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Identification
NameEstrone sulfate
Accession NumberDB04574
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
Description

Estrone sulfate (as estropipate) is a form of estrogen. It has several uses such as: alleviate symptoms of menopause as hormone replacement therapy, treatment some types of infertility, treatment of some conditions leading to underdevelopment of female sexual characteristics, treatment of vaginal atrophy, treatment of some types of breast cancer (particularly in men and postmenopausal women), treatment of prostate cancer and prevention of osteoporosis.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Estra-1,3,5 (10)-triene-17-one-3-yl-sulfate
Estrone 3-sulfate
Estrone bisulfate
Estrone hemisulfate
Estrone hydrogen sulfate
estrone sulphate
Estrone-3-sulphate
Estrone, hydrogen sulfate
External Identifiers
  • US-2917522
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Ogen .625tablet0.75 mgoralPfizer Canada Inc1994-12-312012-08-24Canada
Ogen 1.25tablet1.5 mgoralPfizer Canada Inc1994-12-312012-08-24Canada
Ogen 2.5tablet3.0 mgoralPfizer Canada Inc1994-12-312012-08-24Canada
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Estropipatetablet.75 mg/1oralWatson Laboratories, Inc.1993-09-23Not applicableUs
Estropipatetablet3 mg/1oralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2003-03-26Not applicableUs
Estropipatetablet1.5 mg/1oralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2003-03-21Not applicableUs
Estropipatetablet.75 mg/1oralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2003-03-21Not applicableUs
Estropipatetablet3 mg/1oralWatson Laboratories, Inc.1993-09-23Not applicableUs
Estropipatetablet1.5 mg/1oralWatson Laboratories, Inc.1993-09-23Not applicableUs
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
OgenNot Available
ORTHO-ESTNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Estropipate
7280-37-7
Thumb
  • InChI Key: HZEQBCVBILBTEP-ZFINNJDLSA-N
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 436.203193312
  • Average Mass: 436.57
DBSALT001878
Categories
UNIIQTL48N278K
CAS number481-97-0
WeightAverage: 350.429
Monoisotopic: 350.118794504
Chemical FormulaC18H22O5S
InChI KeyJKKFKPJIXZFSSB-CBZIJGRNSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C18H22O5S/c1-18-9-8-14-13-5-3-12(23-24(20,21)22)10-11(13)2-4-15(14)16(18)6-7-17(18)19/h3,5,10,14-16H,2,4,6-9H2,1H3,(H,20,21,22)/t14-,15-,16+,18+/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
[(1S,10R,11S,15S)-15-methyl-14-oxotetracyclo[8.7.0.0²,⁷.0¹¹,¹⁵]heptadeca-2(7),3,5-trien-5-yl]oxidanesulfonic acid
SMILES
C[C@]12CC[[email protected]]3[C@@H](CCC4=C3C=CC(OS(O)(=O)=O)=C4)[C@@H]1CCC2=O
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as sulfated steroids. These are sterol lipids containing a sulfate group attached to the steroid skeleton.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassSteroids and steroid derivatives
Sub ClassSulfated steroids
Direct ParentSulfated steroids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Sulfated steroid
  • 3-sulfated steroid
  • Sulfated steroid skeleton
  • Oxosteroid
  • 17-oxosteroid
  • Estrane-skeleton
  • Phenanthrene
  • Tetralin
  • Sulfuric acid monoester
  • Benzenoid
  • Sulfuric acid ester
  • Sulfate-ester
  • Organic sulfuric acid or derivatives
  • Ketone
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aromatic homopolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homopolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationEstropipate is used for the treatment of moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms associated with the monopause, and moderate to severe symptoms of vulval and vaginal atrophy associated with the menopause. It is also used to treat hypoestrogenism due to hypogonadism, castration or primary ovarian failure, and prevent postmenopausal osteoporosis.
PharmacodynamicsEstropipate is an estrogenic substance. It acts as naturally produced estrogen does. Estrogens act through binding to nuclear receptors in estrogen-responsive tissues. Circulating estrogens modulate the pituitary secretion of the gonadotropins, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), through a negative feedback mechanism. Estrogens act to reduce the elevated levels of these hormones seen in postmenopausal women.
Mechanism of actionEstradiol enters target cells freely (e.g., female organs, breasts, hypothalamus, pituitary) and interacts with a target cell receptor. When the estrogen receptor has bound its ligand it can enter the nucleus of the target cell, and regulate gene transcription which leads to formation of messenger RNA. The mRNA interacts with ribosomes to produce specific proteins that express the effect of estradiol upon the target cell. Estrogens increase the hepatic synthesis of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), thyroid-binding globulin (TBG), and other serum proteins and suppress follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) from the anterior pituitary.
Related Articles
AbsorptionEstropipate is well absorbed through the skin and gastrointestinal tract. When applied for a local action, absorption is usually sufficient to cause systemic effects.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism

Exogenous estrogens are metabolized in the same manner as endogenous estrogens. Circulating estrogens exist in a dynamic equilibrium of metabolic interconversions. These transformations take place mainly in the liver. Estradiol is converted reversibly to estrone, and both can be converted to estriol, which is the major urinary metabolite. Estrogens also undergo enterohepatic recirculation via sulfate and glucuronide conjugation in the liver, biliary secretion of conjugates into the intestine, and hydrolysis in the gut followed by reabsorption. In postmenopausal women, a significant proportion of the circulating estrogens exist as sulfate conjugates, especially estrone sulfate, which serves as a circulating reservoir for the formation of more active estrogens.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Estrone sulfate
Not Available
EstroneDetails
Estrone sulfate
Not Available
EstriolDetails
Route of eliminationEstradiol, estrone and estriol are excreted in the urine along with glucuronide and sulfate conjugates
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
17-Beta Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase III DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00356
Androgen and Estrogen MetabolismMetabolicSMP00068
Sulfate/Sulfite MetabolismMetabolicSMP00041
Sulfite oxidase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00532
Aromatase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00565
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9974
Blood Brain Barrier+0.935
Caco-2 permeable-0.8343
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.5376
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.5591
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9751
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8407
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7526
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8214
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.6275
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9046
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9071
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.923
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9026
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9421
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8808
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.5621
CarcinogenicityCarcinogens 0.5507
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9558
Rat acute toxicity2.2402 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Strong inhibitor0.5746
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.8077
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
PackagersNot Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Tabletoral.75 mg/1
Tabletoral1.5 mg/1
Tabletoral3 mg/1
Tabletoral0.75 mg
Tabletoral1.5 mg
Tabletoral3.0 mg
PricesNot Available
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental PropertiesNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0059 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.29ALOGPS
logP3.83ChemAxon
logS-4.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)-1.7ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-7.5ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area80.67 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity89.07 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability36.64 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesNot Available
AHFS Codes
  • 68:16.04
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AbciximabEstropipate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Abciximab.
AcenocoumarolEstropipate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Acenocoumarol.
AcetohexamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Acetohexamide can be decreased when used in combination with Estropipate.
AlogliptinThe therapeutic efficacy of Alogliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Estropipate.
AnastrozoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Anastrozole can be decreased when used in combination with Estropipate.
Anthrax immune globulinEstropipate may increase the thrombogenic activities of Anthrax immune globulin.
BexaroteneThe serum concentration of Estropipate can be decreased when it is combined with Bexarotene.
BosentanThe serum concentration of Estropipate can be decreased when it is combined with Bosentan.
C1 Esterase Inhibitor (Human)Estropipate may increase the thrombogenic activities of C1 Esterase Inhibitor (Human).
CanagliflozinThe therapeutic efficacy of Canagliflozin can be decreased when used in combination with Estropipate.
CapromabEstropipate may decrease effectiveness of Capromab as a diagnostic agent.
CarbamazepineThe metabolism of Estropipate can be increased when combined with Carbamazepine.
Chenodeoxycholic acidThe therapeutic efficacy of Chenodeoxycholic acid can be decreased when used in combination with Estropipate.
ChlorpropamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Chlorpropamide can be decreased when used in combination with Estropipate.
Citric AcidEstropipate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
Cyproterone acetateThe serum concentration of Estropipate can be decreased when it is combined with Cyproterone acetate.
DabrafenibThe serum concentration of Estropipate can be decreased when it is combined with Dabrafenib.
DalteparinEstropipate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Dalteparin.
DeferasiroxThe serum concentration of Estropipate can be decreased when it is combined with Deferasirox.
DehydroepiandrosteroneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dehydroepiandrosterone is combined with Estropipate.
DicoumarolEstropipate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Dicoumarol.
Edetic AcidEstropipate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Edetic Acid.
EnoxaparinEstropipate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
Ethyl biscoumacetateEstropipate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Ethyl biscoumacetate.
ExemestaneThe therapeutic efficacy of Exemestane can be decreased when used in combination with Estropipate.
FludrocortisoneThe serum concentration of Fludrocortisone can be increased when it is combined with Estropipate.
Fondaparinux sodiumEstropipate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Fondaparinux sodium.
GliclazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Gliclazide can be decreased when used in combination with Estropipate.
GlimepirideThe therapeutic efficacy of Glimepiride can be decreased when used in combination with Estropipate.
GliquidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Gliquidone can be decreased when used in combination with Estropipate.
GlyburideThe therapeutic efficacy of Glyburide can be decreased when used in combination with Estropipate.
HeparinEstropipate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Heparin.
HyaluronidaseThe therapeutic efficacy of Hyaluronidase can be decreased when used in combination with Estropipate.
IcosapentIcosapent may increase the thrombogenic activities of Estropipate.
Immune Globulin HumanEstropipate may increase the thrombogenic activities of Intravenous Immunoglobulin.
Insulin AspartThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Estropipate.
Insulin DetemirThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Estropipate.
Insulin GlargineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glargine can be decreased when used in combination with Estropipate.
Insulin GlulisineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Estropipate.
Insulin HumanThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Estropipate.
Insulin LisproThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Lispro can be decreased when used in combination with Estropipate.
LenalidomideEstropipate may increase the thrombogenic activities of Lenalidomide.
LinagliptinThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Estropipate.
LiothyronineThe therapeutic efficacy of Liothyronine can be decreased when used in combination with Estropipate.
MetforminThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Estropipate.
MitotaneThe serum concentration of Estropipate can be decreased when it is combined with Mitotane.
OspemifeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Estropipate is combined with Ospemifene.
PhenindioneEstropipate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Phenindione.
PhenprocoumonEstropipate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Phenprocoumon.
PhenytoinThe metabolism of Estropipate can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
RepaglinideThe therapeutic efficacy of Repaglinide can be decreased when used in combination with Estropipate.
RopiniroleThe serum concentration of Ropinirole can be increased when it is combined with Estropipate.
SaxagliptinThe therapeutic efficacy of Saxagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Estropipate.
SiltuximabThe serum concentration of Estropipate can be decreased when it is combined with Siltuximab.
Somatropin recombinantThe therapeutic efficacy of Somatropin recombinant can be decreased when used in combination with Estropipate.
St. John's WortThe serum concentration of Estropipate can be decreased when it is combined with St. John's Wort.
SulodexideEstropipate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Sulodexide.
TeriflunomideThe serum concentration of Estropipate can be decreased when it is combined with Teriflunomide.
ThalidomideEstropipate may increase the thrombogenic activities of Thalidomide.
TheophyllineThe serum concentration of Theophylline can be increased when it is combined with Estropipate.
TipranavirEstropipate may increase the dermatologic adverse activities of Tipranavir.
TocilizumabThe serum concentration of Estropipate can be decreased when it is combined with Tocilizumab.
TolbutamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Tolbutamide can be decreased when used in combination with Estropipate.
TreprostinilEstropipate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Treprostinil.
Ursodeoxycholic acidThe therapeutic efficacy of Ursodeoxycholic acid can be decreased when used in combination with Estropipate.
VildagliptinThe therapeutic efficacy of Vildagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Estropipate.
Vitamin CThe serum concentration of Estropipate can be increased when it is combined with Vitamin C.
WarfarinEstropipate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Warfarin.
Food Interactions
  • Take with food to decrease nausea

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Ligand-dependent nuclear transactivation involves either direct homodimer binding to a palindromic estrogen response element (ERE) sequence or association with other DNA-binding transcription fact...
Gene Name:
ESR1
Uniprot ID:
P03372
Molecular Weight:
66215.45 Da
References
  1. Brama M, Gnessi L, Basciani S, Cerulli N, Politi L, Spera G, Mariani S, Cherubini S, Scotto d'Abusco A, Scandurra R, Migliaccio S: Cadmium induces mitogenic signaling in breast cancer cell by an ERalpha-dependent mechanism. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2007 Jan 29;264(1-2):102-8. Epub 2006 Nov 27. [PubMed:17125913 ]
  2. Lehnes K, Winder AD, Alfonso C, Kasid N, Simoneaux M, Summe H, Morgan E, Iann MC, Duncan J, Eagan M, Tavaluc R, Evans CH Jr, Russell R, Wang A, Hu F, Stoica A: The effect of estradiol on in vivo tumorigenesis is modulated by the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt1 pathway. Endocrinology. 2007 Mar;148(3):1171-80. Epub 2006 Nov 30. [PubMed:17138652 ]
  3. Sasson S: Equilibrium binding analysis of estrogen agonists and antagonists: relation to the activation of the estrogen receptor. Pathol Biol (Paris). 1991 Jan;39(1):59-69. [PubMed:2011412 ]
  4. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. Binds estrogens with an affinity similar to that of ESR1, and activates expression of reporter genes containing estrogen response elements (ERE) in an estrogen-dependent manner (PubMed:20074560). Isoform beta-cx lacks ligand binding ability and has no or only very low ere binding activity resulting in the loss of ligand-dependent transactivation ability. DNA-binding by...
Gene Name:
ESR2
Uniprot ID:
Q92731
Molecular Weight:
59215.765 Da
References
  1. Vijayanathan V, Greenfield NJ, Thomas TJ, Ivanova MM, Tyulmenkov VV, Klinge CM, Gallo MA, Thomas T: Effects of estradiol and 4-hydroxytamoxifen on the conformation, thermal stability, and DNA recognition of estrogen receptor beta. Biochem Cell Biol. 2007 Feb;85(1):1-10. [PubMed:17464340 ]
  2. Sasson S: Equilibrium binding analysis of estrogen agonists and antagonists: relation to the activation of the estrogen receptor. Pathol Biol (Paris). 1991 Jan;39(1):59-69. [PubMed:2011412 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N...
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular Weight:
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  2. Lee AJ, Cai MX, Thomas PE, Conney AH, Zhu BT: Characterization of the oxidative metabolites of 17beta-estradiol and estrone formed by 15 selectively expressed human cytochrome p450 isoforms. Endocrinology. 2003 Aug;144(8):3382-98. [PubMed:12865317 ]
  3. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiot...
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  2. Lee AJ, Cai MX, Thomas PE, Conney AH, Zhu BT: Characterization of the oxidative metabolites of 17beta-estradiol and estrone formed by 15 selectively expressed human cytochrome p450 isoforms. Endocrinology. 2003 Aug;144(8):3382-98. [PubMed:12865317 ]
  3. Williams ET, Leyk M, Wrighton SA, Davies PJ, Loose DS, Shipley GL, Strobel HW: Estrogen regulation of the cytochrome P450 3A subfamily in humans. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Nov;311(2):728-35. Epub 2004 Jul 28. [PubMed:15282264 ]
  4. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inducer
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenyto...
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular Weight:
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Egnell AC, Eriksson C, Albertson N, Houston B, Boyer S: Generation and evaluation of a CYP2C9 heteroactivation pharmacophore. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Dec;307(3):878-87. Epub 2003 Oct 13. [PubMed:14557374 ]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Androgen binding
Specific Function:
Functions as an androgen transport protein, but may also be involved in receptor mediated processes. Each dimer binds one molecule of steroid. Specific for 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone, testosterone, and 17-beta-estradiol. Regulates the plasma metabolic clearance rate of steroid hormones by controlling their plasma concentration.
Gene Name:
SHBG
Uniprot ID:
P04278
Molecular Weight:
43778.755 Da
References
  1. Campusano M C, Brusco G F, Campino J C, Rodriguez P L, Arteaga U E: [Assessment of androgenic decline in the elderly]. Rev Med Chil. 2006 Sep;134(9):1123-8. Epub 2006 Dec 12. [PubMed:17171213 ]
  2. Kuba R, Pohanka M, Zakopcan J, Novotna I, Rektor I: Sexual dysfunctions and blood hormonal profile in men with focal epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2006 Dec;47(12):2135-40. [PubMed:17201714 ]
  3. Bendlova B, Zavadilova J, Vankova M, Vejrazkova D, Lukasova P, Vcelak J, Hill M, Cibula D, Vondra K, Starka L, Vrbikova J: Role of D327N sex hormone-binding globulin gene polymorphism in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2007 Apr;104(1-2):68-74. Epub 2007 Jan 26. [PubMed:17258903 ]
  4. Sablik Z, Samborska-Sablik A, Bolinska-Soltysiak H, Goch JH, Kula K: [Hyperandrogenism as a risk factor of coronary artery disease in young women]. Pol Arch Med Wewn. 2006 Feb;115(2):118-24. [PubMed:17274467 ]
  5. Mohamad MJ, Mohammad MA, Karayyem M, Hairi A, Hader AA: Serum levels of sex hormones in men with acute myocardial infarction. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2007 Apr;28(2):182-6. [PubMed:17435665 ]
  6. O'Connell MB: Pharmacokinetic and pharmacologic variation between different estrogen products. J Clin Pharmacol. 1995 Sep;35(9 Suppl):18S-24S. [PubMed:8530713 ]
  7. Pardridge WM: Serum bioavailability of sex steroid hormones. Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1986 May;15(2):259-78. [PubMed:3521955 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function:
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloidal osmotic pressure of blood. Major zinc transporter in plasma, typically binds about 80% of all plasma zinc.
Gene Name:
ALB
Uniprot ID:
P02768
Molecular Weight:
69365.94 Da
References
  1. O'Connell MB: Pharmacokinetic and pharmacologic variation between different estrogen products. J Clin Pharmacol. 1995 Sep;35(9 Suppl):18S-24S. [PubMed:8530713 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Secondary active organic cation transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Translocates a broad array of organic cations with various structures and molecular weights including the model compounds 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), tetraethylammonium (TEA), N-1-methylnicotinamide (NMN), 4-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)-N-methylpyridinium (ASP), the endogenous compounds choline, guanidine, histamine, epinephrine, adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine, and the drugs quinine...
Gene Name:
SLC22A1
Uniprot ID:
O15245
Molecular Weight:
61153.345 Da
References
  1. Hayer-Zillgen M, Bruss M, Bonisch H: Expression and pharmacological profile of the human organic cation transporters hOCT1, hOCT2 and hOCT3. Br J Pharmacol. 2002 Jul;136(6):829-36. [PubMed:12110607 ]
  2. Wu X, Kekuda R, Huang W, Fei YJ, Leibach FH, Chen J, Conway SJ, Ganapathy V: Identity of the organic cation transporter OCT3 as the extraneuronal monoamine transporter (uptake2) and evidence for the expression of the transporter in the brain. J Biol Chem. 1998 Dec 4;273(49):32776-86. [PubMed:9830022 ]
Comments
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Drug created on September 07, 2007 15:12 / Updated on May 12, 2016 14:36