You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on DrugBank.
Identification
NameSitagliptin
Accession NumberDB01261  (DB07214)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Investigational
Description

Sitagliptin is a new oral hypoglycemic (anti-diabetic drug) of the new dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor class of drugs. This enzyme-inhibiting drug is to be used either alone or in combination with metformin or a thiazolidinedione for control of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The drug works to competitively inhibit a protein/enzyme, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4), that results in an increased amount of active incretins (GLP-1 and GIP), reduced amount of release of glucagon (diminishes its release) and increased release of insulin.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
(2R)-4-OXO-4-[3-(trifluoromethyl)-5,6-dihydro[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyrazin-7(8H)-yl]-1-(2,4,5-trifluorophenyl)butan-2-amine
MK-0431
Sitagliptan
Sitagliptin phosphate
Sitagliptina
Sitagliptine
Sitagliptinum
External Identifiers
  • MK-0431
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Januviatablet, film coated100 mg/1oralCardinal Health2006-10-16Not applicableUs
Januviatablet, film coated50 mg/1oralMerck Sharp & Dohme Corp.2006-10-16Not applicableUs
Januviatablet50 mgoralMerck Canada Inc2012-09-17Not applicableCanada
Januviatablet25 mgoralMerck Canada Inc2012-09-17Not applicableCanada
Januviatablet, film coated50 mg/1oralCardinal Health2006-10-16Not applicableUs
Januviatablet100 mgoralMerck Canada Inc2008-01-02Not applicableCanada
Januviatablet, film coated50 mg/1oralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2009-05-06Not applicableUs
Januviatablet, film coated100 mg/1oralClinical Solutions Wholesale2006-10-16Not applicableUs
Januviatablet, film coated100 mg/1oralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2007-12-13Not applicableUs
Januviatablet, film coated50 mg/1oralCardinal Health2006-10-16Not applicableUs
Januviatablet, film coated100 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2014-03-03Not applicableUs
Januviatablet, film coated100 mg/1oralCardinal Health2006-10-16Not applicableUs
Januviatablet, film coated100 mg/1oralLake Erie Medical & Surgical Supply DBA Quality Care Products LLC2012-03-09Not applicableUs
Januviatablet, film coated100 mg/1oralCardinal Health2006-10-16Not applicableUs
Januviatablet, film coated100 mg/1oralMerck Sharp & Dohme Corp.2006-10-16Not applicableUs
Januviatablet, film coated50 mg/1oralCardinal Health2006-10-16Not applicableUs
Januviatablet, film coated25 mg/1oralMerck Sharp & Dohme Corp.2006-10-16Not applicableUs
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
XeleviaNot Available
Brand mixtures
NameLabellerIngredients
JanumetMerck Sharp & Dohme Corp.
Janumet XRMerck Sharp & Dohme Corp.
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNIIQFP0P1DV7Z
CAS number486460-32-6
WeightAverage: 407.3136
Monoisotopic: 407.118079357
Chemical FormulaC16H15F6N5O
InChI KeyInChIKey=MFFMDFFZMYYVKS-SECBINFHSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C16H15F6N5O/c17-10-6-12(19)11(18)4-8(10)3-9(23)5-14(28)26-1-2-27-13(7-26)24-25-15(27)16(20,21)22/h4,6,9H,1-3,5,7,23H2/t9-/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
(3R)-3-amino-1-[3-(trifluoromethyl)-5H,6H,7H,8H-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyrazin-7-yl]-4-(2,4,5-trifluorophenyl)butan-1-one
SMILES
N[C@@H](CC(=O)N1CCN2C(C1)=NN=C2C(F)(F)F)CC1=CC(F)=C(F)C=C1F
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as beta amino acids and derivatives. These are amino acids having a (-NH2) group attached to the beta carbon atom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentBeta amino acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Beta amino acid or derivatives
  • Amphetamine or derivatives
  • Triazolopyrazine
  • Aralkylamine
  • Halobenzene
  • Fluorobenzene
  • Benzenoid
  • Pyrazine
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Aryl halide
  • Aryl fluoride
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • 1,2,4-triazole
  • Triazole
  • Tertiary carboxylic acid amide
  • Azole
  • Tertiary amine
  • Carboxamide group
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organofluoride
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Alkyl halide
  • Alkyl fluoride
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor use as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Also for use in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus to improve glycemic control in combination with metformin or a PPARγ agonist (e.g., thiazolidinediones) when the single agent alone, with diet and exercise, does not provide adequate glycemic control.
PharmacodynamicsSitagliptin is an orally-active member of the new dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor class of drugs. The benefit of this medicine is expected to be its lower side-effects of hypoglycemia in the control of blood glucose values. The drug works to diminish the effects of a protein/enzyme (by the inhibition of this protein/enzyme) on the pancreas at the level of release of glucagon (diminishes its release) and at the level of insulin (increases its synthesis and release) until blood glucose levels are restored toward normal, in which case the protein/enzyme-enzyme inhibitor becomes less effective and the amounts of insulin released diminishes thus diminishing the "overshoot" of hypoglycemia seen in other oral hypoglycemic agents.
Mechanism of actionSitagliptin is a highly selective DPP-4 inhibitor, which is believed to exert its actions in patients with type 2 diabetes by slowing the inactivation of incretin hormones, thereby increasing the concentration and prolonging the action of these hormones. Incretin hormones, including glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), are released by the intestine throughout the day, and levels are increased in response to a meal. These hormones are rapidly inactivated by the enzyme, DPP-4. The incretins are part of an endogenous system involved in the physiologic regulation of glucose homeostasis. When blood glucose concentrations are normal or elevated, GLP-1 and GIP increase insulin synthesis and release from pancreatic beta cells by intracellular signaling pathways involving cyclic AMP. GLP-1 also lowers glucagon secretion from pancreatic alpha cells, leading to reduced hepatic glucose production. By increasing and prolonging active incretin levels, sitagliptin increases insulin release and decreases glucagon levels in the circulation in a glucose-dependent manner. These changes lead to a decrease in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c)levels, as well as a lower fasting and postprandial glucose concentration. Sitagliptin demonstrates selectivity for DPP-4 and does not inhibit DPP-8 or DPP-9 activity in vitro at concentrations approximating those from therapeutic doses.
Related Articles
AbsorptionRapidly absorbed following oral administration, with an absolute bioavailability of 87%.
Volume of distribution
  • 198 L [healthy subjects]
Protein bindingThe fraction of sitagliptin reversibly bound to plasma proteins is low (38%).
Metabolism

Sitagliptin does not undergo extensive metabolism. In vitro studies indicate that the primary enzyme responsible for the limited metabolism of sitagliptin was CYP3A4 (oxidation), with contribution from CYP2C8.

Route of eliminationApproximately 79% of sitagliptin is excreted unchanged in the urine with metabolism being a minor pathway of elimination. Following administration of an oral [14C]sitagliptin dose to healthy subjects, approximately 100% of the administered radioactivity was eliminated in feces (13%) or urine (87%) within one week of dosing. Elimination of sitagliptin occurs primarily via renal excretion and involves active tubular secretion.
Half life12.4 hours
Clearance
  • renal cl=350 mL/min [Healthy subjects receiving 100 mg oral dose]
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+1.0
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9438
Caco-2 permeable-0.6415
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.6509
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.7141
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.5248
Renal organic cation transporterInhibitor0.592
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.9277
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.7228
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.6412
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.7178
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorInhibitor0.6111
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.538
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorInhibitor0.7048
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorInhibitor0.5358
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8336
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.5487
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.7973
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable1.0
Rat acute toxicity2.8093 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.7076
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.6936
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Tabletoral
Tablet, film coatedoral
Tablet (extended-release)oral
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseoral
Tabletoral100 mg
Tabletoral25 mg
Tabletoral50 mg
Tablet, film coatedoral100 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedoral25 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedoral50 mg/1
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Januvia 90 25 mg tablet Bottle686.36USD bottle
Januvia 30 100 mg tablet Bottle228.81USD bottle
Januvia 50 mg tablet7.48USD tablet
Januvia 100 mg tablet7.33USD tablet
Januvia 25 mg tablet7.33USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
CA2450740 No2006-02-142022-07-05Canada
CA2536251 No2009-08-042024-08-27Canada
US6303661 No1997-04-242017-04-24Us
US6340475 No1996-09-192016-09-19Us
US6635280 No1996-09-192016-09-19Us
US6699871 No2002-07-262022-07-26Us
US6890898 No1999-02-022019-02-02Us
US7078381 No1999-02-022019-02-02Us
US7125873 No2002-07-262022-07-26Us
US7326708 No2006-04-112026-04-11Us
US7459428 No1999-02-022019-02-02Us
US8168637 No2002-06-262022-06-26Us
US8414921 No2008-07-212028-07-21Us
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP1.5Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.034 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1.95ALOGPS
logP1.26ChemAxon
logS-4.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)8.78ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area77.04 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity87.49 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability32.66 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Nurit Perlman, Marina Etinger, Valerie Niddam-Hildesheim, Mili Abramov, “Preparation of sitagliptin intermediate.” U.S. Patent US20090192326, issued July 30, 2009.

US20090192326
General References
  1. Herman GA, Stevens C, Van Dyck K, Bergman A, Yi B, De Smet M, Snyder K, Hilliard D, Tanen M, Tanaka W, Wang AQ, Zeng W, Musson D, Winchell G, Davies MJ, Ramael S, Gottesdiener KM, Wagner JA: Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of sitagliptin, an inhibitor of dipeptidyl peptidase IV, in healthy subjects: results from two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies with single oral doses. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2005 Dec;78(6):675-88. [PubMed:16338283 ]
  2. Herman GA, Bergman A, Liu F, Stevens C, Wang AQ, Zeng W, Chen L, Snyder K, Hilliard D, Tanen M, Tanaka W, Meehan AG, Lasseter K, Dilzer S, Blum R, Wagner JA: Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic effects of the oral DPP-4 inhibitor sitagliptin in middle-aged obese subjects. J Clin Pharmacol. 2006 Aug;46(8):876-86. [PubMed:16855072 ]
  3. Karasik A, Aschner P, Katzeff H, Davies MJ, Stein PP: Sitagliptin, a DPP-4 inhibitor for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes: a review of recent clinical trials. Curr Med Res Opin. 2008 Feb;24(2):489-96. doi: 10.1185/030079908X261069 . [PubMed:18182122 ]
  4. Pratley RE, Salsali A: Inhibition of DPP-4: a new therapeutic approach for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Curr Med Res Opin. 2007 Apr;23(4):919-31. [PubMed:17407649 ]
  5. Bergman A, Ebel D, Liu F, Stone J, Wang A, Zeng W, Chen L, Dilzer S, Lasseter K, Herman G, Wagner J, Krishna R: Absolute bioavailability of sitagliptin, an oral dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, in healthy volunteers. Biopharm Drug Dispos. 2007 Sep;28(6):315-22. [PubMed:17575559 ]
  6. Richter B, Bandeira-Echtler E, Bergerhoff K, Lerch C: Emerging role of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors in the management of type 2 diabetes. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2008;4(4):753-68. [PubMed:19065993 ]
External Links
ATC CodesA10BD07A10BD12A10BH01A10BH51
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
Acetylsalicylic acidAcetylsalicylic acid may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sitagliptin.
BenazeprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sitagliptin is combined with Benazepril.
CaptoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sitagliptin is combined with Captopril.
ChlorpropamideSitagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Chlorpropamide.
CilazaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sitagliptin is combined with Cilazapril.
DigoxinThe serum concentration of Digoxin can be increased when it is combined with Sitagliptin.
DihydrotestosteroneDihydrotestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sitagliptin.
EnalaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sitagliptin is combined with Enalapril.
EnalaprilatThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sitagliptin is combined with Enalaprilat.
FosinoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sitagliptin is combined with Fosinopril.
GliclazideSitagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Gliclazide.
GlimepirideSitagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Glimepiride.
GlipizideSitagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Glipizide.
GlyburideSitagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Glyburide.
Insulin AspartSitagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Aspart.
Insulin DegludecSitagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin degludec.
Insulin DetemirSitagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Detemir.
Insulin GlargineSitagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Glargine.
Insulin GlulisineSitagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Glulisine.
Insulin HumanSitagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
Insulin LisproSitagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Lispro.
LeuprolideThe therapeutic efficacy of Sitagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Leuprolide.
Lipoic AcidLipoic Acid may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sitagliptin.
LisinoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sitagliptin is combined with Lisinopril.
LumacaftorThe serum concentration of Sitagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Lumacaftor.
MoexiprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sitagliptin is combined with Moexipril.
OxandroloneOxandrolone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sitagliptin.
ParoxetineParoxetine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sitagliptin.
PegvisomantPegvisomant may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sitagliptin.
PerindoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sitagliptin is combined with Perindopril.
PhenelzinePhenelzine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sitagliptin.
QuinaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sitagliptin is combined with Quinapril.
RamiprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sitagliptin is combined with Ramipril.
RanolazineThe serum concentration of Sitagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Ranolazine.
SaquinavirThe serum concentration of Sitagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
SparfloxacinSparfloxacin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sitagliptin.
TesmilifeneThe serum concentration of Sitagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Tesmilifene.
TestosteroneTestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sitagliptin.
TolazamideSitagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Tolazamide.
TolbutamideSitagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Tolbutamide.
TrandolaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sitagliptin is combined with Trandolapril.
TranylcypromineTranylcypromine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sitagliptin.
TrichlormethiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Sitagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Trichlormethiazide.
VerapamilThe serum concentration of Sitagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.
Food Interactions
  • Can be administered without regard to food

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Virus receptor activity
Specific Function:
Cell surface glycoprotein receptor involved in the costimulatory signal essential for T-cell receptor (TCR)-mediated T-cell activation. Acts as a positive regulator of T-cell coactivation, by binding at least ADA, CAV1, IGF2R, and PTPRC. Its binding to CAV1 and CARD11 induces T-cell proliferation and NF-kappa-B activation in a T-cell receptor/CD3-dependent manner. Its interaction with ADA also ...
Gene Name:
DPP4
Uniprot ID:
P27487
Molecular Weight:
88277.935 Da
References
  1. Herman GA, Stevens C, Van Dyck K, Bergman A, Yi B, De Smet M, Snyder K, Hilliard D, Tanen M, Tanaka W, Wang AQ, Zeng W, Musson D, Winchell G, Davies MJ, Ramael S, Gottesdiener KM, Wagner JA: Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of sitagliptin, an inhibitor of dipeptidyl peptidase IV, in healthy subjects: results from two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies with single oral doses. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2005 Dec;78(6):675-88. [PubMed:16338283 ]
  2. Bergman AJ, Stevens C, Zhou Y, Yi B, Laethem M, De Smet M, Snyder K, Hilliard D, Tanaka W, Zeng W, Tanen M, Wang AQ, Chen L, Winchell G, Davies MJ, Ramael S, Wagner JA, Herman GA: Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of multiple oral doses of sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitor: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study in healthy male volunteers. Clin Ther. 2006 Jan;28(1):55-72. [PubMed:16490580 ]
  3. Gallwitz B: Therapies for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus based on incretin action. Minerva Endocrinol. 2006 Jun;31(2):133-47. [PubMed:16682937 ]
  4. Herman GA, Bergman A, Liu F, Stevens C, Wang AQ, Zeng W, Chen L, Snyder K, Hilliard D, Tanen M, Tanaka W, Meehan AG, Lasseter K, Dilzer S, Blum R, Wagner JA: Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic effects of the oral DPP-4 inhibitor sitagliptin in middle-aged obese subjects. J Clin Pharmacol. 2006 Aug;46(8):876-86. [PubMed:16855072 ]
  5. Miller S, St Onge EL: Sitagliptin: a dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Ann Pharmacother. 2006 Jul-Aug;40(7-8):1336-43. [PubMed:16868220 ]
  6. Karasik A, Aschner P, Katzeff H, Davies MJ, Stein PP: Sitagliptin, a DPP-4 inhibitor for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes: a review of recent clinical trials. Curr Med Res Opin. 2008 Feb;24(2):489-96. doi: 10.1185/030079908X261069 . [PubMed:18182122 ]
  7. Pratley RE, Salsali A: Inhibition of DPP-4: a new therapeutic approach for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Curr Med Res Opin. 2007 Apr;23(4):919-31. [PubMed:17407649 ]
  8. Lyseng-Williamson KA: Sitagliptin. Drugs. 2007;67(4):587-97. [PubMed:17352516 ]
  9. Hermansen K, Kipnes M, Luo E, Fanurik D, Khatami H, Stein P: Efficacy and safety of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, sitagliptin, in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus inadequately controlled on glimepiride alone or on glimepiride and metformin. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2007 Sep;9(5):733-45. Epub 2007 Jun 26. [PubMed:17593236 ]
  10. Gallwitz B: Sitagliptin: Profile of a novel DPP-4 inhibitor for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Drugs Today (Barc). 2007 Jan;43(1):13-25. [PubMed:17315049 ]
  11. Richter B, Bandeira-Echtler E, Bergerhoff K, Lerch C: Emerging role of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors in the management of type 2 diabetes. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2008;4(4):753-68. [PubMed:19065993 ]
  12. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiot...
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Scheen AJ: Pharmacokinetics of dipeptidylpeptidase-4 inhibitors. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2010 Aug;12(8):648-58. doi: 10.1111/j.1463-1326.2010.01212.x. [PubMed:20590741 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. In the epoxidation of arachidonic acid it generates only 14,15- and 11,12-cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. It is the principal enzyme...
Gene Name:
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID:
P10632
Molecular Weight:
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Scheen AJ: Pharmacokinetics of dipeptidylpeptidase-4 inhibitors. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2010 Aug;12(8):648-58. doi: 10.1111/j.1463-1326.2010.01212.x. [PubMed:20590741 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular Weight:
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Scheen AJ: Pharmacokinetics of dipeptidylpeptidase-4 inhibitors. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2010 Aug;12(8):648-58. doi: 10.1111/j.1463-1326.2010.01212.x. [PubMed:20590741 ]
Comments
comments powered by Disqus
Drug created on May 16, 2007 11:36 / Updated on May 31, 2016 02:13