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Identification
NameMetformin
Accession NumberDB00331  (APRD01099)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
Description

Metformin is a biguanide antihyperglycemic agent used for treating non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). It improves glycemic control by decreasing hepatic glucose production, decreasing glucose absorption and increasing insulin-mediated glucose uptake. Metformin may induce weight loss and is the drug of choice for obese NIDDM patients. Use of metformin is associated with modest weight loss. When used alone, metformin does not cause hypoglycemia; however, it may potentiate the hypoglycemic effects of sulfonylureas and insulin. Its main side effects are dyspepsia, nausea and diarrhea. Dose titration and/or use of smaller divided doses may decrease side effects. Metformin should be avoided in those with severely compromised renal function (creatinine clearance < 30 ml/min), acute/decompensated heart failure, severe liver disease and for 48 hours after the use of iodinated contrast dyes due to the risk of lactic acidosis. Lower doses should be used in the elderly and those with decreased renal function. Metformin decreases fasting plasma glucose, postprandial blood glucose and glycosolated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, which are reflective of the last 8-10 weeks of glucose control. Metformin may also have a positive effect on lipid levels. In 2012, a combination tablet of linagliptin plus metformin hydrochloride was marketed under the name Jentadueto for use in patients when treatment with both linagliptin and metformin is appropriate.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
1,1-Dimethylbiguanide
Dimethylbiguanid
Haurymellin
Metformin
Metformina
Metformine
Metformine pamoate
Metforminum
N,N-Dimethylimidodicarbonimidic diamide
External Identifiers
  • LA 6023
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Act Metformintablet850 mgoralActavis Pharma Company2004-11-05Not applicableCanada
Act Metformintablet500 mgoralActavis Pharma Company2004-11-05Not applicableCanada
Auro-metformintablet850 mgoralAuro Pharma Inc2015-04-08Not applicableCanada
Auro-metformintablet500 mgoralAuro Pharma Inc2015-04-08Not applicableCanada
Ava-metformintablet850 mgoralAvanstra Inc2011-09-152014-08-21Canada
Ava-metformintablet500 mgoralAvanstra Inc2011-09-152014-08-21Canada
Bci Metformintablet500 mgoralBaker Cummins Inc2005-04-072006-10-03Canada
Bci Metformintablet850 mgoralBaker Cummins Inc2005-07-042006-10-03Canada
Bio-metformintablet850 mgoralBiomed PharmaNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Bio-metformintablet500 mgoralBiomed PharmaNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Dom-metformintablet500 mgoralDominion Pharmacal1999-12-16Not applicableCanada
Dom-metformintablet850 mgoralDominion Pharmacal2000-10-26Not applicableCanada
Ecl-metformintablet850 mgoralEcl Pharma Group Ltd2014-07-04Not applicableCanada
Ecl-metformintablet500 mgoralEcl Pharma Group Ltd2014-07-04Not applicableCanada
Fortamettablet, film coated, extended release1000 mg/1oralShionogi Inc.2004-04-27Not applicableUs
Fortamettablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1oralShionogi Inc.2004-04-27Not applicableUs
Fortamettablet, extended release500 mg/1oralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2006-03-24Not applicableUs
Fortamettablet, extended release1000 mg/1oralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2010-02-18Not applicableUs
Glucophagetablet, film coated500 mg/1oralBristol Myers Squibb Company2009-06-01Not applicableUs
Glucophagetablet, film coated500 mg/1oralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2009-06-01Not applicableUs
Glucophagetablet1000 mgoralSanofi Aventis Canada IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Glucophagetablet, film coated1000 mg/1oralBristol Myers Squibb Company2009-06-01Not applicableUs
Glucophagetablet, film coated850 mg/1oralBristol Myers Squibb Company2009-06-01Not applicableUs
Glucophagetablet850 mgoralSanofi Aventis Canada Inc1995-12-31Not applicableCanada
Glucophagetablet500 mgoralSanofi Aventis Canada Inc1995-12-31Not applicableCanada
Glucophage XRtablet, extended release750 mg/1oralBristol Myers Squibb Company2009-06-01Not applicableUs
Glucophage XRtablet, extended release500 mg/1oralBristol Myers Squibb Company2009-06-01Not applicableUs
Glumetzatablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1oralSantarus, Inc.2006-08-01Not applicableUs
Glumetzatablet, film coated, extended release1000 mg/1oralSantarus, Inc.2008-06-17Not applicableUs
Glumetzatablet (extended-release)1000 mgoralValeant Canada Lp Valeant Canada S.E.C.2008-01-08Not applicableCanada
Glumetzatablet (extended-release)500 mgoralValeant Canada Lp Valeant Canada S.E.C.2005-11-03Not applicableCanada
Glumetzatablet, film coated, extended release1000 mg/1oralDepomed, Inc.2008-06-17Not applicableUs
Glumetzatablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1oralDepomed, Inc.2006-08-01Not applicableUs
Glumetza (sb)tablet (extended-release)1000 mgoralValeant Canada Lp Valeant Canada S.E.C.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
Glycontablet500 mgoralValeant Canada Lp Valeant Canada S.E.C.1996-11-12Not applicableCanada
Glycon 850mgtablet850 mgoralValeant Canada Lp Valeant Canada S.E.C.1999-02-18Not applicableCanada
Ipg-metformintablet850 mgoralMarcan Pharmaceuticals IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Ipg-metformintablet500 mgoralMarcan Pharmaceuticals IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Jamp-metformintablet850 mgoralJamp Pharma Corporation2012-03-22Not applicableCanada
Jamp-metformintablet500 mgoralJamp Pharma Corporation2012-03-22Not applicableCanada
Jamp-metformin Blackberrytablet850 mgoralJamp Pharma Corporation2012-03-19Not applicableCanada
Jamp-metformin Blackberrytablet500 mgoralJamp Pharma Corporation2012-03-19Not applicableCanada
Mar-metformintablet850 mgoralMarcan Pharmaceuticals Inc2013-01-08Not applicableCanada
Mar-metformintablet500 mgoralMarcan Pharmaceuticals Inc2013-01-08Not applicableCanada
Med Metformin Tablets 500mgtablet500 mgoralMedican Pharma Incorporated1997-02-282011-03-29Canada
Metformintablet850 mgoralMeliapharm Inc2003-01-072014-06-25Canada
Metformintablet500 mgoralLaboratoires Confab IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Metformintablet500 mgoralMeliapharm Inc2000-10-262014-06-25Canada
Metformintablet850 mgoralMarcan Pharmaceuticals IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Metformintablet850 mgoralSorres Pharma Inc2000-10-262014-06-20Canada
Metformintablet500 mgoralMarcan Pharmaceuticals IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Metformintablet850 mgoralSanis Health Inc2010-07-26Not applicableCanada
Metformintablet500 mgoralBdh Inc.1997-08-192000-08-03Canada
Metformintablet850 mgoralCobalt Pharmaceuticals CompanyNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Metformintablet500 mgoralSanis Health Inc2010-07-26Not applicableCanada
Metformintablet500 mgoralCobalt Pharmaceuticals CompanyNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Metformintablet850 mgoralMylan Pharmaceuticals Ulc2009-10-222012-10-19Canada
Metformintablet500 mgoralMylan Pharmaceuticals Ulc2009-10-222012-10-19Canada
Metformin Fctablet850 mgoralSivem Pharmaceuticals Ulc2012-06-10Not applicableCanada
Metformin Fctablet500 mgoralSivem Pharmaceuticals Ulc2012-06-10Not applicableCanada
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated, extended release1000 mg/1oralWatson Laboratories, Inc.2012-04-18Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1oralWatson Laboratories, Inc.2012-04-18Not applicableUs
Metformin Tabletstablet850 mgoralAccord Healthcare IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Metformin Tabletstablet500 mgoralAccord Healthcare IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Metformin Tablets 500mgtablet500 mgoralPrempharm Inc1996-12-302005-08-05Canada
Metformin-500 - Tab 500mgtablet500 mgoralPro Doc Limitee1996-12-062010-07-13Canada
Metformin-850tablet850 mgoralPro Doc Limitee1997-08-062010-07-13Canada
Mint-metformintablet850 mgoralMint Pharmaceuticals Inc2012-07-25Not applicableCanada
Mint-metformintablet500 mgoralMint Pharmaceuticals Inc2012-07-25Not applicableCanada
Mylan-metformintablet850 mgoralMylan Pharmaceuticals Ulc1997-05-12Not applicableCanada
Mylan-metformintablet500 mgoralMylan Pharmaceuticals Ulc1995-12-31Not applicableCanada
Ntp-metformintablet850 mgoralNt Pharma Canada LtdNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Ntp-metformintablet500 mgoralNt Pharma Canada LtdNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Nu-metformin - Tab 500mgtablet500 mgoralNu Pharm Inc1995-12-312012-09-04Canada
Nu-metformin (850mg)tablet850 mgoralNu Pharm Inc1997-06-102012-09-04Canada
Orb-metformintablet850 mgoralOrbus Pharma IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Orb-metformintablet500 mgoralOrbus Pharma IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Pg-metformintablet850 mgoralMarcan Pharmaceuticals IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Pg-metformintablet500 mgoralMarcan Pharmaceuticals IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
PHL-metformintablet500 mgoralPharmel Inc2003-01-07Not applicableCanada
PMS-metformintablet850 mgoralPharmascience Inc2000-07-28Not applicableCanada
PMS-metformin - Tab 500mgtablet500 mgoralPharmascience Inc1996-09-05Not applicableCanada
Priva-metformintablet500 mgoralPharmapar IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Priva-metformintablet850 mgoralPharmapar IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Pro-metformintablet850 mgoralPro Doc Limitee2008-10-27Not applicableCanada
Pro-metformintablet500 mgoralPro Doc Limitee2008-10-27Not applicableCanada
Q-metformintablet850 mgoralQd Pharmaceuticals Ulc2011-11-082015-08-21Canada
Q-metformintablet500 mgoralQd Pharmaceuticals Ulc2011-11-082015-08-21Canada
Ran-metformintablet850 mgoralRanbaxy Pharmaceuticals Canada Inc.2005-07-12Not applicableCanada
Ran-metformintablet500 mgoralRanbaxy Pharmaceuticals Canada Inc.2005-07-12Not applicableCanada
Ratio-metformintablet500 mgoralTeva Canada Limited2001-01-04Not applicableCanada
Ratio-metformintablet850 mgoralTeva Canada Limited2001-01-04Not applicableCanada
Rhoxal-metformintablet500 mgoralRhoxalpharma Inc1997-12-022009-11-24Canada
Riometsolution500 mg/5mLoralRanbaxy Laboratories Inc.2014-09-15Not applicableUs
Riometsolution500 mg/5mLoralRanbaxy Laboratories Inc.2004-01-04Not applicableUs
Riva-metformintablet850 mgoralLaboratoire Riva Inc2001-10-18Not applicableCanada
Riva-metformintablet500 mgoralLaboratoire Riva Inc1999-05-31Not applicableCanada
Sandoz Metformin Fctablet850 mgoralSandoz Canada Incorporated2002-12-20Not applicableCanada
Sandoz Metformin Fctablet500 mgoralSandoz Canada Incorporated2002-12-20Not applicableCanada
Septa-metformintablet500 mgoralSepta Pharmaceuticals Inc2012-11-21Not applicableCanada
Septa-metformintablet850 mgoralSepta Pharmaceuticals Inc2012-11-21Not applicableCanada
Teva-metformintablet850 mgoralTeva Canada Limited1997-05-05Not applicableCanada
Teva-metformintablet500 mgoralTeva Canada Limited1993-12-31Not applicableCanada
Van-metformintablet850 mgoralVanc Pharmaceuticals IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Van-metformintablet500 mgoralVanc Pharmaceuticals IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-metformin - Tab 500mgtablet500 mgoralApotex Inc1995-12-31Not applicableCanada
Apo-metformin 850 Mg Tabletstablet850 mgoralApotex Inc1996-11-20Not applicableCanada
Apo-metformin ERtablet (extended-release)500 mgoralApotex IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Metfomin Hydrochloridetablet850 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-08-10Not applicableUs
Metformin HCl ERtablet500 mg/1oralNorthwind Pharmaceuticals2015-05-22Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mg/1oralMajor Pharmaceuticals2011-01-31Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet850 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2015-05-18Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mg/1oralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2009-06-03Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mg/1oralEon Labs, Inc.2002-01-25Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mg/1oralTeva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc2002-01-28Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mg/1oralAmneal Pharmaceuticals2009-06-01Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet850 mg/1oralMc Kesson Packaging Services A Business Unit Of Mc Kesson Corporation2002-01-29Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mg/1oralMed Vantx, Inc.2010-07-27Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mg/1oralProficient Rx LP2005-01-14Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mg/1oralCadila Healthcare Limited2014-12-09Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release750 mg/1oralZydus Pharmaceuticals (USA) Inc.2005-09-28Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet850 mg/1oralHeritage Pharmaceuticals Inc.2010-04-22Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mg/1oralSolco healthcare U.S., LLC2013-04-15Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mg/1oralAmneal Pharmaceuticals of New York, LLC2012-12-17Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mg/1oralAscend Laboratories, LLC2011-01-31Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release750 mg/1oralTorrent Pharmaceuticals Limited2010-02-18Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mg/1oralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Llc2012-06-26Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mg/1oralMc Kesson Contract Packaging2012-01-18Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mg/1oralLake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC2005-01-14Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mg/1oralLake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC2010-04-22Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mg/1oralMed Vantx, Inc.2010-07-27Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mg/1oralBlenheim Pharmacal, Inc.2014-01-30Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mg/1oralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2012-12-17Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mg/1oralMajor Pharmaceuticals2010-01-11Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet850 mg/1oralPreferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2002-01-29Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mg/1oralMARKSANS PHARMA LIMITED2012-06-01Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-07-21Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mg/1oralSandoz Inc2002-01-25Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release1000 mg/1oralLupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2016-02-01Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mg/1oralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2014-02-01Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet850 mg/1oralMed Health Pharma, LLC2011-01-04Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mg/1oralZydus Pharmaceuticals (USA) Inc.2014-12-09Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mg/1oralHeritage Pharmaceuticals Inc.2010-04-22Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mg/1oralSolco healthcare U.S., LLC2014-10-15Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mg/1oralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2009-06-03Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mg/1oralBlenheim Pharmacal, Inc.2016-01-07Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release750 mg/1oralAv Kare, Inc.2009-12-02Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet850 mg/1oralUnit Dose Services2010-04-22Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-05-29Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mg/1oralMc Kesson Contract Packaging2012-01-17Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mg/1oralLake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC2005-01-14Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralLake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC2004-06-16Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mg/1oralLiberty Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2016-03-31Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-03-14Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mg/1oralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2013-01-01Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet850 mg/1oralDIRECT RX2016-02-05Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mg/1oralMed Health Pharma, LLC2011-01-04Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mg/1oralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2009-07-01Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mg/1oralCardinal Health2011-01-31Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-09-04Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release750 mg/1oralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2006-02-09Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mg/1oralGolden State Medical Supply, Inc2013-09-11Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mg/1oralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2014-11-01Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mg/1oralClinical Solutions Wholesale2002-01-25Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2015-05-15Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mg/1oralCardinal Health2012-12-14Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2015-06-01Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet850 mg/1oralBlenheim Pharmacal Inc.2010-04-22Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mg/1oralProficient Rx LP2005-01-14Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mg/1oralBlenheim Pharmacal, Inc.2012-02-13Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mg/1oralWatson Pharma, Inc.2002-01-25Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mg/1oralKAISER FOUNDATION HOSPITALS2015-07-07Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mg/1oralAmneal Pharmaceuticals2009-06-01Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mg/1oralMc Kesson Packaging Services A Business Unit Of Mc Kesson Corporation2002-01-29Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release750 mg/1oralAurobindo Pharma Limited2012-07-20Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release750 mg/1oralCadila Healthcare Limited2005-09-28Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mg/1oralZydus Pharmaceuticals (USA) Inc.2005-09-28Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mg/1oralHeritage Pharmaceuticals Inc.2010-04-22Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mg/1oralSolco healthcare U.S., LLC2013-04-15Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mg/1oralAscend Laboratories, LLC2011-01-31Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralTorrent Pharmaceuticals Limited2009-12-30Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mg/1oralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Llc2012-06-26Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mg/1oralLife Line Home Care Services, Inc.2002-01-30Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mg/1oralLake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC2010-04-22Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mg/1oralLake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC2011-01-27Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet850 mg/1oralMajor Pharmaceuticals2010-01-11Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mg/1oralPreferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2002-01-29Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mg/1oralMARKSANS PHARMA LIMITED2012-06-01Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-04-292016-03-18Us
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mg/1oralSandoz Inc2002-01-25Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralLupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2016-02-01Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mg/1oralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2012-12-17Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mg/1oralMed Health Pharma, LLC2011-01-04Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mg/1oralGreenstone LLC2005-01-142015-11-30Us
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralAv Kare, Inc.2009-12-02Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mg/1oralUnit Dose Services2010-04-22Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-05-23Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mg/1oralLiberty Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2016-03-31Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mg/1oralNorthwind Pharmaceuticals2015-01-21Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mg/1oralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2012-01-01Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mg/1oralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2009-07-01Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mg/1oralCardinal Health2009-09-15Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2006-02-09Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet850 mg/1oralGolden State Medical Supply, Inc2013-09-11Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mg/1oralSun Pharmaceutical Industries, Inc.2002-01-29Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2015-04-14Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2015-06-01Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release750 mg/1oralBlenheim Pharmacal, Inc.2013-10-03Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mg/1oralProficient Rx LP2010-04-22Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mg/1oralBlenheim Pharmacal, Inc.2012-02-13Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mg/1oralWatson Pharma, Inc.2002-01-25Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2010-06-11Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet850 mg/1oralAmneal Pharmaceuticals2009-06-01Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release750 mg/1oralbryant ranch prepack2005-12-29Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralAurobindo Pharma Limited2012-07-20Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mg/1oralCadila Healthcare Limited2005-09-28Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mg/1oralZydus Pharmaceuticals (USA) Inc.2005-09-28Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralRebel Distributors Corp2006-02-09Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mg/1oralSolco healthcare U.S., LLC2013-04-15Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mg/1oralAscend Laboratories, LLC2011-01-31Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mg/1oralTorrent Pharmaceuticals Limited2007-01-24Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet850 mg/1oralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Llc2012-06-26Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralAidarex Pharmaceuticals LLC2009-12-02Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-12-02Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mg/1oralMajor Pharmaceuticals2010-01-11Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mg/1oralLegacy Pharmaceutical Packaging2012-01-13Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mg/1oralBlu Pharmaceuticals, LLC2013-09-03Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mg/1oralSandoz Inc2002-01-25Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release1000 mg/1oralLupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2011-09-30Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mg/1oralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2005-09-28Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mg/1oralMylan Institutional Inc.2012-10-05Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mg/1oralGreenstone LLC2005-01-142015-11-30Us
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mg/1oralAv Kare, Inc.2012-06-26Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralUnit Dose Services2004-12-16Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-05-14Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mg/1oralLiberty Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2016-03-31Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mg/1oralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2009-07-01Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mg/1oralAmneal Pharmaceuticals of New York, LLC2012-12-17Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mg/1oralCardinal Health2010-04-22Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mg/1oralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2002-03-11Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mg/1oralGolden State Medical Supply, Inc2013-09-11Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet850 mg/1oralSun Pharmaceutical Industries, Inc.2002-01-29Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2015-03-09Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release750 mg/1oralApotex Corp.2005-12-29Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release750 mg/1oralBlenheim Pharmacal, Inc.2013-12-17Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mg/1oralProficient Rx LP2010-04-22Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mg/1oralBlenheim Pharmacal, Inc.2003-04-17Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mg/1oralWatson Pharma, Inc.2002-01-25Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mg/1oralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2012-09-19Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mg/1oralKAISER FOUNDATION HOSPITALS2015-07-07Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mg/1oralAurobindo Pharma Limited2005-01-14Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mg/1oralCadila Healthcare Limited2005-09-28Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mg/1oralZydus Pharmaceuticals (USA) Inc.2005-09-28Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mg/1oralRebel Distributors Corp.2002-01-29Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mg/1oralSolco healthcare U.S., LLC2009-06-03Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralAscend Laboratories, LLC2013-03-01Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mg/1oralTorrent Pharmaceuticals Limited2007-01-24Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mg/1oralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Llc2002-01-25Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mg/1oralAvera Mc Kennan Hospital2015-06-29Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mg/1oralAidarex Pharmaceuticals LLC2002-01-29Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-09-08Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mg/1oralMajor Pharmaceuticals2002-01-25Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mg/1oralGlenmark Pharmaceuticals Inc., Usa2008-05-23Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mg/1oralBlu Pharmaceuticals, LLC2013-09-03Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2010-10-20Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2006-02-09Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralLupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2011-09-30Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mg/1oralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2012-04-27Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mg/1oralMylan Institutional Inc.2012-07-02Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mg/1oralGreenstone LLC2005-01-142015-11-30Us
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet850 mg/1oralAv Kare, Inc.2012-06-26Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release750 mg/1oralAv Pak2014-11-12Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mg/1oralClinical Solutions Wholesale, Llc2016-04-05Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet850 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-05-28Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mg/1oralClinical Solutions Wholesale, Llc2005-01-14Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mg/1oralNorthwind Pharmaceuticals2014-04-30Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet850 mg/1oralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2009-07-01Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet850 mg/1oralAmneal Pharmaceuticals of New York, LLC2012-12-17Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mg/1oralCardinal Health2011-01-31Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mg/1oralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2002-01-30Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mg/1oralNew Horizon Rx Group, LLC2013-08-25Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mg/1oralSun Pharmaceutical Industries, Inc.2002-01-29Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mg/1oralSt Marys Medical Park Pharmacy2013-05-15Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralApotex Corp.2004-12-16Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mg/1oralBlenheim Pharmacal, Inc.2010-07-20Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release750 mg/1oralSun Pharmaceutical Industries Limited2006-02-09Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mg/1oralMajor Pharmaceuticals2014-02-03Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release750 mg/1oralWatson Pharma, Inc.2005-04-12Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mg/1oralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2012-09-19Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mg/1oralKAISER FOUNDATION HOSPITALS2015-07-07Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mg/1oralTYA Pharmaceuticals2002-01-29Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralbryant ranch prepack2006-02-09Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet850 mg/1oralPreferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2010-04-22Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mg/1oralAidarex Pharmaceuticals LLC2002-01-29Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-05-16Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mg/1oralMajor Pharmaceuticals2002-01-25Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet850 mg/1oralGlenmark Pharmaceuticals Inc., Usa2008-05-23Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mg/1oralBlu Pharmaceuticals, LLC2013-09-03Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralInventia Healthcare Private Limited2012-06-01Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mg/1oralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2010-07-27Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mg/1oralCarilion Materials Management2010-04-22Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet850 mg/1oralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2009-06-01Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mg/1oralMylan Institutional Inc.2012-08-17Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mg/1oralCardinal Health2002-01-252015-12-29Us
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mg/1oralAv Kare, Inc.2012-06-26Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralAv Pak2009-12-02Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mg/1oralCarlsbad Technology, Inc.2014-02-01Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-05-09Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mg/1oralClinical Solutions Wholesale, Llc2005-01-14Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet850 mg/1oralNorthwind Pharmaceuticals2014-04-08Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet850 mg/1oralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2009-07-01Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mg/1oralAmneal Pharmaceuticals of New York, LLC2012-12-17Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mg/1oralCardinal Health2011-01-31Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet850 mg/1oralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2002-03-12Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release750 mg/1oralClinical Solutions Wholesale2005-04-13Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet850 mg/1oralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2002-01-29Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet850 mg/1oralSt Marys Medical Park Pharmacy2013-05-15Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mg/1oralApotex Corp.2011-12-07Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mg/1oralBlenheim Pharmacal Inc.2010-04-22Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralSun Pharmaceutical Industries Limited2006-02-09Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet850 mg/1oralMajor Pharmaceuticals2014-02-03Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralWatson Pharma, Inc.2004-06-16Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mg/1oralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2012-09-19Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralTeva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc2004-06-18Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mg/1oralTYA Pharmaceuticals2010-04-22Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mg/1oralbryant ranch prepack2002-01-29Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mg/1oralAurobindo Pharma Limited2005-01-14Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mg/1oralCadila Healthcare Limited2005-09-28Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralZydus Pharmaceuticals (USA) Inc.2005-09-28Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet850 mg/1oralRebel Distributors Corp.2002-01-29Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mg/1oralSolco healthcare U.S., LLC2009-06-03Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mg/1oralContract Pharmacy Services Pa2010-07-29Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mg/1oralTorrent Pharmaceuticals Limited2007-01-24Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mg/1oralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Llc2002-01-25Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mg/1oralCarlsbad Technology, Inc.2014-02-01Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-05-07Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mg/1oralClinical Solutions Wholesale, Llc2005-01-14Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mg/1oralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2009-07-01Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release750 mg/1oralAmneal Pharmaceuticals of New York, LLC2010-02-26Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mg/1oralCardinal Health2011-01-31Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mg/1oralA S Medication Solutions Llc2012-12-17Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mg/1oralClinical Solutions Wholesale2009-06-03Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mg/1oralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2010-07-27Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mg/1oralSt Marys Medical Park Pharmacy2013-05-15Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mg/1oralApotex Corp.2011-12-07Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mg/1oralBlenheim Pharmacal, Inc.2011-03-21Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2009-11-18Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mg/1oralMajor Pharmaceuticals2014-02-03Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralEon Labs, Inc.2004-12-14Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mg/1oralTeva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc2003-04-17Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mg/1oralReady Meds2012-12-17Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mg/1oralbryant ranch prepack2009-06-03Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mg/1oralAurobindo Pharma Limited2005-01-14Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralCadila Healthcare Limited2005-09-28Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release750 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2015-03-31Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mg/1oralRebel Distributors Corp.2002-01-29Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mg/1oralSolco healthcare U.S., LLC2009-06-03Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mg/1oralContract Pharmacy Services Pa2010-07-29Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mg/1oralBlenheim Pharmacal Inc.2010-04-22Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mg/1oralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Llc2002-01-25Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mg/1oralPreferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2010-04-22Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release750 mg/1oralNostrum Laboratories Inc.2012-01-01Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-03-01Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mg/1oralMajor Pharmaceuticals2002-01-25Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mg/1oralGlenmark Pharmaceuticals Inc., Usa2008-05-23Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2012-07-10Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mg/1oralSafecor Health, LLC2014-09-30Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mg/1oralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2010-07-27Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2009-12-02Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mg/1oralIngenus Pharmaceuticals, LLC2014-07-16Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mg/1oralCardinal Health2002-01-252015-12-29Us
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release1000 mg/1oralAv Kare, Inc.2014-12-04Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mg/1oralScie Gen Pharmaceuticals Inc2015-02-01Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mg/1oralCardinal Health2009-11-18Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mg/1oralA S Medication Solutions Llc2012-12-17Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralClinical Solutions Wholesale2009-12-02Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mg/1oralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2010-07-27Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralSt Marys Medical Park Pharmacy2006-02-09Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mg/1oralApotex Corp.2011-12-07Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralBlenheim Pharmacal, Inc.2013-09-30Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet850 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2009-11-18Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mg/1oralMajor Pharmaceuticals2011-01-31Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mg/1oralDIRECT RX2014-01-01Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mg/1oralEon Labs, Inc.2002-01-25Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release750 mg/1oralTeva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc2005-04-13Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mg/1oralReady Meds2012-12-17Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mg/1oralbryant ranch prepack2010-04-22Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mg/1oralCadila Healthcare Limited2014-12-09Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mg/1oralAmneal Pharmaceuticals of New York, LLC2012-12-17Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release1000 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2014-09-29Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mg/1oralSTAT Rx USA LLC2005-09-28Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mg/1oralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Llc2014-02-03Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mg/1oralContract Pharmacy Services Pa2010-04-09Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralBlenheim Pharmacal, Inc.2015-08-27Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mg/1oralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2014-02-01Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mg/1oralPreferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2010-04-22Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralNostrum Laboratories Inc.2012-01-01Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mg/1oralZydus Pharmaceuticals (USA) Inc.2014-12-09Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-04-08Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mg/1oralSolco healthcare U.S., LLC2014-10-15Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mg/1oralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2010-07-27Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release750 mg/1oralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2005-04-12Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mg/1oralIngenus Pharmaceuticals, LLC2014-07-16Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mg/1oralCardinal Health2009-06-032015-12-29Us
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralAv Kare, Inc.2014-12-04Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet850 mg/1oralScie Gen Pharmaceuticals Inc2015-02-01Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mg/1oralCarlsbad Technology, Inc.2014-02-01Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet850 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-02-09Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mg/1oralAvera Mc Kennan Hospital2015-09-14Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mg/1oralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2009-07-01Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralAmneal Pharmaceuticals of New York, LLC2009-12-02Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2015-06-01Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1oralGolden State Medical Supply, Inc.2006-08-29Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mg/1oralBlenheim Pharmacal, Inc.2013-08-30Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2009-11-18Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mg/1oralMajor Pharmaceuticals2011-01-31Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mg/1oralDIRECT RX2014-01-01Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet850 mg/1oralEon Labs, Inc.2002-01-25Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mg/1oralTeva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc2002-02-11Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mg/1oralMc Kesson Packaging Services A Business Unit Of Mc Kesson Corporation2005-09-28Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mg/1oralProficient Rx LP2014-02-01Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mg/1oralCadila Healthcare Limited2014-12-09Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet850 mg/1oralAmneal Pharmaceuticals of New York, LLC2012-12-17Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2010-10-21Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mg/1oralSTAT Rx USA LLC2005-09-28Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mg/1oralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Llc2014-02-03Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralMed Vantx, Inc.2010-06-11Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mg/1oralBlenheim Pharmacal, Inc.2015-03-27Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mg/1oralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2014-02-01Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mg/1oralPreferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2002-01-29Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mg/1oralMARKSANS PHARMA LIMITED2012-06-01Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet1000 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-08-10Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mg/1oralZydus Pharmaceuticals (USA) Inc.2014-12-09Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-11-14Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated850 mg/1oralSolco healthcare U.S., LLC2014-10-15Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated1000 mg/1oralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2009-06-03Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mg/1oralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2012-04-27Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mg/1oralIngenus Pharmaceuticals, LLC2014-07-16Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mg/1oralCardinal Health2009-06-032015-12-29Us
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet850 mg/1oralLake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC2002-01-29Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mg/1oralScie Gen Pharmaceuticals Inc2015-02-01Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mg/1oralUnit Dose Services2010-04-22Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, film coated500 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-03-29Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralLake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC2006-02-09Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mg/1oralNorthwind Pharmaceuticals2015-01-09Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2009-07-01Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mg/1oralShanghai Sine Pharmaceutical Laboratories Co., Ltd.2015-04-27Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mg/1oralCardinal Health2010-01-11Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet850 mg/1oralA S Medication Solutions Llc2012-12-17Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet500 mg/1oralClinical Solutions Wholesale2010-04-22Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloridetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2006-02-09Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloride E/rtablet, extended release500 mg/1oralDIRECT RX2015-01-01Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloride ERtablet, film coated750 mg/1oralGolden State Medical Supply, Inc.2006-04-12Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloride ERtablet, extended release500 mg/1oralNivagen Pharmaceuticals Inc2013-11-01Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloride ERtablet750 mg/1oralNorthwind Pharmaceuticals2014-06-01Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloride ERtablet, extended release500 mg/1oralNorthwind Pharmaceuticals2014-04-23Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloride Extended Releasetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-04-21Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloride Extended Releasetablet, extended release750 mg/1oralMajor Pharmaceuticals2009-06-10Not applicableUs
Metformin Hydrochloride Extended Releasetablet, extended release500 mg/1oralMajor Pharmaceuticals2009-06-10Not applicableUs
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
Apo-MetforminApotex
Gen-MetforminGenpharm ULC
Novo-MetforminNovopharm
Nu-MetforminNu-Pharm
Sandoz MetforminSandox
Brand mixtures
NameLabellerIngredients
Actoplus MetPhysicians Total Care, Inc.
Actoplus Met XRTakeda Pharmaceuticals America, Inc.
Alogliptin and Metformin HydrochloridePerrigo New York Inc
AppforminPhysician Therapeutics Llc
Appformin-DPhysician Therapeutics Llc
AvandametGlaxo Smith Kline Llc
Glipizide and Metformin HClHeritage Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Glipizide and Metformin HydrochlorideTeva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc
GlucovanceBristol Myers Squibb Company
Glyburide (micronized) and Metformin HydrochlorideActavis Pharma Manufacturing Pvt. Ltd.
Glyburide and MetforminRebel Distributors Corp
Glyburide and Metformin HydrochlorideTeva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc
Glyburide-metformin HydrochlorideBlenheim Pharmacal, Inc.
InvokametJanssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
JanumetMerck Sharp & Dohme Corp.
Janumet XRMerck Sharp & Dohme Corp.
JentaduetoBoehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
KazanoTakeda Canada Inc
Kombiglyze XRE.R. Squibb & Sons, L.L.C.
KomboglyzeAstrazeneca Canada Inc
Pioglitazone and MetforminSandoz Inc
Pioglitazone and Metformin HydrochlorideTeva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc
Pioglitazone and Metformin HydrocholrideTEVA PHARMACEUTICALS USA
Pioglitazone HCl and Metformin HClTorrent Pharmaceuticals Limited
Pioglitazone Hydrochloride and Metformin HydrochlorideMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.
PMS-rosiglitazone-metforminPharmascience Inc
PrandimetNovo Nordisk
Repaglinide and Metformin HydrochlorideLupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
SynjardyBoehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
XigduoAstrazeneca Canada Inc
Xigduo XRAstra Zeneca Pharmaceuticals Lp
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Metformin Hydrochloride
Thumb
  • InChI Key: OETHQSJEHLVLGH-UHFFFAOYSA-N
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 165.078123116
  • Average Mass: 165.625
DBSALT000114
Categories
UNII9100L32L2N
CAS number657-24-9
WeightAverage: 129.1636
Monoisotopic: 129.101445377
Chemical FormulaC4H11N5
InChI KeyInChIKey=XZWYZXLIPXDOLR-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C4H11N5/c1-9(2)4(7)8-3(5)6/h1-2H3,(H5,5,6,7,8)
IUPAC Name
1-carbamimidamido-N,N-dimethylmethanimidamide
SMILES
CN(C)C(=N)NC(N)=N
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as biguanides. These are organic compounds containing two N-linked guanidines.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganonitrogen compounds
ClassGuanidines
Sub ClassBiguanides
Direct ParentBiguanides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Biguanide
  • Tertiary amine
  • Carboximidamide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Imine
  • Amine
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor use as an adjunct to diet and exercise in adult patients (18 years and older) with NIDDM. May also be used for the management of metabolic and reproductive abnormalities associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Jentadueto is for the treatment of patients when both linagliptin and metformin is appropriate.
PharmacodynamicsMetformin is an oral antihyperglycemic agent that improves glucose tolerance in patients with NIDDM, lowering both basal and postprandial plasma glucose. Metformin is not chemically or pharmacologically related to any other class of oral antihyperglycemic agents. Unlike sulfonylureas, metformin does not produce hypoglycemia in either patients with NIDDM or healthy subjects and does not cause hyperinsulinemia. Metformin does not affect insulin secretion.
Mechanism of actionMetformin's mechanisms of action differ from other classes of oral antihyperglycemic agents. Metformin decreases blood glucose levels by decreasing hepatic glucose production, decreasing intestinal absorption of glucose, and improving insulin sensitivity by increasing peripheral glucose uptake and utilization. These effects are mediated by the initial activation by metformin of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a liver enzyme that plays an important role in insulin signaling, whole body energy balance, and the metabolism of glucose and fats. Activation of AMPK is required for metformin's inhibitory effect on the production of glucose by liver cells. Increased peripheral utilization of glucose may be due to improved insulin binding to insulin receptors. Metformin administration also increases AMPK activity in skeletal muscle. AMPK is known to cause GLUT4 deployment to the plasma membrane, resulting in insulin-independent glucose uptake. The rare side effect, lactic acidosis, is thought to be caused by decreased liver uptake of serum lactate, one of the substrates of gluconeogenesis. In those with healthy renal function, the slight excess is simply cleared. However, those with severe renal impairment may accumulate clinically significant serum lactic acid levels. Other conditions that may precipitate lactic acidosis include severe hepatic disease and acute/decompensated heart failure.
Related Articles
AbsorptionAbsorbed over 6 hours, bioavailability is 50 to 60% under fasting conditions. Administration with food decreases and delays absorption. Some evidence indicates that the level of absorption is not dose-related, suggesting that absorption occurs through a saturable process. Limited data from animal and human cell cultures indicate that absorption occurs through a passive, non-saturable process, possibly involving a paracellular route. Peak action occurs 3 hours after oral administration.
Volume of distribution

654 L for metformin 850 mg administered as a single dose. The volume of distribution following IV administration is 63-276 L, likely due to less binding in the GI tract and/or different methods used to determine volume of distribution.

Protein bindingMetformin is negligibly bound to plasma proteins.
Metabolism

Metformin is not metabolized.

Route of eliminationIntravenous single-dose studies in normal subjects demonstrate that metformin is excreted unchanged in the urine and does not undergo hepatic metabolism (no metabolites have been identified in humans) nor biliary excretion. Approximately 90% of the drug is eliminated in 24 hours in those with healthy renal function. Renal clearance of metformin is approximately 3.5 times that of creatinine clearance, indicating the tubular secretion is the primary mode of metformin elimination.
Half life6.2 hours. Duration of action is 8-12 hours.
Clearance

718-1552 mL/minute following single oral dose of 0.5-1.5 g. Metformin is removed by hemodialysis at a rate of approximately 170 ml/min under good hemodynamic conditions.

ToxicityAcute oral toxicity (LD50): 350 mg/kg [Rabbit]. It would be expected that adverse reactions of a more intense character including epigastric discomfort, nausea, and vomiting followed by diarrhea, drowsiness, weakness, dizziness, malaise and headache might be seen.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9156
Blood Brain Barrier+0.5868
Caco-2 permeable-0.8958
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.6643
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9613
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8892
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.7518
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7929
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.7325
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6906
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9046
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9159
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.913
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9506
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9763
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7367
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.6691
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.938
Rat acute toxicity1.7407 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9807
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9274
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Ranbaxy pharmaceuticals inc
  • Andrx labs llc
  • Bristol myers squibb co
  • Depomed inc
  • Actavis elizabeth llc
  • Amneal pharmaceuticals ny llc
  • Apotex inc etobicoke site
  • Barr laboratories inc
  • Impax laboratories inc
  • Ivax pharmaceuticals inc sub teva pharmaceuticals usa
  • Mutual pharmaceutical co inc
  • Mylan pharmaceuticals inc
  • Neurosci inc
  • Nostrum pharmaceuticals inc
  • Ranbaxy laboratories ltd
  • Sandoz inc
  • Sun pharmaceutical industries ltd
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Torrent pharma inc
  • Torrent pharmaceuticals ltd
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • Watson laboratories inc florida
  • Zydus pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Bristol myers squibb co pharmaceutical research institute
  • Alphapharm party ltd
  • Alvogen inc
  • Apotex inc
  • Aurobindo pharma ltd
  • Caraco pharmaceutical laboratories ltd
  • Dr reddys laboratories inc
  • Genpharm inc
  • Glenmark generics ltd
  • Granules india ltd
  • Indicus pharma llc
  • Ipca laboratories ltd
  • Mutual pharmacal co
  • Provident pharmaceutical inc
  • Watson laboratories
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Kit
Tabletoral1000 mg
Tabletoral850 mg
Tablet, film coatedoral1000 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedoral500 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedoral850 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseoral500 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseoral750 mg/1
Tablet (extended-release)oral1000 mg
Tablet (extended-release)oral500 mg
Tablet, film coatedoral
Tablet (extended-release)oral
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseoral
Tabletoral1000 mg/1
Tabletoral500 mg/1
Tabletoral850 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseoral1000 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseoral1000 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseoral500 mg/1
Tabletoral750 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedoral750 mg/1
Tabletoral
Solutionoral500 mg/5mL
Tabletoral500 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Fortamet er 1000 mg tablet6.93USD tablet
Fortamet 1000 mg 24 Hour tablet6.01USD tablet
Fortamet 500 mg 24 Hour tablet2.55USD tablet
Fortamet er 500 mg tablet2.48USD tablet
Glucophage 1000 mg tablet2.33USD tablet
Metformin hcl crystals2.14USD g
Glucophage 850 mg tablet1.94USD tablet
Glucophage XR 750 mg 24 Hour tablet1.8USD tablet
Glucophage xr 750 mg tablet1.71USD tablet
Metformin hcl 1000 mg tablet1.48USD tablet
MetFORMIN HCl 750 mg 24 Hour tablet1.25USD tablet
Metformin hcl 850 mg tablet1.22USD tablet
Glucophage XR 500 mg 24 Hour tablet1.17USD tablet
Glucophage 500 mg tablet1.14USD tablet
Glucophage xr 500 mg tablet1.14USD tablet
Glucophage xr 500 mg tablet sa1.11USD tablet
MetFORMIN HCl 500 mg 24 Hour tablet0.75USD tablet
Metformin hcl 500 mg tablet0.72USD tablet
Glucophage 850 mg Tablet0.38USD tablet
Glucophage 500 mg Tablet0.3USD tablet
Riomet 500 mg/5 ml solution0.27USD ml
Riomet 500 mg/5ml Solution0.27USD ml
Apo-Metformin 850 mg Tablet0.21USD tablet
Co Metformin 850 mg Tablet0.21USD tablet
Mylan-Metformin 850 mg Tablet0.21USD tablet
Novo-Metformin 850 mg Tablet0.21USD tablet
Nu-Metformin 850 mg Tablet0.21USD tablet
Pms-Metformin 850 mg Tablet0.21USD tablet
Ratio-Metformin Hydrochloride 850 mg Tablet0.21USD tablet
Sandoz Metformin Fc 850 mg Tablet0.21USD tablet
Pms-Metformin 500 mg Tablet0.13USD tablet
Ran-Metformin 500 mg Tablet0.13USD tablet
Ratio-Metformin Hydrochloride 500 mg Tablet0.13USD tablet
Sandoz Metformin Fc 500 mg Tablet0.13USD tablet
Zym-Metformin 500 mg Tablet0.13USD tablet
Apo-Metformin 500 mg Tablet0.13USD tablet
Co Metformin 500 mg Tablet0.13USD tablet
Mylan-Metformin 500 mg Tablet0.13USD tablet
Novo-Metformin 500 mg Tablet0.13USD tablet
Nu-Metformin 500 mg Tablet0.13USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
CA2412671 No2006-10-032021-02-26Canada
CA2476496 No2009-12-152023-02-21Canada
US5965584 No1996-06-192016-06-19Us
US6099859 No1998-03-202018-03-20Us
US6150383 No1996-06-192016-06-19Us
US6150384 No1996-06-192016-06-19Us
US6166042 No1996-06-192016-06-19Us
US6166043 No1996-06-192016-06-19Us
US6172090 No1996-06-192016-06-19Us
US6211205 No1996-06-192016-06-19Us
US6288095 Yes1997-08-112017-08-11Us
US6303146 Yes2000-01-142020-01-14Us
US6303640 No1996-08-092016-08-09Us
US6303661 No1997-04-242017-04-24Us
US6329404 No1996-06-192016-06-19Us
US6340475 No1996-09-192016-09-19Us
US6414126 No2000-10-042020-10-04Us
US6475521 No1998-03-192018-03-19Us
US6488962 No2000-06-202020-06-20Us
US6495162 No1998-03-202018-03-20Us
US6515117 No2000-10-042020-10-04Us
US6635280 No1996-09-192016-09-19Us
US6660300 No1998-03-192018-03-19Us
US6699871 No2002-07-262022-07-26Us
US6723340 No2001-10-252021-10-25Us
US6790459 No2001-03-172021-03-17Us
US6866866 No2001-03-172021-03-17Us
US6890898 No1999-02-022019-02-02Us
US6890957 No2003-09-142023-09-14Us
US6936590 No2000-10-042020-10-04Us
US7078381 No1999-02-022019-02-02Us
US7125873 No2002-07-262022-07-26Us
US7326708 No2006-04-112026-04-11Us
US7358366 Yes2000-10-192020-10-19Us
US7407955 No2003-08-122023-08-12Us
US7459428 No1999-02-022019-02-02Us
US7579449 No2005-11-052025-11-05Us
US7713938 No2007-04-152027-04-15Us
US7780987 No2005-03-232025-03-23Us
US7785627 No2006-07-312026-07-31Us
US7807689 No2008-06-272028-06-27Us
US7919116 No1998-03-202018-03-20Us
US7919598 No2009-12-162029-12-16Us
US7943582 No2009-02-262029-02-26Us
US7943788 No2007-07-142027-07-14Us
US7959946 No2006-07-312026-07-31Us
US8119648 No2003-08-122023-08-12Us
US8173663 No2005-03-152025-03-15Us
US8178541 No2003-08-122023-08-12Us
US8222219 No2004-07-302024-07-30Us
US8236345 No2002-10-072022-10-07Us
US8288539 No2005-03-152025-03-15Us
US8323692 No2005-03-232025-03-23Us
US8414921 No2008-07-212028-07-21Us
US8470368 No2003-09-192023-09-19Us
US8475841 No1998-03-202018-03-20Us
US8501698 No2007-06-202027-06-20Us
US8513202 No2007-12-032027-12-03Us
US8628799 No2005-07-132025-07-13Us
US8668931 No2003-09-192023-09-19Us
US8673927 No2007-05-042027-05-04Us
US8685934 No2010-05-262030-05-26Us
US8785403 No2004-07-302024-07-30Us
US8846695 No2010-06-042030-06-04Us
US8883805 No2005-11-262025-11-26Us
US8900638 No2009-05-242029-05-24Us
US9060941 No2003-09-192023-09-19Us
US9101660 No2007-01-222027-01-22Us
US9155705 No2010-05-212030-05-21Us
US9173859 No2007-05-042027-05-04Us
US9198925 No2000-10-042020-10-04Us
USRE44186 No2003-07-312023-07-31Us
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point223-226 °CNot Available
water solubilityFreely soluble as HCl saltNot Available
logP-0.5Not Available
pKa12.4Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility1.38 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-1.8ALOGPS
logP-0.92ChemAxon
logS-2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)12.33ChemAxon
Physiological Charge2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area88.99 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity56.64 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability13.43 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-001i-0900000000-9046e2aa0408a0396007View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-01qi-9700000000-a6b98d87cc840a082179View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-00dr-9000000000-8e80f301bad045540477View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-bd8aed328c944acd1270View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-03l9-9300000000-3d585674ffe84238e5bfView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-00di-9000000000-ee68820579ebe4d31082View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-00di-9000000000-4312e7e5e1b0dd9ef936View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-00di-9000000000-053d63fe09a95fc1d544View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Jorn Moeckel, Rolf-Dieter Gabel, Heinrich Woog, “Pharmaceutical preparation containing metformin and a process for producing it.” U.S. Patent US5955106, issued October, 1991.

US5955106
General References
  1. Witters LA: The blooming of the French lilac. J Clin Invest. 2001 Oct;108(8):1105-7. [PubMed:11602616 ]
  2. UNGAR G, FREEDMAN L, SHAPIRO SL: Pharmacological studies of a new oral hypoglycemic drug. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1957 May;95(1):190-2. [PubMed:13432032 ]
  3. Lord JM, Flight IH, Norman RJ: Metformin in polycystic ovary syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2003 Oct 25;327(7421):951-3. [PubMed:14576245 ]
  4. Marchesini G, Brizi M, Bianchi G, Tomassetti S, Zoli M, Melchionda N: Metformin in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Lancet. 2001 Sep 15;358(9285):893-4. [PubMed:11567710 ]
  5. Nair S, Diehl AM, Wiseman M, Farr GH Jr, Perrillo RP: Metformin in the treatment of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: a pilot open label trial. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2004 Jul 1;20(1):23-8. [PubMed:15225167 ]
External Links
ATC CodesA10BA02A10BD02A10BD03A10BD05A10BD07A10BD08A10BD10A10BD11A10BD13A10BD14A10BD15A10BD16A10BD17A10BD18A10BD20
AHFS Codes
  • 68:20.04
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (239 KB)
MSDSDownload (73.8 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AcetazolamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acetazolamide is combined with Metformin.
Acetylsalicylic acidAcetylsalicylic acid may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Metformin.
AldesleukinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Metformin.
ArdeparinArdeparin may increase the hyperkalemic activities of Metformin.
AripiprazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Aripiprazole.
Arsenic trioxideThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Arsenic trioxide.
ArticaineThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Articaine.
AsenapineThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Asenapine.
AtazanavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Atazanavir.
BendroflumethiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Bendroflumethiazide.
BetamethasoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Betamethasone.
BrexpiprazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Brexpiprazole.
BumetanideThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Bumetanide.
BupropionThe serum concentration of Metformin can be increased when it is combined with Bupropion.
BuserelinThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Buserelin.
ButabarbitalButabarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Metformin.
ButethalButethal may increase the hypotensive activities of Metformin.
CephalexinThe serum concentration of Metformin can be increased when it is combined with Cephalexin.
CeritinibThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Ceritinib.
ChlorothiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Chlorothiazide.
ChlorpropamideMetformin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Chlorpropamide.
ChlorthalidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Chlorthalidone.
CimetidineThe serum concentration of Metformin can be increased when it is combined with Cimetidine.
ClozapineThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Clozapine.
CorticotropinThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.
Cortisone acetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Cortisone acetate.
Cyproterone acetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Cyproterone acetate.
DabrafenibThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Dabrafenib.
DalfampridineThe serum concentration of Dalfampridine can be increased when it is combined with Metformin.
DanazolThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Danazol.
DarunavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Darunavir.
DesogestrelThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Desogestrel.
DexamethasoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Dexamethasone.
DiazoxideThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Diazoxide.
DiclofenamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diclofenamide is combined with Metformin.
DienogestThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Dienogest.
DihydrotestosteroneDihydrotestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Metformin.
DisopyramideMetformin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Disopyramide.
DofetilideThe serum concentration of Dofetilide can be increased when it is combined with Metformin.
DolutegravirThe serum concentration of Metformin can be increased when it is combined with Dolutegravir.
DrospirenoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Drospirenone.
EpinephrineThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Epinephrine.
ErythromycinMetformin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Erythromycin.
EstradiolThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol.
Estrone sulfateThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Estropipate.
Etacrynic acidThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Ethacrynic acid.
EthanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethanol is combined with Metformin.
Ethinyl EstradiolThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Ethinyl Estradiol.
EthoxzolamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethoxzolamide is combined with Metformin.
Ethynodiol diacetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Ethynodiol.
EtonogestrelThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Etonogestrel.
EverolimusThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Everolimus.
FludrocortisoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Fludrocortisone.
FosamprenavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Fosamprenavir.
FurosemideThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Furosemide.
GliclazideMetformin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Gliclazide.
GlimepirideMetformin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Glimepiride.
GlipizideMetformin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Glipizide.
GlyburideMetformin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Glyburide.
GlycopyrroniumThe serum concentration of Metformin can be increased when it is combined with Glycopyrrolate.
GoserelinThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Goserelin.
HeptabarbitalHeptabarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Metformin.
HexobarbitalHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Metformin.
HistrelinThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Histrelin.
HydrochlorothiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Hydrochlorothiazide.
HydrocortisoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Hydrocortisone.
Hydroxyprogesterone caproateThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Hydroxyprogesterone caproate.
IloperidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Iloperidone.
IndapamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Indapamide.
IndinavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Indinavir.
Insulin AspartMetformin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Aspart.
Insulin DegludecMetformin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin degludec.
Insulin DetemirMetformin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Detemir.
Insulin GlargineMetformin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Glargine.
Insulin GlulisineMetformin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Glulisine.
Insulin HumanMetformin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
Insulin LisproMetformin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Lispro.
IodipamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Iodipamide is combined with Metformin.
IodixanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Iodixanol is combined with Metformin.
IohexolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Iohexol is combined with Metformin.
IopamidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Iopamidol is combined with Metformin.
IopromideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Iopromide is combined with Metformin.
IoversolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ioversol is combined with Metformin.
IoxilanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ioxilan is combined with Metformin.
LamotrigineThe serum concentration of Metformin can be increased when it is combined with Lamotrigine.
LanreotideMetformin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Lanreotide.
LeuprolideThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Leuprolide.
LevonorgestrelThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Levonorgestrel.
Lipoic AcidLipoic Acid may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Metformin.
LopinavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Lopinavir.
LurasidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Lurasidone.
MecaserminMetformin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Mecasermin.
Medroxyprogesterone AcetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Medroxyprogesterone Acetate.
Megestrol acetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Megestrol acetate.
MestranolThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Mestranol.
MethazolamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methazolamide is combined with Metformin.
MethohexitalMethohexital may increase the hypotensive activities of Metformin.
MethotrimeprazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Methotrimeprazine.
MethyclothiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Methyclothiazide.
MethylprednisoloneThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Methylprednisolone.
MetolazoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Metolazone.
MifepristoneMetformin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Mifepristone.
NadololThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Nadolol.
NateglinideMetformin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Nateglinide.
NelfinavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Nelfinavir.
NiacinThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.
NicorandilNicorandil may increase the hypotensive activities of Metformin.
NilotinibThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Nilotinib.
NorethisteroneThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Norethindrone.
NorgestimateThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Norgestimate.
OctreotideMetformin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Octreotide.
OlanzapineThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Olanzapine.
OxandroloneOxandrolone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Metformin.
PaliperidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Paliperidone.
ParoxetineParoxetine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Metformin.
PasireotideMetformin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Pasireotide.
PegvisomantPegvisomant may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Metformin.
PentamidineMetformin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Pentamidine.
PentobarbitalPentobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Metformin.
PerindoprilMetformin may increase the hyperkalemic activities of Perindopril.
PhenelzinePhenelzine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Metformin.
PipotiazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Pipotiazine.
PrednisoloneThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Prednisolone.
PrednisoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Prednisone.
PrimidonePrimidone may increase the hypotensive activities of Metformin.
ProgesteroneThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Progesterone.
QuetiapineThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Quetiapine.
QuinineMetformin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Quinine.
RanolazineThe serum concentration of Metformin can be increased when it is combined with Ranolazine.
RepaglinideMetformin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Repaglinide.
Repository corticotropinThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Repository corticotropin.
RisperidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Risperidone.
RitonavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.
SaquinavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Saquinavir.
SecobarbitalSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Metformin.
SirolimusThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Sirolimus.
SparfloxacinSparfloxacin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Metformin.
St. John's WortThe serum concentration of Metformin can be decreased when it is combined with St. John&#39;s Wort.
SulfadiazineMetformin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sulfadiazine.
SulfamethoxazoleMetformin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sulfamethoxazole.
SulfisoxazoleMetformin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sulfisoxazole.
SunitinibMetformin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sunitinib.
TacrolimusThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrolimus.
TemsirolimusThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Temsirolimus.
TestosteroneTestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Metformin.
TipranavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Tipranavir.
TolazamideMetformin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Tolazamide.
TolbutamideMetformin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Tolbutamide.
TopiramateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Metformin.
TorasemideThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Torasemide.
TranylcypromineTranylcypromine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Metformin.
TriamcinoloneThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Triamcinolone.
TriamtereneMetformin may increase the hyperkalemic activities of Triamterene.
TrichlormethiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Trichlormethiazide.
TrimethoprimThe serum concentration of Metformin can be increased when it is combined with Trimethoprim.
TriptorelinThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Triptorelin.
TrospiumThe serum concentration of Trospium can be decreased when it is combined with Metformin.
ValsartanMetformin may increase the hyperkalemic activities of Valsartan.
VandetanibThe serum concentration of Metformin can be increased when it is combined with Vandetanib.
VerapamilThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Verapamil.
VorinostatThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Vorinostat.
ZiprasidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Ziprasidone.
ZonisamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Metformin.
Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Take with food to reduce gastric irritation.

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inducer
General Function:
Protein kinase activity
Specific Function:
Non-catalytic subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an energy sensor protein kinase that plays a key role in regulating cellular energy metabolism. In response to reduction of intracellular ATP levels, AMPK activates energy-producing pathways and inhibits energy-consuming processes: inhibits protein, carbohydrate and lipid biosynthesis, as well as cell growth and proliferation. AMPK a...
Gene Name:
PRKAB1
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y478
Molecular Weight:
30382.085 Da
References
  1. Kovacic S, Soltys CL, Barr AJ, Shiojima I, Walsh K, Dyck JR: Akt activity negatively regulates phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase in the heart. J Biol Chem. 2003 Oct 10;278(41):39422-7. Epub 2003 Jul 29. [PubMed:12890675 ]
  2. Hardie DG: Minireview: the AMP-activated protein kinase cascade: the key sensor of cellular energy status. Endocrinology. 2003 Dec;144(12):5179-83. Epub 2003 Sep 4. [PubMed:12960015 ]
  3. Ruderman NB, Saha AK, Kraegen EW: Minireview: malonyl CoA, AMP-activated protein kinase, and adiposity. Endocrinology. 2003 Dec;144(12):5166-71. Epub 2003 Sep 18. [PubMed:14500570 ]
  4. Leverve XM, Guigas B, Detaille D, Batandier C, Koceir EA, Chauvin C, Fontaine E, Wiernsperger NF: Mitochondrial metabolism and type-2 diabetes: a specific target of metformin. Diabetes Metab. 2003 Sep;29(4 Pt 2):6S88-94. [PubMed:14502105 ]
  5. Leclerc I, Woltersdorf WW, da Silva Xavier G, Rowe RL, Cross SE, Korbutt GS, Rajotte RV, Smith R, Rutter GA: Metformin, but not leptin, regulates AMP-activated protein kinase in pancreatic islets: impact on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Jun;286(6):E1023-31. Epub 2004 Feb 10. [PubMed:14871885 ]
  6. Vucicevic L, Misirkic M, Janjetovic K, Harhaji-Trajkovic L, Prica M, Stevanovic D, Isenovic E, Sudar E, Sumarac-Dumanovic M, Micic D, Trajkovic V: AMP-activated protein kinase-dependent and -independent mechanisms underlying in vitro antiglioma action of compound C. Biochem Pharmacol. 2009 Jun 1;77(11):1684-93. doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2009.03.005. Epub 2009 Mar 14. [PubMed:19428322 ]
  7. Towler MC, Hardie DG: AMP-activated protein kinase in metabolic control and insulin signaling. Circ Res. 2007 Feb 16;100(3):328-41. [PubMed:17307971 ]
  8. Musi N, Hirshman MF, Nygren J, Svanfeldt M, Bavenholm P, Rooyackers O, Zhou G, Williamson JM, Ljunqvist O, Efendic S, Moller DE, Thorell A, Goodyear LJ: Metformin increases AMP-activated protein kinase activity in skeletal muscle of subjects with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 2002 Jul;51(7):2074-81. [PubMed:12086935 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Secondary active organic cation transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Translocates a broad array of organic cations with various structures and molecular weights including the model compounds 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), tetraethylammonium (TEA), N-1-methylnicotinamide (NMN), 4-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)-N-methylpyridinium (ASP), the endogenous compounds choline, guanidine, histamine, epinephrine, adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine, and the drugs quinine...
Gene Name:
SLC22A1
Uniprot ID:
O15245
Molecular Weight:
61153.345 Da
References
  1. Dresser MJ, Xiao G, Leabman MK, Gray AT, Giacomini KM: Interactions of n-tetraalkylammonium compounds and biguanides with a human renal organic cation transporter (hOCT2). Pharm Res. 2002 Aug;19(8):1244-7. [PubMed:12240953 ]
  2. Wang DS, Jonker JW, Kato Y, Kusuhara H, Schinkel AH, Sugiyama Y: Involvement of organic cation transporter 1 in hepatic and intestinal distribution of metformin. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Aug;302(2):510-5. [PubMed:12130709 ]
  3. Zolk O: Current understanding of the pharmacogenomics of metformin. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2009 Dec;86(6):595-8. doi: 10.1038/clpt.2009.144. [PubMed:19915604 ]
  4. Tzvetkov MV, Vormfelde SV, Balen D, Meineke I, Schmidt T, Sehrt D, Sabolic I, Koepsell H, Brockmoller J: The effects of genetic polymorphisms in the organic cation transporters OCT1, OCT2, and OCT3 on the renal clearance of metformin. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2009 Sep;86(3):299-306. doi: 10.1038/clpt.2009.92. Epub 2009 Jun 17. [PubMed:19536068 ]
  5. Ahlin G, Karlsson J, Pedersen JM, Gustavsson L, Larsson R, Matsson P, Norinder U, Bergstrom CA, Artursson P: Structural requirements for drug inhibition of the liver specific human organic cation transport protein 1. J Med Chem. 2008 Oct 9;51(19):5932-42. doi: 10.1021/jm8003152. Epub 2008 Sep 13. [PubMed:18788725 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Quaternary ammonium group transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates tubular uptake of organic compounds from circulation. Mediates the influx of agmatine, dopamine, noradrenaline (norepinephrine), serotonin, choline, famotidine, ranitidine, histamin, creatinine, amantadine, memantine, acriflavine, 4-[4-(dimethylamino)-styryl]-N-methylpyridinium ASP, amiloride, metformin, N-1-methylnicotinamide (NMN), tetraethylammonium (TEA), 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridiniu...
Gene Name:
SLC22A2
Uniprot ID:
O15244
Molecular Weight:
62579.99 Da
References
  1. Dresser MJ, Xiao G, Leabman MK, Gray AT, Giacomini KM: Interactions of n-tetraalkylammonium compounds and biguanides with a human renal organic cation transporter (hOCT2). Pharm Res. 2002 Aug;19(8):1244-7. [PubMed:12240953 ]
  2. Zolk O: Current understanding of the pharmacogenomics of metformin. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2009 Dec;86(6):595-8. doi: 10.1038/clpt.2009.144. [PubMed:19915604 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
  4. Kimura N, Masuda S, Tanihara Y, Ueo H, Okuda M, Katsura T, Inui K: Metformin is a superior substrate for renal organic cation transporter OCT2 rather than hepatic OCT1. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2005 Oct;20(5):379-86. [PubMed:16272756 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Toxin transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates potential-dependent transport of a variety of organic cations. May play a significant role in the disposition of cationic neurotoxins and neurotransmitters in the brain.
Gene Name:
SLC22A3
Uniprot ID:
O75751
Molecular Weight:
61279.485 Da
References
  1. Muller J, Lips KS, Metzner L, Neubert RH, Koepsell H, Brandsch M: Drug specificity and intestinal membrane localization of human organic cation transporters (OCT). Biochem Pharmacol. 2005 Dec 5;70(12):1851-60. Epub 2005 Nov 2. [PubMed:16263091 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Monovalent cation:proton antiporter activity
Specific Function:
Solute transporter for tetraethylammonium (TEA), 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), cimetidine, N-methylnicotinamide (NMN), metformin, creatinine, guanidine, procainamide, topotecan, estrone sulfate, acyclovir, ganciclovir and also the zwitterionic cephalosporin, cephalexin and cephradin. Seems to also play a role in the uptake of oxaliplatin (a new platinum anticancer agent). Able to transport...
Gene Name:
SLC47A1
Uniprot ID:
Q96FL8
Molecular Weight:
61921.585 Da
References
  1. Meyer zu Schwabedissen HE, Verstuyft C, Kroemer HK, Becquemont L, Kim RB: Human multidrug and toxin extrusion 1 (MATE1/SLC47A1) transporter: functional characterization, interaction with OCT2 (SLC22A2), and single nucleotide polymorphisms. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2010 Apr;298(4):F997-F1005. doi: 10.1152/ajprenal.00431.2009. Epub 2010 Jan 6. [PubMed:20053795 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Nucleoside transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Functions as a polyspecific organic cation transporter, efficiently transporting many organic cations such as monoamine neurotransmitters 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium and biogenic amines including serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine. May play a role in regulating central nervous system homeostasis of monoamine neurotransmitters. May be involved in luminal transport of organic cat...
Gene Name:
SLC29A4
Uniprot ID:
Q7RTT9
Molecular Weight:
58058.005 Da
References
  1. Zhou M, Xia L, Wang J: Metformin transport by a newly cloned proton-stimulated organic cation transporter (plasma membrane monoamine transporter) expressed in human intestine. Drug Metab Dispos. 2007 Oct;35(10):1956-62. Epub 2007 Jun 28. [PubMed:17600084 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on May 24, 2016 03:10