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Identification
NameAsenapine
Accession NumberDB06216
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
Description

Developed by Schering-Plough after its merger with Organon International, asenapine is a sublingually administered, atypical antipsychotic for treatment of schizophrenia and acute mania associated with bipolar disorder. Asenapine also belongs to the dibenzo-oxepino pyrrole class. It is also for severe post-traumatic stress disorder nightmares in soldiers as an off-label use. FDA approved on August 13, 2009.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Saphris
External Identifiers
  • ORG-5222
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Saphristablet5 mg/1sublingualOrganon Pharmaceuticals USA2009-08-13Not applicableUs
Saphristablet10 mg/1sublingualForest Laboratories, Inc.2013-09-30Not applicableUs
Saphristablet5 mg/1sublingualForest Laboratories, Inc.2013-09-30Not applicableUs
Saphristablet2.5 mg/1sublingualForest Laboratories, Inc.2014-12-30Not applicableUs
Saphristablet10 mg/1sublingualOrganon Pharmaceuticals USA2010-06-21Not applicableUs
Saphristablet10 mgsublingualMerck Canada Inc2011-12-19Not applicableCanada
Saphristablet5 mg/1sublingualOrganon Pharmaceuticals USA2010-06-21Not applicableUs
Saphristablet5 mgsublingualMerck Canada Inc2011-12-19Not applicableCanada
Saphristablet10 mg/1sublingualOrganon Pharmaceuticals USA2009-08-13Not applicableUs
Saphristablet10 mg/1sublingualSTAT Rx USA LLC2009-08-14Not applicableUs
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
Sycrest Lundbeck
Brand mixturesNot Available
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Asenapine Maleate
Thumb
  • InChI Key: GMDCDXMAFMEDAG-CHHFXETESA-N
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 401.103000462
  • Average Mass: 401.84
DBSALT000010
Categories
UNIIJKZ19V908O
CAS number65576-45-6
WeightAverage: 401.84
Monoisotopic: 401.103000462
Chemical FormulaC21H20ClNO5
InChI KeyInChIKey=GMDCDXMAFMEDAG-BTJKTKAUSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C17H16ClNO.C4H4O4/c1-19-9-14-12-4-2-3-5-16(12)20-17-7-6-11(18)8-13(17)15(14)10-19;5-3(6)1-2-4(7)8/h2-8,14-15H,9-10H2,1H3;1-2H,(H,5,6)(H,7,8)/b;2-1-
IUPAC Name
(2Z)-but-2-enedioic acid; 17-chloro-4-methyl-13-oxa-4-azatetracyclo[12.4.0.0²,⁶.0⁷,¹²]octadeca-1(14),7,9,11,15,17-hexaene
SMILES
OC(=O)\C=C/C(O)=O.CN1CC2C(C1)C1=C(OC3=CC=CC=C23)C=CC(Cl)=C1
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as dibenzoxepines. These are compounds containing a dibenzoxepine moiety, which consists of two benzene connected by an oxazepine ring.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassBenzoxepines
Sub ClassDibenzoxepines
Direct ParentDibenzoxepines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Dibenzoxepine
  • Diaryl ether
  • Aralkylamine
  • Chlorobenzene
  • Fatty acyl
  • Fatty acid
  • Benzenoid
  • N-alkylpyrrolidine
  • Unsaturated fatty acid
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Aryl halide
  • Aryl chloride
  • Pyrrolidine
  • Tertiary aliphatic amine
  • Tertiary amine
  • Oxacycle
  • Azacycle
  • Ether
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organochloride
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External DescriptorsNot Available
Pharmacology
IndicationUsed for treatment in psychosis, schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders, manic disorders, and bipolar disorders as monotherapy or in combination.
PharmacodynamicsAsenapine is a serotonin, dopamine, noradrenaline, and histamine antagonist in which asenapine possess more potent activity with serotonin receptors than dopamine. Sedation in patients is associated with asenapine's antagonist activity at histamine receptors. Its lower incidence of extrapyramidal effects are associated with the upregulation of D1 receptors. This upregulation occurs due to asenapine's dose-dependent effects on glutamate transmission in the brain. It does not have any significant activity with muscarinic, cholinergic receptors therefore symptoms associated with anticholinergic drug activity like dry mouth or constipation are not expected to be observed. Asenapine has a higher affinity for all aforementioned receptors compared to first-generation and second-generation antipsychotics except for 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptors.
Mechanism of actionAsenapine is an atypical antipsychotic multireceptor neuroleptic drug which shows strong 5HT2A (serotonin) and D2 (dopamine) receptor antagonism, which has been shown to enhance dopamine (DA) and acetylcholine (Ach) efflux in rat brains. Asenapine may improve cognitive function and negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia.
Related Articles
AbsorptionCmax, single 5 mg dose = 4 ng/mL (within 1 hour); Bioavailability, sublingual administration = 35%; Bioavailability, oral administration (swallowed) = <2%; Time to steady state, 5 mg = 3 days; Peak plasma concentration occurs within 0.5 to 1.5 hours. Doubling dose of asenapine results in 1.7-fold increase in maximum concentration and exposure. Drinking water within 2-5 minutes post administration of asenapine results in a decrease in exposure.
Volume of distribution

20-25 L/kg

Protein binding95% protein bound
Metabolism

Asenapine is oxidized via CYP1A2 and undergoes direct glucuronidation via UGT1A4. Oxidation via CYP1A2 is asenapine's primary mode of metabolism.

Route of eliminationUrine (50%) and feces (50%)
Half life24 hours (range of 13.4 - 39.2 hours)
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9849
Blood Brain Barrier+0.8842
Caco-2 permeable+0.5605
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.7617
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9375
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8901
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.7054
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7964
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.7864
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.5065
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.5212
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7185
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.6781
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.5762
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8625
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.6005
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.5417
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8694
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9894
Rat acute toxicity2.7083 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8125
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.6697
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
PackagersNot Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Tabletsublingual10 mg/1
Tabletsublingual10 mg
Tabletsublingual2.5 mg/1
Tabletsublingual5 mg/1
Tabletsublingual5 mg
PricesNot Available
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US5763476 Yes2000-12-092020-12-09Us
US7741358 Yes2006-10-062026-10-06Us
US8022228 Yes2006-10-062026-10-06Us
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental PropertiesNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP3.72ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)7.29ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area12.47 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity81.65 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability30.9 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

DrugSyn.org

US4145434
General References
  1. Huang M, Li Z, Dai J, Shahid M, Wong EH, Meltzer HY: Asenapine increases dopamine, norepinephrine, and acetylcholine efflux in the rat medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2008 Nov;33(12):2934-45. doi: 10.1038/npp.2008.20. Epub 2008 Apr 16. [PubMed:18418367 ]
  2. Shahid M, Walker GB, Zorn SH, Wong EH: Asenapine: a novel psychopharmacologic agent with a unique human receptor signature. J Psychopharmacol. 2009 Jan;23(1):65-73. doi: 10.1177/0269881107082944. Epub 2008 Feb 28. [PubMed:18308814 ]
  3. Franberg O, Wiker C, Marcus MM, Konradsson A, Jardemark K, Schilstrom B, Shahid M, Wong EH, Svensson TH: Asenapine, a novel psychopharmacologic agent: preclinical evidence for clinical effects in schizophrenia. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2008 Feb;196(3):417-29. Epub 2007 Oct 17. [PubMed:17940749 ]
  4. Fagiolini A, Forgione RN, Morana B, Maccari M, Goracci A, Bossini L, Pellegrini F, Cuomo A, Casamassima F: Asenapine for the treatment of manic and mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder: from clinical research to clinical practice. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2013 Mar;14(4):489-504. doi: 10.1517/14656566.2013.765859. Epub 2013 Jan 29. [PubMed:23356509 ]
External Links
ATC CodesN05AH05
AHFS Codes
  • 28:16.08.04
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (448 KB)
MSDSDownload (91.9 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AbirateroneThe serum concentration of Asenapine can be increased when it is combined with Abiraterone.
AcetohexamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Acetohexamide can be decreased when used in combination with Asenapine.
AlogliptinThe therapeutic efficacy of Alogliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Asenapine.
AmisulprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Asenapine is combined with Amisulpride.
AmphetamineAsenapine may decrease the stimulatory activities of Amphetamine.
AzelastineAsenapine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Azelastine.
BaclofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Asenapine.
BortezomibThe metabolism of Asenapine can be decreased when combined with Bortezomib.
BrimonidineBrimonidine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Asenapine.
BromocriptineThe therapeutic efficacy of Bromocriptine can be decreased when used in combination with Asenapine.
BuprenorphineAsenapine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Buprenorphine.
CanagliflozinThe therapeutic efficacy of Canagliflozin can be decreased when used in combination with Asenapine.
CarbamazepineThe metabolism of Asenapine can be increased when combined with Carbamazepine.
CathinoneAsenapine may decrease the stimulatory activities of Cathinone.
ChlorpropamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Chlorpropamide can be decreased when used in combination with Asenapine.
CitalopramCitalopram may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Asenapine.
Cyproterone acetateThe serum concentration of Asenapine can be decreased when it is combined with Cyproterone acetate.
DeferasiroxThe serum concentration of Asenapine can be increased when it is combined with Deferasirox.
DofetilideDofetilide may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Asenapine.
DoxylamineDoxylamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Asenapine.
DronabinolDronabinol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Asenapine.
EthanolAsenapine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ethanol.
FluvoxamineThe serum concentration of Asenapine can be increased when it is combined with Fluvoxamine.
GliclazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Gliclazide can be decreased when used in combination with Asenapine.
GlimepirideThe therapeutic efficacy of Glimepiride can be decreased when used in combination with Asenapine.
GliquidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Gliquidone can be decreased when used in combination with Asenapine.
GlyburideThe therapeutic efficacy of Glyburide can be decreased when used in combination with Asenapine.
GoserelinGoserelin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Asenapine.
HydrocodoneAsenapine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Hydrocodone.
Insulin AspartThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Asenapine.
Insulin DetemirThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Asenapine.
Insulin GlargineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glargine can be decreased when used in combination with Asenapine.
Insulin GlulisineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Asenapine.
Insulin HumanThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Regular can be decreased when used in combination with Asenapine.
Insulin LisproThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Lispro can be decreased when used in combination with Asenapine.
IvabradineIvabradine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Asenapine.
LeuprolideLeuprolide may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Asenapine.
LinagliptinThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Asenapine.
LorazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lorazepam is combined with Asenapine.
Magnesium SulfateMagnesium Sulfate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Asenapine.
MetforminThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Asenapine.
MethotrimeprazineAsenapine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Methotrimeprazine.
MethylphenidateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Asenapine is combined with Methylphenidate.
MetoclopramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metoclopramide is combined with Asenapine.
MetyrosineAsenapine may increase the sedative activities of Metyrosine.
MexiletineThe metabolism of Asenapine can be decreased when combined with Mexiletine.
MifepristoneMifepristone may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Asenapine.
MinocyclineMinocycline may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Asenapine.
NabiloneNabilone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Asenapine.
OctreotideOctreotide may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Asenapine.
OrphenadrineAsenapine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Orphenadrine.
ParaldehydeAsenapine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Paraldehyde.
ParoxetineParoxetine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Asenapine.
Peginterferon alfa-2bThe serum concentration of Asenapine can be increased when it is combined with Peginterferon alfa-2b.
PerampanelPerampanel may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Asenapine.
PhenelzinePhenelzine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Asenapine.
QuinagolideThe therapeutic efficacy of Quinagolide can be decreased when used in combination with Asenapine.
RepaglinideThe therapeutic efficacy of Repaglinide can be decreased when used in combination with Asenapine.
RufinamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Asenapine.
SaxagliptinThe therapeutic efficacy of Saxagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Asenapine.
Sodium oxybateSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Asenapine.
SulpirideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Asenapine is combined with Sulpiride.
SuvorexantAsenapine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Suvorexant.
TacrineTacrine may increase the central neurotoxic activities of Asenapine.
TapentadolTapentadol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Asenapine.
TeriflunomideThe serum concentration of Asenapine can be decreased when it is combined with Teriflunomide.
ThalidomideAsenapine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Thalidomide.
TolbutamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Tolbutamide can be decreased when used in combination with Asenapine.
TramadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Asenapine.
TranylcypromineTranylcypromine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Asenapine.
VildagliptinThe therapeutic efficacy of Vildagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Asenapine.
ZolpidemAsenapine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.
Food Interactions
  • Avoid water and food for at least 10 minutes post administration of asenapine

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Potassium channel regulator activity
Specific Function:
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name:
DRD2
Uniprot ID:
P14416
Molecular Weight:
50618.91 Da
References
  1. Citrome L: Role of sublingual asenapine in treatment of schizophrenia. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2011;7:325-39. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S16077. Epub 2011 May 26. [PubMed:21655346 ]
  2. Tadori Y, Forbes RA, McQuade RD, Kikuchi T: Functional potencies of dopamine agonists and antagonists at human dopamine D(2) and D(3) receptors. Eur J Pharmacol. 2011 Sep;666(1-3):43-52. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2011.05.050. Epub 2011 Jun 1. [PubMed:21658377 ]
  3. Shahid M, Walker GB, Zorn SH, Wong EH: Asenapine: a novel psychopharmacologic agent with a unique human receptor signature. J Psychopharmacol. 2009 Jan;23(1):65-73. doi: 10.1177/0269881107082944. Epub 2008 Feb 28. [PubMed:18308814 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Virus receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances, including mescaline, psilocybin, 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI) and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates...
Gene Name:
HTR2A
Uniprot ID:
P28223
Molecular Weight:
52602.58 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
  2. Citrome L: Role of sublingual asenapine in treatment of schizophrenia. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2011;7:325-39. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S16077. Epub 2011 May 26. [PubMed:21655346 ]
  3. Shahid M, Walker GB, Zorn SH, Wong EH: Asenapine: a novel psychopharmacologic agent with a unique human receptor signature. J Psychopharmacol. 2009 Jan;23(1):65-73. doi: 10.1177/0269881107082944. Epub 2008 Feb 28. [PubMed:18308814 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors, such as adenylate cyclase. Beta-arrestin family members inhibit signaling via G pro...
Gene Name:
HTR1A
Uniprot ID:
P08908
Molecular Weight:
46106.335 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
  2. Shahid M, Walker GB, Zorn SH, Wong EH: Asenapine: a novel psychopharmacologic agent with a unique human receptor signature. J Psychopharmacol. 2009 Jan;23(1):65-73. doi: 10.1177/0269881107082944. Epub 2008 Feb 28. [PubMed:18308814 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for ergot alkaloid derivatives, various anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs and other psychoactive substances, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of ...
Gene Name:
HTR1B
Uniprot ID:
P28222
Molecular Weight:
43567.535 Da
References
  1. Citrome L: Role of sublingual asenapine in treatment of schizophrenia. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2011;7:325-39. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S16077. Epub 2011 May 26. [PubMed:21655346 ]
  2. Shahid M, Walker GB, Zorn SH, Wong EH: Asenapine: a novel psychopharmacologic agent with a unique human receptor signature. J Psychopharmacol. 2009 Jan;23(1):65-73. doi: 10.1177/0269881107082944. Epub 2008 Feb 28. [PubMed:18308814 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various ergot alkaloid derivatives and psychoactive substances. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors. Beta-arrestin family members inhibit signaling via G proteins ...
Gene Name:
HTR2B
Uniprot ID:
P41595
Molecular Weight:
54297.41 Da
References
  1. Citrome L: Role of sublingual asenapine in treatment of schizophrenia. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2011;7:325-39. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S16077. Epub 2011 May 26. [PubMed:21655346 ]
  2. Shahid M, Walker GB, Zorn SH, Wong EH: Asenapine: a novel psychopharmacologic agent with a unique human receptor signature. J Psychopharmacol. 2009 Jan;23(1):65-73. doi: 10.1177/0269881107082944. Epub 2008 Feb 28. [PubMed:18308814 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances, including ergot alkaloid derivatives, 1-2,5,-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl-2-aminopropane (DOI) and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modul...
Gene Name:
HTR2C
Uniprot ID:
P28335
Molecular Weight:
51820.705 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
  2. Citrome L: Role of sublingual asenapine in treatment of schizophrenia. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2011;7:325-39. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S16077. Epub 2011 May 26. [PubMed:21655346 ]
  3. Shahid M, Walker GB, Zorn SH, Wong EH: Asenapine: a novel psychopharmacologic agent with a unique human receptor signature. J Psychopharmacol. 2009 Jan;23(1):65-73. doi: 10.1177/0269881107082944. Epub 2008 Feb 28. [PubMed:18308814 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function:
This is one of the several different receptors for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins.
Gene Name:
HTR5A
Uniprot ID:
P47898
Molecular Weight:
40254.69 Da
References
  1. Citrome L: Role of sublingual asenapine in treatment of schizophrenia. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2011;7:325-39. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S16077. Epub 2011 May 26. [PubMed:21655346 ]
  2. Shahid M, Walker GB, Zorn SH, Wong EH: Asenapine: a novel psychopharmacologic agent with a unique human receptor signature. J Psychopharmacol. 2009 Jan;23(1):65-73. doi: 10.1177/0269881107082944. Epub 2008 Feb 28. [PubMed:18308814 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function:
This is one of the several different receptors for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins that stimulate adenylate cyclase. It has a high affinity for tricyclic psychotropic drugs (By similarity). Controls pyramidal neurons migration during corticogenesis, through...
Gene Name:
HTR6
Uniprot ID:
P50406
Molecular Weight:
46953.625 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
  2. Citrome L: Role of sublingual asenapine in treatment of schizophrenia. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2011;7:325-39. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S16077. Epub 2011 May 26. [PubMed:21655346 ]
  3. Shahid M, Walker GB, Zorn SH, Wong EH: Asenapine: a novel psychopharmacologic agent with a unique human receptor signature. J Psychopharmacol. 2009 Jan;23(1):65-73. doi: 10.1177/0269881107082944. Epub 2008 Feb 28. [PubMed:18308814 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function:
This is one of the several different receptors for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins that stimulate adenylate cyclase.
Gene Name:
HTR7
Uniprot ID:
P34969
Molecular Weight:
53554.43 Da
References
  1. Citrome L: Role of sublingual asenapine in treatment of schizophrenia. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2011;7:325-39. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S16077. Epub 2011 May 26. [PubMed:21655346 ]
  2. Shahid M, Walker GB, Zorn SH, Wong EH: Asenapine: a novel psychopharmacologic agent with a unique human receptor signature. J Psychopharmacol. 2009 Jan;23(1):65-73. doi: 10.1177/0269881107082944. Epub 2008 Feb 28. [PubMed:18308814 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Thioesterase binding
Specific Function:
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The rank order of potency for agonists of this receptor is oxymetazoline > clonidine > epinephrine > norepinephrine > phenylephrine > dopamine > p-synephrine > p-tyramine > serotonin = p-octopamine. For antagonists, the rank order is yohimbine > phentolamine = mianser...
Gene Name:
ADRA2A
Uniprot ID:
P08913
Molecular Weight:
48956.275 Da
References
  1. Shahid M, Walker GB, Zorn SH, Wong EH: Asenapine: a novel psychopharmacologic agent with a unique human receptor signature. J Psychopharmacol. 2009 Jan;23(1):65-73. doi: 10.1177/0269881107082944. Epub 2008 Feb 28. [PubMed:18308814 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Epinephrine binding
Specific Function:
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The rank order of potency for agonists of this receptor is clonidine > norepinephrine > epinephrine = oxymetazoline > dopamine > p-tyramine = phenylephrine > serotonin > p-synephrine / p-octopamine. For antagonists, the rank order is yohimbine > chlorpromazine > phent...
Gene Name:
ADRA2B
Uniprot ID:
P18089
Molecular Weight:
49565.8 Da
References
  1. Shahid M, Walker GB, Zorn SH, Wong EH: Asenapine: a novel psychopharmacologic agent with a unique human receptor signature. J Psychopharmacol. 2009 Jan;23(1):65-73. doi: 10.1177/0269881107082944. Epub 2008 Feb 28. [PubMed:18308814 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins.
Gene Name:
ADRA2C
Uniprot ID:
P18825
Molecular Weight:
49521.585 Da
References
  1. Shahid M, Walker GB, Zorn SH, Wong EH: Asenapine: a novel psychopharmacologic agent with a unique human receptor signature. J Psychopharmacol. 2009 Jan;23(1):65-73. doi: 10.1177/0269881107082944. Epub 2008 Feb 28. [PubMed:18308814 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Protein heterodimerization activity
Specific Function:
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. Its effect is mediated by G(q) and G(11) proteins. Nuclear ADRA1A-ADRA1B heterooligomers regulate phenylephrine(PE)-stimulated ERK signaling in cardiac myocytes.
Gene Name:
ADRA1A
Uniprot ID:
P35348
Molecular Weight:
51486.005 Da
References
  1. Shahid M, Walker GB, Zorn SH, Wong EH: Asenapine: a novel psychopharmacologic agent with a unique human receptor signature. J Psychopharmacol. 2009 Jan;23(1):65-73. doi: 10.1177/0269881107082944. Epub 2008 Feb 28. [PubMed:18308814 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
G-protein coupled amine receptor activity
Specific Function:
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name:
DRD1
Uniprot ID:
P21728
Molecular Weight:
49292.765 Da
References
  1. Citrome L: Role of sublingual asenapine in treatment of schizophrenia. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2011;7:325-39. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S16077. Epub 2011 May 26. [PubMed:21655346 ]
  2. Shahid M, Walker GB, Zorn SH, Wong EH: Asenapine: a novel psychopharmacologic agent with a unique human receptor signature. J Psychopharmacol. 2009 Jan;23(1):65-73. doi: 10.1177/0269881107082944. Epub 2008 Feb 28. [PubMed:18308814 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
G-protein coupled amine receptor activity
Specific Function:
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase. Promotes cell proliferation.
Gene Name:
DRD3
Uniprot ID:
P35462
Molecular Weight:
44224.335 Da
References
  1. Citrome L: Role of sublingual asenapine in treatment of schizophrenia. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2011;7:325-39. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S16077. Epub 2011 May 26. [PubMed:21655346 ]
  2. Tadori Y, Forbes RA, McQuade RD, Kikuchi T: Functional potencies of dopamine agonists and antagonists at human dopamine D(2) and D(3) receptors. Eur J Pharmacol. 2011 Sep;666(1-3):43-52. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2011.05.050. Epub 2011 Jun 1. [PubMed:21658377 ]
  3. Shahid M, Walker GB, Zorn SH, Wong EH: Asenapine: a novel psychopharmacologic agent with a unique human receptor signature. J Psychopharmacol. 2009 Jan;23(1):65-73. doi: 10.1177/0269881107082944. Epub 2008 Feb 28. [PubMed:18308814 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Sh3 domain binding
Specific Function:
Dopamine receptor responsible for neuronal signaling in the mesolimbic system of the brain, an area of the brain that regulates emotion and complex behavior. Its activity is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase. Modulates the circadian rhythm of contrast sensitivity by regulating the rhythmic expression of NPAS2 in the retinal ganglion cells (By similarity).
Gene Name:
DRD4
Uniprot ID:
P21917
Molecular Weight:
48359.86 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
  2. Citrome L: Role of sublingual asenapine in treatment of schizophrenia. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2011;7:325-39. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S16077. Epub 2011 May 26. [PubMed:21655346 ]
  3. Shahid M, Walker GB, Zorn SH, Wong EH: Asenapine: a novel psychopharmacologic agent with a unique human receptor signature. J Psychopharmacol. 2009 Jan;23(1):65-73. doi: 10.1177/0269881107082944. Epub 2008 Feb 28. [PubMed:18308814 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Histamine receptor activity
Specific Function:
In peripheral tissues, the H1 subclass of histamine receptors mediates the contraction of smooth muscles, increase in capillary permeability due to contraction of terminal venules, and catecholamine release from adrenal medulla, as well as mediating neurotransmission in the central nervous system.
Gene Name:
HRH1
Uniprot ID:
P35367
Molecular Weight:
55783.61 Da
References
  1. Citrome L: Role of sublingual asenapine in treatment of schizophrenia. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2011;7:325-39. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S16077. Epub 2011 May 26. [PubMed:21655346 ]
  2. Shahid M, Walker GB, Zorn SH, Wong EH: Asenapine: a novel psychopharmacologic agent with a unique human receptor signature. J Psychopharmacol. 2009 Jan;23(1):65-73. doi: 10.1177/0269881107082944. Epub 2008 Feb 28. [PubMed:18308814 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Histamine receptor activity
Specific Function:
The H2 subclass of histamine receptors mediates gastric acid secretion. Also appears to regulate gastrointestinal motility and intestinal secretion. Possible role in regulating cell growth and differentiation. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase and, through a separate G protein-dependent mechanism, the phosphoinositide/protein kinase (PKC) si...
Gene Name:
HRH2
Uniprot ID:
P25021
Molecular Weight:
40097.65 Da
References
  1. Citrome L: Role of sublingual asenapine in treatment of schizophrenia. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2011;7:325-39. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S16077. Epub 2011 May 26. [PubMed:21655346 ]
  2. Shahid M, Walker GB, Zorn SH, Wong EH: Asenapine: a novel psychopharmacologic agent with a unique human receptor signature. J Psychopharmacol. 2009 Jan;23(1):65-73. doi: 10.1177/0269881107082944. Epub 2008 Feb 28. [PubMed:18308814 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Receptor signaling protein activity
Specific Function:
Beta-adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. This receptor binds epinephrine and norepinephrine with approximately equal affinity. Mediates Ras activation through G(s)-alpha- and cAMP-mediated signaling.
Gene Name:
ADRB1
Uniprot ID:
P08588
Molecular Weight:
51322.1 Da
References
  1. Fagiolini A, Forgione RN, Morana B, Maccari M, Goracci A, Bossini L, Pellegrini F, Cuomo A, Casamassima F: Asenapine for the treatment of manic and mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder: from clinical research to clinical practice. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2013 Mar;14(4):489-504. doi: 10.1517/14656566.2013.765859. Epub 2013 Jan 29. [PubMed:23356509 ]
  2. Shahid M, Walker GB, Zorn SH, Wong EH: Asenapine: a novel psychopharmacologic agent with a unique human receptor signature. J Psychopharmacol. 2009 Jan;23(1):65-73. doi: 10.1177/0269881107082944. Epub 2008 Feb 28. [PubMed:18308814 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
Beta-adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The beta-2-adrenergic receptor binds epinephrine with an approximately 30-fold greater affinity than it does norepinephrine.
Gene Name:
ADRB2
Uniprot ID:
P07550
Molecular Weight:
46458.32 Da
References
  1. Fagiolini A, Forgione RN, Morana B, Maccari M, Goracci A, Bossini L, Pellegrini F, Cuomo A, Casamassima F: Asenapine for the treatment of manic and mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder: from clinical research to clinical practice. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2013 Mar;14(4):489-504. doi: 10.1517/14656566.2013.765859. Epub 2013 Jan 29. [PubMed:23356509 ]
  2. Shahid M, Walker GB, Zorn SH, Wong EH: Asenapine: a novel psychopharmacologic agent with a unique human receptor signature. J Psychopharmacol. 2009 Jan;23(1):65-73. doi: 10.1177/0269881107082944. Epub 2008 Feb 28. [PubMed:18308814 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N...
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular Weight:
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Citrome L: Role of sublingual asenapine in treatment of schizophrenia. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2011;7:325-39. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S16077. Epub 2011 May 26. [PubMed:21655346 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular Weight:
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Citrome L: Role of sublingual asenapine in treatment of schizophrenia. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2011;7:325-39. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S16077. Epub 2011 May 26. [PubMed:21655346 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the IX-alpha-C8 and IX-alpha-C12 monoconjugates and diconjugate. Isoform 2 lacks transferase activity but acts as a negative regulator of isoform 1 (By similarity).
Gene Name:
UGT1A4
Uniprot ID:
P22310
Molecular Weight:
60024.535 Da
References
  1. Fagiolini A, Forgione RN, Morana B, Maccari M, Goracci A, Bossini L, Pellegrini F, Cuomo A, Casamassima F: Asenapine for the treatment of manic and mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder: from clinical research to clinical practice. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2013 Mar;14(4):489-504. doi: 10.1517/14656566.2013.765859. Epub 2013 Jan 29. [PubMed:23356509 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiot...
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Fagiolini A, Forgione RN, Morana B, Maccari M, Goracci A, Bossini L, Pellegrini F, Cuomo A, Casamassima F: Asenapine for the treatment of manic and mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder: from clinical research to clinical practice. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2013 Mar;14(4):489-504. doi: 10.1517/14656566.2013.765859. Epub 2013 Jan 29. [PubMed:23356509 ]
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Drug created on March 19, 2008 10:17 / Updated on August 24, 2016 03:05