Identification

Name
Butenafine
Accession Number
DB01091  (APRD00833)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

Butenafine hydrochloride is a synthetic benzylamine antifungal agent. Butenafine works by inhibiting the synthesis of sterols by inhibiting squalene epoxidase, an enzyme responsible for the creation of sterols needed in fungal cell membranes.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • (4-Tert-butyl-benzyl)-methyl-naphthalen-1-ylmethyl-amine
  • (4-Tert-butylphenyl)-N-methyl-N-(naphthalen-1-ylmethyl)methanamine
  • 4-Tert-butylbenzyl(methyl)(1-naphthalenemethyl)amine
  • Butenafina
  • Butenafine
  • Butenafinum
  • N-(P-Tert-butylbenzyl)-N-methyl-1-naphthalenemethylamine
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Butenafine HydrochlorideR8XA2029ZI101827-46-7LJBSAUIFGPSHCN-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
MentaxCream10 mg/gTopicalMylan Pharmaceuticals1996-12-31Not applicableUs
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Athletes FootCream10 mg/gTopicalTarget Corporation.2017-11-17Not applicableUs
Athletes FootCream10 mg/gTopicalTaro Pharmaceuticals U.S.A., Inc.2017-11-17Not applicableUs
Athletes FootCream10 mg/gTopicalCVS Health2017-11-17Not applicableUs
Athletes FootCream10 mg/gTopicalTopco Associates2017-11-17Not applicableUs
Athletes FootCream10 mg/gTopicalWalgreen2017-11-17Not applicableUs
Athletes FootCream10 mg/gTopicalRite Aid2017-11-17Not applicableUs
Dr. Scholl's Athlete's Foot CreamCream1 %TopicalPenederm Inc.1997-09-102006-10-09Canada
Dr. Scholl's Athlete's Foot CreamCream1 %TopicalSchering Plough Healthcare Products Canada, A Division Of Schering Canada Inc.2000-04-302005-08-05Canada
Jock ItchCream10 mg/gTopicalTaro Pharmaceuticals U.S.A., Inc.2017-11-17Not applicableUs
Jock ItchCream10 mg/gTopicalWalgreen2017-11-17Not applicableUs
Categories
UNII
91Y494NL0X
CAS number
101828-21-1
Weight
Average: 317.4672
Monoisotopic: 317.214349869
Chemical Formula
C23H27N
InChI Key
ABJKWBDEJIDSJZ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C23H27N/c1-23(2,3)21-14-12-18(13-15-21)16-24(4)17-20-10-7-9-19-8-5-6-11-22(19)20/h5-15H,16-17H2,1-4H3
IUPAC Name
[(4-tert-butylphenyl)methyl](methyl)(naphthalen-1-ylmethyl)amine
SMILES
CN(CC1=CC=C(C=C1)C(C)(C)C)CC1=CC=CC2=CC=CC=C12

Pharmacology

Indication

For the topical treatment of the following dermatologic infections: tinea (pityriasis) versicolor due to M. furfur, interdigital tinea pedis (athlete’s foot), tinea corporis (ringworm) and tinea cruris (jock itch) due to E. floccosum, T. mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, and T. tonsurans.

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Butenafine is a synthetic antifungal agent that is structurally and pharmacologically related to allylamine antifungals. The exact mechanism of action has not been established, but it is suggested that butenafine's antifungal activity is exerted through the alteration of cellular membranes, which results in increased membrane permeability, and growth inhibition. Butenafine is mainly active against dermatophytes and has superior fungicidal activity against this group of fungi when compared to that of terbinafine, naftifine, tolnaftate, clotrimazole, and bifonazole. It is also active against Candida albicans and this activity is superior to that of terbinafine and naftifine. Butenafine also generates low MICs for Cryptococcus neoformans and Aspergillus spp. as well.

Mechanism of action

Although the mechanism of action has not been fully established, it has been suggested that butenafine, like allylamines, interferes with sterol biosynthesis (especially ergosterol) by inhibiting squalene monooxygenase, an enzyme responsible for converting squalene to 2,3-oxydo squalene. As ergosterol is an essential component of the fungal cell membrane, inhibition of its synthesis results in increased cellular permeability causing leakage of cellular contents. Blockage of squalene monooxygenase also leads to a subsequent accumulation of squalene. When a high concentration of squalene is reached, it is thought to have an effect of directly kill fungal cells.

TargetActionsOrganism
ASqualene monooxygenase
inhibitor
Human
Absorption

The total amount absorbed through the skin into the systemic circulation has not been quantified.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism

The primary metabolite in urine was formed through hydroxylation at the terminal t-butyl side-chain.

Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life

Following topical application, a biphasic decline of plasma butenafine concentrations was observed with the half-lives estimated to be 35 hours initial and over 150 hours terminal.

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity
Not Available
Affected organisms
  • Fungi
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
AgmatineThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Agmatine.Experimental, Investigational
AmiodaroneThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Amiodarone.Approved, Investigational
AmlodipineThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Amlodipine.Approved
Amphotericin BThe therapeutic efficacy of Amphotericin B can be decreased when used in combination with Butenafine.Approved, Investigational
AmrinoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Amrinone.Approved
AranidipineThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Aranidipine.Approved, Investigational
AzelnidipineThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Azelnidipine.Approved, Investigational
AzimilideThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Azimilide.Investigational
BarnidipineThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Barnidipine.Approved
BencyclaneThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Bencyclane.Experimental
BenidipineThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Benidipine.Approved, Investigational
BepridilThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Bepridil.Approved, Withdrawn
BioallethrinThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Bioallethrin.Approved, Experimental
BuspironeThe metabolism of Buspirone can be decreased when combined with Butenafine.Approved, Investigational
BusulfanThe serum concentration of Busulfan can be increased when it is combined with Butenafine.Approved, Investigational
CarboxyamidotriazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Carboxyamidotriazole.Investigational
CaroverineThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Caroverine.Experimental
CilnidipineThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Cilnidipine.Approved, Investigational
CinnarizineThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Cinnarizine.Approved, Investigational
CisaprideThe serum concentration of Cisapride can be increased when it is combined with Butenafine.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ClevidipineThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Clevidipine.Approved, Investigational
CyclandelateThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Cyclandelate.Approved
CyclosporineThe metabolism of Cyclosporine can be decreased when combined with Butenafine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DarodipineThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Darodipine.Experimental
DidanosineDidanosine can cause a decrease in the absorption of Butenafine resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved
DiltiazemThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Diltiazem.Approved, Investigational
DocetaxelThe metabolism of Docetaxel can be decreased when combined with Butenafine.Approved, Investigational
DofetilideThe serum concentration of Dofetilide can be increased when it is combined with Butenafine.Approved, Investigational
DotarizineThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Dotarizine.Investigational
EfonidipineThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Efonidipine.Approved, Investigational
EperisoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Eperisone.Approved, Investigational
EthosuximideThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Ethosuximide.Approved
EtravirineThe serum concentration of Etravirine can be increased when it is combined with Butenafine.Approved
FelodipineThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Felodipine.Approved, Investigational
FendilineThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Fendiline.Withdrawn
Fish oilThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Fish oil.Approved, Nutraceutical
FlunarizineThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Flunarizine.Approved
FluspirileneThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Fluspirilene.Approved, Investigational
FosphenytoinThe serum concentration of Butenafine can be decreased when it is combined with Fosphenytoin.Approved, Investigational
GabapentinThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Gabapentin.Approved, Investigational
GallopamilThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Gallopamil.Investigational
IsradipineThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Isradipine.Approved, Investigational
LacidipineThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Lacidipine.Approved, Investigational
LamotrigineThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Lamotrigine.Approved, Investigational
LercanidipineThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Lercanidipine.Approved, Investigational
LevetiracetamThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Levetiracetam.Approved, Investigational
LidoflazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Lidoflazine.Experimental
LoperamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Loperamide.Approved
LosartanThe metabolism of Losartan can be decreased when combined with Butenafine.Approved
Magnesium sulfateThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Magnesium sulfate.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ManidipineThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Manidipine.Approved, Investigational
MentholThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Menthol.Approved
MethsuximideThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Methsuximide.Approved
MibefradilThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Mibefradil.Investigational, Withdrawn
NaftopidilThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Naftopidil.Investigational
NicardipineThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Nicardipine.Approved, Investigational
NifedipineThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Nifedipine.Approved
NiguldipineThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Niguldipine.Experimental
NiludipineThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Niludipine.Experimental
NilvadipineThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Nilvadipine.Approved, Investigational
NimesulideThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Nimesulide.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
NimodipineThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Nimodipine.Approved, Investigational
NisoldipineThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Nisoldipine.Approved
NitrendipineThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Nitrendipine.Approved, Investigational
NylidrinThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Nylidrin.Approved
OtiloniumThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Otilonium.Experimental, Investigational
PhenytoinThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Butenafine.Approved, Vet Approved
PinaveriumThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Pinaverium.Approved
PrenylamineThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Prenylamine.Withdrawn
ProgesteroneThe absorption of Progesterone can be decreased when combined with Butenafine.Approved, Vet Approved
QuinidineThe serum concentration of Quinidine can be increased when it is combined with Butenafine.Approved, Investigational
RanolazineThe serum concentration of Ranolazine can be increased when it is combined with Butenafine.Approved, Investigational
RifabutinThe serum concentration of Rifabutin can be increased when it is combined with Butenafine.Approved, Investigational
RifampicinThe serum concentration of Rifampicin can be increased when it is combined with Butenafine.Approved
RifapentineThe serum concentration of Rifapentine can be increased when it is combined with Butenafine.Approved, Investigational
RifaximinThe serum concentration of Rifaximin can be increased when it is combined with Butenafine.Approved, Investigational
SeletracetamThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Seletracetam.Investigational
SolifenacinThe metabolism of Solifenacin can be decreased when combined with Butenafine.Approved
SucralfateSucralfate can cause a decrease in the absorption of Butenafine resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved
SunitinibThe metabolism of Sunitinib can be decreased when combined with Butenafine.Approved, Investigational
TacrolimusThe metabolism of Tacrolimus can be decreased when combined with Butenafine.Approved, Investigational
TerodilineThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Terodiline.Experimental
TetrahydropalmatineThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Tetrahydropalmatine.Investigational
Tolfenamic AcidThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Tolfenamic Acid.Approved, Investigational
TranilastThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Tranilast.Approved, Investigational
TrimebutineThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Trimebutine.Approved
TrimethadioneThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Trimethadione.Approved
VerapamilThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Verapamil.Approved
VinpocetineThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Vinpocetine.Investigational
WIN 55212-2The therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with WIN 55212-2.Experimental
ZiconotideThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Ziconotide.Approved
ZolpidemThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Butenafine.Approved
ZonisamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Butenafine can be increased when used in combination with Zonisamide.Approved, Investigational
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference
US5021458
General References
  1. McNeely W, Spencer CM: Butenafine. Drugs. 1998 Mar;55(3):405-12; discussion 413. [PubMed:9530545]
  2. Singal A: Butenafine and superficial mycoses: current status. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Jul;4(7):999-1005. doi: 10.1517/17425255.4.7.999 . [PubMed:18624686]
  3. Gupta AK: Butenafine: an update of its use in superficial mycoses. Skin Therapy Lett. 2002 Sep;7(7):1-2, 5. [PubMed:12432425]
  4. Mingeot-Leclercq MP, Gallet X, Flore C, Van Bambeke F, Peuvot J, Brasseur R: Experimental and conformational analyses of interactions between butenafine and lipids. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2001 Dec;45(12):3347-54. [PubMed:11709307]
  5. Syed TA, Maibach HI: Butenafine hydrochloride: for the treatment of interdigital tinea pedis. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2000 Mar;1(3):467-73. [PubMed:11249531]
  6. Reyes BA, Beutner KR, Cullen SI, Rosen T, Shupack JL, Weinstein MB: Butenafine, a fungicidal benzylamine derivative, used once daily for the treatment of interdigital tinea pedis. Int J Dermatol. 1998 Jun;37(6):450-3. [PubMed:9646136]
  7. Iwatani W, Arika T, Yamaguchi H: Two mechanisms of butenafine action in Candida albicans. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1993 Apr;37(4):785-8. [PubMed:8494375]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0015223
KEGG Compound
C08067
PubChem Compound
2484
PubChem Substance
46506191
ChemSpider
2390
BindingDB
50436713
ChEBI
3238
ChEMBL
CHEMBL990
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP001236
PharmGKB
PA164745478
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Butenafine
ATC Codes
D01AE23 — Butenafine
AHFS Codes
  • 84:04.08.12 — Benzylamines
FDA label
Download (1.39 MB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1CompletedTreatmentTinea Pedis2
1TerminatedTreatmentInterdigital Tinea Pedis1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
  • Erregierre SPA
  • Mylan
  • Schering-Plough Inc.
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
CreamTopical1 %
CreamTopical10 mg/g
CreamTopical1 g/100g
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Mentax 1% Cream 30 gm Tube124.7USD tube
Mentax 1% Cream 15 gm Tube50.99USD tube
Mentax 1% cream4.0USD g
Lotrimin ultra 1% cream0.68USD g
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US5021458No1993-10-182010-10-18Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubilitySlightly soluble (HCl salt)Not Available
logP6.6Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility7.56e-05 mg/mLALOGPS
logP5.85ALOGPS
logP6.17ChemAxon
logS-6.6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.23ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area3.24 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity104.33 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability38.41 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9904
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9514
Caco-2 permeable+0.7822
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.5855
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8215
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.7052
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.5078
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8124
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8686
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.6225
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.6056
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9401
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorInhibitor0.8189
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.666
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7581
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.6169
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9008
CarcinogenicityCarcinogens 0.5115
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9972
Rat acute toxicity2.2204 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8911
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.5849
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as naphthalenes. These are compounds containing a naphthalene moiety, which consists of two fused benzene rings.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Benzenoids
Class
Naphthalenes
Sub Class
Not Available
Direct Parent
Naphthalenes
Alternative Parents
Phenylpropanes / Phenylmethylamines / Benzylamines / Aralkylamines / Trialkylamines / Organopnictogen compounds / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
Naphthalene / Phenylpropane / Phenylmethylamine / Benzylamine / Aralkylamine / Monocyclic benzene moiety / Tertiary aliphatic amine / Tertiary amine / Organic nitrogen compound / Organopnictogen compound
Molecular Framework
Aromatic homopolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
tertiary amine, naphthalenes (CHEBI:3238)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Squalene monooxygenase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the first oxygenation step in sterol biosynthesis and is suggested to be one of the rate-limiting enzymes in this pathway.
Gene Name
SQLE
Uniprot ID
Q14534
Uniprot Name
Squalene monooxygenase
Molecular Weight
63922.505 Da
References
  1. Mukherjee PK, Leidich SD, Isham N, Leitner I, Ryder NS, Ghannoum MA: Clinical Trichophyton rubrum strain exhibiting primary resistance to terbinafine. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003 Jan;47(1):82-6. [PubMed:12499173]
  2. Gao PH, Cao YB, Xu Z, Zhang JD, Zhang WN, Wang Y, Gu J, Cao YY, Li RY, Jia XM, Jiang YY: In vitro antifungal activity of ZJ-522, a new triazole restructured from fluconazole and butenafine, against clinically important fungi in comparison with fluconazole and butenafine. Biol Pharm Bull. 2005 Aug;28(8):1414-7. [PubMed:16079485]
  3. Singal A: Butenafine and superficial mycoses: current status. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008 Jul;4(7):999-1005. doi: 10.1517/17425255.4.7.999 . [PubMed:18624686]
  4. Ramam M, Prasad HR, Manchanda Y, Khaitan BK, Banerjee U, Mukhopadhyaya A, Shetty R, Gogtay JA: Randomised controlled trial of topical butenafine in tinea cruris and tinea corporis. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2003 Mar-Apr;69(2):154-8. [PubMed:17642865]
  5. Iwatani W, Arika T, Yamaguchi H: Two mechanisms of butenafine action in Candida albicans. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1993 Apr;37(4):785-8. [PubMed:8494375]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on June 21, 2018 22:13