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Identification
NameSparfloxacin
Accession NumberDB01208  (APRD01231)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
DescriptionSparfloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic used in the treatment of bacterial infections. Sparfloxacin exerts its antibacterial activity by inhibiting DNA gyrase, a bacterial topoisomerase. DNA gyrase is an essential enzyme which controls DNA topology and assists in DNA replication, repair, deactivation, and transcription.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
cis-5-Amino-1-cyclopropyl-7-(3,5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl)-6,8-difluoro-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-3-quinolinecarboxylic acid
Sparfloxacin
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
ZagamNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNIIQ90AGA787L
CAS number110871-86-8
WeightAverage: 392.3998
Monoisotopic: 392.165997
Chemical FormulaC19H22F2N4O3
InChI KeyInChIKey=DZZWHBIBMUVIIW-DTORHVGOSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C19H22F2N4O3/c1-8-5-24(6-9(2)23-8)17-13(20)15(22)12-16(14(17)21)25(10-3-4-10)7-11(18(12)26)19(27)28/h7-10,23H,3-6,22H2,1-2H3,(H,27,28)/t8-,9+
IUPAC Name
5-amino-1-cyclopropyl-7-[(3R,5S)-3,5-dimethylpiperazin-1-yl]-6,8-difluoro-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylic acid
SMILES
C[[email protected]]1CN(C[C@@H](C)N1)C1=C(F)C(N)=C2C(=O)C(=CN(C3CC3)C2=C1F)C(O)=O
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as quinoline carboxylic acids. These are quinolines in which the quinoline ring system is substituted by a carboxyl group at one or more positions.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassQuinolines and derivatives
Sub ClassQuinoline carboxylic acids
Direct ParentQuinoline carboxylic acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Quinoline-3-carboxylic acid
  • N-arylpiperazine
  • Fluoroquinolone
  • Dihydroquinolone
  • Aminoquinoline
  • Dihydroquinoline
  • Pyridine carboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Pyridine carboxylic acid
  • Dialkylarylamine
  • Fluorobenzene
  • Benzenoid
  • Pyridine
  • Primary aromatic amine
  • Piperazine
  • 1,4-diazinane
  • Aryl halide
  • Aryl fluoride
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Vinylogous amide
  • Tertiary amine
  • Azacycle
  • Secondary amine
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Secondary aliphatic amine
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organofluoride
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the treatment of adults with the following infections caused by susceptible strains microorganisms: community-acquired pneumonia (caused by Chlamydia pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, or Streptococcus pneumoniae) and acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (caused by Chlamydia pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Staphylococcus aureus, or Streptococcus pneumoniae).
PharmacodynamicsSparfloxacin is a synthetic fluoroquinolone broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent in the same class as ofloxacin and norfloxacin. Sparfloxacin has in vitro activity against a wide range of gram-negative and gram-positive microorganisms. Sparfloxacin exerts its antibacterial activity by inhibiting DNA gyrase, a bacterial topoisomerase. DNA gyrase is an essential enzyme which controls DNA topology and assists in DNA replication, repair, deactivation, and transcription. Quinolones differ in chemical structure and mode of action from (beta)-lactam antibiotics. Quinolones may, therefore, be active against bacteria resistant to (beta)-lactam antibiotics. Although cross-resistance has been observed between sparfloxacin and other fluoroquinolones, some microorganisms resistant to other fluoroquinolones may be susceptible to sparfloxacin. In vitro tests show that the combination of sparfloxacin and rifampin is antagonistic against Staphylococcus aureus.
Mechanism of actionThe bactericidal action of sparfloxacin results from inhibition of the enzymes topoisomerase II (DNA gyrase) and topoisomerase IV, which are required for bacterial DNA replication, transcription, repair, and recombination.
Related Articles
AbsorptionWell absorbed following oral administration with an absolute oral bioavailability of 92%. Unaffected by administration with milk or food, however concurrent administration of antacids containing magnesium hydroxide and aluminum hydroxide reduces the oral bioavailability of sparfloxacin by as much as 50%.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingLow plasma protein binding in serum at about 45%.
Metabolism

Hepatic. Metabolized primarily by phase II glucuronidation to form a glucuronide conjugate. Metabolism does not utilize or interfere with the cytochrome P450 enzyme system.

Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeMean terminal elimination half-life of 20 hours (range 16-30 hours). Prolonged in patients with renal impairment (creatinine clearance <50 mL/min).
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicitySingle doses of sparfloxacin were relatively non-toxic via the oral route of administration in mice, rats, and dogs. No deaths occurred within a 14-day post-treatment observation period at the highest oral doses tested, up to 5000 mg/kg in either rodent species, or up to 600 mg/kg in the dog. Clinical signs observed included inactivity in mice and dogs, diarrhea in both rodent species, and vomiting, salivation, and tremors in dogs.
Affected organisms
  • Enteric bacteria and other eubacteria
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9845
Blood Brain Barrier-0.967
Caco-2 permeable+0.8866
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.8118
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9345
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9183
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8154
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8794
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8787
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6465
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.82
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.84
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.89
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8339
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.85
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.7377
Ames testAMES toxic0.6341
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8044
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable1.0
Rat acute toxicity1.9265 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.967
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.7961
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
PackagersNot Available
Dosage formsNot Available
PricesNot Available
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US4795751 No1993-02-042010-02-04Us
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubilityPractically insolubleNot Available
logP2.5Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.113 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.07ALOGPS
logP-0.043ChemAxon
logS-3.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)5.75ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)8.79ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count7ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area98.9 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity101.69 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability38.98 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Guillaume Conrath, “Solution of sparfloxacin, its preparation and salt of which it is composed.” U.S. Patent US5478829, issued May, 1987.

US5478829
General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesJ01MA09
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (13.3 KB)
MSDSNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AcetaminophenThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Acetaminophen.
AcetyldigitoxinAcetyldigitoxin may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Sparfloxacin.
AfatinibThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Afatinib.
AlbendazoleThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Albendazole.
AldosteroneThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Aldosterone.
AlectinibThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Alectinib.
AlfentanilThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Alfentanil.
AmantadineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
Aminohippuric acidThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Aminohippuric acid.
AmiodaroneThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Amiodarone.
AmitriptylineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Amitriptyline.
AmlodipineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Amlodipine.
AmprenavirThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Amprenavir.
AmsacrineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Amsacrine.
AstemizoleThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Astemizole.
AtazanavirThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Atazanavir.
AtenololThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Atenolol.
AtorvastatinThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Atorvastatin.
AzelastineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Azelastine.
AzithromycinThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Azithromycin.
BenzocaineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Benzocaine.
BepridilThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Bepridil.
BevacizumabBevacizumab may increase the cardiotoxic activities of Sparfloxacin.
BiperidenThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Biperiden.
BosutinibThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Bosutinib.
BromocriptineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Bromocriptine.
BuprenorphineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Buprenorphine.
BuspironeThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Buspirone.
CabazitaxelThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Cabazitaxel.
CaffeineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.
CanagliflozinThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Canagliflozin.
CandesartanThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Candesartan.
CaptoprilThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Captopril.
CarbamazepineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Carbamazepine.
CarvedilolThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Carvedilol.
CaspofunginThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Caspofungin.
ChloroquineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Chloroquine.
ChlorpromazineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Chlorpromazine.
ChlorpropamideThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Chlorpropamide.
ChlorprothixeneThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Chlorprothixene.
CholesterolThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Cholesterol.
Cholic AcidThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Cholic Acid.
CilazaprilThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Cilazapril.
CimetidineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Cimetidine.
CiprofloxacinThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Ciprofloxacin.
CitalopramThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Citalopram.
ClarithromycinThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Clarithromycin.
ClofazimineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Clofazimine.
ClomipramineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Clomipramine.
ClotrimazoleThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Clotrimazole.
CobicistatThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Cobicistat.
ColchicineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Colchicine.
ColforsinThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Colforsin.
CrizotinibThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Crizotinib.
CyclophosphamideCyclophosphamide may increase the cardiotoxic activities of Sparfloxacin.
CyclosporineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Cyclosporine.
DaclatasvirThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Daclatasvir.
DactinomycinThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Dactinomycin.
DasatinibThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Dasatinib.
DaunorubicinThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.
DesipramineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Desipramine.
DeslanosideDeslanoside may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Sparfloxacin.
DesloratadineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Desloratadine.
DexamethasoneThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Dexamethasone.
DextromethorphanThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Dextromethorphan.
DiclofenacThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Diclofenac.
DigitoxinDigitoxin may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Sparfloxacin.
DigoxinDigoxin may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Sparfloxacin.
DihydroergotamineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Dihydroergotamine.
DiltiazemThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Diltiazem.
DipyridamoleThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Dipyridamole.
DocetaxelThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Docetaxel is combined with Sparfloxacin.
DoxazosinThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Doxazosin.
DoxepinThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Doxepin.
DoxorubicinThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
DronabinolThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Dronabinol.
DronedaroneThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Dronedarone.
ElbasvirThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Elbasvir.
EnalaprilThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Enalapril.
EnzalutamideThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Enzalutamide.
ErgonovineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Ergonovine.
ErgotamineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Ergotamine.
ErythromycinThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Erythromycin.
EstramustineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Estramustine.
EstriolThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Estriol.
EstroneThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Estrone.
EtoposideThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
EtravirineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Etravirine.
FelodipineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Felodipine.
FentanylThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Fentanyl.
FexofenadineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Fexofenadine.
FidaxomicinThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Fidaxomicin.
FluconazoleThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Fluconazole.
FluoxetineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Fluoxetine.
FlupentixolThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Flupentixol.
FluphenazineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Fluphenazine.
FlurazepamThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Flurazepam.
FluvoxamineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Fluvoxamine.
GefitinibThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Gefitinib.
GenisteinThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Genistein.
GlyburideThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Glyburide.
GlycerolThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Glycerol.
Gramicidin DThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
GrepafloxacinThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Grepafloxacin.
HaloperidolThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Haloperidol.
HydrocortisoneThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Hydrocortisone.
IdelalisibThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Idelalisib.
ImatinibThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Imatinib.
ImipramineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Imipramine.
IndinavirThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Indinavir.
IndomethacinThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Indomethacin.
IsavuconazoniumThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Isavuconazonium.
ItraconazoleThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Itraconazole.
IvacaftorThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Ivacaftor.
IvermectinThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Ivermectin.
KetamineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Ketamine.
KetoconazoleThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Ketoconazole.
LansoprazoleThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Lansoprazole.
LapatinibThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Lapatinib.
LevofloxacinThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Levofloxacin.
LevothyroxineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Levothyroxine.
LidocaineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Lidocaine.
LiothyronineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Liothyronine.
LiotrixThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Liotrix.
LisinoprilThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Lisinopril.
LomitapideThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Lomitapide.
LoperamideThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Loperamide.
LopinavirThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Lopinavir.
LoratadineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Loratadine.
LosartanThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Losartan.
LovastatinThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Lovastatin.
LumacaftorThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Lumacaftor.
MaprotilineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Maprotiline.
MebendazoleThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Mebendazole.
MefloquineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Mefloquine.
Megestrol acetateThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Megestrol acetate.
MeprobamateThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Meprobamate.
MethadoneThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Methadone.
MetoprololThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Metoprolol.
MibefradilThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Mibefradil.
MiconazoleThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Miconazole.
MidazolamThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Midazolam.
MifepristoneThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Mifepristone.
MitomycinThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Mitomycin.
MitoxantroneThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.
MorphineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Morphine.
NaltrexoneThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Naltrexone.
NaringeninThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Naringenin.
NefazodoneThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Nefazodone.
NelfinavirThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Nelfinavir.
NeostigmineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Neostigmine.
NicardipineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Nicardipine.
NifedipineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Nifedipine.
NilotinibThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Nilotinib.
NisoldipineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Nisoldipine.
NitrazepamThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Nitrazepam.
NitrendipineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Nitrendipine.
NorethisteroneThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Norethisterone.
OmeprazoleThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Omeprazole.
OuabainOuabain may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Sparfloxacin.
P-NitrophenolThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with P-Nitrophenol.
PaclitaxelThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Paclitaxel.
Palmitic AcidThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Palmitic Acid.
PantoprazoleThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Pantoprazole.
ParoxetineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Paroxetine.
PerindoprilThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.
PhenobarbitalThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.
Picosulfuric acidThe therapeutic efficacy of Picosulfuric acid can be decreased when used in combination with Sparfloxacin.
PimozideThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Pimozide.
Platelet Activating FactorThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Platelet Activating Factor.
PonatinibThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Ponatinib.
PosaconazoleThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Posaconazole.
PravastatinThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Pravastatin.
PrazosinThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Prazosin.
PrednisoneThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Prednisone.
ProbenecidThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Probenecid.
ProgesteroneThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Progesterone.
PromethazineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Promethazine.
PropafenoneThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Propafenone.
PropranololThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Propranolol.
ProtriptylineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Protriptyline.
QuercetinThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Quercetin.
QuinacrineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Quinacrine.
QuinidineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Quinidine.
QuinineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Quinine.
RanitidineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Ranitidine.
RanolazineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Ranolazine.
ReboxetineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Reboxetine.
RegorafenibThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Regorafenib.
ReserpineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Reserpine.
RifampicinThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Rifampicin.
RilpivirineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Rilpivirine.
RitonavirThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
RolapitantThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Rolapitant.
SaquinavirThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
ScopolamineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Scopolamine.
SelegilineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Selegiline.
SertralineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Sertraline.
SimeprevirThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Simeprevir.
SimvastatinThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Simvastatin.
SirolimusThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Sirolimus.
SorafenibThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Sorafenib.
SpironolactoneThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Spironolactone.
St. John's WortThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with St. John&#39;s Wort.
StaurosporineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Staurosporine.
StreptozocinThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Streptozocin.
SulfinpyrazoneThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Sulfinpyrazone.
SumatriptanThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Sumatriptan.
SunitinibThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Sunitinib.
TacrineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Tacrine.
TacrolimusThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Tacrolimus.
TamoxifenThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Tamoxifen.
Taurocholic AcidThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Taurocholic Acid.
TelmisartanThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Telmisartan.
TemsirolimusThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Temsirolimus.
TerazosinThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Terazosin.
TerfenadineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Terfenadine.
TesmilifeneThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Tesmilifene.
TestosteroneThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Testosterone.
TicagrelorThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Ticagrelor.
TolvaptanThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Tolvaptan.
TrastuzumabTrastuzumab may increase the cardiotoxic activities of Sparfloxacin.
TrazodoneThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Trazodone.
TrifluoperazineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Trifluoperazine.
TriflupromazineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Triflupromazine.
TrimethoprimThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Trimethoprim.
TrimipramineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Trimipramine.
TroleandomycinThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Troleandomycin.
VenlafaxineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Venlafaxine.
VerapamilThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Verapamil.
VinblastineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Vinblastine.
VincristineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Vincristine.
VinorelbineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Vinorelbine.
ZimelidineThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Zimelidine.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Haemophilus influenzae (strain ATCC 51907 / DSM 11121 / KW20 / Rd)
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Dna topoisomerase type ii (atp-hydrolyzing) activity
Specific Function:
DNA gyrase negatively supercoils closed circular double-stranded DNA in an ATP-dependent manner and also catalyzes the interconversion of other topological isomers of double-stranded DNA rings, including catenanes and knotted rings.
Gene Name:
gyrA
Uniprot ID:
P43700
Molecular Weight:
97817.145 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Schmitz FJ, Hofmann B, Hansen B, Scheuring S, Luckefahr M, Klootwijk M, Verhoef J, Fluit A, Heinz HP, Kohrer K, Jones ME: Relationship between ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, sparfloxacin and moxifloxacin (BAY 12-8039) MICs and mutations in grlA, grlB, gyrA and gyrB in 116 unrelated clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1998 Apr;41(4):481-4. [PubMed:9598779 ]
  4. Taba H, Kusano N: Sparfloxacin resistance in clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae: involvement of multiple mutations in gyrA and parC genes. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1998 Sep;42(9):2193-6. [PubMed:9736534 ]
  5. Fukuda H, Hori S, Hiramatsu K: Antibacterial activity of gatifloxacin (AM-1155, CG5501, BMS-206584), a newly developed fluoroquinolone, against sequentially acquired quinolone-resistant mutants and the norA transformant of Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1998 Aug;42(8):1917-22. [PubMed:9687384 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Haemophilus influenzae (strain ATCC 51907 / DSM 11121 / KW20 / Rd)
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Dna topoisomerase type ii (atp-hydrolyzing) activity
Specific Function:
Topoisomerase IV is essential for chromosome segregation. It relaxes supercoiled DNA. Performs the decatenation events required during the replication of a circular DNA molecule.
Gene Name:
parC
Uniprot ID:
P43702
Molecular Weight:
83366.24 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Galbraith KM, Ng AC, Eggers BJ, Kuchel CR, Eggers CH, Samuels DS: parC mutations in fluoroquinolone-resistant Borrelia burgdorferi. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005 Oct;49(10):4354-7. [PubMed:16189120 ]
  4. Oyamada Y, Ito H, Fujimoto K, Asada R, Niga T, Okamoto R, Inoue M, Yamagishi J: Combination of known and unknown mechanisms confers high-level resistance to fluoroquinolones in Enterococcus faecium. J Med Microbiol. 2006 Jun;55(Pt 6):729-36. [PubMed:16687591 ]
  5. Pan XS, Yague G, Fisher LM: Quinolone resistance mutations in Streptococcus pneumoniae GyrA and ParC proteins: mechanistic insights into quinolone action from enzymatic analysis, intracellular levels, and phenotypes of wild-type and mutant proteins. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2001 Nov;45(11):3140-7. [PubMed:11600369 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Ubiquitin binding
Specific Function:
Control of topological states of DNA by transient breakage and subsequent rejoining of DNA strands. Topoisomerase II makes double-strand breaks. Essential during mitosis and meiosis for proper segregation of daughter chromosomes. May play a role in regulating the period length of ARNTL/BMAL1 transcriptional oscillation (By similarity).
Gene Name:
TOP2A
Uniprot ID:
P11388
Molecular Weight:
174383.88 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Symporter activity
Specific Function:
Sodium-ion dependent, high affinity carnitine transporter. Involved in the active cellular uptake of carnitine. Transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cations such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) without the involvement of sodium. Also relative uptake activity ratio of carnitine to TEA is 11.3.
Gene Name:
SLC22A5
Uniprot ID:
O76082
Molecular Weight:
62751.08 Da
References
  1. Ohashi R, Tamai I, Yabuuchi H, Nezu JI, Oku A, Sai Y, Shimane M, Tsuji A: Na(+)-dependent carnitine transport by organic cation transporter (OCTN2): its pharmacological and toxicological relevance. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Nov;291(2):778-84. [PubMed:10525100 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates hepatobiliary excretion of numerous organic anions. May function as a cellular cisplatin transporter.
Gene Name:
ABCC2
Uniprot ID:
Q92887
Molecular Weight:
174205.64 Da
References
  1. Sasabe H, Tsuji A, Sugiyama Y: Carrier-mediated mechanism for the biliary excretion of the quinolone antibiotic grepafloxacin and its glucuronide in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998 Mar;284(3):1033-9. [PubMed:9495864 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular Weight:
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Naruhashi K, Tamai I, Inoue N, Muraoka H, Sai Y, Suzuki N, Tsuji A: Active intestinal secretion of new quinolone antimicrobials and the partial contribution of P-glycoprotein. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2001 May;53(5):699-709. [PubMed:11370709 ]
  2. Cormet-Boyaka E, Huneau JF, Mordrelle A, Boyaka PN, Carbon C, Rubinstein E, Tome D: Secretion of sparfloxacin from the human intestinal Caco-2 cell line is altered by P-glycoprotein inhibitors. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1998 Oct;42(10):2607-11. [PubMed:9756763 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23