tablet
Actos 15 mg tablet6.3USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
CA2179584 No2007-04-242016-06-20Canada
CA2531834 No2006-12-052016-06-20Canada
US4687777 No1994-01-172011-01-17Us
US5965584 No1996-06-192016-06-19Us
US6099859 No1998-03-202018-03-20Us
US6150383 No1996-06-192016-06-19Us
US6150384 No1996-06-192016-06-19Us
US6166042 No1996-06-192016-06-19Us
US6166043 No1996-06-192016-06-19Us
US6172090 No1996-06-192016-06-19Us
US6211205 No1996-06-192016-06-19Us
US6271243 No1996-06-192016-06-19Us
US6303640 No1996-08-092016-08-09Us
US6303661 No1997-04-242017-04-24Us
US6329404 No1996-06-192016-06-19Us
US6495162 No1998-03-202018-03-20Us
US6790459 No2001-03-172021-03-17Us
US6866866 No2001-03-172021-03-17Us
US6890898 No1999-02-022019-02-02Us
US7078381 No1999-02-022019-02-02Us
US7459428 No1999-02-022019-02-02Us
US7538125 No1996-06-192016-06-19Us
US7700128 No2007-01-302027-01-30Us
US7785627 No2006-07-312026-07-31Us
US7807689 No2008-06-272028-06-27Us
US7919116 No1998-03-202018-03-20Us
US7959946 No2006-07-312026-07-31Us
US8071130 No2008-06-082028-06-08Us
US8173663 No2005-03-152025-03-15Us
US8288539 No2005-03-152025-03-15Us
US8470368 No2003-09-192023-09-19Us
US8475841 No1998-03-202018-03-20Us
US8637079 No2009-06-042029-06-04Us
US8668931 No2003-09-192023-09-19Us
US9060941 No2003-09-192023-09-19Us
US9101660 No2007-01-222027-01-22Us
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point183-184 °CNot Available
water solubilitymg/mLNot Available
logP2.3Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00442 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.17ALOGPS
logP3.33ChemAxon
logS-4.9ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)6.66ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)5.6ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area68.29 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count7ChemAxon
Refractivity97.39 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability37.91 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Chandra Khanduri, Yatendra Kumar, Atulya Panda, Suchitra Chakraborty, Mukesh Sharma, “Process for the preparation of pioglitazone.” U.S. Patent US20070078170, issued April 05, 2007.

US20070078170
General References
  1. Colca JR, McDonald WG, Waldon DJ, Leone JW, Lull JM, Bannow CA, Lund ET, Mathews WR: Identification of a novel mitochondrial protein ("mitoNEET") cross-linked specifically by a thiazolidinedione photoprobe. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Feb;286(2):E252-60. Epub 2003 Oct 21. [PubMed:14570702 ]
  2. Paddock ML, Wiley SE, Axelrod HL, Cohen AE, Roy M, Abresch EC, Capraro D, Murphy AN, Nechushtai R, Dixon JE, Jennings PA: MitoNEET is a uniquely folded 2Fe 2S outer mitochondrial membrane protein stabilized by pioglitazone. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Sep 4;104(36):14342-7. Epub 2007 Aug 31. [PubMed:17766440 ]
  3. Lincoff AM, Wolski K, Nicholls SJ, Nissen SE: Pioglitazone and risk of cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of randomized trials. JAMA. 2007 Sep 12;298(10):1180-8. [PubMed:17848652 ]
External Links
ATC CodesA10BD05A10BD06A10BD09A10BD12A10BG03
AHFS Codes
  • 68:20.28
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (61.6 KB)
MSDSDownload (36.3 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AbirateroneThe serum concentration of Pioglitazone can be increased when it is combined with Abiraterone.
Acetylsalicylic acidAcetylsalicylic acid may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Pioglitazone.
AmodiaquineThe serum concentration of Amodiaquine can be increased when it is combined with Pioglitazone.
AripiprazoleThe serum concentration of Aripiprazole can be decreased when it is combined with Pioglitazone.
ChlorpropamidePioglitazone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Chlorpropamide.
ClopidogrelThe serum concentration of Pioglitazone can be increased when it is combined with Clopidogrel.
DabrafenibThe serum concentration of Pioglitazone can be decreased when it is combined with Dabrafenib.
DeferasiroxThe serum concentration of Pioglitazone can be increased when it is combined with Deferasirox.
DihydrotestosteroneDihydrotestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Pioglitazone.
GemfibrozilThe metabolism of Pioglitazone can be decreased when combined with Gemfibrozil.
HydrocodoneThe serum concentration of Hydrocodone can be decreased when it is combined with Pioglitazone.
Insulin AspartThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pioglitazone is combined with Insulin Aspart.
Insulin DegludecThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pioglitazone is combined with Insulin degludec.
Insulin DetemirThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pioglitazone is combined with Insulin Detemir.
Insulin GlargineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pioglitazone is combined with Insulin Glargine.
Insulin GlulisineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pioglitazone is combined with Insulin Glulisine.
Insulin HumanPioglitazone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
Insulin LisproPioglitazone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Lispro.
LeuprolideThe therapeutic efficacy of Pioglitazone can be decreased when used in combination with Leuprolide.
Lipoic AcidLipoic Acid may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Pioglitazone.
LumacaftorThe serum concentration of Pioglitazone can be increased when it is combined with Lumacaftor.
MifepristoneThe serum concentration of Pioglitazone can be increased when it is combined with Mifepristone.
NimodipineThe serum concentration of Nimodipine can be decreased when it is combined with Pioglitazone.
OxandroloneOxandrolone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Pioglitazone.
ParoxetineParoxetine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Pioglitazone.
PegvisomantPegvisomant may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Pioglitazone.
PhenelzinePhenelzine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Pioglitazone.
PhenytoinThe metabolism of Pioglitazone can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
PregabalinPregabalin may increase the fluid retaining activities of Pioglitazone.
RifampicinThe metabolism of Pioglitazone can be increased when combined with Rifampicin.
RitonavirThe serum concentration of Pioglitazone can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
RosiglitazoneThe metabolism of Pioglitazone can be decreased when combined with Rosiglitazone.
SaxagliptinThe serum concentration of Saxagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Pioglitazone.
SparfloxacinSparfloxacin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Pioglitazone.
StiripentolThe serum concentration of Pioglitazone can be increased when it is combined with Stiripentol.
TestosteroneTestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Pioglitazone.
TorasemideThe metabolism of Torasemide can be decreased when combined with Pioglitazone.
TranylcypromineTranylcypromine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Pioglitazone.
TrichlormethiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Pioglitazone can be decreased when used in combination with Trichlormethiazide.
TrimethoprimThe metabolism of Pioglitazone can be decreased when combined with Trimethoprim.
Food Interactions
  • Take without regard to meals. Food slightly delays absorption rate but extent of absorption is not affected.

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear receptor that binds peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Once activated by a ligand, the nuclear receptor binds to DNA specific PPAR response elements (PPRE) and modulates the transcription of its target genes, such as acyl-CoA oxidase. It therefore controls the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway of fatty acids. Key regulator of adipocyte differentiation...
Gene Name:
PPARG
Uniprot ID:
P37231
Molecular Weight:
57619.58 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
  2. Sugii S, Olson P, Sears DD, Saberi M, Atkins AR, Barish GD, Hong SH, Castro GL, Yin YQ, Nelson MC, Hsiao G, Greaves DR, Downes M, Yu RT, Olefsky JM, Evans RM: PPARgamma activation in adipocytes is sufficient for systemic insulin sensitization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Dec 29;106(52):22504-9. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0912487106. Epub 2009 Dec 16. [PubMed:20018750 ]
  3. Miyazaki Y, Mahankali A, Wajcberg E, Bajaj M, Mandarino LJ, DeFronzo RA: Effect of pioglitazone on circulating adipocytokine levels and insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Sep;89(9):4312-9. [PubMed:15356026 ]
  4. Lehmann JM, Moore LB, Smith-Oliver TA, Wilkison WO, Willson TM, Kliewer SA: An antidiabetic thiazolidinedione is a high affinity ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma). J Biol Chem. 1995 Jun 2;270(22):12953-6. [PubMed:7768881 ]
  5. Spiegelman BM: PPAR-gamma: adipogenic regulator and thiazolidinedione receptor. Diabetes. 1998 Apr;47(4):507-14. [PubMed:9568680 ]
  6. Willson TM, Cobb JE, Cowan DJ, Wiethe RW, Correa ID, Prakash SR, Beck KD, Moore LB, Kliewer SA, Lehmann JM: The structure-activity relationship between peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonism and the antihyperglycemic activity of thiazolidinediones. J Med Chem. 1996 Feb 2;39(3):665-8. [PubMed:8576907 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. In the epoxidation of arachidonic acid it generates only 14,15- and 11,12-cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. It is the principal enzyme...
Gene Name:
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID:
P10632
Molecular Weight:
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Muschler E, Lal J, Jetter A, Rattay A, Zanger U, Zadoyan G, Fuhr U, Kirchheiner J: The role of human CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 variants in pioglitazone metabolism in vitro. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2009 Dec;105(6):374-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1742-7843.2009.00457.x. Epub 2009 Jul 15. [PubMed:19614891 ]
  2. Jaakkola T, Laitila J, Neuvonen PJ, Backman JT: Pioglitazone is metabolised by CYP2C8 and CYP3A4 in vitro: potential for interactions with CYP2C8 inhibitors. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2006 Jul;99(1):44-51. [PubMed:16867170 ]
  3. Sahi J, Black CB, Hamilton GA, Zheng X, Jolley S, Rose KA, Gilbert D, LeCluyse EL, Sinz MW: Comparative effects of thiazolidinediones on in vitro P450 enzyme induction and inhibition. Drug Metab Dispos. 2003 Apr;31(4):439-46. [PubMed:12642470 ]
  4. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
  5. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinducer
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiot...
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Jaakkola T, Laitila J, Neuvonen PJ, Backman JT: Pioglitazone is metabolised by CYP2C8 and CYP3A4 in vitro: potential for interactions with CYP2C8 inhibitors. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2006 Jul;99(1):44-51. [PubMed:16867170 ]
  2. Sahi J, Black CB, Hamilton GA, Zheng X, Jolley S, Rose KA, Gilbert D, LeCluyse EL, Sinz MW: Comparative effects of thiazolidinediones on in vitro P450 enzyme induction and inhibition. Drug Metab Dispos. 2003 Apr;31(4):439-46. [PubMed:12642470 ]
  3. Nowak SN, Edwards DJ, Clarke A, Anderson GD, Jaber LA: Pioglitazone: effect on CYP3A4 activity. J Clin Pharmacol. 2002 Dec;42(12):1299-302. [PubMed:12463723 ]
  4. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
  5. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function:
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Involved in the constitutive production of prostanoids in particular in the stomach and platelets. In gastric epithelial cells, it is a key step in the generation of prostaglandins, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which plays an important role in cytoprotection. In platelets, it is involved in the gener...
Gene Name:
PTGS1
Uniprot ID:
P23219
Molecular Weight:
68685.82 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine.
Gene Name:
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID:
P33261
Molecular Weight:
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenyto...
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular Weight:
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular Weight:
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent uptake of organic anions such as 17-beta-glucuronosyl estradiol, taurocholate, triiodothyronine (T3), leukotriene C4, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), methotrexate and sulfobromophthalein (BSP). Involved in the clearance of bile acids and organic anions from the liver.
Gene Name:
SLCO1B3
Uniprot ID:
Q9NPD5
Molecular Weight:
77402.175 Da
References
  1. Nozawa T, Sugiura S, Nakajima M, Goto A, Yokoi T, Nezu J, Tsuji A, Tamai I: Involvement of organic anion transporting polypeptides in the transport of troglitazone sulfate: implications for understanding troglitazone hepatotoxicity. Drug Metab Dispos. 2004 Mar;32(3):291-4. [PubMed:14977862 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent uptake of organic anions such as pravastatin, taurocholate, methotrexate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, 17-beta-glucuronosyl estradiol, estrone sulfate, prostaglandin E2, thromboxane B2, leukotriene C3, leukotriene E4, thyroxine and triiodothyronine. Involved in the clearance of bile acids and organic anions from the liver.
Gene Name:
SLCO1B1
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y6L6
Molecular Weight:
76447.99 Da
References
  1. Nozawa T, Sugiura S, Nakajima M, Goto A, Yokoi T, Nezu J, Tsuji A, Tamai I: Involvement of organic anion transporting polypeptides in the transport of troglitazone sulfate: implications for understanding troglitazone hepatotoxicity. Drug Metab Dispos. 2004 Mar;32(3):291-4. [PubMed:14977862 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on May 27, 2016 02:17