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Identification
NameMethamphetamine
Accession NumberDB01577
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Illicit
Description

Methamphetamine is a psychostimulant and sympathomimetic drug. It is a member of the amphetamine group of sympathomimetic amines. Methamphetamine can induce effects such as euphoria, increased alertness and energy, and enhanced self-esteem. It is a scheduled drug in most countries due to its high potential for addiction and abuse.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
(+)-(S)-N-alpha-DimethylphenethylamineNot AvailableNot Available
(+)-(S)-N-α-dimethylphenethylamineNot AvailableNot Available
(AlphaS)-N,alpha-dimethylbenzeneethanamineNot AvailableNot Available
(S)-N,alpha-DimethylbenzeneethanamineNot AvailableNot Available
(S)-N,α-dimethylbenzeneethanamineNot AvailableNot Available
(αS)-N,α-dimethylbenzeneethanamineNot AvailableNot Available
d-1-phenyl-2-methylaminopropaneNot AvailableNot Available
d-deoxyephedrineNot AvailableNot Available
d-desoxyephedrineNot AvailableNot Available
d-N-methylamphetamineNot AvailableNot Available
d-phenylisopropylmethylamineNot AvailableNot Available
DextromethamphetamineNot AvailableNot Available
MétamfétamineFrenchINN
MetamfetaminumLatinINN
MetanfetaminaSpanishINN
MethamphetamineNot AvailableNot Available
MethamphetaminumLatinINN
Methyl-beta-phenylisopropylamineNot AvailableNot Available
methyl-β-phenylisopropylamineNot AvailableNot Available
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Desoxyntablet5 mgoralRECORDATI RARE DISEASES, INC.1943-12-31Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Methamphetamine Hydrochloridetablet5 mgoralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2010-04-26Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
International BrandsNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Methamphetamine hydrochloride
Thumb
  • InChI Key: MYWUZJCMWCOHBA-VIFPVBQESA-N
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 149.120449485
  • Average Mass: 149.2328
DBSALT000734
Categories
CAS number537-46-2
WeightAverage: 149.2328
Monoisotopic: 149.120449485
Chemical FormulaC10H15N
InChI KeyMYWUZJCMWCOHBA-VIFPVBQESA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C10H15N/c1-9(11-2)8-10-6-4-3-5-7-10/h3-7,9,11H,8H2,1-2H3/t9-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
methyl[(2S)-1-phenylpropan-2-yl]amine
SMILES
CN[C@@H](C)CC1=CC=CC=C1
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as amphetamines and derivatives. These are organic compounds containing or derived from 1-phenylpropan-2-amine.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassPhenethylamines
Direct ParentAmphetamines and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Amphetamine or derivatives
  • Phenylpropane
  • Aralkylamine
  • Secondary amine
  • Secondary aliphatic amine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the treatment of Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity (ADHD) and exogenous obesity.
PharmacodynamicsMethamphetamine is a potent central nervous system stimulant which affects neurochemical mechanisms responsible for regulating heart rate, body temperature, blood pressure, appetite, attention, mood and responses associated with alertness or alarm conditions. The acute effects of the drug closely resemble the physiological and psychological effects of an epinephrine-provoked fight-or-flight response, including increased heart rate and blood pressure, vasoconstriction (constriction of the arterial walls), bronchodilation, and hyperglycemia (increased blood sugar). Users experience an increase in focus, increased mental alertness, and the elimination of fatigue, as well as a decrease in appetite.
Mechanism of actionMethamphetamine enters the brain and triggers a cascading release of norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin. To a lesser extent methamphetamine acts as a dopaminergic and adrenergic reuptake inhibitor and in high concentrations as a monamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI). The mechanism of action involved in producing the beneficial behavioral changes seen in hyperkinetic children receiving methamphetamine is unknown.
AbsorptionMethamphetamine is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract with peak methamphetamine concentrations occurring in 3.13 to 6.3 hours post ingestion. Methamphetamine is also well absorbed following inhalation and following intranasal administration. It is distributed to most parts of the body. Because methamphetamine has a high lipophilicity it is distributed across the blood brain barrier and crosses the placenta.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism

Hepatic. The primary site of metabolism is in the liver by aromatic hydroxylation, N-dealkylation and deamination. At least seven metabolites have been identified in the urine, with the main metabolites being amphetamine (active) and 4-hydroxymethamphetamine. Other minor metabolites include 4-hydroxyamphetamine, norephedrine, and 4-hydroxynorephedrine.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Methamphetamine
Not Available
NorephedrineDetails
Methamphetamine
Not Available
4-hydroxyamphetamineDetails
Methamphetamine
Not Available
4-hydroxymethamphetamineDetails
Methamphetamine
Not Available
4-HydroxynorephedrineDetails
Route of eliminationExcretion occurs primarily in the urine, the rate of which is dependent on urine pH. Between 30-54% of an oral dose is excreted in urine as unchanged methamphetamine and 10-23% as unchanged amphetamine. Following an intravenous dose, 45% is excreted as unchanged parent drug and 7% amphetamine.
Half lifeThe biological half-life has been reported in the range of 4 to 5 hours.
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityManifestations of acute overdosage with methamphetamine include restlessness, tremor, hyperreflexia, rapid respiration, confusion, assaultiveness, hallucinations, panic states, hyperpyrexia, and rhabdomyolysis. Fatigue and depression usually follow the central stimulation. Cardiovascular effects include arrhythmias, hypertension or hypotension, and circulatory collapse. Gastrointestinal symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps. Fatal poisoning usually terminates in convulsions and coma.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug Reactions
Interacting Gene/EnzymeSNP RS IDAllele nameDefining changeAdverse ReactionReference(s)
PRKCA-binding protein
Gene symbol: PICK1
UniProt: Q9NRD5
rs713729 Not AvailableT alleleMethamphetamine psychosis and addiction17606663
PRKCA-binding protein
Gene symbol: PICK1
UniProt: Q9NRD5
rs2076369 Not AvailableG alleleMethamphetamine psychosis and addiction17606663
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.993
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9695
Caco-2 permeable+0.8675
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.6682
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9338
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9816
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.736
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7898
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.8919
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.6771
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-inhibitor0.957
CYP450 2D6 substrateInhibitor0.8695
CYP450 2C19 substrateNon-inhibitor0.7754
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9536
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9095
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9306
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8161
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.7508
Rat acute toxicity3.1862 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9443
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9118
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Tabletoral5 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Desoxyn 5 mg tablet5.1USD tablet
Methamphetamine 5 mg tablet3.6USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP2.07HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
pKa9.87 (at 25 °C)PERRIN,DD (1965)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.928 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.23ALOGPS
logP2.24ChemAxon
logS-2.2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)10.21ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area12.03 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity48.48 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability18.04 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Download (2.96 KB)
SpectraMS
References
Synthesis Reference

Nobuyuki Shigetoh, Hiroshi Nakayama, Jinsei Miyazaki, Tadayasu Mitsumata, “Labelling colors for detecting cocaine or methamphetamine, method of preparing the same and detector for cocaine or methamphetamine.” U.S. Patent US5571727, issued October, 1981.

US5571727
General Reference
  1. Schepers RJ, Oyler JM, Joseph RE Jr, Cone EJ, Moolchan ET, Huestis MA: Methamphetamine and amphetamine pharmacokinetics in oral fluid and plasma after controlled oral methamphetamine administration to human volunteers. Clin Chem. 2003 Jan;49(1):121-32. Pubmed
  2. McGregor C, Srisurapanont M, Jittiwutikarn J, Laobhripatr S, Wongtan T, White JM: The nature, time course and severity of methamphetamine withdrawal. Addiction. 2005 Sep;100(9):1320-9. Pubmed
  3. Bennett BA, Hollingsworth CK, Martin RS, Harp JJ: Methamphetamine-induced alterations in dopamine transporter function. Brain Res. 1998 Jan 26;782(1-2):219-27. Pubmed
  4. Hasan AA, Ciancio S: Relationship between amphetamine ingestion and gingival enlargement. Pediatr Dent. 2004 Sep-Oct;26(5):396-400. Pubmed
  5. Shaner JW: Caries associated with methamphetamine abuse. J Mich Dent Assoc. 2002 Sep;84(9):42-7. Pubmed
External Links
ATC CodesNot Available
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (55.2 KB)
MSDSNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AcebutololMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
AcepromazineMay diminish the stimulatory effect of Amphetamines.
AcetazolamideMay decrease the excretion of Amphetamines. Exceptions: Brinzolamide; Dorzolamide.
AcetophenazineMay diminish the stimulatory effect of Amphetamines.
Aluminum hydroxideMay decrease the excretion of Amphetamines.
AminophyllineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
AmisulprideMay diminish the stimulatory effect of Amphetamines.
Ammonium chlorideMay decrease the serum concentration of Amphetamines. This effect is likely due to an enhanced excretion of amphetamines in the urine.
AmphetamineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
ArformoterolMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
AripiprazoleMay diminish the stimulatory effect of Amphetamines.
armodafinilMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
ArticaineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
AtomoxetineAtoMOXetine may enhance the hypertensive effect of Sympathomimetics. AtoMOXetine may enhance the tachycardic effect of Sympathomimetics.
BenzphetamineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
BenzquinamideMay diminish the stimulatory effect of Amphetamines.
CaffeineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
Calcium carbonateMay decrease the excretion of Amphetamines.
CarphenazineMay diminish the stimulatory effect of Amphetamines.
ChlormezanoneMay diminish the stimulatory effect of Amphetamines.
ChlorphentermineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
ChlorpromazineMay diminish the stimulatory effect of Amphetamines.
ChlorprothixeneMay diminish the stimulatory effect of Amphetamines.
ClenbuterolMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
ClozapineMay diminish the stimulatory effect of Amphetamines.
CocaineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
DarunavirMay increase the serum concentration of CYP2D6 Substrates.
DexmethylphenidateMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
DextroamphetamineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
DiclofenamideMay decrease the excretion of Amphetamines. Exceptions: Brinzolamide; Dorzolamide.
DiethylpropionMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
DihydrocodeineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
DipivefrinMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
DobutamineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
DopamineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
DoxapramMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
DronabinolCannabinoid-Containing Products may enhance the tachycardic effect of Sympathomimetics.
DroperidolMay diminish the stimulatory effect of Amphetamines.
EpinephrineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
EthosuximideAmphetamines may diminish the therapeutic effect of Ethosuximide. Amphetamines may decrease the serum concentration of Ethosuximide.
EthoxzolamideMay decrease the excretion of Amphetamines. Exceptions: Brinzolamide; Dorzolamide.
FencamfamineMay diminish the stimulatory effect of Amphetamines.
FenoterolMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
FlupentixolMay diminish the stimulatory effect of Amphetamines.
FluphenazineMay diminish the stimulatory effect of Amphetamines.
FluspirileneMay diminish the stimulatory effect of Amphetamines.
Fluticasone furoateMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
FormoterolMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
HaloperidolMay diminish the stimulatory effect of Amphetamines.
IndacaterolMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
IobenguaneMay diminish the therapeutic effect of Iobenguane I 123.
Ioflupane I 123Amphetamines may diminish the diagnostic effect of Ioflupane I 123.
Ipratropium bromideMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
IsomethepteneMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
IsoprenalineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
LabetalolMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
LevonordefrinMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
LinezolidLinezolid may enhance the hypertensive effect of Sympathomimetics.
LisdexamfetamineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
LithiumMay diminish the stimulatory effect of Amphetamines.
LoxapineMay diminish the stimulatory effect of Amphetamines.
Magnesium oxideMay decrease the excretion of Amphetamines.
MephentermineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
MesoridazineMay diminish the stimulatory effect of Amphetamines.
MetaraminolMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
MethotrimeprazineMay diminish the stimulatory effect of Amphetamines.
MethoxamineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
MethylphenidateMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
MidodrineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
ModafinilMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
MolindoneMay diminish the stimulatory effect of Amphetamines.
NabiloneCannabinoid-Containing Products may enhance the tachycardic effect of Sympathomimetics.
NaphazolineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
NorepinephrineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
OlanzapineMay diminish the stimulatory effect of Amphetamines.
OndansetronMay diminish the stimulatory effect of Amphetamines.
OrciprenalineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
OxymetazolineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
PaliperidoneMay diminish the stimulatory effect of Amphetamines.
PanobinostatMay increase the serum concentration of CYP2D6 Substrates.
Peginterferon alfa-2bMay decrease the serum concentration of CYP2D6 Substrates. Peginterferon Alfa-2b may increase the serum concentration of CYP2D6 Substrates.
PerphenazineMay diminish the stimulatory effect of Amphetamines.
PhendimetrazineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
PheniramineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
PhenmetrazineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
PhenobarbitalAmphetamines may decrease the serum concentration of PHENobarbital.
PhentermineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
PhenylephrineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
PhenylpropanolamineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
PhenytoinAmphetamines may decrease the serum concentration of Phenytoin.
PimozideMay diminish the stimulatory effect of Amphetamines.
PiperacetazineMay diminish the stimulatory effect of Amphetamines.
PirbuterolMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
ProchlorperazineMay diminish the stimulatory effect of Amphetamines.
PromazineMay diminish the stimulatory effect of Amphetamines.
PropylhexedrineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
PseudoephedrineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
QuetiapineMay diminish the stimulatory effect of Amphetamines.
RemoxiprideMay diminish the stimulatory effect of Amphetamines.
ReserpineMay diminish the stimulatory effect of Amphetamines.
RisperidoneMay diminish the stimulatory effect of Amphetamines.
RitodrineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
SalbutamolMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
SalmeterolMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
SertindoleMay diminish the stimulatory effect of Amphetamines.
SulpirideMay diminish the stimulatory effect of Amphetamines.
Tedizolid PhosphateTedizolid may enhance the hypertensive effect of Sympathomimetics. Tedizolid may enhance the tachycardic effect of Sympathomimetics.
TerbutalineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
TheophyllineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
ThioridazineMay diminish the stimulatory effect of Amphetamines.
ThiothixeneMay diminish the stimulatory effect of Amphetamines.
TrifluoperazineMay diminish the stimulatory effect of Amphetamines.
TriflupromazineMay diminish the stimulatory effect of Amphetamines.
TriprolidineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Sympathomimetics.
Vitamin CMay decrease the serum concentration of Amphetamines.
ZiprasidoneMay diminish the stimulatory effect of Amphetamines.
ZuclopenthixolMay diminish the stimulatory effect of Amphetamines.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

1. Sodium-dependent dopamine transporter

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: negative modulator

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Sodium-dependent dopamine transporter Q01959 Details

References:

  1. Escubedo E, Camarasa J, Chipana C, Garcia-Rates S, Pubill D: Involvement of nicotinic receptors in methamphetamine- and MDMA-induced neurotoxicity: pharmacological implications. Int Rev Neurobiol. 2009;88:121-66. Pubmed
  2. Lott DC, Kim SJ, Cook EH Jr, de Wit H: Dopamine transporter gene associated with diminished subjective response to amphetamine. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2005 Mar;30(3):602-9. Pubmed
  3. Fone KC, Nutt DJ: Stimulants: use and abuse in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2005 Feb;5(1):87-93. Pubmed
  4. Miller GM, Verrico CD, Jassen A, Konar M, Yang H, Panas H, Bahn M, Johnson R, Madras BK: Primate trace amine receptor 1 modulation by the dopamine transporter. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005 Jun;313(3):983-94. Epub 2005 Mar 11. Pubmed
  5. Garcia BG, Wei Y, Moron JA, Lin RZ, Javitch JA, Galli A: Akt is essential for insulin modulation of amphetamine-induced human dopamine transporter cell-surface redistribution. Mol Pharmacol. 2005 Jul;68(1):102-9. Epub 2005 Mar 28. Pubmed
  6. Madras BK, Miller GM, Fischman AJ: The dopamine transporter and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2005 Jun 1;57(11):1397-409. Epub 2005 Jan 5. Pubmed
  7. Kahlig KM, Binda F, Khoshbouei H, Blakely RD, McMahon DG, Javitch JA, Galli A: Amphetamine induces dopamine efflux through a dopamine transporter channel. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Mar 1;102(9):3495-500. Epub 2005 Feb 22. Pubmed
  8. Fleckenstein AE, Volz TJ, Riddle EL, Gibb JW, Hanson GR: New insights into the mechanism of action of amphetamines. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2007;47:681-98. Pubmed

2. Sodium-dependent serotonin transporter

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: negative modulator

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Sodium-dependent serotonin transporter P31645 Details

References:

  1. Numachi Y, Ohara A, Yamashita M, Fukushima S, Kobayashi H, Hata H, Watanabe H, Hall FS, Lesch KP, Murphy DL, Uhl GR, Sora I: Methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia and lethal toxicity: role of the dopamine and serotonin transporters. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007 Oct 31;572(2-3):120-8. Epub 2007 Jun 27. Pubmed
  2. Tellez R, Rocha L, Castillo C, Meneses A: Autoradiographic study of serotonin transporter during memory formation. Behav Brain Res. 2010 Sep 1;212(1):12-26. Epub 2010 Mar 11. Pubmed
  3. Sora I, Li B, Fumushima S, Fukui A, Arime Y, Kasahara Y, Tomita H, Ikeda K: Monoamine transporter as a target molecule for psychostimulants. Int Rev Neurobiol. 2009;85:29-33. Pubmed

3. Sodium-dependent noradrenaline transporter

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: negative modulator

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Sodium-dependent noradrenaline transporter P23975 Details

References:

  1. Fleckenstein AE, Volz TJ, Riddle EL, Gibb JW, Hanson GR: New insights into the mechanism of action of amphetamines. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2007;47:681-98. Pubmed
  2. Sulzer D, Sonders MS, Poulsen NW, Galli A: Mechanisms of neurotransmitter release by amphetamines: a review. Prog Neurobiol. 2005 Apr;75(6):406-33. Pubmed

4. Synaptic vesicular amine transporter

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Synaptic vesicular amine transporter Q05940 Details

References:

  1. Horton DB, Siripurapu KB, Norrholm SD, Culver JP, Hojahmat M, Beckmann JS, Harrod SB, Deaciuc AG, Bardo MT, Crooks PA, Dwoskin LP: meso-Transdiene Analogs Inhibit Vesicular Monoamine Transporter-2 Function and Methamphetamine-evoked Dopamine Release. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2010 Dec 21. Pubmed
  2. Sulzer D, Sonders MS, Poulsen NW, Galli A: Mechanisms of neurotransmitter release by amphetamines: a review. Prog Neurobiol. 2005 Apr;75(6):406-33. Pubmed
  3. Sulzer D, Chen TK, Lau YY, Kristensen H, Rayport S, Ewing A: Amphetamine redistributes dopamine from synaptic vesicles to the cytosol and promotes reverse transport. J Neurosci. 1995 May;15(5 Pt 2):4102-8. Pubmed
  4. Yasumoto S, Tamura K, Karasawa J, Hasegawa R, Ikeda K, Yamamoto T, Yamamoto H: Inhibitory effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors on the vesicular monoamine transporter 2. Neurosci Lett. 2009 May 1;454(3):229-32. Epub 2009 Mar 18. Pubmed
  5. Fleckenstein AE, Volz TJ, Riddle EL, Gibb JW, Hanson GR: New insights into the mechanism of action of amphetamines. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2007;47:681-98. Pubmed

5. Chromaffin granule amine transporter

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Chromaffin granule amine transporter P54219 Details

References:

  1. Sulzer D, Sonders MS, Poulsen NW, Galli A: Mechanisms of neurotransmitter release by amphetamines: a review. Prog Neurobiol. 2005 Apr;75(6):406-33. Pubmed
  2. Henry JP, Sagne C, Bedet C, Gasnier B: The vesicular monoamine transporter: from chromaffin granule to brain. Neurochem Int. 1998 Mar;32(3):227-46. Pubmed
  3. Fleckenstein AE, Volz TJ, Riddle EL, Gibb JW, Hanson GR: New insights into the mechanism of action of amphetamines. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2007;47:681-98. Pubmed

6. Trace amine-associated receptor 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: agonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Trace amine-associated receptor 1 Q96RJ0 Details

References:

  1. Grandy DK: Trace amine-associated receptor 1-Family archetype or iconoclast? Pharmacol Ther. 2007 Dec;116(3):355-90. Epub 2007 Jul 17. Pubmed
  2. Borowsky B, Adham N, Jones KA, Raddatz R, Artymyshyn R, Ogozalek KL, Durkin MM, Lakhlani PP, Bonini JA, Pathirana S, Boyle N, Pu X, Kouranova E, Lichtblau H, Ochoa FY, Branchek TA, Gerald C: Trace amines: identification of a family of mammalian G protein-coupled receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Jul 31;98(16):8966-71. Epub 2001 Jul 17. Pubmed
  3. Reese EA, Bunzow JR, Arttamangkul S, Sonders MS, Grandy DK: Trace amine-associated receptor 1 displays species-dependent stereoselectivity for isomers of methamphetamine, amphetamine, and para-hydroxyamphetamine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Apr;321(1):178-86. Epub 2007 Jan 11. Pubmed
  4. Xie Z, Westmoreland SV, Bahn ME, Chen GL, Yang H, Vallender EJ, Yao WD, Madras BK, Miller GM: Rhesus monkey trace amine-associated receptor 1 signaling: enhancement by monoamine transporters and attenuation by the D2 autoreceptor in vitro. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Apr;321(1):116-27. Epub 2007 Jan 18. Pubmed
  5. Wolinsky TD, Swanson CJ, Smith KE, Zhong H, Borowsky B, Seeman P, Branchek T, Gerald CP: The Trace Amine 1 receptor knockout mouse: an animal model with relevance to schizophrenia. Genes Brain Behav. 2007 Oct;6(7):628-39. Epub 2006 Dec 21. Pubmed
  6. Xie Z, Miller GM: Trace amine-associated receptor 1 is a modulator of the dopamine transporter. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Apr;321(1):128-36. Epub 2007 Jan 18. Pubmed
  7. Miller GM, Verrico CD, Jassen A, Konar M, Yang H, Panas H, Bahn M, Johnson R, Madras BK: Primate trace amine receptor 1 modulation by the dopamine transporter. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005 Jun;313(3):983-94. Epub 2005 Mar 11. Pubmed

7. Alpha-2A adrenergic receptor

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: agonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Alpha-2A adrenergic receptor P08913 Details

References:

  1. Jeng CH, Wang Y: Methamphetamine modulates GABA-induced electrophysiological depression by alternating noradrenergic actions in cerebellar Purkinje neurons. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1998 Mar;136(2):132-8. Pubmed
  2. Sulzer D, Sonders MS, Poulsen NW, Galli A: Mechanisms of neurotransmitter release by amphetamines: a review. Prog Neurobiol. 2005 Apr;75(6):406-33. Pubmed
  3. Nishio M, Kanda Y, Mizuno K, Watanabe Y: Methamphetamine increases the hippocampal alpha(2A)-adrenergic receptor and Galpha(o) in mice. Neurosci Lett. 2002 Dec 16;334(3):145-8. Pubmed

8. Alpha-2B adrenergic receptor

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: agonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Alpha-2B adrenergic receptor P18089 Details

References:

  1. Jeng CH, Wang Y: Methamphetamine modulates GABA-induced electrophysiological depression by alternating noradrenergic actions in cerebellar Purkinje neurons. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1998 Mar;136(2):132-8. Pubmed
  2. Sulzer D, Sonders MS, Poulsen NW, Galli A: Mechanisms of neurotransmitter release by amphetamines: a review. Prog Neurobiol. 2005 Apr;75(6):406-33. Pubmed

9. Alpha-2C adrenergic receptor

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: agonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Alpha-2C adrenergic receptor P18825 Details

References:

  1. Jeng CH, Wang Y: Methamphetamine modulates GABA-induced electrophysiological depression by alternating noradrenergic actions in cerebellar Purkinje neurons. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1998 Mar;136(2):132-8. Pubmed
  2. Sulzer D, Sonders MS, Poulsen NW, Galli A: Mechanisms of neurotransmitter release by amphetamines: a review. Prog Neurobiol. 2005 Apr;75(6):406-33. Pubmed

10. Amine oxidase [flavin-containing] A

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Amine oxidase [flavin-containing] A P21397 Details

References:

  1. Sulzer D, Sonders MS, Poulsen NW, Galli A: Mechanisms of neurotransmitter release by amphetamines: a review. Prog Neurobiol. 2005 Apr;75(6):406-33. Pubmed
  2. Ulus IH, Maher TJ, Wurtman RJ: Characterization of phentermine and related compounds as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. Biochem Pharmacol. 2000 Jun 15;59(12):1611-21. Pubmed

11. Amine oxidase [flavin-containing] B

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Amine oxidase [flavin-containing] B P27338 Details

References:

  1. Sulzer D, Sonders MS, Poulsen NW, Galli A: Mechanisms of neurotransmitter release by amphetamines: a review. Prog Neurobiol. 2005 Apr;75(6):406-33. Pubmed
  2. Ulus IH, Maher TJ, Wurtman RJ: Characterization of phentermine and related compounds as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. Biochem Pharmacol. 2000 Jun 15;59(12):1611-21. Pubmed

Enzymes

1. Cytochrome P450 2D6

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6 P10635 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

Transporters

1. Solute carrier family 22 member 3

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier family 22 member 3 O75751 Details

References:

  1. Wu X, Kekuda R, Huang W, Fei YJ, Leibach FH, Chen J, Conway SJ, Ganapathy V: Identity of the organic cation transporter OCT3 as the extraneuronal monoamine transporter (uptake2) and evidence for the expression of the transporter in the brain. J Biol Chem. 1998 Dec 4;273(49):32776-86. Pubmed

2. Solute carrier family 22 member 5

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier family 22 member 5 O76082 Details

References:

  1. Wu X, Prasad PD, Leibach FH, Ganapathy V: cDNA sequence, transport function, and genomic organization of human OCTN2, a new member of the organic cation transporter family. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998 May 29;246(3):589-95. Pubmed
  2. Wu X, Huang W, Prasad PD, Seth P, Rajan DP, Leibach FH, Chen J, Conway SJ, Ganapathy V: Functional characteristics and tissue distribution pattern of organic cation transporter 2 (OCTN2), an organic cation/carnitine transporter. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Sep;290(3):1482-92. Pubmed

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Drug created on August 29, 2007 08:51 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:15