You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on DrugBank.
Identification
NameMetformin
Accession NumberDB00331  (APRD01099)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
Description

Metformin is a biguanide antihyperglycemic agent used for treating non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). It improves glycemic control by decreasing hepatic glucose production, decreasing glucose absorption and increasing insulin-mediated glucose uptake. Metformin is the only oral antihyperglycemic agent that is not associated with weight gain. Metformin may induce weight loss and is the drug of choice for obese NIDDM patients. When used alone, metformin does not cause hypoglycemia; however, it may potentiate the hypoglycemic effects of sulfonylureas and insulin. Its main side effects are dyspepsia, nausea and diarrhea. Dose titration and/or use of smaller divided doses may decrease side effects. Metformin should be avoided in those with severely compromised renal function (creatinine clearance < 30 ml/min), acute/decompensated heart failure, severe liver disease and for 48 hours after the use of iodinated contrast dyes due to the risk of lactic acidosis. Lower doses should be used in the elderly and those with decreased renal function. Metformin decreases fasting plasma glucose, postprandial blood glucose and glycosolated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, which are reflective of the last 8-10 weeks of glucose control. Metformin may also have a positive effect on lipid levels. In 2012, a combination tablet of linagliptin plus metformin hydrochloride was marketed under the name Jentadueto for use in patients when treatment with both linagliptin and metformin is appropriate.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
1,1-DimethylbiguanideNot AvailableNot Available
DimethylbiguanidNot AvailableIS
HaurymellinNot AvailableIS
MetforminNot AvailableUSAN, BAN
MetforminaNot AvailableDCIT
MetformineNot AvailableDCF
Metformine pamoateNot AvailableIS
MetforminumLatinINN
N,N-Dimethylimidodicarbonimidic diamideNot AvailableIUPAC
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Glucophagetablet, film coated500 mgoralBristol Myers Squibb Company2009-06-01Not AvailableUs
Glucophage XRtablet, extended release500 mgoralBristol Myers Squibb Company2009-06-01Not AvailableUs
Glucophage XRtablet, extended release750 mgoralBristol Myers Squibb Company2009-06-01Not AvailableUs
Glucophagetablet, film coated850 mgoralBristol Myers Squibb Company2009-06-01Not AvailableUs
Glucophagetablet, film coated1000 mgoralBristol Myers Squibb Company2009-06-01Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated, extended release500 mgoralWatson Laboratories, Inc.2012-04-18Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated, extended release1000 mgoralWatson Laboratories, Inc.2012-04-18Not AvailableUs
Riometsolution500 mg/5mLoralRanbaxy Laboratories Inc.2004-01-04Not AvailableUs
Riometsolution500 mg/5mLoralRanbaxy Laboratories Inc.2014-09-15Not AvailableUs
Glumetzatablet, film coated, extended release500 mgoralDepomed, Inc.2006-08-01Not AvailableUs
Glumetzatablet, film coated, extended release1000 mgoralDepomed, Inc.2008-06-17Not AvailableUs
Fortamettablet, extended release1000 mgoralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2010-02-18Not AvailableUs
Fortamettablet, extended release500 mgoralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2006-03-24Not AvailableUs
Glucophagetablet, film coated500 mgoralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2009-06-01Not AvailableUs
Fortamettablet, film coated, extended release500 mgoralShionogi Inc.2004-04-27Not AvailableUs
Fortamettablet, film coated, extended release1000 mgoralShionogi Inc.2004-04-27Not AvailableUs
Glumetzatablet, film coated, extended release500 mgoralSantarus, Inc.2006-08-01Not AvailableUs
Glumetzatablet, film coated, extended release1000 mgoralSantarus, Inc.2008-06-17Not AvailableUs
Glucophagetablet850 mgoralSanofi Aventis Canada IncNot AvailableNot AvailableCanada
Glucophagetablet500 mgoralSanofi Aventis Canada IncNot AvailableNot AvailableCanada
Glycontablet500 mgoralValeant Canada Lp Valeant Canada S.E.C.Not AvailableNot AvailableCanada
Glumetzatablet (extended-release)500 mgoralValeant Canada Lp Valeant Canada S.E.C.Not AvailableNot AvailableCanada
Glumetzatablet (extended-release)1000 mgoralValeant Canada Lp Valeant Canada S.E.C.Not AvailableNot AvailableCanada
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mgoralTeva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc2002-01-28Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mgoralTeva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc2002-02-11Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release750 mgoralTeva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc2005-04-13Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mgoralTeva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc2003-04-17Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mgoralTeva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc2004-06-18Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mgoralEon Labs, Inc.2002-01-25Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet850 mgoralEon Labs, Inc.2002-01-25Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mgoralEon Labs, Inc.2002-01-25Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mgoralEon Labs, Inc.2004-12-14Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mgoralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2012-09-19Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mgoralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2012-09-19Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mgoralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2012-09-19Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mgoralQualitest Pharmaceuticals2006-07-28Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mgoralQualitest Pharmaceuticals2006-07-28Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mgoralQualitest Pharmaceuticals2006-07-28Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mgoralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2010-06-11Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mgoralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2009-06-03Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mgoralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2009-06-03Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mgoralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2009-06-03Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mgoralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2010-07-27Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mgoralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2010-07-27Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mgoralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2010-07-27Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mgoralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2006-02-09Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mgoralSandoz Inc2002-01-25Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mgoralSandoz Inc2002-01-25Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mgoralSandoz Inc2002-01-25Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mgoralMajor Pharmaceuticals2002-01-25Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mgoralMajor Pharmaceuticals2002-01-25Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mgoralMajor Pharmaceuticals2002-01-25Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mgoralMajor Pharmaceuticals2010-01-11Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet850 mgoralMajor Pharmaceuticals2010-01-11Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mgoralMajor Pharmaceuticals2010-01-11Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mgoralMajor Pharmaceuticals2010-05-17Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release750 mgoralMajor Pharmaceuticals2010-05-10Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mgoralMajor Pharmaceuticals2011-01-31Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mgoralMajor Pharmaceuticals2011-01-31Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mgoralMajor Pharmaceuticals2011-01-31Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mgoralMajor Pharmaceuticals2014-02-03Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet850 mgoralMajor Pharmaceuticals2014-02-03Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mgoralMajor Pharmaceuticals2014-02-03Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mgoralBlenheim Pharmacal, Inc.2013-08-30Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mgoralBlenheim Pharmacal, Inc.2013-09-30Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mgoralBlenheim Pharmacal, Inc.2011-04-01Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet850 mgoralBlenheim Pharmacal, Inc.2011-04-01Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mgoralTorrent Pharmaceuticals Limited2007-01-24Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mgoralTorrent Pharmaceuticals Limited2007-01-24Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mgoralTorrent Pharmaceuticals Limited2007-01-24Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mgoralTorrent Pharmaceuticals Limited2009-12-30Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release750 mgoralTorrent Pharmaceuticals Limited2010-02-18Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mgoralSTAT Rx USA LLC2005-09-28Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mgoralSTAT Rx USA LLC2005-09-28Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mgoralRebel Distributors Corp.2002-01-29Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet850 mgoralRebel Distributors Corp.2002-01-29Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mgoralRebel Distributors Corp.2002-01-29Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mgoralRebel Distributors Corp2006-02-09Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mgoralHeritage Pharmaceuticals Inc.2010-04-22Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet850 mgoralHeritage Pharmaceuticals Inc.2010-04-22Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mgoralHeritage Pharmaceuticals Inc.2010-04-22Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2012-08-27Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-09-16Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-11-14Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-04-08Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2012-07-10Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mgoralBlu Pharmaceuticals, LLC2013-09-03Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet850 mgoralBlu Pharmaceuticals, LLC2013-09-03Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mgoralBlu Pharmaceuticals, LLC2013-09-03Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mgoralMARKSANS PHARMA LIMITED2012-06-01Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mgoralMARKSANS PHARMA LIMITED2012-06-01Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mgoralMARKSANS PHARMA LIMITED2012-06-01Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mgoralNostrum Laboratories Inc.2012-01-01Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release750 mgoralNostrum Laboratories Inc.2012-01-01Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mgoralAidarex Pharmaceuticals LLC2002-01-29Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mgoralAidarex Pharmaceuticals LLC2002-01-29Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mgoralAidarex Pharmaceuticals LLC2009-12-02Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mgoralLake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC2010-04-22Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mgoralLake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC2005-01-14Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mgoralLake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC2005-01-14Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet850 mgoralLake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC2002-01-29Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mgoralAv Kare, Inc.2014-12-04Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release1000 mgoralAv Kare, Inc.2014-12-04Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mgoralAv Kare, Inc.2012-06-26Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet850 mgoralAv Kare, Inc.2012-06-26Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mgoralAv Kare, Inc.2012-06-26Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mgoralAv Kare, Inc.2009-12-02Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release750 mgoralAv Kare, Inc.2009-12-02Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mgoralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2012-04-27Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release750 mgoralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2005-04-12Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mgoralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2009-12-02Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet850 mgoralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2009-06-01Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mgoralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2012-04-27Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mgoralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2005-09-28Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mgoralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2012-12-17Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mgoralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2014-02-01Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mgoralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2012-12-17Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mgoralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2014-02-01Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mgoralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2014-02-01Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mgoralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Llc2002-01-25Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mgoralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Llc2002-01-25Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mgoralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Llc2002-01-25Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet850 mgoralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Llc2012-06-26Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mgoralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Llc2012-06-26Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mgoralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Llc2012-06-26Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mgoralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Llc2014-02-03Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mgoralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Llc2014-02-03Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mgoralSolco healthcare U.S., LLC2009-06-03Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mgoralSolco healthcare U.S., LLC2009-06-03Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mgoralSolco healthcare U.S., LLC2009-06-03Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mgoralSolco healthcare U.S., LLC2013-04-15Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mgoralSolco healthcare U.S., LLC2013-04-15Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mgoralSolco healthcare U.S., LLC2013-04-15Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mgoralSolco healthcare U.S., LLC2014-10-15Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mgoralSolco healthcare U.S., LLC2014-10-15Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mgoralSolco healthcare U.S., LLC2014-10-15Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mgoralSafecor Health, LLC2014-09-30Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mgoralInventia Healthcare Private Limited2012-06-01Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2010-10-20Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-11-12Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-09-26Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-04-29Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-07-21Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2012-08-27Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-08-10Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-03-01Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-04-09Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-05-16Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-03-19Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-09-08Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-12-03Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-12-02Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-05-30Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mgoralLake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC2011-01-27Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mgoralLake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC2010-04-22Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mgoralScie Gen Pharmaceuticals Inc2013-09-11Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet850 mgoralScie Gen Pharmaceuticals Inc2013-09-11Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mgoralScie Gen Pharmaceuticals Inc2013-09-11Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mgoralAv Pak2009-12-02Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release750 mgoralAv Pak2014-11-12Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mgoralUnit Dose Services2004-12-16Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mgoralUnit Dose Services2010-04-22Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet850 mgoralUnit Dose Services2010-04-22Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mgoralUnit Dose Services2010-04-22Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mgoralIngenus Pharmaceuticals, LLC2014-07-16Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mgoralIngenus Pharmaceuticals, LLC2014-07-16Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mgoralIngenus Pharmaceuticals, LLC2014-07-16Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mgoralMylan Institutional Inc.2012-08-17Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mgoralMylan Institutional Inc.2012-07-02Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mgoralMylan Institutional Inc.2012-10-05Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mgoralMed Health Pharma, LLC2011-01-04Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet850 mgoralMed Health Pharma, LLC2011-01-04Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mgoralMed Health Pharma, LLC2011-01-04Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mgoralNorthwind Pharmaceuticals2015-01-09Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet850 mgoralNorthwind Pharmaceuticals2014-04-08Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mgoralNorthwind Pharmaceuticals2014-04-30Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mgoralNorthwind Pharmaceuticals2015-01-21Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-03-14Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-03-29Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet850 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-02-09Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-05-07Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2014-06-11Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2014-06-11Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2014-02-28Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-05-07Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-05-09Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet850 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-05-28Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2014-04-16Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-11-12Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-05-14Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-05-23Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-05-24Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2014-04-16Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-05-29Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mgoralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-09-04Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mgoralAmneal Pharmaceuticals2009-12-02Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release750 mgoralAmneal Pharmaceuticals2010-02-26Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mgoralAmneal Pharmaceuticals of New York, LLC2012-12-17Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet850 mgoralAmneal Pharmaceuticals of New York, LLC2012-12-17Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mgoralAmneal Pharmaceuticals of New York, LLC2012-12-17Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mgoralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2009-07-01Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mgoralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2009-07-01Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mgoralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2009-07-01Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mgoralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2009-07-01Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mgoralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2009-07-01Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet850 mgoralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2009-07-01Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet850 mgoralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2009-07-01Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mgoralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2009-07-01Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mgoralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2012-01-01Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mgoralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2013-01-01Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mgoralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2014-11-01Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet850 mgoralA S Medication Solutions Llc2012-12-17Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mgoralA S Medication Solutions Llc2012-12-17Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mgoralA S Medication Solutions Llc2012-12-17Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet850 mgoralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2002-03-12Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mgoralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2002-01-30Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mgoralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2002-03-11Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mgoralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2005-03-21Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release750 mgoralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2006-01-17Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mgoralCardinal Health2010-01-11Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mgoralCardinal Health2009-06-03Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mgoralCardinal Health2009-06-03Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mgoralCardinal Health2009-11-18Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mgoralCardinal Health2002-01-25Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mgoralCardinal Health2010-04-22Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mgoralCardinal Health2002-01-25Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mgoralCardinal Health2009-09-15Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mgoralCardinal Health2011-01-31Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mgoralCardinal Health2012-12-14Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mgoralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2006-02-09Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mgoralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2010-07-27Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mgoralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2010-07-27Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet850 mgoralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2002-01-29Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mgoralCaraco Pharmaceutical Laboratories, Ltd2002-01-29Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet850 mgoralCaraco Pharmaceutical Laboratories, Ltd2002-01-29Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mgoralCaraco Pharmaceutical Laboratories, Ltd2002-01-29Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mgoralClinical Solutions Wholesale2002-01-25Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mgoralClinical Solutions Wholesale2010-04-22Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mgoralClinical Solutions Wholesale2009-12-02Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mgoralClinical Solutions Wholesale2009-06-03Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release750 mgoralClinical Solutions Wholesale2005-04-13Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mgoralNew Horizon Rx Group, LLC2013-08-25Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mgoralGreenstone LLC2005-01-142015-11-30Us
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mgoralGreenstone LLC2005-01-142015-11-30Us
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mgoralGreenstone LLC2005-01-142015-11-30Us
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mgoralGolden State Medical Supply, Inc2013-09-11Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet850 mgoralGolden State Medical Supply, Inc2013-09-11Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mgoralGolden State Medical Supply, Inc2013-09-11Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated, extended release500 mgoralGolden State Medical Supply, Inc.2006-08-29Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mgoralApotex Corp.2011-12-07Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mgoralApotex Corp.2011-12-07Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mgoralApotex Corp.2011-12-07Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mgoralApotex Corp.2004-12-16Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release750 mgoralApotex Corp.2005-12-29Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mgoralSt Marys Medical Park Pharmacy2006-02-09Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mgoralSt Marys Medical Park Pharmacy2013-05-15Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet850 mgoralSt Marys Medical Park Pharmacy2013-05-15Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mgoralSt Marys Medical Park Pharmacy2013-05-15Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mgoralCarlsbad Technology, Inc.2014-02-01Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mgoralCarlsbad Technology, Inc.2014-02-01Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mgoralCarlsbad Technology, Inc.2014-02-01Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mgoralDIRECT RX2014-01-01Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mgoralDIRECT RX2014-01-01Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mgoralWatson Pharma, Inc.2004-06-16Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release750 mgoralWatson Pharma, Inc.2005-04-12Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mgoralWatson Pharma, Inc.2002-01-25Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mgoralWatson Pharma, Inc.2002-01-25Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mgoralWatson Pharma, Inc.2002-01-25Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mgoralAmerican Health Packaging2009-11-18Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet850 mgoralAmerican Health Packaging2009-11-18Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mgoralAmerican Health Packaging2009-11-18Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mgoralSun Pharmaceutical Industries Limited2006-02-09Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release750 mgoralSun Pharmaceutical Industries Limited2006-02-09Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mgoralProficient Rx LP2010-04-22Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mgoralProficient Rx LP2010-04-22Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mgoralProficient Rx LP2005-01-14Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mgoralProficient Rx LP2005-01-14Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mgoralbryant ranch prepack2010-04-22Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mgoralbryant ranch prepack2009-06-03Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mgoralbryant ranch prepack2002-01-29Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mgoralbryant ranch prepack2006-02-09Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release750 mgoralbryant ranch prepack2005-12-29Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mgoralMc Kesson Packaging Services A Business Unit Of Mc Kesson Corporation2014-05-27Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mgoralReady Meds2012-12-17Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mgoralReady Meds2012-12-17Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mgoralTYA Pharmaceuticals2010-04-22Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mgoralTYA Pharmaceuticals2002-01-29Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet850 mgoralAmneal Pharmaceuticals2009-06-01Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mgoralAmneal Pharmaceuticals2009-06-01Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mgoralAmneal Pharmaceuticals2009-06-01Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mgoralAmneal Pharmaceuticals of New York, LLC2012-12-17Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet850 mgoralAmneal Pharmaceuticals of New York, LLC2012-12-17Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mgoralAmneal Pharmaceuticals of New York, LLC2012-12-17Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mgoralCadila Healthcare Limited2005-09-28Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mgoralCadila Healthcare Limited2005-09-28Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mgoralCadila Healthcare Limited2010-03-20Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mgoralCadila Healthcare Limited2005-09-28Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mgoralCadila Healthcare Limited2010-03-20Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mgoralCadila Healthcare Limited2005-09-28Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mgoralCadila Healthcare Limited2010-03-20Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release750 mgoralCadila Healthcare Limited2005-09-28Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mgoralCadila Healthcare Limited2014-12-09Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mgoralCadila Healthcare Limited2014-12-09Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mgoralCadila Healthcare Limited2014-12-09Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mgoralAurobindo Pharma Limited2005-01-14Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mgoralAurobindo Pharma Limited2005-01-14Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mgoralAurobindo Pharma Limited2005-01-14Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mgoralAurobindo Pharma Limited2012-07-20Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release750 mgoralAurobindo Pharma Limited2012-07-20Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mgoralMed Vantx, Inc.2010-07-27Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mgoralMed Vantx, Inc.2010-07-27Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mgoralMed Vantx, Inc.2010-06-11Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mgoralContract Pharmacy Services Pa2010-04-09Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mgoralContract Pharmacy Services Pa2010-07-29Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mgoralContract Pharmacy Services Pa2010-07-29Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mgoralAscend Laboratories, LLC2013-03-01Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mgoralAscend Laboratories, LLC2011-01-31Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mgoralAscend Laboratories, LLC2011-01-31Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mgoralAscend Laboratories, LLC2011-01-31Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mgoralAmerican Health Packaging2010-10-21Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release1000 mgoralAmerican Health Packaging2014-09-29Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mgoralLUPIN PHARMACEUTICALS INC2011-09-30Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release1000 mgoralLUPIN PHARMACEUTICALS INC2011-09-30Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mgoralZydus Pharmaceuticals (USA) Inc.2005-09-28Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mgoralZydus Pharmaceuticals (USA) Inc.2010-03-20Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mgoralZydus Pharmaceuticals (USA) Inc.2005-09-28Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mgoralZydus Pharmaceuticals (USA) Inc.2010-03-20Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mgoralZydus Pharmaceuticals (USA) Inc.2005-09-28Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mgoralZydus Pharmaceuticals (USA) Inc.2010-03-20Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mgoralZydus Pharmaceuticals (USA) Inc.2005-09-28Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release750 mgoralZydus Pharmaceuticals (USA) Inc.2005-09-28Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mgoralZydus Pharmaceuticals (USA) Inc.2014-12-09Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mgoralZydus Pharmaceuticals (USA) Inc.2014-12-09Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mgoralZydus Pharmaceuticals (USA) Inc.2014-12-09Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mgoralGlenmark Generics Inc., USA2008-05-23Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet850 mgoralGlenmark Generics Inc., USA2008-05-23Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mgoralGlenmark Generics Inc., USA2008-05-23Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mgoralLegacy Pharmaceutical Packaging2012-01-13Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mgoralPreferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2002-01-29Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet850 mgoralPreferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2002-01-29Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mgoralPreferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2002-01-29Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mgoralPreferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2010-04-22Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mgoralPreferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2010-04-22Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet850 mgoralPreferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2010-04-22Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mgoralLife Line Home Care Services, Inc.2002-01-30Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mgoralMc Kesson Contract Packaging2012-01-18Not AvailableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mgoralMc Kesson Contract Packaging2012-01-17Not AvailableUs
Metformintablet500 mgoralSanis Health IncNot AvailableNot AvailableCanada
Metformintablet850 mgoralSanis Health IncNot AvailableNot AvailableCanada
Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
International Brands
NameCompany
Apo-MetforminApotex
Gen-MetforminGenpharm ULC
Mylan-MetforminMylan
Novo-MetforminNovopharm
Nu-MetforminNu-Pharm
PMS-MetforminPharmascience
Ran-MetforminRanbaxy
Ratio-MetforminRatiopharm
Sandoz MetforminSandox
Teva-MetforminTeva Canada
Brand mixtures
Brand NameIngredients
Actoplus MetPioglitazone and Metformin
AvandametRosiglitazone and Metformin
GlucovanceGlyburide and Metformin
JanumetSitagliptin and Metformin
JentaduetoLinagliptin and Metformin hydrochloride
KazanoAlogliptin and Metformin
KombiglyzeSaxagliptin and Metformin
MetaglipGlipizide and Metformin
PrandiMetRepaglinide and Metformin
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Metformin Hydrochloride
Thumb
  • InChI Key: OETHQSJEHLVLGH-UHFFFAOYSA-N
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 165.078123116
  • Average Mass: 165.625
DBSALT000114
Categories
CAS number657-24-9
WeightAverage: 129.1636
Monoisotopic: 129.101445377
Chemical FormulaC4H11N5
InChI KeyXZWYZXLIPXDOLR-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C4H11N5/c1-9(2)4(7)8-3(5)6/h1-2H3,(H5,5,6,7,8)
IUPAC Name
1-carbamimidamido-N,N-dimethylmethanimidamide
SMILES
CN(C)C(=N)NC(N)=N
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as biguanides. These are organic compounds containing two N-linked guanidines.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganonitrogen compounds
ClassGuanidines
Sub ClassBiguanides
Direct ParentBiguanides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Biguanide
  • Tertiary amine
  • Carboximidamide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Imine
  • Amine
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor use as an adjunct to diet and exercise in adult patients (18 years and older) with NIDDM. May also be used for the management of metabolic and reproductive abnormalities associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Jentadueto is for the treatment of patients when both linagliptin and metformin is appropriate.
PharmacodynamicsMetformin is an oral antihyperglycemic agent that improves glucose tolerance in patients with NIDDM, lowering both basal and postprandial plasma glucose. Metformin is not chemically or pharmacologically related to any other class of oral antihyperglycemic agents. Unlike sulfonylureas, metformin does not produce hypoglycemia in either patients with NIDDM or healthy subjects and does not cause hyperinsulinemia. Metformin does not affect insulin secretion.
Mechanism of actionMetformin's mechanisms of action differ from other classes of oral antihyperglycemic agents. Metformin decreases blood glucose levels by decreasing hepatic glucose production, decreasing intestinal absorption of glucose, and improving insulin sensitivity by increasing peripheral glucose uptake and utilization. These effects are mediated by the initial activation by metformin of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a liver enzyme that plays an important role in insulin signaling, whole body energy balance, and the metabolism of glucose and fats. Activation of AMPK is required for metformin's inhibitory effect on the production of glucose by liver cells. Increased peripheral utilization of glucose may be due to improved insulin binding to insulin receptors. Metformin administration also increases AMPK activity in skeletal muscle. AMPK is known to cause GLUT4 deployment to the plasma membrane, resulting in insulin-independent glucose uptake. The rare side effect, lactic acidosis, is thought to be caused by decreased liver uptake of serum lactate, one of the substrates of gluconeogenesis. In those with healthy renal function, the slight excess is simply cleared. However, those with severe renal impairment may accumulate clinically significant serum lactic acid levels. Other conditions that may precipitate lactic acidosis include severe hepatic disease and acute/decompensated heart failure.
AbsorptionAbsorbed over 6 hours, bioavailability is 50 to 60% under fasting conditions. Administration with food decreases and delays absorption. Some evidence indicates that the level of absorption is not dose-related, suggesting that absorption occurs through a saturable process. Limited data from animal and human cell cultures indicate that absorption occurs through a passive, non-saturable process, possibly involving a paracellular route. Peak action occurs 3 hours after oral administration.
Volume of distribution

654 L for metformin 850 mg administered as a single dose. The volume of distribution following IV administration is 63-276 L, likely due to less binding in the GI tract and/or different methods used to determine volume of distribution.

Protein bindingMetformin is negligibly bound to plasma proteins.
Metabolism

Metformin is not metabolized.

Route of eliminationIntravenous single-dose studies in normal subjects demonstrate that metformin is excreted unchanged in the urine and does not undergo hepatic metabolism (no metabolites have been identified in humans) nor biliary excretion. Approximately 90% of the drug is eliminated in 24 hours in those with healthy renal function. Renal clearance of metformin is approximately 3.5 times that of creatinine clearance, indicating the tubular secretion is the primary mode of metformin elimination.
Half life6.2 hours. Duration of action is 8-12 hours.
Clearance

718-1552 mL/minute following single oral dose of 0.5-1.5 g. Metformin is removed by hemodialysis at a rate of approximately 170 ml/min under good hemodynamic conditions.

ToxicityAcute oral toxicity (LD50): 350 mg/kg [Rabbit]. It would be expected that adverse reactions of a more intense character including epigastric discomfort, nausea, and vomiting followed by diarrhea, drowsiness, weakness, dizziness, malaise and headache might be seen.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9156
Blood Brain Barrier+0.5868
Caco-2 permeable-0.8958
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.6643
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9613
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8892
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.7518
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7929
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.7325
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6906
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9046
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9159
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 substrateNon-inhibitor0.913
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9506
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9763
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7367
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.6691
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.938
Rat acute toxicity1.7407 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9807
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9274
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Ranbaxy pharmaceuticals inc
  • Andrx labs llc
  • Bristol myers squibb co
  • Depomed inc
  • Actavis elizabeth llc
  • Amneal pharmaceuticals ny llc
  • Apotex inc etobicoke site
  • Barr laboratories inc
  • Impax laboratories inc
  • Ivax pharmaceuticals inc sub teva pharmaceuticals usa
  • Mutual pharmaceutical co inc
  • Mylan pharmaceuticals inc
  • Neurosci inc
  • Nostrum pharmaceuticals inc
  • Ranbaxy laboratories ltd
  • Sandoz inc
  • Sun pharmaceutical industries ltd
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Torrent pharma inc
  • Torrent pharmaceuticals ltd
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • Watson laboratories inc florida
  • Zydus pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Bristol myers squibb co pharmaceutical research institute
  • Alphapharm party ltd
  • Alvogen inc
  • Apotex inc
  • Aurobindo pharma ltd
  • Caraco pharmaceutical laboratories ltd
  • Dr reddys laboratories inc
  • Genpharm inc
  • Glenmark generics ltd
  • Granules india ltd
  • Indicus pharma llc
  • Ipca laboratories ltd
  • Mutual pharmacal co
  • Provident pharmaceutical inc
  • Watson laboratories
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Solutionoral500 mg/5mL
Tabletoral1000 mg
Tabletoral500 mg
Tabletoral850 mg
Tablet (extended-release)oral1000 mg
Tablet (extended-release)oral500 mg
Tablet, extended releaseoral1000 mg
Tablet, extended releaseoral500 mg
Tablet, extended releaseoral750 mg
Tablet, film coatedoral1000 mg
Tablet, film coatedoral500 mg
Tablet, film coatedoral850 mg
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseoral1000 mg
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseoral500 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Fortamet er 1000 mg tablet6.93USD tablet
Fortamet 1000 mg 24 Hour tablet6.01USD tablet
Fortamet 500 mg 24 Hour tablet2.55USD tablet
Fortamet er 500 mg tablet2.48USD tablet
Glucophage 1000 mg tablet2.33USD tablet
Metformin hcl crystals2.14USD g
Glucophage 850 mg tablet1.94USD tablet
Glucophage XR 750 mg 24 Hour tablet1.8USD tablet
Glucophage xr 750 mg tablet1.71USD tablet
Metformin hcl 1000 mg tablet1.48USD tablet
MetFORMIN HCl 750 mg 24 Hour tablet1.25USD tablet
Metformin hcl 850 mg tablet1.22USD tablet
Glucophage XR 500 mg 24 Hour tablet1.17USD tablet
Glucophage 500 mg tablet1.14USD tablet
Glucophage xr 500 mg tablet1.14USD tablet
Glucophage xr 500 mg tablet sa1.11USD tablet
MetFORMIN HCl 500 mg 24 Hour tablet0.75USD tablet
Metformin hcl 500 mg tablet0.72USD tablet
Glucophage 850 mg Tablet0.38USD tablet
Glucophage 500 mg Tablet0.3USD tablet
Riomet 500 mg/5 ml solution0.27USD ml
Riomet 500 mg/5ml Solution0.27USD ml
Apo-Metformin 850 mg Tablet0.21USD tablet
Co Metformin 850 mg Tablet0.21USD tablet
Mylan-Metformin 850 mg Tablet0.21USD tablet
Novo-Metformin 850 mg Tablet0.21USD tablet
Nu-Metformin 850 mg Tablet0.21USD tablet
Pms-Metformin 850 mg Tablet0.21USD tablet
Ratio-Metformin Hydrochloride 850 mg Tablet0.21USD tablet
Sandoz Metformin Fc 850 mg Tablet0.21USD tablet
Pms-Metformin 500 mg Tablet0.13USD tablet
Ran-Metformin 500 mg Tablet0.13USD tablet
Ratio-Metformin Hydrochloride 500 mg Tablet0.13USD tablet
Sandoz Metformin Fc 500 mg Tablet0.13USD tablet
Zym-Metformin 500 mg Tablet0.13USD tablet
Apo-Metformin 500 mg Tablet0.13USD tablet
Co Metformin 500 mg Tablet0.13USD tablet
Mylan-Metformin 500 mg Tablet0.13USD tablet
Novo-Metformin 500 mg Tablet0.13USD tablet
Nu-Metformin 500 mg Tablet0.13USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
CountryPatent NumberApprovedExpires (estimated)
Canada24126712006-10-032021-02-26
Canada24764962009-12-152023-02-21
United States63404751996-09-192016-09-19
United States68909572003-09-142023-09-14
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point223-226 °CNot Available
water solubilityFreely soluble as HCl saltNot Available
logP-0.5Not Available
pKa12.4Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility1.38 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-1.8ALOGPS
logP-0.92ChemAxon
logS-2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)12.33ChemAxon
Physiological Charge2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area88.99 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity56.64 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability13.43 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
SpectraMS/MSLC-MS1D NMR2D NMR
References
Synthesis Reference

Jorn Moeckel, Rolf-Dieter Gabel, Heinrich Woog, “Pharmaceutical preparation containing metformin and a process for producing it.” U.S. Patent US5955106, issued October, 1991.

US5955106
General Reference
  1. Witters LA: The blooming of the French lilac. J Clin Invest. 2001 Oct;108(8):1105-7. Pubmed
  2. UNGAR G, FREEDMAN L, SHAPIRO SL: Pharmacological studies of a new oral hypoglycemic drug. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1957 May;95(1):190-2. Pubmed
  3. Lord JM, Flight IH, Norman RJ: Metformin in polycystic ovary syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2003 Oct 25;327(7421):951-3. Pubmed
  4. Marchesini G, Brizi M, Bianchi G, Tomassetti S, Zoli M, Melchionda N: Metformin in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Lancet. 2001 Sep 15;358(9285):893-4. Pubmed
  5. Nair S, Diehl AM, Wiseman M, Farr GH Jr, Perrillo RP: Metformin in the treatment of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: a pilot open label trial. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2004 Jul 1;20(1):23-8. Pubmed
External Links
ATC CodesA10BA02
AHFS Codes
  • 68:20.04
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (239 KB)
MSDSDownload (73.8 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
CimetidineCimetidine may increase the therapeutic and adverse effects of metformin by increasing its serum concentration. Consider alternate therapy.
GlucosaminePossible hyperglycemia
Somatropin recombinantSomatropin may antagonize the hypoglycemic effect of metformin. Monitor for changes in fasting and postprandial blood sugars.
Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Take with food to reduce gastric irritation.

Targets

1. 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase subunit beta-1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inducer

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
5'-AMP-activated protein kinase subunit beta-1 Q9Y478 Details

References:

  1. Kovacic S, Soltys CL, Barr AJ, Shiojima I, Walsh K, Dyck JR: Akt activity negatively regulates phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase in the heart. J Biol Chem. 2003 Oct 10;278(41):39422-7. Epub 2003 Jul 29. Pubmed
  2. Hardie DG: Minireview: the AMP-activated protein kinase cascade: the key sensor of cellular energy status. Endocrinology. 2003 Dec;144(12):5179-83. Epub 2003 Sep 4. Pubmed
  3. Ruderman NB, Saha AK, Kraegen EW: Minireview: malonyl CoA, AMP-activated protein kinase, and adiposity. Endocrinology. 2003 Dec;144(12):5166-71. Epub 2003 Sep 18. Pubmed
  4. Leverve XM, Guigas B, Detaille D, Batandier C, Koceir EA, Chauvin C, Fontaine E, Wiernsperger NF: Mitochondrial metabolism and type-2 diabetes: a specific target of metformin. Diabetes Metab. 2003 Sep;29(4 Pt 2):6S88-94. Pubmed
  5. Leclerc I, Woltersdorf WW, da Silva Xavier G, Rowe RL, Cross SE, Korbutt GS, Rajotte RV, Smith R, Rutter GA: Metformin, but not leptin, regulates AMP-activated protein kinase in pancreatic islets: impact on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Jun;286(6):E1023-31. Epub 2004 Feb 10. Pubmed
  6. Vucicevic L, Misirkic M, Janjetovic K, Harhaji-Trajkovic L, Prica M, Stevanovic D, Isenovic E, Sudar E, Sumarac-Dumanovic M, Micic D, Trajkovic V: AMP-activated protein kinase-dependent and -independent mechanisms underlying in vitro antiglioma action of compound C. Biochem Pharmacol. 2009 Jun 1;77(11):1684-93. Epub 2009 Mar 14. Pubmed
  7. Towler MC, Hardie DG: AMP-activated protein kinase in metabolic control and insulin signaling. Circ Res. 2007 Feb 16;100(3):328-41. Pubmed
  8. Musi N, Hirshman MF, Nygren J, Svanfeldt M, Bavenholm P, Rooyackers O, Zhou G, Williamson JM, Ljunqvist O, Efendic S, Moller DE, Thorell A, Goodyear LJ: Metformin increases AMP-activated protein kinase activity in skeletal muscle of subjects with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 2002 Jul;51(7):2074-81. Pubmed

Transporters

1. Solute carrier family 22 member 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier family 22 member 1 O15245 Details

References:

  1. Dresser MJ, Xiao G, Leabman MK, Gray AT, Giacomini KM: Interactions of n-tetraalkylammonium compounds and biguanides with a human renal organic cation transporter (hOCT2). Pharm Res. 2002 Aug;19(8):1244-7. Pubmed
  2. Wang DS, Jonker JW, Kato Y, Kusuhara H, Schinkel AH, Sugiyama Y: Involvement of organic cation transporter 1 in hepatic and intestinal distribution of metformin. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Aug;302(2):510-5. Pubmed
  3. Zolk O: Current understanding of the pharmacogenomics of metformin. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2009 Dec;86(6):595-8. Pubmed
  4. Tzvetkov MV, Vormfelde SV, Balen D, Meineke I, Schmidt T, Sehrt D, Sabolic I, Koepsell H, Brockmoller J: The effects of genetic polymorphisms in the organic cation transporters OCT1, OCT2, and OCT3 on the renal clearance of metformin. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2009 Sep;86(3):299-306. Epub 2009 Jun 17. Pubmed
  5. Ahlin G, Karlsson J, Pedersen JM, Gustavsson L, Larsson R, Matsson P, Norinder U, Bergstrom CA, Artursson P: Structural requirements for drug inhibition of the liver specific human organic cation transport protein 1. J Med Chem. 2008 Oct 9;51(19):5932-42. Epub 2008 Sep 13. Pubmed

2. Solute carrier family 22 member 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier family 22 member 2 O15244 Details

References:

  1. Dresser MJ, Xiao G, Leabman MK, Gray AT, Giacomini KM: Interactions of n-tetraalkylammonium compounds and biguanides with a human renal organic cation transporter (hOCT2). Pharm Res. 2002 Aug;19(8):1244-7. Pubmed
  2. Zolk O: Current understanding of the pharmacogenomics of metformin. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2009 Dec;86(6):595-8. Pubmed
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. Pubmed
  4. Kimura N, Masuda S, Tanihara Y, Ueo H, Okuda M, Katsura T, Inui K: Metformin is a superior substrate for renal organic cation transporter OCT2 rather than hepatic OCT1. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2005 Oct;20(5):379-86. Pubmed

3. Solute carrier family 22 member 3

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier family 22 member 3 O75751 Details

References:

  1. Muller J, Lips KS, Metzner L, Neubert RH, Koepsell H, Brandsch M: Drug specificity and intestinal membrane localization of human organic cation transporters (OCT). Biochem Pharmacol. 2005 Dec 5;70(12):1851-60. Epub 2005 Nov 2. Pubmed

4. Multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1 Q96FL8 Details

References:

  1. Meyer zu Schwabedissen HE, Verstuyft C, Kroemer HK, Becquemont L, Kim RB: Human multidrug and toxin extrusion 1 (MATE1/SLC47A1) transporter: functional characterization, interaction with OCT2 (SLC22A2), and single nucleotide polymorphisms. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2010 Apr;298(4):F997-F1005. Epub 2010 Jan 6. Pubmed

5. Equilibrative nucleoside transporter 4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Equilibrative nucleoside transporter 4 Q7RTT9 Details

References:

  1. Zhou M, Xia L, Wang J: Metformin transport by a newly cloned proton-stimulated organic cation transporter (plasma membrane monoamine transporter) expressed in human intestine. Drug Metab Dispos. 2007 Oct;35(10):1956-62. Epub 2007 Jun 28. Pubmed

Comments
comments powered by Disqus
Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:09