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Identification
NamePenbutolol
Accession NumberDB01359
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Investigational
DescriptionPenbutolol is a drug in the beta-blocker class used to treat hypertension. Penbutolol binds both beta-1 and beta-2 adrenergic receptors, rendering it a non-selective beta-blocker. Penbutolol can act as a partial agonist at beta adrenergic receptors, since it is a sympathomimetric drug. Penbutolol also demonstrates high binding affinity to the 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1A with antagonistic effects. This binding characteristic of penbutolol is being investigated for its implications in Antidepressant Therapy. Penbutolol is contraindicated in patients with cardiogenic shock, sinus bradycardia, second and third degree atrioventricular conduction block, bronchial asthma, and those with known hypersensitivity.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
(2S)-1-(tert-butylamino)-3-(2-cyclopentylphenoxy)propan-2-ol
1-(tert-Butylamino)-3-(o-cyclopentylphenoxy)propan-2-ol
2-Propanol, 1-(2-cyclopentylphenoxy)-3-((1,1-dimethylethyl)amino)-, (S)-
HOE 893
HOE 893D
Levatol
Penbutolol
Penbutololum
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
BetapressinHoechst Ltd.
LevatololNot Available
LobetaSanofi-Aventis
Brand mixturesNot Available
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Penbutolol sulfate
Thumb
  • InChI Key: KTXVDQNRHZQBOR-RSAXXLAASA-N
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 389.187208419
  • Average Mass: 389.507
DBSALT000137
Categories
UNII78W62V43DY
CAS number38363-40-5
WeightAverage: 291.4284
Monoisotopic: 291.219829177
Chemical FormulaC18H29NO2
InChI KeyInChIKey=KQXKVJAGOJTNJS-HNNXBMFYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C18H29NO2/c1-18(2,3)19-12-15(20)13-21-17-11-7-6-10-16(17)14-8-4-5-9-14/h6-7,10-11,14-15,19-20H,4-5,8-9,12-13H2,1-3H3/t15-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(2S)-1-(tert-butylamino)-3-(2-cyclopentylphenoxy)propan-2-ol
SMILES
CC(C)(C)NC[[email protected]](O)COC1=CC=CC=C1C1CCCC1
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenol ethers. These are aromatic compounds containing an ether group substituted with a benzene ring.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassPhenol ethers
Direct ParentPhenol ethers
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Phenol ether
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Secondary alcohol
  • 1,2-aminoalcohol
  • Secondary amine
  • Ether
  • Secondary aliphatic amine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Alcohol
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Pharmacology
IndicationPenbutolol is indicated in the treatment of mild to moderate arterial hypertension. It may be used alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents, especially thiazide-type diuretics.Penbutolol is contraindicated in patients with cardiogenic shock, sinus bradycardia, second and third degree atrioventricular conduction block, bronchial asthma, and those with known hypersensitivity.
PharmacodynamicsPenbutolol is a ß-1, ß-2 (nonselective) adrenergic receptor antagonist. Experimental studies showed a dose-dependent increase in heart rate in reserpinized (norepinephrine-depleted) rats given penbutolol intravenously at doses of 0.25 to 1.0 mg/kg, suggesting that penbutolol has some intrinsic sympathomimetic activity. In human studies, however, heart rate decreases have been similar to those seen with propranolol.
Mechanism of actionPenbutolol acts on the β1 adrenergic receptors in both the heart and the kidney. When β1 receptors are activated by catecholamines, they stimulate a coupled G protein that leads to the conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). The increase in cAMP leads to activation of protein kinase A (PKA), which alters the movement of calcium ions in heart muscle and increases the heart rate. Penbutolol blocks the catecholamine activation of β1 adrenergic receptors and decreases heart rate, which lowers blood pressure.
Related Articles
Absorption>90%.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein binding80-98% bound to plasma proteins. Extensively bound to Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1.
Metabolism

Metabolized in the liver by hydroxylation and glucuroconjugation forming a glucuronide metabolite and a semi-active 4-hydroxy metabolite.

Route of eliminationThe metabolites are excreted principally in the urine.
Half lifePlasma= approximately 5h Conjugated= approximately 20h in healthy persons, 25h in healthy elderly persons, and 100h in patients on renal dialysis.
Clearance

Approximately 90% of the metabolites are excreted in the urine.

ToxicitySymptoms of overdose include drowsiness, vertigo, headache, and atriventricular block.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Penbutolol Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00305
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9935
Blood Brain Barrier-0.747
Caco-2 permeable+0.5961
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.6827
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.7493
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.7789
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8696
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7898
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.8919
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6339
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.9107
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8899
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorInhibitor0.8932
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9026
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8309
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.7132
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8317
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8643
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9927
Rat acute toxicity2.3931 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9436
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.5704
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
  • Schwarz Pharma Inc.
Dosage formsNot Available
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Levatol 20 mg tablet2.87USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
boiling point438.2http://www.chemnet.com/cas/fr/38363-40-5/Penbutolol.html
logP4.15HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0212 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.84ALOGPS
logP3.55ChemAxon
logS-4.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)14.09ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.76ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area41.49 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count7ChemAxon
Refractivity86.6 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability34.58 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Download (49.2 KB)
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General References
  1. Maurer HH, Tenberken O, Kratzsch C, Weber AA, Peters FT: Screening for library-assisted identification and fully validated quantification of 22 beta-blockers in blood plasma by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization. J Chromatogr A. 2004 Nov 26;1058(1-2):169-81. [PubMed:15595665 ]
  2. Aguirre C, Rodriguez-Sasiain JM, Calvo R: Decrease in penbutolol protein binding as a consequence of treatment with some alkylating agents. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 1994;34(1):86-8. [PubMed:8174208 ]
  3. Hjorth S: (-)-Penbutolol as a blocker of central 5-HT1A receptor-mediated responses. Eur J Pharmacol. 1992 Nov 3;222(1):121-7. [PubMed:1468487 ]
  4. Pepe S, Scalici G, D'Angelo A, Curiale B, Corrao S, Agnello C: [Validity of the use of penbutolol in essential arterial hypertension]. Minerva Med. 1990 Jun;81(6):471-3. [PubMed:2359502 ]
  5. Frishman WH, Covey S: Penbutolol and carteolol: two new beta-adrenergic blockers with partial agonism. J Clin Pharmacol. 1990 May;30(5):412-21. [PubMed:2189902 ]
  6. Martinez Jorda R, Aguirre C, Calvo R, Rodriguez-Sasiain JM, Erill S: Decrease in penbutolol central response as a cause of changes in its serum protein binding. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1990 Mar;42(3):164-6. [PubMed:1974610 ]
External Links
ATC CodesC07CA23C07AA23
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (56.3 KB)
MSDSDownload (568 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
1,10-Phenanthroline1,10-Phenanthroline may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.
4-Methoxyamphetamine4-Methoxyamphetamine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.
7,8-DICHLORO-1,2,3,4-TETRAHYDROISOQUINOLINE7,8-DICHLORO-1,2,3,4-TETRAHYDROISOQUINOLINE may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
AcebutololAcebutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
AceclofenacAceclofenac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
AcepromazineAcepromazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
AcetazolamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acetazolamide is combined with Penbutolol.
AcetohexamidePenbutolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acetohexamide.
AcetylcholineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Acetylcholine.
AcetyldigitoxinPenbutolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Acetyldigitoxin.
Acetylsalicylic acidAcetylsalicylic acid may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
AdapaleneAdapalene may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
AgmatineAgmatine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.
AldesleukinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Penbutolol.
AlfuzosinAlfuzosin may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
AlfuzosinPenbutolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Alfuzosin.
AlimemazineAlimemazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
AliskirenPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Aliskiren.
AlprenololAlprenolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
AmbenoniumAmbenonium may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.
AmbrisentanPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Ambrisentan.
AmifostinePenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Amifostine.
AmilorideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amiloride is combined with Penbutolol.
AminophyllinePenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Aminophylline.
AmiodaroneAmiodarone may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.
AmlodipineAmlodipine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
AmobarbitalAmobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
AmodiaquineThe metabolism of Penbutolol can be decreased when combined with Amodiaquine.
AmoxapineThe serum concentration of Penbutolol can be increased when it is combined with Amoxapine.
Amyl NitriteThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Amyl Nitrite.
AntipyrineAntipyrine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
ApomorphineApomorphine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.
ApraclonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apraclonidine is combined with Penbutolol.
ApremilastApremilast may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
ArbutaminePenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Arbutamine.
ArecolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Arecoline.
ArformoterolPenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Arformoterol.
AripiprazoleAripiprazole may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
AtenololAtenolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
AzapropazoneAzapropazone may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
AzelastineAzelastine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
Azilsartan medoxomilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Azilsartan medoxomil.
BalsalazideBalsalazide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
BambuterolPenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Bambuterol.
BarbitalBarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
BenazeprilBenazepril may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
BendroflumethiazideBendroflumethiazide may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
BenmoxinBenmoxin may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
BenoxaprofenBenoxaprofen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
BenzphetamineBenzphetamine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.
BepridilBepridil may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
BeractantPenbutolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Beractant.
BetaxololBetaxolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
BethanecholThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Bethanechol.
BethanidineBethanidine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
BimatoprostBimatoprost may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
BisoprololBisoprolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
BosentanBosentan may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
BretyliumBretylium may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.
BretyliumPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Bretylium.
BrimonidinePenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Brimonidine.
BrimonidineBrimonidine may increase the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
BromfenacBromfenac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
BromocriptinePenbutolol may increase the vasoconstricting activities of Bromocriptine.
BromocriptineBromocriptine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.
BumetanideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bumetanide is combined with Penbutolol.
BupivacaineThe serum concentration of Bupivacaine can be increased when it is combined with Penbutolol.
BupranololPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Bupranolol.
CabergolinePenbutolol may increase the vasoconstricting activities of Cabergoline.
CalfactantPenbutolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Calfactant.
CanagliflozinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Canagliflozin.
CandesartanCandesartan may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
CandoxatrilCandoxatril may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
CaptoprilCaptopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
CarbacholThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Carbachol.
CaroxazoneCaroxazone may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
CarprofenCarprofen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
CarteololCarteolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
CarvedilolCarvedilol may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
CastanospermineCastanospermine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
CelecoxibCelecoxib may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
CeliprololCeliprolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
CeliprololPenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Celiprolol.
CeritinibPenbutolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Ceritinib.
CevimelineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Cevimeline.
ChloroquineChloroquine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
ChlorothiazideChlorothiazide may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
ChlorpromazineChlorpromazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
ChlorpropamidePenbutolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Chlorpropamide.
ChlorthalidoneChlorthalidone may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
CilazaprilCilazapril may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
ClenbuterolPenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Clenbuterol.
ClevidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Clevidipine.
ClomipramineThe serum concentration of Penbutolol can be increased when it is combined with Clomipramine.
ClonidineClonidine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
ClonixinClonixin may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
CoumaphosCoumaphos may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.
CrizotinibPenbutolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Crizotinib.
CryptenamineCryptenamine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
CyclothiazideCyclothiazide may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
D-LimoneneD-Limonene may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
DapagliflozinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Dapagliflozin.
DapoxetineThe serum concentration of Penbutolol can be increased when it is combined with Dapoxetine.
DebrisoquinPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Debrisoquin.
DecamethoniumDecamethonium may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.
DemecariumDemecarium may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.
DeserpidinePenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Deserpidine.
DeslanosidePenbutolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Deslanoside.
DexmedetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dexmedetomidine is combined with Penbutolol.
DiazoxideDiazoxide may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
DichlorvosDichlorvos may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.
DiclofenacDiclofenac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
DiclofenamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diclofenamide is combined with Penbutolol.
DiflunisalDiflunisal may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
DigitoxinPenbutolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Digitoxin.
DigoxinPenbutolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Digoxin.
DihydroergotaminePenbutolol may increase the vasoconstricting activities of Dihydroergotamine.
DihydroergotamineDihydroergotamine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.
DiltiazemDiltiazem may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
DinutuximabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Dinutuximab.
DipivefrinDipivefrin may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.
DipivefrinPenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Dipivefrin.
DipyridamoleDipyridamole may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.
DipyridamoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Dipyridamole.
DisopyramideDisopyramide may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.
DobutaminePenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Dobutamine.
DonepezilDonepezil may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.
DorzolamideDorzolamide may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
DoxazosinDoxazosin may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
DronedaronePenbutolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Dronedarone.
DroxicamDroxicam may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
DroxidopaDroxidopa may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.
DroxidopaPenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Droxidopa.
DuloxetinePenbutolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Duloxetine.
DyphyllinePenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Dyphylline.
EchothiophateEchothiophate may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.
EdrophoniumEdrophonium may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.
EfonidipinePenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Efonidipine.
EmpagliflozinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Empagliflozin.
EnalaprilEnalapril may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
EnalaprilatPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Enalaprilat.
EphedraEphedra may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.
EphedraPenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Ephedra.
EPIBATIDINEThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with EPIBATIDINE.
EpinephrineEpinephrine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.
EpinephrinePenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Epinephrine.
EpirizoleEpirizole may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
EplerenoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Eplerenone is combined with Penbutolol.
EpoprostenolEpoprostenol may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
EprosartanEprosartan may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
Ergoloid mesylatePenbutolol may increase the vasoconstricting activities of Ergoloid mesylate.
ErgonovinePenbutolol may increase the vasoconstricting activities of Ergonovine.
ErgotaminePenbutolol may increase the vasoconstricting activities of Ergotamine.
ErgotamineErgotamine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.
EsmololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Penbutolol.
Etacrynic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etacrynic acid is combined with Penbutolol.
EtanerceptEtanercept may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
EtodolacEtodolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
EtofenamateEtofenamate may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
EtomidateEtomidate may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.
EtoperidoneThe serum concentration of Penbutolol can be increased when it is combined with Etoperidone.
EtoricoxibEtoricoxib may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
Evening primrose oilEvening primrose oil may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
exisulindexisulind may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
FelodipineFelodipine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
FenbufenFenbufen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
FenfluramineThe serum concentration of Penbutolol can be increased when it is combined with Fenfluramine.
FenoldopamFenoldopam may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
FenoprofenFenoprofen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
FenoterolPenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Fenoterol.
FenthionFenthion may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.
FingolimodPenbutolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Fingolimod.
FloctafenineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Floctafenine is combined with Penbutolol.
FlunixinFlunixin may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
FluoxetineThe serum concentration of Penbutolol can be increased when it is combined with Fluoxetine.
FluphenazineFluphenazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
FlurbiprofenFlurbiprofen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
FormoterolPenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Formoterol.
FosinoprilFosinopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
FurazolidoneFurazolidone may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
FurosemideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Furosemide is combined with Penbutolol.
GalantamineGalantamine may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.
Gallamine TriethiodideGallamine Triethiodide may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.
Ginkgo bilobaGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.
GlibornuridePenbutolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Glibornuride.
GliclazidePenbutolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Gliclazide.
GlimepiridePenbutolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Glimepiride.
GlipizidePenbutolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Glipizide.
GliquidonePenbutolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Gliquidone.
GlisoxepidePenbutolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Glisoxepide.
GlyburidePenbutolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Glyburide.
GTS-21The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with GTS-21.
GuanabenzGuanabenz may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
GuanadrelGuanadrel may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
GuanethidineGuanethidine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
GuanfacineGuanfacine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
HexamethoniumPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.
HexobarbitalHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
HMPL-004HMPL-004 may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
Huperzine AHuperzine A may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.
HydracarbazineHydracarbazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
HydralazineHydralazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
HydrochlorothiazideHydrochlorothiazide may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
HydroflumethiazideHydroflumethiazide may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
HydroxychloroquineThe metabolism of Penbutolol can be decreased when combined with Hydroxychloroquine.
IbuprofenIbuprofen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
IbuproxamIbuproxam may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
IcatibantIcatibant may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
IloprostIloprost may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
IndacaterolPenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Indacaterol.
IndalpineThe serum concentration of Penbutolol can be increased when it is combined with Indalpine.
IndapamideIndapamide may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
IndenololPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Indenolol.
IndomethacinIndomethacin may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
IndoprofenIndoprofen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
IndoraminPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Indoramin.
Insulin PorkPenbutolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Pork.
IproclozideIproclozide may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
IproniazidIproniazid may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
IrbesartanIrbesartan may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
IsocarboxazidIsocarboxazid may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
IsoetarinePenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Isoetarine.
IsoflurophateIsoflurophate may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.
IsoprenalinePenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Isoprenaline.
Isosorbide DinitrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isosorbide Dinitrate is combined with Penbutolol.
Isosorbide MononitrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isosorbide Mononitrate is combined with Penbutolol.
IsoxicamIsoxicam may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
IsoxsuprineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Isoxsuprine.
IsradipineIsradipine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
IvabradinePenbutolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Ivabradine.
KebuzoneKebuzone may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
KetoprofenKetoprofen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
KetorolacKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
LabetalolLabetalol may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
LacidipinePenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Lacidipine.
LacosamidePenbutolol may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Lacosamide.
LanreotidePenbutolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Lanreotide.
LatanoprostLatanoprost may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
LeflunomideLeflunomide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
LercanidipineLercanidipine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
LevobunololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobunolol is combined with Penbutolol.
LevodopaPenbutolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
LevomilnacipranThe serum concentration of Penbutolol can be increased when it is combined with Levomilnacipran.
LidocaineThe serum concentration of Lidocaine can be increased when it is combined with Penbutolol.
LisinoprilLisinopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
LobelineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Lobeline.
LofexidinePenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Lofexidine.
LornoxicamLornoxicam may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
LosartanLosartan may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
LoxoprofenLoxoprofen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
Lu AA21004The serum concentration of Penbutolol can be increased when it is combined with Lu AA21004.
LucinactantPenbutolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Lucinactant.
LumiracoxibLumiracoxib may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
MacitentanPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Macitentan.
Magnesium salicylateMagnesium salicylate may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
MalathionMalathion may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.
ManidipinePenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Manidipine.
MannitolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mannitol is combined with Penbutolol.
MasoprocolMasoprocol may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
MebanazineMebanazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
MecamylamineMecamylamine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
Meclofenamic acidMeclofenamic acid may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
Mefenamic acidMefenamic acid may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
MefloquineMefloquine may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.
MeloxicamMeloxicam may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
MemantineMemantine may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.
MepivacaineThe serum concentration of Mepivacaine can be increased when it is combined with Penbutolol.
MesalazineMesalazine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
MesoridazineMesoridazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
MetamizoleMetamizole may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
MethacholineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Methacholine.
MethamphetamineMethamphetamine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.
MethazolamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methazolamide is combined with Penbutolol.
MethohexitalMethohexital may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
MethotrimeprazineMethotrimeprazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
MethyclothiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methyclothiazide is combined with Penbutolol.
MethyldopaMethyldopa may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
Methylene blueMethylene blue may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
MethylphenidateMethylphenidate may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
MethylphenobarbitalMethylphenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
MetipranololMetipranolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
MetolazoneMetolazone may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
MetoprololMetoprolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
MibefradilPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Mibefradil.
MidodrinePenbutolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Midodrine.
MilnacipranThe serum concentration of Penbutolol can be increased when it is combined with Milnacipran.
MinaprineMinaprine may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.
MinoxidilMinoxidil may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
MoclobemideMoclobemide may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
MoexiprilMoexipril may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
MolsidomineMolsidomine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
MoricizineMoricizine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
MoxonidinePenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Moxonidine.
Mycophenolate mofetilMycophenolate mofetil may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
Mycophenolic acidMycophenolic acid may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
NabumetoneNabumetone may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
NadololNadolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
NaftifineNaftifine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
NaphazolineNaphazoline may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.
NaproxenNaproxen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
NCX 4016NCX 4016 may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
NebivololPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Nebivolol.
NeostigmineNeostigmine may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.
NepafenacNepafenac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
NesiritideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Nesiritide.
NialamideNialamide may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
NicardipineNicardipine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
NicorandilNicorandil may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
NicotineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Nicotine.
Nicotine bitartrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Nicotine bitartrate.
NifedipineNifedipine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
NifedipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Nifedipine.
Niflumic AcidNiflumic Acid may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
NiguldipinePenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Niguldipine.
NilvadipinePenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Nilvadipine.
NimesulideNimesulide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
NimodipineNimodipine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
NisoldipineNisoldipine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
NitrendipineNitrendipine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
NitroglycerinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitroglycerin is combined with Penbutolol.
NitroprussideNitroprusside may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
NorepinephrineNorepinephrine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.
NorepinephrinePenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Norepinephrine.
ObinutuzumabPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Obinutuzumab.
OctamoxinOctamoxin may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
OctreotideOctreotide may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.
OlanzapineThe serum concentration of Penbutolol can be increased when it is combined with Olanzapine.
OlmesartanOlmesartan may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
OlodaterolPenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Olodaterol.
OlopatadineOlopatadine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
OlsalazineOlsalazine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
OmapatrilatOmapatrilat may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
OrciprenalinePenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Orciprenaline.
OrgoteinOrgotein may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
OuabainPenbutolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Ouabain.
OxaprozinOxaprozin may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
OxprenololPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Oxprenolol.
OxymetazolineOxymetazoline may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.
OxyphenbutazoneOxyphenbutazone may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
PaliperidonePaliperidone may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.
PapaverineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Papaverine is combined with Penbutolol.
ParecoxibParecoxib may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
PargylinePenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Pargyline.
ParoxetineThe serum concentration of Penbutolol can be increased when it is combined with Paroxetine.
PasireotidePenbutolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Pasireotide.
PentobarbitalPentobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
PentoliniumPentolinium may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
PentoxifyllinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
PergolidePergolide may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.
PerindoprilPerindopril may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
PerphenazinePerphenazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
PhenelzinePhenelzine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
PheniprazinePheniprazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
PhenobarbitalPhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
PhenoxybenzaminePhenoxybenzamine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
PhenoxypropazinePhenoxypropazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
PhentolaminePhentolamine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
PhenylbutazonePhenylbutazone may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
PhenylpropanolaminePhenylpropanolamine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.
PhenylpropanolaminePenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Phenylpropanolamine.
PhysostigminePhysostigmine may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.
PilocarpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Pilocarpine.
PimecrolimusPimecrolimus may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
PinacidilPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Pinacidil.
PindololPindolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
PirbuterolPenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Pirbuterol.
PirfenidonePirfenidone may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
PirlindolePirlindole may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
PiroxicamPiroxicam may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
PivhydrazinePivhydrazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
PolythiazidePolythiazide may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
Poractant alfaPenbutolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Poractant alfa.
PrazosinPrazosin may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
PrimaquineThe metabolism of Penbutolol can be decreased when combined with Primaquine.
PrimidonePrimidone may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
ProcaterolPenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Procaterol.
ProchlorperazineProchlorperazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
PromazinePromazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
PromethazinePromethazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
PropacetamolPropacetamol may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
PropafenoneThe serum concentration of Penbutolol can be increased when it is combined with Propafenone.
PropafenonePenbutolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Propafenone.
PropranololPropranolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
PseudoephedrinePseudoephedrine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.
PTC299PTC299 may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
PyridostigminePyridostigmine may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.
QuetiapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Quetiapine is combined with Penbutolol.
QuinaprilQuinapril may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
QuinineQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
RamiprilRamipril may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
RasagilineRasagiline may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
RegorafenibRegorafenib may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.
RemikirenRemikiren may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
RescinnaminePenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Rescinnamine.
ReserpineReserpine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
ResveratrolResveratrol may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
RiociguatPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Riociguat.
RisperidonePenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Risperidone.
RisperidoneRisperidone may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.
RitodrinePenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Ritodrine.
RituximabPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Rituximab.
RivastigmineRivastigmine may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.
RofecoxibRofecoxib may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
RopiniroleRopinirole may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.
RuxolitinibRuxolitinib may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.
SafrazineSafrazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
SalbutamolPenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Salbutamol.
SalicylamideSalicylamide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
Salicylic acidSalicylic acid may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
SalmeterolPenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Salmeterol.
SalsalateSalsalate may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
SaprisartanSaprisartan may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
SecobarbitalSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
SelegilineSelegiline may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
SelexipagPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Selexipag.
SeratrodastSeratrodast may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
SertralineThe serum concentration of Penbutolol can be increased when it is combined with Sertraline.
SildenafilSildenafil may increase the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
SilodosinPenbutolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Silodosin.
SitaxentanPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Sitaxentan.
SotalolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sotalol is combined with Penbutolol.
SpiraprilSpirapril may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
SpironolactoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Spironolactone is combined with Penbutolol.
SRT501SRT501 may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
SufentanilSufentanil may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.
SulfasalazineSulfasalazine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
SulindacSulindac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
SuprofenSuprofen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
TacrineTacrine may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.
TadalafilTadalafil may increase the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
TamsulosinPenbutolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Tamsulosin.
TelmisartanTelmisartan may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
TemocaprilPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Temocapril.
TenoxicamTenoxicam may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
TepoxalinTepoxalin may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
TerazosinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Terazosin is combined with Penbutolol.
TerbutalinePenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Terbutaline.
TeriflunomideTeriflunomide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
TerlipressinPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Terlipressin.
TheophyllinePenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Theophylline.
ThiamylalThiamylal may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
ThiethylperazineThiethylperazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
ThiopentalThiopental may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
ThioridazineThioridazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
Tiaprofenic acidTiaprofenic acid may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
TibolonePenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Tibolone.
TicrynafenPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Ticrynafen.
TimololTimolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
TizanidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tizanidine is combined with Penbutolol.
TofacitinibTofacitinib may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.
TolazamidePenbutolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Tolazamide.
TolazolineTolazoline may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
TolbutamidePenbutolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Tolbutamide.
Tolfenamic AcidTolfenamic Acid may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
TolmetinTolmetin may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
ToloxatoneToloxatone may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
TorasemideTorasemide may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
TrandolaprilTrandolapril may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
TranilastTranilast may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
Trans-2-PhenylcyclopropylamineTrans-2-Phenylcyclopropylamine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
TranylcypromineTranylcypromine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
TravoprostTravoprost may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
TrazodoneThe serum concentration of Penbutolol can be increased when it is combined with Trazodone.
TreprostinilTreprostinil may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
TriamtereneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Triamterene is combined with Penbutolol.
TrichlorfonTrichlorfon may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.
TrichlormethiazideTrichlormethiazide may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
TrifluoperazineTrifluoperazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
TriflupromazineTriflupromazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
TrimazosinPenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Trimazosin.
TrimethaphanTrimethaphan may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
Trisalicylate-cholineTrisalicylate-choline may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
TubocurarineTubocurarine may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.
UdenafilUdenafil may increase the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
UnoprostonePenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Unoprostone.
ValdecoxibValdecoxib may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
ValsartanValsartan may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.
VardenafilVardenafil may increase the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
VareniclineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Varenicline.
VerapamilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Verapamil is combined with Penbutolol.
VilanterolPenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Vilanterol.
VilazodoneThe serum concentration of Penbutolol can be increased when it is combined with Vilazodone.
VortioxetineThe serum concentration of Penbutolol can be increased when it is combined with Vortioxetine.
XylometazolinePenbutolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Xylometazoline.
YohimbineYohimbine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
ZaltoprofenZaltoprofen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
ZileutonZileuton may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
ZimelidineThe serum concentration of Penbutolol can be increased when it is combined with Zimelidine.
ZomepiracZomepirac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
antagonistpartial agonist
General Function:
Receptor signaling protein activity
Specific Function:
Beta-adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. This receptor binds epinephrine and norepinephrine with approximately equal affinity. Mediates Ras activation through G(s)-alpha- and cAMP-mediated signaling.
Gene Name:
ADRB1
Uniprot ID:
P08588
Molecular Weight:
51322.1 Da
References
  1. Venter CP, Joubert PH: Ethnic differences in beta-1-adrenoceptor sensitivity. S Afr Med J. 1982 Nov 27;62(23):849-50. [PubMed:6755764 ]
  2. Sanchez C: Effect of serotonergic drugs on footshock-induced ultrasonic vocalization in adult male rats. Behav Pharmacol. 1993 Jun;4(3):269-277. [PubMed:11224195 ]
  3. Doze P, Elsinga PH, Maas B, Van Waarde A, Wegman T, Vaalburg W: Synthesis and evaluation of radiolabeled antagonists for imaging of beta-adrenoceptors in the brain with PET. Neurochem Int. 2002 Feb;40(2):145-55. [PubMed:11738481 ]
  4. Frishman WH, Covey S: Penbutolol and carteolol: two new beta-adrenergic blockers with partial agonism. J Clin Pharmacol. 1990 May;30(5):412-21. [PubMed:2189902 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
antagonistpartial agonist
General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
Beta-adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The beta-2-adrenergic receptor binds epinephrine with an approximately 30-fold greater affinity than it does norepinephrine.
Gene Name:
ADRB2
Uniprot ID:
P07550
Molecular Weight:
46458.32 Da
References
  1. Kulkarni RD, DaSilva LM, Chabria NL, Chadha DR: Beta-2 adrenoceptor blocking activity of penbutolol and propranolol at very low doses. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1977 Jun;21(6):685-90. [PubMed:16716 ]
  2. Hjorth S, Sharp T: In vivo microdialysis evidence for central serotonin1A and serotonin1B autoreceptor blocking properties of the beta adrenoceptor antagonist (-)penbutolol. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1993 May;265(2):707-12. [PubMed:8098761 ]
  3. Hjorth S, Bengtsson HJ, Milano S: Raphe 5-HT1A autoreceptors, but not postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors or beta-adrenoceptors, restrain the citalopram-induced increase in extracellular 5-hydroxytryptamine in vivo. Eur J Pharmacol. 1996 Nov 28;316(1):43-7. [PubMed:8982649 ]
  4. Sanchez C: Effect of serotonergic drugs on footshock-induced ultrasonic vocalization in adult male rats. Behav Pharmacol. 1993 Jun;4(3):269-277. [PubMed:11224195 ]
  5. Ijzerman AP, Nagesser A, Garritsen A: The membrane stabilizing activity of beta-adrenoceptor ligands. Quantitative evaluation of the interaction of phenoxypropanolamines with the [3H]batrachotoxinin A 20-alpha-benzoate binding site on voltage-sensitive sodium channels in rat brain. Biochem Pharmacol. 1987 Dec 15;36(24):4239-44. [PubMed:2446632 ]
  6. Frishman WH, Covey S: Penbutolol and carteolol: two new beta-adrenergic blockers with partial agonism. J Clin Pharmacol. 1990 May;30(5):412-21. [PubMed:2189902 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors, such as adenylate cyclase. Beta-arrestin family members inhibit signaling via G pro...
Gene Name:
HTR1A
Uniprot ID:
P08908
Molecular Weight:
46106.335 Da
References
  1. Rabiner EA, Gunn RN, Castro ME, Sargent PA, Cowen PJ, Koepp MJ, Meyer JH, Bench CJ, Harrison PJ, Pazos A, Sharp T, Grasby PM: beta-blocker binding to human 5-HT(1A) receptors in vivo and in vitro: implications for antidepressant therapy. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2000 Sep;23(3):285-93. [PubMed:10942852 ]
  2. Hjorth S: (-)-Penbutolol as a blocker of central 5-HT1A receptor-mediated responses. Eur J Pharmacol. 1992 Nov 3;222(1):121-7. [PubMed:1468487 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for ergot alkaloid derivatives, various anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs and other psychoactive substances, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of ...
Gene Name:
HTR1B
Uniprot ID:
P28222
Molecular Weight:
43567.535 Da
References
  1. Hjorth S, Sharp T: In vivo microdialysis evidence for central serotonin1A and serotonin1B autoreceptor blocking properties of the beta adrenoceptor antagonist (-)penbutolol. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1993 May;265(2):707-12. [PubMed:8098761 ]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
other/unknown
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
Functions as transport protein in the blood stream. Binds various ligands in the interior of its beta-barrel domain. Also binds synthetic drugs and influences their distribution and availability in the body. Appears to function in modulating the activity of the immune system during the acute-phase reaction.
Gene Name:
ORM1
Uniprot ID:
P02763
Molecular Weight:
23511.38 Da
References
  1. Martinez Jorda R, Aguirre C, Calvo R, Rodriguez-Sasiain JM, Erill S: Decrease in penbutolol central response as a cause of changes in its serum protein binding. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1990 Mar;42(3):164-6. [PubMed:1974610 ]
  2. Aguirre C, Rodriguez-Sasiain JM, Calvo R: Decrease in penbutolol protein binding as a consequence of treatment with some alkylating agents. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 1994;34(1):86-8. [PubMed:8174208 ]
  3. Aguirre C, Calvo R, Rodriguez-Sasiain JM: Unchanged protein binding of penbutolol in renal insufficiency: a possible role of carbamylation. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol. 1993 Jan;31(1):31-4. [PubMed:8444514 ]
  4. Aguirre C, Troconiz IF, Valdivieso A, Jimenez RM, Gonzalez JP, Calvo R, Rodriguez-Sasiain JM: Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of penbutolol in healthy and cancer subjects: role of altered protein binding. Res Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol. 1996 Apr;92(1):53-72. [PubMed:8733828 ]
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Drug created on July 06, 2007 13:52 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23