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Identification
NameAcetylcholine
Accession NumberDB03128  (EXPT00412)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
DescriptionA neurotransmitter. Acetylcholine in vertebrates is the major transmitter at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system. It is generally not used as an administered drug because it is broken down very rapidly by cholinesterases, but it is useful in some ophthalmological applications. [PubChem]
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Acetylcholine Chloride
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Miochol EkitBausch & Lomb Incorporated1993-09-22Not applicableUs
Miochol Epowder for solution10 mgophthalmicBausch & Lomb Inc1996-08-14Not applicableCanada
Miochol E Acetylcholine Chloride Oph Solnpowder for solution10 mgophthalmicIolab Pharmaceuticals1994-12-311996-09-09Canada
Miogan Pws 20mg/vialpowder for solution20 mgintraocularAllergan Inc1990-12-312011-08-04Canada
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International BrandsNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNIIN9YNS0M02X
CAS number51-84-3
WeightAverage: 146.2074
Monoisotopic: 146.118103761
Chemical FormulaC7H16NO2
InChI KeyInChIKey=OIPILFWXSMYKGL-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C7H16NO2/c1-7(9)10-6-5-8(2,3)4/h5-6H2,1-4H3/q+1
IUPAC Name
[2-(acetyloxy)ethyl]trimethylazanium
SMILES
CC(=O)OCC[N+](C)(C)C
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as acyl cholines. These are acylated derivatives of choline. Choline or 2-Hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethylethanaminium is a quaternary ammonium salt with the chemical formula (CH3)3N+(CH2)2OH.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganonitrogen compounds
ClassQuaternary ammonium salts
Sub ClassCholines
Direct ParentAcyl cholines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Acyl choline
  • Acetate salt
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Organic cation
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationUsed to obtain miosis of the iris in seconds after delivery of the lens in cataract surgery, in penetrating keratoplasty, iridectomy and other anterior segment surgery where rapid miosis may be required.
PharmacodynamicsNot Available
Mechanism of actionNot Available
Related Articles
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organismsNot Available
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Famotidine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00231
Rabeprazole Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00229
Metiamide Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00735
Pantoprazole Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00228
Roxatidine acetate Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00734
Phospholipid BiosynthesisMetabolicSMP00025
Esomeprazole Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00225
Lansoprazole Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00227
Gastric Acid ProductionPhysiologicalSMP00589
Omeprazole Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00226
Ranitidine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00230
Cimetidine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00232
Nizatidine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00233
Pirenzepine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00246
Betazole Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00736
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption-0.974
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9506
Caco-2 permeable+0.7245
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.5678
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9815
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9436
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.7024
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8287
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.7531
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.5447
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8913
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9611
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8953
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9565
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9689
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9839
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8702
CarcinogenicityCarcinogens 0.6303
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.8804
Rat acute toxicity2.4062 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9083
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8171
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Kit
Powder for solutionophthalmic10 mg
Powder for solutionintraocular20 mg
PricesNot Available
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US6261546 No1999-04-292019-04-29Us
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental PropertiesNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.136 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-2.9ALOGPS
logP-4.2ChemAxon
logS-3.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)-7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area26.3 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity51.35 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability16.69 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-000j-9600000000-ec60451904fda7dde556View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-000l-9000000000-2ea4c086c3ab458a1d7cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-9000000000-98d5a70eed75a0945da4View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-0002-1900000000-2da10e016ac539b6e981View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-000i-9000000000-7efaaa08a6c43d816358View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-000i-9000000000-eb7d66198d7674cbbd2aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-000l-9000000000-41b87d773c58129802e9View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-9e8e66250f2cf34a2046View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-f7fe18f2371596dc7333View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) 30V, Positivesplash10-000j-9800000000-b0f987ebcb0179a2c5abView in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Masao Tanihara, Hideaki Yamada, Toshihide Nakashima, Yoshiaki Omura, Koichi Takakura, “Human IgG.sub.1 monoclonal antibody specific for the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and hybridoma producing the antibody.” U.S. Patent US5192684, issued December, 1984.

US5192684
General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesS01EB09
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB Entries
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
1,10-PhenanthrolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when 1,10-Phenanthroline is combined with Acetylcholine.
AbirateroneThe metabolism of Acetylcholine can be decreased when combined with Abiraterone.
AcebutololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acebutolol is combined with Acetylcholine.
AlprenololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alprenolol is combined with Acetylcholine.
AmbenoniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ambenonium is combined with Acetylcholine.
AmiodaroneThe metabolism of Acetylcholine can be decreased when combined with Amiodarone.
ArotinololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Arotinolol is combined with Acetylcholine.
ArtemetherThe metabolism of Acetylcholine can be decreased when combined with Artemether.
AtenololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atenolol is combined with Acetylcholine.
AtomoxetineThe metabolism of Acetylcholine can be decreased when combined with Atomoxetine.
BefunololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Befunolol is combined with Acetylcholine.
BetaxololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Betaxolol is combined with Acetylcholine.
BevantololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bevantolol is combined with Acetylcholine.
BisoprololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bisoprolol is combined with Acetylcholine.
BopindololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bopindolol is combined with Acetylcholine.
BufuralolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bufuralol is combined with Acetylcholine.
BupranololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bupranolol is combined with Acetylcholine.
BupropionThe metabolism of Acetylcholine can be decreased when combined with Bupropion.
CarteololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carteolol is combined with Acetylcholine.
CarvedilolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carvedilol is combined with Acetylcholine.
CelecoxibThe metabolism of Acetylcholine can be decreased when combined with Celecoxib.
CeliprololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Celiprolol is combined with Acetylcholine.
ChloroquineThe metabolism of Acetylcholine can be decreased when combined with Chloroquine.
ChlorpromazineThe metabolism of Acetylcholine can be decreased when combined with Chlorpromazine.
CholecalciferolThe metabolism of Acetylcholine can be decreased when combined with Cholecalciferol.
CimetidineThe metabolism of Acetylcholine can be decreased when combined with Cimetidine.
CimetropiumAcetylcholine may decrease the anticholinergic activities of Cimetropium.
CinacalcetThe metabolism of Acetylcholine can be decreased when combined with Cinacalcet.
CitalopramThe metabolism of Acetylcholine can be decreased when combined with Citalopram.
ClemastineThe metabolism of Acetylcholine can be decreased when combined with Clemastine.
ClobazamThe metabolism of Acetylcholine can be decreased when combined with Clobazam.
ClomipramineThe metabolism of Acetylcholine can be decreased when combined with Clomipramine.
ClotrimazoleThe metabolism of Acetylcholine can be decreased when combined with Clotrimazole.
ClozapineThe metabolism of Acetylcholine can be decreased when combined with Clozapine.
CobicistatThe serum concentration of Acetylcholine can be increased when it is combined with Cobicistat.
CocaineThe metabolism of Acetylcholine can be decreased when combined with Cocaine.
CoumaphosThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Coumaphos is combined with Acetylcholine.
DarifenacinThe metabolism of Acetylcholine can be decreased when combined with Darifenacin.
DarunavirThe serum concentration of Acetylcholine can be increased when it is combined with Darunavir.
DecamethoniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Decamethonium is combined with Acetylcholine.
DelavirdineThe metabolism of Acetylcholine can be decreased when combined with Delavirdine.
DemecariumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Demecarium is combined with Acetylcholine.
DesipramineThe metabolism of Acetylcholine can be decreased when combined with Desipramine.
DichlorvosThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dichlorvos is combined with Acetylcholine.
DiphenhydramineThe metabolism of Acetylcholine can be decreased when combined with Diphenhydramine.
DonepezilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Donepezil is combined with Acetylcholine.
DronedaroneThe metabolism of Acetylcholine can be decreased when combined with Dronedarone.
DuloxetineThe metabolism of Acetylcholine can be decreased when combined with Duloxetine.
EchothiophateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Echothiophate is combined with Acetylcholine.
EdrophoniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Edrophonium is combined with Acetylcholine.
EliglustatThe metabolism of Acetylcholine can be decreased when combined with Eliglustat.
EsmololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Acetylcholine.
FenthionThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fenthion is combined with Acetylcholine.
FluoxetineThe metabolism of Acetylcholine can be decreased when combined with Fluoxetine.
FluvoxamineThe metabolism of Acetylcholine can be decreased when combined with Fluvoxamine.
GalantamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Galantamine is combined with Acetylcholine.
Gallamine TriethiodideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gallamine Triethiodide is combined with Acetylcholine.
Ginkgo bilobaThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ginkgo biloba is combined with Acetylcholine.
HaloperidolThe metabolism of Acetylcholine can be decreased when combined with Haloperidol.
Huperzine AThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Huperzine A is combined with Acetylcholine.
ImipramineThe metabolism of Acetylcholine can be decreased when combined with Imipramine.
IndenololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Indenolol is combined with Acetylcholine.
IndinavirThe metabolism of Acetylcholine can be decreased when combined with Indinavir.
IsoflurophateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurophate is combined with Acetylcholine.
IsoniazidThe metabolism of Acetylcholine can be decreased when combined with Isoniazid.
KetoconazoleThe metabolism of Acetylcholine can be decreased when combined with Ketoconazole.
LabetalolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Labetalol is combined with Acetylcholine.
LevobunololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobunolol is combined with Acetylcholine.
LopinavirThe metabolism of Acetylcholine can be decreased when combined with Lopinavir.
LorcaserinThe metabolism of Acetylcholine can be decreased when combined with Lorcaserin.
LumefantrineThe metabolism of Acetylcholine can be decreased when combined with Lumefantrine.
MalathionThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Malathion is combined with Acetylcholine.
MefloquineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mefloquine is combined with Acetylcholine.
MemantineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Memantine is combined with Acetylcholine.
MethadoneThe metabolism of Acetylcholine can be decreased when combined with Methadone.
MethotrimeprazineThe metabolism of Acetylcholine can be decreased when combined with Methotrimeprazine.
MetipranololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metipranolol is combined with Acetylcholine.
MetoprololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metoprolol is combined with Acetylcholine.
MinaprineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minaprine is combined with Acetylcholine.
MirabegronThe metabolism of Acetylcholine can be decreased when combined with Mirabegron.
NadololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nadolol is combined with Acetylcholine.
NeostigmineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Neostigmine is combined with Acetylcholine.
NevirapineThe metabolism of Acetylcholine can be decreased when combined with Nevirapine.
NicardipineThe metabolism of Acetylcholine can be decreased when combined with Nicardipine.
NilotinibThe metabolism of Acetylcholine can be decreased when combined with Nilotinib.
OxprenololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxprenolol is combined with Acetylcholine.
PanobinostatThe metabolism of Acetylcholine can be decreased when combined with Panobinostat.
ParoxetineThe metabolism of Acetylcholine can be decreased when combined with Paroxetine.
Peginterferon alfa-2bThe serum concentration of Acetylcholine can be decreased when it is combined with Peginterferon alfa-2b.
PenbutololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Acetylcholine.
PhysostigmineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Physostigmine is combined with Acetylcholine.
PindololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pindolol is combined with Acetylcholine.
PractololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Practolol is combined with Acetylcholine.
PromazineThe metabolism of Acetylcholine can be decreased when combined with Promazine.
PropranololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Propranolol is combined with Acetylcholine.
PyridostigmineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pyridostigmine is combined with Acetylcholine.
QuinidineThe metabolism of Acetylcholine can be decreased when combined with Quinidine.
QuinineThe metabolism of Acetylcholine can be decreased when combined with Quinine.
RanolazineThe metabolism of Acetylcholine can be decreased when combined with Ranolazine.
RitonavirThe metabolism of Acetylcholine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.
RivastigmineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rivastigmine is combined with Acetylcholine.
RolapitantThe metabolism of Acetylcholine can be decreased when combined with Rolapitant.
RopiniroleThe metabolism of Acetylcholine can be decreased when combined with Ropinirole.
SertralineThe metabolism of Acetylcholine can be decreased when combined with Sertraline.
SotalolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sotalol is combined with Acetylcholine.
StiripentolThe metabolism of Acetylcholine can be decreased when combined with Stiripentol.
TacrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tacrine is combined with Acetylcholine.
TerbinafineThe metabolism of Acetylcholine can be decreased when combined with Terbinafine.
ThioridazineThe metabolism of Acetylcholine can be decreased when combined with Thioridazine.
TiclopidineThe metabolism of Acetylcholine can be decreased when combined with Ticlopidine.
TimololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Timolol is combined with Acetylcholine.
TipranavirThe metabolism of Acetylcholine can be decreased when combined with Tipranavir.
TranylcypromineThe metabolism of Acetylcholine can be decreased when combined with Tranylcypromine.
TrichlorfonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trichlorfon is combined with Acetylcholine.
TubocurarineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tubocurarine is combined with Acetylcholine.
VenlafaxineThe metabolism of Acetylcholine can be decreased when combined with Venlafaxine.
ZiprasidoneThe metabolism of Acetylcholine can be decreased when combined with Ziprasidone.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Serine hydrolase activity
Specific Function:
Terminates signal transduction at the neuromuscular junction by rapid hydrolysis of the acetylcholine released into the synaptic cleft. Role in neuronal apoptosis.
Gene Name:
ACHE
Uniprot ID:
P22303
Molecular Weight:
67795.525 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular Weight:
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Symporter activity
Specific Function:
Sodium-ion dependent, high affinity carnitine transporter. Involved in the active cellular uptake of carnitine. Transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cations such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) without the involvement of sodium. Also relative uptake activity ratio of carnitine to TEA is 11.3.
Gene Name:
SLC22A5
Uniprot ID:
O76082
Molecular Weight:
62751.08 Da
References
  1. Ohashi R, Tamai I, Nezu Ji J, Nikaido H, Hashimoto N, Oku A, Sai Y, Shimane M, Tsuji A: Molecular and physiological evidence for multifunctionality of carnitine/organic cation transporter OCTN2. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 Feb;59(2):358-66. [PubMed:11160873 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Secondary active organic cation transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Translocates a broad array of organic cations with various structures and molecular weights including the model compounds 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), tetraethylammonium (TEA), N-1-methylnicotinamide (NMN), 4-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)-N-methylpyridinium (ASP), the endogenous compounds choline, guanidine, histamine, epinephrine, adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine, and the drugs quinine...
Gene Name:
SLC22A1
Uniprot ID:
O15245
Molecular Weight:
61153.345 Da
References
  1. Busch AE, Quester S, Ulzheimer JC, Gorboulev V, Akhoundova A, Waldegger S, Lang F, Koepsell H: Monoamine neurotransmitter transport mediated by the polyspecific cation transporter rOCT1. FEBS Lett. 1996 Oct 21;395(2-3):153-6. [PubMed:8898084 ]
Comments
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23