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Identification
NameCholic Acid
Accession NumberDB02659  (EXPT00906)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
Description

A major primary bile acid produced in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It facilitates fat absorption and cholesterol excretion. [PubChem]
Cholic acid, formulated as Cholbam capsules, is approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration as a treatment for children and adults with bile acid synthesis disorders due to single enzyme defects, and for peroxisomal disorders (such as Zellweger syndrome).

Structure
Thumb
SynonymsNot Available
External Identifiers
  • E1000
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Cholbamcapsule50 mg/1oralManchester Pharmaceuticals2015-03-312016-04-05Us
Cholbamcapsule250 mg/1oralManchester Pharmaceuticals2015-03-312016-04-05Us
Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
International BrandsNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNIIG1JO7801AE
CAS number81-25-4
WeightAverage: 408.5714
Monoisotopic: 408.28757439
Chemical FormulaC24H40O5
InChI KeyInChIKey=BHQCQFFYRZLCQQ-OELDTZBJSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C24H40O5/c1-13(4-7-21(28)29)16-5-6-17-22-18(12-20(27)24(16,17)3)23(2)9-8-15(25)10-14(23)11-19(22)26/h13-20,22,25-27H,4-12H2,1-3H3,(H,28,29)/t13-,14+,15-,16-,17+,18+,19-,20+,22+,23+,24-/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
(4R)-4-[(1S,2S,5R,7S,9R,10R,11S,14R,15R,16S)-5,9,16-trihydroxy-2,15-dimethyltetracyclo[8.7.0.0²,⁷.0¹¹,¹⁵]heptadecan-14-yl]pentanoic acid
SMILES
[H][C@@](C)(CCC(O)=O)[C@@]1([H])CC[C@@]2([H])[C@]3([H])[C@]([H])(O)C[C@]4([H])C[C@]([H])(O)CC[C@]4(C)[C@@]3([H])C[C@]([H])(O)[C@]12C
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as trihydroxy bile acids, alcohols and derivatives. These are prenol lipids structurally characterized by a bile acid or alcohol which bears three hydroxyl groups.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassSteroids and steroid derivatives
Sub ClassBile acids, alcohols and derivatives
Direct ParentTrihydroxy bile acids, alcohols and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Trihydroxy bile acid, alcohol, or derivatives
  • 7-hydroxysteroid
  • 3-alpha-hydroxysteroid
  • Hydroxysteroid
  • 12-hydroxysteroid
  • 3-hydroxysteroid
  • Cyclic alcohol
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Polyol
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic homopolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic homopolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationOral cholic acid is indicated for: treatment of bile acid synthesis disorders due to single enzyme defects; and as adjunctive treatment of peroxisomal disorders including Zellweger spectrum disorders in patients who exhibit manifestations of liver disease, steatorrhea or complications from decreased fat soluble vitamin absorption.
PharmacodynamicsNot Available
Mechanism of actionNot Available
Related Articles
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism
SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Cholic Acid
Not Available
Cholic acid glucuronideDetails
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organismsNot Available
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Cerebrotendinous Xanthomatosis (CTX)DiseaseSMP00315
27-Hydroxylase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00720
Bile Acid BiosynthesisMetabolicSMP00035
Familial Hypercholanemia (FHCA)DiseaseSMP00317
Congenital Bile Acid Synthesis Defect Type IIDiseaseSMP00314
Zellweger SyndromeDiseaseSMP00316
Congenital Bile Acid Synthesis Defect Type IIIDiseaseSMP00318
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9766
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9288
Caco-2 permeable+0.73
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.6648
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8737
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.5368
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8537
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7818
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9115
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.7407
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9045
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9456
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9781
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9707
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8405
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9563
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8794
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9329
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.992
Rat acute toxicity2.5624 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9622
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.7246
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
PackagersNot Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Capsuleoral250 mg/1
Capsuleoral50 mg/1
PricesNot Available
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point198 °CPhysProp
water solubility175 mg/L (at 20 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP2.02RODA,A ET AL. (1990)
logS-3.37ADME Research, USCD
pKa4.98 (at 20 °C)SERJEANT,EP & DEMPSEY,B (1979)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0738 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.26ALOGPS
logP2.48ChemAxon
logS-3.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.48ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-0.16ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area97.99 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity110.79 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability46.93 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-000z200000-85abf6e916e1cc1c46b6View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-021z100000-476dc71e401cc2327292View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-b40z000000-0181c85f78bb9e29ea53View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-100zt00000-63a8d2c748b3bc631c17View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-400z900000-ba378537551be8134141View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-z01q000000-caef890bd53da215442eView in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-zpha000000-e425981b8a0ac72ea6eeView in MoNA
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesA05AA03
AHFS Codes
  • 56:92
PDB Entries
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
Aluminum hydroxideAluminum hydroxide can cause a decrease in the absorption of Cholic Acid resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
CholestyramineCholestyramine can cause a decrease in the absorption of Cholic Acid resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
ColesevelamColesevelam can cause a decrease in the absorption of Cholic Acid resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
ColestipolColestipol can cause a decrease in the absorption of Cholic Acid resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
CyclosporineCyclosporine may decrease the excretion rate of Cholic Acid which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
GlyburideGlyburide may decrease the excretion rate of Cholic Acid which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
SevelamerSevelamer can cause a decrease in the absorption of Cholic Acid resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
SorafenibSorafenib may decrease the excretion rate of Cholic Acid which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
SucralfateSucralfate can cause a decrease in the absorption of Cholic Acid resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
TipranavirTipranavir may decrease the excretion rate of Cholic Acid which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Iron-responsive element binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the ferrous insertion into protoporphyrin IX.
Gene Name:
FECH
Uniprot ID:
P22830
Molecular Weight:
47861.77 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ADH1C
Uniprot ID:
P00326
Molecular Weight:
39867.27 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Orphan receptor that acts as transcription activator in the absence of bound ligand. Binds specifically to an estrogen response element and activates reporter genes controlled by estrogen response elements (By similarity). Induces the expression of PERM1 in the skeletal muscle.
Gene Name:
ESRRG
Uniprot ID:
P62508
Molecular Weight:
51305.485 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Ileal protein which stimulates gastric acid and pepsinogen secretion. Seems to be able to bind to bile salts and bilirubins. Isoform 2 is essential for the survival of colon cancer cells to bile acid-induced apoptosis.
Gene Name:
FABP6
Uniprot ID:
P51161
Molecular Weight:
14371.245 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport.
Gene Name:
COX4I1
Uniprot ID:
P13073
Molecular Weight:
19576.6 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Iron ion binding
Specific Function:
Cytochrome c oxidase is the component of the respiratory chain that catalyzes the reduction of oxygen to water. Subunits 1-3 form the functional core of the enzyme complex. CO I is the catalytic subunit of the enzyme. Electrons originating in cytochrome c are transferred via the copper A center of subunit 2 and heme A of subunit 1 to the bimetallic center formed by heme A3 and copper B.
Gene Name:
MT-CO1
Uniprot ID:
P00395
Molecular Weight:
57040.91 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochrome c oxidase is the component of the respiratory chain that catalyzes the reduction of oxygen to water. Subunits 1-3 form the functional core of the enzyme complex. Subunit 2 transfers the electrons from cytochrome c via its binuclear copper A center to the bimetallic center of the catalytic subunit 1.
Gene Name:
MT-CO2
Uniprot ID:
P00403
Molecular Weight:
25564.73 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
Subunits I, II and III form the functional core of the enzyme complex.
Gene Name:
MT-CO3
Uniprot ID:
P00414
Molecular Weight:
29950.6 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
This is the heme A-containing chain of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport.
Gene Name:
COX5A
Uniprot ID:
P20674
Molecular Weight:
16761.985 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport.
Gene Name:
COX5B
Uniprot ID:
P10606
Molecular Weight:
13695.57 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport.
Gene Name:
COX6C
Uniprot ID:
P09669
Molecular Weight:
8781.36 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport. Plays a role in proper central nervous system (CNS) development in vertebrates.
Gene Name:
COX7B
Uniprot ID:
P24311
Molecular Weight:
9160.485 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport.
Gene Name:
COX7C
Uniprot ID:
P15954
Molecular Weight:
7245.45 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport.
Gene Name:
COX8A
Uniprot ID:
P10176
Molecular Weight:
7579.0 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport.
Gene Name:
COX6A2
Uniprot ID:
Q02221
Molecular Weight:
10815.32 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
Connects the two COX monomers into the physiological dimeric form.
Gene Name:
COX6B1
Uniprot ID:
P14854
Molecular Weight:
10192.345 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport.
Gene Name:
COX7A1
Uniprot ID:
P24310
Molecular Weight:
9117.44 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Receptor binding
Specific Function:
PA2 catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the 2-acyl groups in 3-sn-phosphoglycerides, this releases glycerophospholipids and arachidonic acid that serve as the precursors of signal molecules.
Gene Name:
PLA2G1B
Uniprot ID:
P04054
Molecular Weight:
16359.535 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Triglyceride lipase activity
Specific Function:
Involved in the detoxification of xenobiotics and in the activation of ester and amide prodrugs. Hydrolyzes aromatic and aliphatic esters, but has no catalytic activity toward amides or a fatty acyl-CoA ester. Hydrolyzes the methyl ester group of cocaine to form benzoylecgonine. Catalyzes the transesterification of cocaine to form cocaethylene. Displays fatty acid ethyl ester synthase activity,...
Gene Name:
CES1
Uniprot ID:
P23141
Molecular Weight:
62520.62 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Ferrochelatase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the ferrous insertion into protoporphyrin IX.
Gene Name:
DKFZp686P18130
Uniprot ID:
Q7KZA3
Molecular Weight:
47131.925 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Clostridium perfringens (strain 13 / Type A)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Choloylglycine hydrolase activity
Specific Function:
The enzyme catalyzes the degradation of conjugated bile acids in the mammalian gut.
Gene Name:
cbh
Uniprot ID:
P54965
Molecular Weight:
37185.0 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Phospholipid binding
Specific Function:
Plays a role in lipoprotein-mediated cholesterol uptake in hepatocytes (PubMed:25732850). Binds cholesterol (PubMed:25732850). Binds free fatty acids and their coenzyme A derivatives, bilirubin, and some other small molecules in the cytoplasm. May be involved in intracellular lipid transport (By similarity).
Gene Name:
FABP1
Uniprot ID:
P07148
Molecular Weight:
14208.34 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitorinducer
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Involved in the ATP-dependent secretion of bile salts into the canaliculus of hepatocytes.
Gene Name:
ABCB11
Uniprot ID:
O95342
Molecular Weight:
146405.83 Da
References
  1. Hartmann G, Cheung AK, Piquette-Miller M: Inflammatory cytokines, but not bile acids, regulate expression of murine hepatic anion transporters in endotoxemia. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Oct;303(1):273-81. [PubMed:12235261 ]
  2. Green RM, Hoda F, Ward KL: Molecular cloning and characterization of the murine bile salt export pump. Gene. 2000 Jan 4;241(1):117-23. [PubMed:10607905 ]
  3. Mita S, Suzuki H, Akita H, Stieger B, Meier PJ, Hofmann AF, Sugiyama Y: Vectorial transport of bile salts across MDCK cells expressing both rat Na+-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide and rat bile salt export pump. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2005 Jan;288(1):G159-67. Epub 2004 Aug 5. [PubMed:15297262 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inducer
General Function:
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular Weight:
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Fickert P, Zollner G, Fuchsbichler A, Stumptner C, Pojer C, Zenz R, Lammert F, Stieger B, Meier PJ, Zatloukal K, Denk H, Trauner M: Effects of ursodeoxycholic and cholic acid feeding on hepatocellular transporter expression in mouse liver. Gastroenterology. 2001 Jul;121(1):170-83. [PubMed:11438506 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inducer
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates export of organic anions and drugs from the cytoplasm. Mediates ATP-dependent transport of glutathione and glutathione conjugates, leukotriene C4, estradiol-17-beta-o-glucuronide, methotrexate, antiviral drugs and other xenobiotics. Confers resistance to anticancer drugs. Hydrolyzes ATP with low efficiency.
Gene Name:
ABCC1
Uniprot ID:
P33527
Molecular Weight:
171589.5 Da
References
  1. Hartmann G, Cheung AK, Piquette-Miller M: Inflammatory cytokines, but not bile acids, regulate expression of murine hepatic anion transporters in endotoxemia. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Oct;303(1):273-81. [PubMed:12235261 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitorinducer
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as sulfobromophthalein (BSP) and conjugated (taurocholate) and unconjugated (cholate) bile acids (By similarity). Selectively inhibited by the grapefruit juice component naringin.
Gene Name:
SLCO1A2
Uniprot ID:
P46721
Molecular Weight:
74144.105 Da
References
  1. Fickert P, Zollner G, Fuchsbichler A, Stumptner C, Pojer C, Zenz R, Lammert F, Stieger B, Meier PJ, Zatloukal K, Denk H, Trauner M: Effects of ursodeoxycholic and cholic acid feeding on hepatocellular transporter expression in mouse liver. Gastroenterology. 2001 Jul;121(1):170-83. [PubMed:11438506 ]
  2. Kullak-Ublick GA, Hagenbuch B, Stieger B, Schteingart CD, Hofmann AF, Wolkoff AW, Meier PJ: Molecular and functional characterization of an organic anion transporting polypeptide cloned from human liver. Gastroenterology. 1995 Oct;109(4):1274-82. [PubMed:7557095 ]
  3. Kullak-Ublick GA, Hagenbuch B, Stieger B, Wolkoff AW, Meier PJ: Functional characterization of the basolateral rat liver organic anion transporting polypeptide. Hepatology. 1994 Aug;20(2):411-6. [PubMed:8045503 ]
  4. Kanai N, Lu R, Bao Y, Wolkoff AW, Schuster VL: Transient expression of oatp organic anion transporter in mammalian cells: identification of candidate substrates. Am J Physiol. 1996 Feb;270(2 Pt 2):F319-25. [PubMed:8779893 ]
  5. Hata S, Wang P, Eftychiou N, Ananthanarayanan M, Batta A, Salen G, Pang KS, Wolkoff AW: Substrate specificities of rat oatp1 and ntcp: implications for hepatic organic anion uptake. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2003 Nov;285(5):G829-39. Epub 2003 Jul 3. [PubMed:12842829 ]
  6. Jacquemin E, Hagenbuch B, Stieger B, Wolkoff AW, Meier PJ: Expression cloning of a rat liver Na(+)-independent organic anion transporter. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Jan 4;91(1):133-7. [PubMed:8278353 ]
  7. Kouzuki H, Suzuki H, Ito K, Ohashi R, Sugiyama Y: Contribution of organic anion transporting polypeptide to uptake of its possible substrates into rat hepatocytes. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Feb;288(2):627-34. [PubMed:9918568 ]
  8. Eckhardt U, Schroeder A, Stieger B, Hochli M, Landmann L, Tynes R, Meier PJ, Hagenbuch B: Polyspecific substrate uptake by the hepatic organic anion transporter Oatp1 in stably transfected CHO cells. Am J Physiol. 1999 Apr;276(4 Pt 1):G1037-42. [PubMed:10198348 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitorinducer
General Function:
Bile acid:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function:
Plays a critical role in the sodium-dependent reabsorption of bile acids from the lumen of the small intestine. Plays a key role in cholesterol metabolism.
Gene Name:
SLC10A2
Uniprot ID:
Q12908
Molecular Weight:
37713.405 Da
References
  1. Fickert P, Zollner G, Fuchsbichler A, Stumptner C, Pojer C, Zenz R, Lammert F, Stieger B, Meier PJ, Zatloukal K, Denk H, Trauner M: Effects of ursodeoxycholic and cholic acid feeding on hepatocellular transporter expression in mouse liver. Gastroenterology. 2001 Jul;121(1):170-83. [PubMed:11438506 ]
  2. Craddock AL, Love MW, Daniel RW, Kirby LC, Walters HC, Wong MH, Dawson PA: Expression and transport properties of the human ileal and renal sodium-dependent bile acid transporter. Am J Physiol. 1998 Jan;274(1 Pt 1):G157-69. [PubMed:9458785 ]
  3. Saeki T, Matoba K, Furukawa H, Kirifuji K, Kanamoto R, Iwami K: Characterization, cDNA cloning, and functional expression of mouse ileal sodium-dependent bile acid transporter. J Biochem. 1999 Apr;125(4):846-51. [PubMed:10101301 ]
  4. Saeki T, Takahashi N, Kanamoto R, Iwami K: Characterization of cloned mouse Na+/taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide by transient expression in COS-7 cells. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2002 May;66(5):1116-8. [PubMed:12092825 ]
  5. Walters HC, Craddock AL, Fusegawa H, Willingham MC, Dawson PA: Expression, transport properties, and chromosomal location of organic anion transporter subtype 3. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2000 Dec;279(6):G1188-200. [PubMed:11093941 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inducer
General Function:
Organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates hepatobiliary excretion of numerous organic anions. May function as a cellular cisplatin transporter.
Gene Name:
ABCC2
Uniprot ID:
Q92887
Molecular Weight:
174205.64 Da
References
  1. Fickert P, Zollner G, Fuchsbichler A, Stumptner C, Pojer C, Zenz R, Lammert F, Stieger B, Meier PJ, Zatloukal K, Denk H, Trauner M: Effects of ursodeoxycholic and cholic acid feeding on hepatocellular transporter expression in mouse liver. Gastroenterology. 2001 Jul;121(1):170-83. [PubMed:11438506 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitorinducer
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent uptake of organic anions such as pravastatin, taurocholate, methotrexate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, 17-beta-glucuronosyl estradiol, estrone sulfate, prostaglandin E2, thromboxane B2, leukotriene C3, leukotriene E4, thyroxine and triiodothyronine. Involved in the clearance of bile acids and organic anions from the liver.
Gene Name:
SLCO1B1
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y6L6
Molecular Weight:
76447.99 Da
References
  1. Hartmann G, Cheung AK, Piquette-Miller M: Inflammatory cytokines, but not bile acids, regulate expression of murine hepatic anion transporters in endotoxemia. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Oct;303(1):273-81. [PubMed:12235261 ]
  2. Konig J, Cui Y, Nies AT, Keppler D: A novel human organic anion transporting polypeptide localized to the basolateral hepatocyte membrane. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2000 Jan;278(1):G156-64. [PubMed:10644574 ]
  3. Cui Y, Konig J, Leier I, Buchholz U, Keppler D: Hepatic uptake of bilirubin and its conjugates by the human organic anion transporter SLC21A6. J Biol Chem. 2001 Mar 30;276(13):9626-30. Epub 2000 Dec 27. [PubMed:11134001 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
May act as an inducible transporter in the biliary and intestinal excretion of organic anions. Acts as an alternative route for the export of bile acids and glucuronides from cholestatic hepatocytes (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ABCC3
Uniprot ID:
O15438
Molecular Weight:
169341.14 Da
References
  1. Hirohashi T, Suzuki H, Takikawa H, Sugiyama Y: ATP-dependent transport of bile salts by rat multidrug resistance-associated protein 3 (Mrp3). J Biol Chem. 2000 Jan 28;275(4):2905-10. [PubMed:10644759 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Atpase activity, coupled to transmembrane movement of substances
Specific Function:
May be an organic anion pump relevant to cellular detoxification.
Gene Name:
ABCC4
Uniprot ID:
O15439
Molecular Weight:
149525.33 Da
References
  1. Rius M, Nies AT, Hummel-Eisenbeiss J, Jedlitschky G, Keppler D: Cotransport of reduced glutathione with bile salts by MRP4 (ABCC4) localized to the basolateral hepatocyte membrane. Hepatology. 2003 Aug;38(2):374-84. [PubMed:12883481 ]
  2. Bai J, Lai L, Yeo HC, Goh BC, Tan TM: Multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4/ABCC4) mediates efflux of bimane-glutathione. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2004 Feb;36(2):247-57. [PubMed:14643890 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Virus receptor activity
Specific Function:
The hepatic sodium/bile acid uptake system exhibits broad substrate specificity and transports various non-bile acid organic compounds as well. It is strictly dependent on the extracellular presence of sodium.(Microbial infection) Acts as a receptor for hepatitis B virus.
Gene Name:
SLC10A1
Uniprot ID:
Q14973
Molecular Weight:
38118.64 Da
References
  1. Hagenbuch B, Stieger B, Foguet M, Lubbert H, Meier PJ: Functional expression cloning and characterization of the hepatocyte Na+/bile acid cotransport system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Dec 1;88(23):10629-33. [PubMed:1961729 ]
  2. Schroeder A, Eckhardt U, Stieger B, Tynes R, Schteingart CD, Hofmann AF, Meier PJ, Hagenbuch B: Substrate specificity of the rat liver Na(+)-bile salt cotransporter in Xenopus laevis oocytes and in CHO cells. Am J Physiol. 1998 Feb;274(2 Pt 1):G370-5. [PubMed:9486191 ]
  3. Hata S, Wang P, Eftychiou N, Ananthanarayanan M, Batta A, Salen G, Pang KS, Wolkoff AW: Substrate specificities of rat oatp1 and ntcp: implications for hepatic organic anion uptake. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2003 Nov;285(5):G829-39. Epub 2003 Jul 3. [PubMed:12842829 ]
  4. Mita S, Suzuki H, Akita H, Stieger B, Meier PJ, Hofmann AF, Sugiyama Y: Vectorial transport of bile salts across MDCK cells expressing both rat Na+-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide and rat bile salt export pump. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2005 Jan;288(1):G159-67. Epub 2004 Aug 5. [PubMed:15297262 ]
  5. Platte HD, Honscha W, Schuh K, Petzinger E: Functional characterization of the hepatic sodium-dependent taurocholate transporter stably transfected into an immortalized liver-derived cell line and V79 fibroblasts. Eur J Cell Biol. 1996 May;70(1):54-60. [PubMed:8738419 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Plays an important role in the excretion/detoxification of endogenous and exogenous organic anions, especially from the brain and kidney. Involved in the transport basolateral of steviol, fexofenadine. Transports benzylpenicillin (PCG), estrone-3-sulfate (E1S), cimetidine (CMD), 2,4-dichloro-phenoxyacetate (2,4-D), p-amino-hippurate (PAH), acyclovir (ACV) and ochratoxin (OTA).
Gene Name:
SLC22A8
Uniprot ID:
Q8TCC7
Molecular Weight:
59855.585 Da
References
  1. Cha SH, Sekine T, Fukushima JI, Kanai Y, Kobayashi Y, Goya T, Endou H: Identification and characterization of human organic anion transporter 3 expressing predominantly in the kidney. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 May;59(5):1277-86. [PubMed:11306713 ]
  2. Kusuhara H, Sekine T, Utsunomiya-Tate N, Tsuda M, Kojima R, Cha SH, Sugiyama Y, Kanai Y, Endou H: Molecular cloning and characterization of a new multispecific organic anion transporter from rat brain. J Biol Chem. 1999 May 7;274(19):13675-80. [PubMed:10224140 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates sodium-independent multispecific organic anion transport. Transport of prostaglandin E2, prostaglandin F2, tetracycline, bumetanide, estrone sulfate, glutarate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, allopurinol, 5-fluorouracil, paclitaxel, L-ascorbic acid, salicylate, ethotrexate, and alpha-ketoglutarate.
Gene Name:
SLC22A7
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y694
Molecular Weight:
60025.025 Da
References
  1. Sekine T, Cha SH, Tsuda M, Apiwattanakul N, Nakajima N, Kanai Y, Endou H: Identification of multispecific organic anion transporter 2 expressed predominantly in the liver. FEBS Lett. 1998 Jun 12;429(2):179-82. [PubMed:9650585 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent uptake of organic anions such as 17-beta-glucuronosyl estradiol, taurocholate, triiodothyronine (T3), leukotriene C4, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), methotrexate and sulfobromophthalein (BSP). Involved in the clearance of bile acids and organic anions from the liver.
Gene Name:
SLCO1B3
Uniprot ID:
Q9NPD5
Molecular Weight:
77402.175 Da
References
  1. Cui Y, Konig J, Leier I, Buchholz U, Keppler D: Hepatic uptake of bilirubin and its conjugates by the human organic anion transporter SLC21A6. J Biol Chem. 2001 Mar 30;276(13):9626-30. Epub 2000 Dec 27. [PubMed:11134001 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on January 07, 2016 19:50