|DB11753||Rifamycin||Rifamycin is indicated for the treatment of adult patients with travelers' diarrhea caused by noninvasive strains of _E. coli_. The status of the disease should not be complicated by fever or blood in the stool. To prevent drug-resistant bacteria, it is important to mention that the use of rifamycin for this indication should be only done in cases where the infection is proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria.[L4802]
Travallers' diarrhea is very common problem affecting 20-60% of the travellers and it is defined as an increase in frequency of bowel movements to three or more loose stools per day during a trip abroad. This condition is rarely life threatening but in severe cases it can produce dehydration and sepsis. The most common cause of travellers' diarrhea is a pathogen and from the pathogens identified, bacteria is the most common cause followed by norovirus, rotavirus and similar viruses.[A39995]|
|DB00008||Peginterferon alfa-2a||Peginterferon alfa-2a is indicated for the treatment of HCV in combination with other antiviral drugs in patients over 5 years of age with compensated liver disease [FDA Label]. May be used as a monotherapy in patients with contraindications to or significant intolerance to other anti-viral therapies.
Peginterferon alfa-2a is also indicated as a monotherapy for adult patients with HBeAg positive and HBeAg negative chronic hepatitis B infection who have
compensated liver disease and evidence of viral replication and liver inflammation [FDA Label].|
|DB00022||Peginterferon alfa-2b||Peginterferon alfa-2b is indicated for the treatment of HCV in combination with [DB00811] and a NS3/4A protease inhibitor for genotype 1 or without a NS3/4A protease inhibitor for genotypes 2-6 [FDA Label]. May be used as a monotherapy in patients with contraindications to or significant intolerance to other anti-viral therapies.
|DB00027||Gramicidin D||For treatment of skin lesions, surface wounds and eye infections.|
|DB00041||Aldesleukin||For treatment of adults with metastatic renal cell carcinoma.|
|DB00055||Drotrecogin alfa||For reduction of mortality in patients with severe sepsis.|
|DB00060||Interferon beta-1a||For treatment of relapsing/remitting multiple sclerosis, also for condyloma acuminatum|
|DB00069||Interferon alfacon-1||For the treatment of hairy cell leukemia, malignant melanoma, and AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma|
|DB00080||Daptomycin||For the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections caused by susceptible strains of Gram-positive microorganisms.|
|DB00109||Enfuvirtide||Enfuvirtide is an antiretroviral drug used in combination therapy for the treatment of HIV-1/AIDS.|
|DB00110||Palivizumab||For prophylaxis of respiratory diseases casued by respiratory syncytial virus.|
|DB00194||Vidarabine||For treatment of chickenpox - varicella, herpes zoster and herpes simplex|
|DB00196||Fluconazole||**Fluconazole can be administered in the treatment of the following fungal infections**:
Vaginal candidiasis (vaginal yeast infections due to Candida) [FDA label]
Oropharyngeal and esophageal candidiasis [FDA label]
Candida urinary tract infections, peritonitis, and systemic Candida infections including candidemia, disseminated candidiasis, and pneumonia [FDA label]
Cryptococcal meningitis [FDA label].
**Fungal infection prophylaxis**: this drug can be used in the prophylaxis of candidiasis in patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation who receive cytotoxic chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy [FDA label]
**A note on laboratory testing**:
Specimens for fungal culture and other relevant laboratory studies (serology, histopathology) are recommended to be obtained prior to therapy to isolate and identify the causative organism(s). Therapy may be initiated before the results of the cultures and other laboratory studies are returned; however, once these results become available, therapy must be adjusted accordingly [FDA label].
|DB00198||Oseltamivir||In general, oseltamivir is indicated for the treatment of acute, uncomplicated illness due to influenza A and B infection in patients 2 weeks of age and older who have been symptomatic for no more than 48 hours [F3094]. In particular, this agent is indicated in adults and children including full-term neonates who present with symptoms typical of influenza when influenza virus is circulating in the community [F3097]. Efficacy has been demonstrated when treatment is initiated within two days of the first onset of symptoms [F3097].
Oseltamivir is also indicated for the prophylaxis of influenza in patients one year and older [F3094]. Specifically, post-exposure prevention in individuals one year of age or older following contact with a clinically diagnosed influenza case when influenza virus is circulating in the community qualifies for such prophylactic therapy [F3097]. Moreover, oseltamivir would only be indicated for post-exposure prevention of influenza in infants less than 1 year of age during a pandemic influenza outbreak [F3097].|
Erythromycin is indicated in the treatment of infections caused by susceptible strains of the designated organisms in the diseases listed below [FDA label]:
**Upper respiratory tract infections** of mild to moderate degree caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, or Haemophilus influenzae (when used concomitantly with adequate doses of sulfonamides, since many strains of H. influenzae are not susceptible to the erythromycin concentrations ordinarily achieved) [FDA label].
**Lower-respiratory tract infections** of mild to moderate severity caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae or Streptococcus pyogenes.
Listeriosis caused by Listeria monocytogenes [FDA label].
**Pertussis (whooping cough)** caused by Bordetella pertussis. Erythromycin is effective in eliminating the organism from the nasopharynx of infected individuals rendering them noninfectious. Some clinical studies suggest that erythromycin may be helpful in the prophylaxis of pertussis in exposed susceptible individuals [FDA label].
**Respiratory tract infections** due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae [FDA label].
**Legionnaires’ Disease** caused by Legionella pneumophila. Although no controlled clinical efficacy studies have been conducted, in vitro and limited preliminary clinical data suggest that erythromycin may be effective in treating Legionnaires’ Disease [FDA label].
**Diphtheria**: Infections due to Corynebacterium diphtheriae, as an adjunct to antitoxin, to prevent establishment of carriers and to eradicate the organism in carriers [FDA label].
**Skin and skin structure infections** of mild to moderate severity caused by Streptococcus pyogenes or Staphylococcus aureus (resistant staphylococci may emerge during treatment) [FDA label].
**Erythrasma**: In the treatment of infections due to Corynebacterium minutissimum [FDA label].
**Intestinal amebiasis** caused by Entamoeba histolytica (oral erythromycins only). Extraenteric amebiasis requires treatment with other agents [FDA label].
**Acute pelvic inflammatory disease** caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae: As an alternative drug in treatment of acute pelvic inflammatory disease caused by N. gonorrhoeae in female patients with a history of sensitivity to penicillin. Patients should have a serologic test for syphilis before receiving erythromycin as treatment of gonorrhea and a follow-up serologic test for syphilis after 3 months [FDA label].
**Syphilis** caused by Treponema pallidum: Erythromycin is an alternate choice of treatment for primary syphilis in patients allergic to the penicillins. In treatment of primary syphilis, spinal fluid examinations should be done before treatment and as part of follow-up after therapy [FDA label].
**Chlamydia trachomatis**: conjunctivitis of the newborn, pneumonia of infancy, and urogenital infections during pregnancy. When tetracyclines are contraindicated or not tolerated, erythromycin is indicated for the treatment of uncomplicated urethral, endocervical, or rectal infections in adults due to Chlamydia trachomatis [FDA label].
**Nongonnoconnal urethritis**: When tetracyclines are contraindicated or not tolerated, erythromycin is indicated for the treatment of nongonococcal urethritis caused by Ureaplasma urealyticum [FDA label].
|DB00205||Pyrimethamine||For the treatment of toxoplasmosis and acute malaria; For the prevention of malaria in areas non-resistant to pyrimethamine|
|DB00207||Azithromycin||Azithromycin should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria in order to prevent the development antimicrobial resistance and maintain the efficacy of azithromycin [FDA label].
Azithromycin is indicated for the treatment of patients with mild to moderate infections caused by susceptible strains of the microorganisms listed in the specific conditions below. Recommended dosages, duration of therapy and considerations for various patient populations may vary among these infections. Refer to the FDA label and "Indications" section of this drug entry for detailed information [FDA label].
Acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease due to _Haemophilus influenzae_, _Moraxella catarrhalis_ or _Streptococcus pneumoniae_
Acute bacterial sinusitis due to _Haemophilus influenzae_, _Moraxella catarrhalis_ or _Streptococcus pneumoniae_
Community-acquired pneumonia due to _Chlamydophila pneumoniae_, _Haemophilus influenzae_, _Mycoplasma pneumoniae_ or _Streptococcus pneumoniae_ in patients appropriate for oral therapy
Pharyngitis/tonsillitis caused by _Streptococcus pyogenes_ as an alternative to first-line therapy in individuals who cannot use first-line therapy.
Uncomplicated skin and skin structure infections due to _Staphylococcus aureus_, _Streptococcus pyogenes_, or _Streptococcus agalactiae_. Abscesses usually require surgical drainage.
Urethritis and cervicitis due to _Chlamydia trachomatis_ or _Neisseria gonorrhoeae_.
Genital ulcer disease in men due to _Haemophilus ducreyi_ (chancroid). Due to the small number of women included in clinical trials, the efficacy of azithromycin in the treatment of chancroid in women has not been established.
Acute otitis media caused by _Haemophilus influenzae_, _Moraxella catarrhalis_ or _Streptococcus pneumoniae_
Community-acquired pneumonia due to _Chlamydophila pneumoniae_, _Haemophilus influenzae_, _Mycoplasma pneumoniae_ or _Streptococcus pneumoniae_ in patients appropriate for oral therapy.
Pharyngitis/tonsillitis caused by _Streptococcus pyogenes_ as an alternative to first-line therapy in individuals who cannot use first-line therapy.
|DB00218||Moxifloxacin||For the treatment of sinus and lung infections such as sinusitis, pneumonia, and secondary infections in chronic bronchitis. Also for the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis (pinkeye).|
|DB00220||Nelfinavir||Used in combination with other antiviral drugs in the treatment of HIV in both adults and children.|
|DB00224||Indinavir||Indinavir is an antiretroviral drug for the treatment of HIV infection.|
|DB00229||Cefotiam||For treatment of severe infections caused by susceptible bacteria.|
|DB00233||Aminosalicylic Acid||For the treatment of tuberculosis|
|DB00238||Nevirapine||For use in combination with other antiretroviral drugs in the ongoing treatment of HIV-1 infection.|
|DB00239||Oxiconazole||For treatment of dermal fungal infection.|
|DB00249||Idoxuridine||For use in keratoconjunctivitis and keratitis caused by herpes simplex virus.|
|DB00250||Dapsone||For the treatment and management of leprosy and dermatitis herpetiformis.|
|DB00251||Terconazole||For the treatment of candidiasis (a yeast-like fungal infection) of the vulva and vagina.|
|DB00254||Doxycycline||Doxycycline is indicated for the treatment of various infections by gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, aerobes and anaerobes, as well other types of bacteria. A complete list of organisms is available in the FDA label and in the "indications" section of this drug entry [FDA label].
The following are some of the major infections that may be treated with doxycycline [FDA label]:
Rocky mountain spotted fever, typhus fever and the typhus group, Q fever, rickettsialpox, and tick fevers caused by Rickettsiae
Respiratory tract infections caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Lymphogranuloma venereum caused by Chlamydia trachomatis
Psittacosis (ornithosis) caused by Chlamydia psittaci
Trachoma caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, although the infectious agent is not always eliminated as judged by immunofluorescence
Inclusion conjunctivitis caused by Chlamydia trachomatis
Uncomplicated urethral, endocervical or rectal infections in adults caused by Chlamydia trachomatis
Nongonococcal urethritis caused by Ureaplasma urealyticum
Relapsing fever due to Borrelia recurrentis
**A note regarding anti-microbial resistance**
It is important to note that doxycycline is not the drug of choice in the treatment of any type of staphylococcal infection.
Up to 44 percent of strains of Streptococcus pyogenes and 74 percent of Streptococcus faecalis have been found to be resistant to tetracyclines. Therefore, tetracyclines such as doxycycline should not be used to treat streptococcal infections unless the microorganism has been demonstrated to be susceptible [FDA label].|
|DB00256||Lymecycline||For the treatment of infections and to treat acne. It may also be used to treat urinary tract infections, gum disease, and other bacterial infections such as gonorrhea and chlamydia. Lymecycline is also used commonly as a prophylactic treatment for infection by Bacillus anthracis (anthrax). It is also effective against Yersinia pestis and malaria and is also prescribed for the treatment of Lyme disease.|
Clotrimazole topical cream is indicated for the topical treatment of the following dermal infections [F3088], [F3121]:
Tinea pedis, tinea cruris, and tinea corporis due to _Trichophyton rubrum_, _Trichophyton mentagrophytes_, _Epidermophyton floccosum_
Candidiasis due to _Candida albicans_
Tinea versicolor due to _Malassezia furfur_
Diaper rash infected by _Candida albicans_
In some preparations, clotrimazole may be combined with betamethasone dipropionate, a corticosteroid [F3121].
The oral troche preparation is indicated for the local treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis [FDA label]. It is also indicated as a prophylactic drug to reduce the incidence of oropharyngeal candidiasis in patients immunocompromised by conditions such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or steroid therapy utilized in the treatment of leukemia, solid tumors, or renal transplantation [FDA label]. Troche preparations are not indicated for the treatment of any systemic mycoses [FDA label].|
|DB00259||Sulfanilamide||For the treatment of vulvovaginitis caused by Candida albicans.|
|DB00260||Cycloserine||Used in combination with up to 5 other drugs as a treatment for Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) and is also used to treat tuberculosis (TB).|
|DB00263||Sulfisoxazole||For the treatment of severe, repeated, or long-lasting urinary tract infections, meningococcal meningitis, acute otitis media, trachoma, inclusion conjunctivitis, nocardiosis, chancroid, toxoplasmosis, malaria and other bacterial infections.|
|DB00267||Cefmenoxime||Used to treat female gynecologic and obstetric infections caused by susceptible aerobic (including the gonococcus) and anaerobic bacteria.|
|DB00274||Cefmetazole||For the treatment of infections caused by susceptible organisms.|
|DB00299||Penciclovir||Used to treat recurrent cold sores on the lips and face from various herpesvirus invections.|
|DB00300||Tenofovir disoproxil||Tenofovir is indicated in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the management of HIV-1 infection in adults and pediatric patients 2 years of age and older. It is also indicated for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B in adults and pediatric patients 12 years of age and older [FDA label]. This drug is also a component of multiple products used for the management of HIV-1 infection [F3418], [F3421].
Safety and effectiveness of tenofovir disoproxil in pediatric patients younger than 2 years of age has not been established to this date [FDA label].|
|DB00301||Flucloxacillin||Used to treat bacterial infection by susceptible microorganisms.|
|DB00303||Ertapenem||For the treatment the following moderate to severe infections caused by susceptible isolates of the designated microorganisms: (1) complicated intra-abdominal infections due to Escherichia coli, Clostridium clostridioforme, Eubacterium lentum, Peptostreptococcus species, Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides distasonis, Bacteroides ovatus, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, or Bacteroides uniformis, (2) complicated skin and skin structure infections, including diabetic foot infections without osteomyelitis due to Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin susceptible isolates only), Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Bacteroides fragilis, Peptostreptococcus species, Porphyromonas asaccharolytica, or Prevotella bivia, (3) community acquired pneumonia due to Streptococcus pneumoniae (penicillin susceptible isolates only) including cases with concurrent bacteremia, Haemophilus influenzae (beta-lactamase negative isolates only), or Moraxella catarrhalis, (4) complicated urinary tract infections including pyelonephritis due to Escherichia coli, including cases with concurrent bacteremia, or Klebsiella pneumoniae, (5) acute pelvic infections including postpartum endomyometritis, septic abortion and post surgical gynecologic infections due to Streptococcus agalactiae, Escherichia coli, Bacteroides fragilis, Porphyromonas asaccharolytica, Peptostreptococcus species, or Prevotella bivia.|
|DB00314||Capreomycin||Used in the treatment of tuberculosis in combination with other drugs.|
|DB00319||Piperacillin||For the treatment of polymicrobial infections.|
|DB00330||Ethambutol||For use, as an adjunct, in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis.|
|DB00336||Nitrofural||For the treatment of bacterial skin infections including pyodermas, infected dermatoses and infections of cuts, wounds, burns and ulcers due to susceptible organisms.|
|DB00339||Pyrazinamide||For the initial treatment of active tuberculosis in adults and children when combined with other antituberculous agents.|
|DB00355||Aztreonam||For the treatment of the following infections caused by susceptible gram-negative microorganisms: urinary tract infections, lower respiratory tract infections, septicemia, skin and skin-structure infections, intra-abdominal infections, and gynecologic infections.|
|DB00358||Mefloquine||For the treatment of mild to moderate acute malaria caused by Mefloquineuine-susceptible strains of Plasmodium falciparum (both chloroquine-susceptible and resistant strains) or by Plasmodium vivax. Also for the prophylaxis of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria infections, including prophylaxis of chloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum.|
|DB00359||Sulfadiazine||For the treatment of rheumatic fever and meningococcal meningitis|
|DB00362||Anidulafungin||For use in the treatment of the following fungal infections: Candidemia and other forms of Candida infections (intra-abdominal abscess, and peritonitis), Aspergillus infections, and esophageal candidiasis. Also considered an alternative treatment for oropharyngeal canaidiasis.|
|DB00365||Grepafloxacin||For treatment of adults with mild to moderate infections caused by susceptible strains of Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, or Moraxella catarrhalis.|
|DB00369||Cidofovir||For the treatment of CMV retinitis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)|
|DB00400||Griseofulvin||For the treatment of ringworm infections of the skin, hair, and nails, namely: tinea corporis, tinea pedis, tinea cruris, tinea barbae, cradle cap or other conditions caused by Trichophyton or Microsporum fungi.|
|DB00406||Gentian violet cation||For the treatment of bacterial and fungal infections inside the mouth (thrush) and skin, also for the prevention of transmission of Chagas' disease (as a blood additive).|
|DB00410||Mupirocin||For the treatment of Staphylococci nasal carriers.|
|DB00415||Ampicillin||For treatment of infection (Respiratory, GI, UTI and meningitis) due to E. coli, P. mirabilis, enterococci, Shigella, S. typhosa and other Salmonella, nonpenicillinase-producing N. gononhoeae, H. influenzae, staphylococci, streptococci including streptoc|
|DB00417||Phenoxymethylpenicillin||For the treatment of mild to moderately severe infections (e.g. dental infection, infections in the heart, middle ear infections, rheumatic fever, scarlet fever, skin infections, upper and lower respiratory tract infections) due to microorganisms.|
|DB00419||Miglustat||For the treatment of adult patients with mild to moderate type 1 (nonneuropathic) Gaucher's disease for whom enzyme replacement therapy is not a therapeutic option (e.g. due to constraints such as allergy, hypersensitivity, or poor venous access). Now approved in some countries for the treatment of progressive neurological symptoms in adult and pediatric patients with Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C). |
|DB00426||Famciclovir||For the treatment of acute herpes zoster (shingles). Also for the treatment or suppression of recurrent genital herpes in immunocompetent patients and treatment of recurrent mucocutaneous herpes simplex infections in HIV infected patients.|
|DB00430||Cefpiramide||For treatment of severe infections caused by susceptible bacteria such as P. aeruginosa.|
|DB00432||Trifluridine||Trifluridine is used for the treatment of primay keratoconjunctivitis and recurrent epithelial keratitis due to herpes simplex virus, types 1 and 2 in ophthalmic solutions.
Trifluridine, in combination with tipiracil as oral tablets, is indicated for the treatment of adult patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who have been previously treated with fluoropyrimidine-, oxaliplatin- and irinotecan-based chemotherapy, an anti-VEGF biological therapy, and if RAS wild-type, an anti-EGFR therapy [FDA Label].|
|DB00438||Ceftazidime||For the treatment of patients with infections caused by susceptible strains of organisms in the following diseases: lower respiratory tract infections,skin and skin structure infections, urinary tract infections, bacterial septicemia, bone and joint infections, gynecologic infections, intra abdominal infections (including peritonitis), and central nervous system infections (including meningitis).|
|DB00440||Trimethoprim||For the treatment of urinary tract infections, uncomplicated pyelonephritis (with sulfamethoxazole) and mild acute prostatitis. May be used as pericoital (with sulfamethoxazole) or continuous prophylaxis in females with recurrent cystitis. May be used as an alternative to treat asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy (only before the last 6 weeks of pregnancy). Other uses include: alternative agent in respiratory tract infections (otitis, sinusitus, bronchitis and pneumonia), treatment of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (acute or prophylaxis), Nocardia infections, and traveller's diarrhea.|
|DB00441||Gemcitabine||Gemcitabine is indicated for the treatment of advanced ovarian cancer that has relapsed at least 6 months after completion of platinum-based therapy; metastatic ovarian cancer; inoperable, locally advanced (Stage IIIA or IIIB), or metastatic (Stage IV) non-small cell lung cancer; and locally advanced (nonresectable Stage II or Stage III) or metastatic (Stage IV) adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. |
|DB00442||Entecavir||For the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus infection in adults with evidence of active viral replication and either evidence of persistent elevations in serum aminotransferases (ALT or AST) or histologically active disease.|
|DB00446||Chloramphenicol||Used in treatment of cholera, as it destroys the vibrios and decreases the diarrhea. It is effective against tetracycline-resistant vibrios. It is also used in eye drops or ointment to treat bacterial conjunctivitis.|
|DB00447||Loracarbef||Used to treat upper respiratory tract bacterial infections, chronic bronchitis, pneumonia, sinusitis, pharyntitis and tonsillitis, skin absceses, urinary tract infections and pyelonephritis caused by E. coli, S. pyogenes, S. aureus, S. saprphyticus, S. penumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis.|
|DB00452||Framycetin||For the treatment of bacterial blepharitis, bacterial bonjunctivitis, corneal injuries, corneal ulcers and meibomianitis. For the prophylaxis of ocular infections following foreign body removal|
|DB00456||Cefalotin||Used to prevent infection during surgery and to treat many kinds of infections of the blood, bone or joints, respiratory tract, skin, and urinary tract.|
|DB00467||Enoxacin||For the treatment of adults (≥18 years of age) with the following infections caused by susceptible strains of the designated microorganisms: (1) uncomplicated urethral or cervical gonorrhea due to Neisseria gonorrhoeae, (2) uncomplicated urinary tract infections (cystitis) due to Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, or Staphylococcus saprophyticus, and (3) complicated urinary tract infections due to Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, or Enterobacter cloacae.|
|DB00468||Quinine||For the treatment of malaria and leg cramps|
|DB00478||Rimantadine||For the prophylaxis and treatment of illness caused by various strains of influenza A virus in adults.|
|DB00479||Amikacin||The amikacin sulfate injection is indicated in the short-term treatment of serious bacterial infections due to susceptible strains of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas species, Escherichia coli, species of indole-positive and indole-negative Proteus, Providencia species, Klebsiella-Enterobacter-Serratia species, as well as Acinetobacter (Mima-Herellea) species [F1954].
Clinical studies have shown amikacin sulfate injection to be effective in bacterial septicemia (including neonatal sepsis); in serious infections of the respiratory tract, bones and joints, central nervous system (including meningitis) and skin and soft tissue; intra-abdominal infections (including peritonitis); and in burns and postoperative infections (including post-vascular surgery) [F1954].
Clinical studies have shown amikacin also to be effective in serious, complicated, and recurrent urinary tract infections due to the above organisms. Aminoglycosides, including amikacin, are not indicated in uncomplicated first-time episodes of urinary tract infections unless the causative organisms are not susceptible to antibiotics which are less toxic [F1954].
In September 2018, a new indication with a new dosage route was approved for this drug. Amikacin liposome inhalation suspension was approved for the treatment of lung disease caused by a group of bacteria, Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) in a limited population of patients with the disease who do not respond to conventional treatment (refractory disease) [L4673]. This indication is approved under accelerated approval based on achieving sputum culture conversion (defined as 3 consecutive negative monthly sputum cultures) by Month 6 of treatment. Clinical benefit has not yet been established [FDA label].
**Important notes regarding Staphylococcus and Sensitivity testing:**
Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant strains, is the principal Gram-positive organism sensitive to amikacin.
The use of amikacin in the treatment of staphylococcal infections should be restricted only to second-line therapy, and should be limited to only those patients suffering from severe infections caused by susceptible strains of staphylococcus species who have failed to show sensitivity to other available antibiotics [F1949].
Bacteriologic studies should be performed to identify causative organisms and their susceptibilities to amikacin. Amikacin may be used as initial therapy in suspected gram-negative infections and therapy may be initiated before obtaining the results of susceptibility testing [FDA label], [F1949], [F1954].|
|DB00485||Dicloxacillin||Used to treat infections caused by penicillinase-producing staphylococci which have demonstrated susceptibility to the drug.|
|DB00487||Pefloxacin||For the treatment of uncomplicated gonococcal urethritis in males and for gram-negative-bacterial infections in the gastrointestinal system and the genitourinary tract.|
|DB00493||Cefotaxime||Used to treat gonorrhoea, meningitis, and severe infections including infections of the kidney (pyelonephritis) and urinary system. Also used before an operation to prevent infection after surgery.|
|DB00495||Zidovudine||Used in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of human immunovirus (HIV) infections.|
|DB00503||Ritonavir||Indicated in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of HIV-1 infection.|
|DB00507||Nitazoxanide||For the treatment of diarrhea in adults and children caused by the protozoa Giardia lamblia, and for the treatment of diarrhea in children caused by the protozoan, Cryptosporidium parvum [FDA label].
Nitazoxanide has not been shown to be superior to placebo medication for the management of diarrhea caused by Cryptosporidium parvum in patients with HIV/immunodeficiency [FDA label, A31973, A31976]. |
|DB00512||Vancomycin||A variety of dosage forms (for example, oral, injections, etc.) exist for the treatment of serious or severe infections caused by susceptible strains of methicillin-resistant (beta-lactam-resistant) staphylococci [FDA Label].
Additionally, a unique FDA approved oral liquid treatment is also available and indicated for the treatment of Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea and enterocolitis caused by _Staphylococcus aureus_, including methicillin-resistant strains [L1196].|
|DB00518||Albendazole||For the treatment of parenchymal neurocysticercosis due to active lesions caused by larval forms of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium and for the treatment of cystic hydatid disease of the liver, lung, and peritoneum, caused by the larval form of the dog tapeworm, Echinococcus granulosus.|
|DB00520||Caspofungin||For the treatment of esophageal candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis in patients who are refractory to or intolerant of other therapies.|
|DB00525||Tolnaftate||Tolnaftate topical is used to treat skin infections such as athlete's foot, jock itch, and ringworm infections. Tolnaftate is also used, along with other antifungals, to treat infections of the nails, scalp, palms, and soles of the feet. The powder and powder aerosol may be used to prevent athlete's foot.|
|DB00529||Foscarnet||For the treatment of CMV retinitis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and for treatment of acyclovir-resistant mucocutaneous HSV infections in immunocompromised patients.|
|DB00535||Cefdinir||For the treatment of the respiratory, skin, soft tissue, and ENT infections caused by H. influenzae (including b-lactamase producing strains), H. parainfluenzae (including b-lactamase producing strains), S. pneumoniae (penicillin-susceptible strains), S. pyogenes, S. aureus (including b-lactamase producing strains), and M. catarrhalis.|
|DB00537||Ciprofloxacin||For the treatment of the following infections caused by susceptible organisms: urinary tract infections, acute uncomplicated cystitis, chronic bacterial prostatitis, lower respiratory tract infections, acute sinusitis, skin and skin structure infections, bone and joint infections, complicated intra-abdominal infections (used in combination with metronidazole), infectious diarrhea, typhoid fever (enteric fever), uncomplicated cervical and urethral gonorrhea, and inhalational anthrax (post-exposure).|
|DB00558||Zanamivir||For the prevention and treatment of influenza A and B.|
|DB00560||Tigecycline||For the treatment of infections caused by susceptible strains of the designated microorganisms in the following conditions: Complicated skin and skin structure infections caused by Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis (vancomycin-susceptible isolates only), Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-susceptible and -resistant isolates), Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus anginosus grp. (includes S. anginosus, S. intermedius, and S. constellatus), Streptococcus pyogenes and Bacteroides fragilis. Complicated intra-abdominal infections caused by Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis (vancomycin-susceptible isolates only), Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-susceptible isolates only), Streptococcus anginosus grp. (includes S. anginosus, S. intermedius, and S. constellatus), Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides uniformis, Bacteroides vulgatus, Clostridium perfringens, and Peptostreptococcus micros.|
|DB00567||Cephalexin||For the treatment of respiratory tract infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes; otitis media due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Moraxella catarrhalis; skin and skin structure infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus and/or Streptococcus pyogenes; bone infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus and/or Proteus mirabilis; genitourinary tract infections, including acute prostatitis, caused by Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Klebsiella pneumoniae.|
|DB00576||Sulfamethizole||For the treatment of urinary tract infection|
|DB00577||Valaciclovir||For the treatment or suppression of cold sores (herpes labialis), herpes zoster (shingles), genital herpes in immunocompetent individuals, and recurrent genital herpes in HIV-infected individuals.|
|DB00578||Carbenicillin||For the treatment of acute and chronic infections of the upper and lower urinary tract and in asymptomatic bacteriuria due to susceptible strains of bacteria.|
|DB00582||Voriconazole||For the treatment of esophageal candidiasis, invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, and serious fungal infections caused by Scedosporium apiospermum and Fusarium spp.|
|DB00592||Piperazine||Used as alternative treatment for ascariasis caused by Ascaris lumbricoides (roundworm) and enterobiasis (oxyuriasis) caused by Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm). It is also used to treat partial intestinal obstruction by the common roundworm, a condition primarily occurring in children.|
|DB00595||Oxytetracycline||Oxytetracycline is indicated for treatment of infections caused by a variety of Gram positive and Gram negative microorganisms including Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Pasteurella pestis, Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae (respiratory infections), and Diplococcus pneumoniae.|
|DB00601||Linezolid||For the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible strains of vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcal aureus (methicillin resistant and susceptible strains), Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae.|
|DB00602||Ivermectin||For the treatment of intestinal (i.e., nondisseminated) strongyloidiasis due to the nematode parasite Strongyloides stercoralis. Also for the treatment of onchocerciasis (river blindness) due to the nematode parasite Onchocerca volvulus. Can be used to treat scabies caused by Sarcoptes scabiei.|
|DB00607||Nafcillin||Indicated in the treatment of infections caused by penicillinase-producing staphylococci which have demonstrated susceptibility to the drug. |
|DB00608||Chloroquine||For the suppressive treatment and for acute attacks of malaria due to P. vivax, P.malariae, P. ovale, and susceptible strains of P. falciparum, Second-line agent in treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis|
|DB00609||Ethionamide||For use in the treatment of pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis when other antitubercular drugs have failed.|
|DB00613||Amodiaquine||For treatment of acute malarial attacks in non-immune subjects.|
|DB00614||Furazolidone||For the specific and symptomatic treatment of bacterial or protozoal diarrhea and enteritis caused by susceptible organisms.|
|DB00615||Rifabutin||For the prevention of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease in patients with advanced HIV infection.|
|DB00618||Demeclocycline||Used primarily to treat Lyme disease, acne, and bronchitis. Also indicated (but rarely used) to treat urinary tract infections, gum disease, malaria, and other bacterial infections such as gonorrhea and chlamydia. One of its other registered uses is the treatment of hyponatremia (low blood sodium concentration) due to the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) where fluid restriction alone has been ineffective. |
|DB00625||Efavirenz||For use in combination treatment of HIV infection (AIDS)|
|DB00626||Bacitracin||For the treatment of infants with pneumonia and empyema caused by staphylococci shown to be susceptible to the drug. Also used in ointment form for topical treatment of a variety of localized skin and eye infections, as well as for the prevention of wound infections. Used against gram positive bacteria. Bacitracin is also used as an inhibitor of proteases and other enzymes.
However, specific activity of bactracin's inhibition of protein disulfide isomerase has been called into question. |
|DB00632||Docosanol||For the topical treatment of recurrent oral-facial herpes simplex episodes (cold sores or fever blisters).|
|DB00634||Sulfacetamide||For the treatment of bacterial vaginitis, keratitis, acute conjunctivitis, and blepharitis.|
|DB00639||Butoconazole||For the local treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis (infections caused by Candida)|
|DB00643||Mebendazole||For the treatment of Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm), Trichuris trichiura (whipworm), Ascaris lumbricoides (common roundworm), Ancylostoma duodenale (common hookworm), Necator americanus (American hookworm) in single or mixed infections.|
|DB00646||Nystatin||For treatment of cutaneous or mucocutaneous mycotic infections caused by Candida species|
|DB00649||Stavudine||For the treatment of human immunovirus (HIV) infections.|
|DB00664||Sulfametopyrazine||For the treatment of urinary tract infection and chronic bronchitis.|
|DB00671||Cefixime||For use in the treatment of the following infections when caused by susceptible strains of the designated microorganisms: (1) uncomplicated urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis, (2) otitis media caused by Haemophilus influenzae (beta-lactamase positive and negative strains), Moraxella catarrhalis (most of which are beta-lactamase positive), and S. pyogenes, (3) pharyngitis and tonsillitis caused by S. pyogenes, (4) acute bronchitis and acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae (beta-lactamase positive and negative strains), and (5) uncomplicated gonorrhea (cervical/urethral) caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae (penicillinase- and non-penicillinase-producing strains).|
|DB00681||Amphotericin B||Used to treat potentially life threatening fungal infections.|
|DB00684||Tobramycin||For the treatment of pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infections. Also being investigated for use in the treatment of sinus infections.|
|DB00685||Trovafloxacin||For treatment of infections caused by susceptible strains of the designated microorganisms in uncomplicated urethral gonorrhea in males and endocervical and rectal gonorrhea in females caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae as well as non gonoccocal urethritis and cervicitis due to Chlamydia trachomatis.|
|DB00689||Cephaloglycin||For treatment of severe infections caused by susceptible bacteria.|
|DB00698||Nitrofurantoin||May be used as an alternative in the treatment of urinary tract infections. May be used by females pericoitally for prophylaxis against recurrent cystitis related to coitus. |
|DB00701||Amprenavir||For the treatment of HIV-1 infection in combination with other antiretroviral agents.|
|DB00705||Delavirdine||For the treatment of HIV-1 infection in combination with appropriate antiretroviral agents when therapy is warranted|
|DB00709||Lamivudine||For the treatment of HIV infection and chronic hepatitis B (HBV).|
|DB00711||Diethylcarbamazine||Used for the treatment of individual patients with certain filarial diseases including tropical pulmonary eosinophilia, loiasis, and lymphatic filariasis caused by infection with Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, or Brugia timori.|
|DB00713||Oxacillin||Used in the treatment of resistant staphylococci infections.|
|DB00718||Adefovir Dipivoxil||For the treatment of chronic hepatitis B in adults with evidence of active viral replication and either evidence of persistent elevations in serum aminotransferases (ALT or AST) or histologically active disease.|
|DB00730||Thiabendazole||For the treatment of strongyloidiasis (threadworm), cutaneous larva migrans (creeping eruption), visceral larva migrans, and trichinosis.|
|DB00735||Naftifine||For the topical treatment of tinea pedis, tinea cruris, and tinea corporis caused by the organisms Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton tonsurans and Epidermophyton floccosum.|
|DB00738||Pentamidine||For the treatment of pneumonia due to Pneumocystis carinii.|
|DB00756||Hexachlorophene||For use as a surgical scrub and a bacteriostatic skin cleanser. It may also be used to control an outbreak of gram-positive infection where other infection control procedures have been unsuccessful.|
|DB00759||Tetracycline||Used to treat bacterial infections such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever, typhus fever, tick fevers, Q fever, rickettsialpox and Brill-Zinsser disease. May be used to treat infections caused by Chlamydiae spp., B. burgdorferi (Lyme disease), and upper respiratory infections caused by typical (S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and M. catarrhalis) and atypical organisms (C. pneumoniae, M. pneumoniae, L. pneumophila). May also be used to treat acne. Tetracycline may be an alternative drug for people who are allergic to penicillin.|
|DB00760||Meropenem||For use as single agent therapy for the treatment of the following infections when caused by susceptible isolates of the designated microorganisms: complicated skin and skin structure infections due to Staphylococcus aureus (b-lactamase and non-b-lactamase producing, methicillin-susceptible isolates only), Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, viridans group streptococci, Enterococcus faecalis (excluding vancomycin-resistant isolates), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Bacteroides fragilis and Peptostreptococcus species; complicated appendicitis and peritonitis caused by viridans group streptococci, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacteroides fragilis, B. thetaiotaomicron, and Peptostreptococcus species. Also for use in the treatment of bacterial meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae (b-lactamase and non-b-lactamase-producing isolates), and Neisseria meningitidis.|
|DB00766||Clavulanic acid||For use with Amoxicillin, clavulanic acid is suitable for the treatment of infections with Staph. aureus and Bacteroides fragilis, or with beta-lactamase producing H. influenzae and E. coli.|
|DB00778||Roxithromycin||Used to treat respiratory tract, urinary and soft tissue infections.|
|DB00779||Nalidixic acid||For the treatment of urinary tract infections caused by susceptible gram-negative microorganisms, including the majority of E. Coli, Enterobacter species, Klebsiella species, and Proteus species.|
|DB00787||Acyclovir||For the treatment and management of herpes zoster (shingles), genital herpes, and chickenpox. |
|DB00793||Haloprogin||Used to treat fungal (Tinea) skin infections such as athlete's foot, jock itch, ringworm, and tinea versicolor.|
|DB00795||Sulfasalazine||For the treatment of Crohn's disease and rheumatoid arthritis as a second-line agent.|
|DB00798||Gentamicin||For treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible strains of the following microorganisms: P. aeruginosa, Proteus species (indole-positive and indole-negative), E. coli, Klebsiella-Enterobactor-Serratia species, Citrobacter species and Staphylococcus species (coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative).|
|DB00803||Colistin||For the treatment of acute or chronic infections due to sensitive strains of certain gram-negative bacilli, particularly Pseudomonas aeruginosa.|
|DB00811||Ribavirin||Indicated for the treatment of chronic Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in combination with other antiviral agents with the intent to cure or achieve a sustained virologic response (SVR). Typically added to improve SVR and reduce relapse rates [A19644].
The addition of ribavirin in Technivie therapy indicated for treating HCV genotype 1a and 4 infections is recommended in patients with or without cirrhosis.
Resistance: viral genetic determinants resulting in variable response to ribavirin therapy has not been yet determined. |
|DB00817||Rosoxacin||For the treatment of bacterial infection of respiratory tract, urinary tract, GI, CNS and immuno compromised patients.|
|DB00826||Natamycin||For the treatment of fungal blepharitis, conjunctivitis, and keratitis caused by susceptible organisms including Fusarium solani keratitis.|
|DB00827||Cinoxacin||For the treatment of initial and recurrent urinary tract infections in adults caused by the following susceptible microorganisms: Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella species (including K. pneumoniae), and Enterobacter species.|
|DB00828||Fosfomycin||For the treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections (acute cystitis) in women due to susceptible strains of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis.|
|DB00833||Cefaclor||For the treatment of certain infections caused by bacteria such as pneumonia and ear, lung, skin, throat, and urinary tract infections.|
|DB00845||Clofazimine||For the treatment of lepromatous leprosy, including dapsone-resistant lepromatous leprosy and lepromatous leprosy complicated by erythema nodosum leprosum.|
|DB00848||Levamisole||For adjuvant treatment in combination with fluorouracil after surgical resection in patients with Dukes' stage C colon cancer. Also used to treat malignant melanoma and head/neck cancer.
Levamisole was originally used as an antihelminthic to treat worm infestations in both humans and animals.|
|DB00857||Terbinafine||For the treatment of dermatophyte infections of the toenail or fingernail caused by susceptible fungi. Also for the treatment of tinea capitis (scalp ringworm) and tinea corporis (body ringworm) or tinea cruris (jock itch).|
|DB00877||Sirolimus||For the prophylaxis of organ rejection in patients receiving renal transplants.|
|DB00878||Chlorhexidine||For reduction of pocket depth in patients with adult periodontitis, used as an adjunct to scaling and root planing procedures. Also for prevention of dental caries, oropharyngeal decontamination in critically ill patients, hand hygiene in health-care personnel, general skin cleanser, and catheter site preparation and care.|
|DB00879||Emtricitabine||Indicated, in combination with other antiretroviral agents, for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in adults and for postexposure prophylaxis of HIV infection in health care workers and others exposed occupationally or nonoccupationally via percutaneous injury or mucous membrane or nonintact skin contact with blood, tissues, or other body fluids associated with risk for transmission of the virus.|
|DB00891||Sulfapyridine||For the treatment of dermatitis herpetiformis, benign mucous membrane pemphigoid and pyoderma gangrenosum|
|DB00898||Ethanol||For therapeutic neurolysis of nerves or ganglia for the relief of intractable chronic pain in such conditions as inoperable cancer and trigeminal neuralgia (tic douloureux), in patients for whom neurosurgical procedures are contraindicated.|
|DB00900||Didanosine||For use, in combination with other antiretroviral agents, in the treatment of HIV-1 infection in adults.|
|DB00908||Quinidine||For the treatment of ventricular pre-excitation and cardiac dysrhythmias|
|DB00911||Tinidazole||For the treatment of trichomoniasis caused by T. vaginalis in both female and male patients. Also for the treatment of giardiasis caused by G. duodenalis in both adults and pediatric patients older than three years of age and for the treatment of intestinal amebiasis and amebic liver abscess caused by E. histolytica in both adults and pediatric patients older than three years of age.|
|DB00915||Amantadine||For the chemoprophylaxis, prophylaxis, and treatment of signs and symptoms of infection caused by various strains of influenza A virus. Also for the treatment of parkinsonism and drug-induced extrapyramidal reactions.|
|DB00916||Metronidazole||For the treatment of anaerobic infections and mixed infections, surgical prophylaxis requiring anaerobic coverage, Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea and colitis, Helicobacter pylori infection and duodenal ulcer disease, bacterial vaginosis, Giardia lamblia gastro-enteritis, amebiasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica, acne rosacea (topical treatment), and Trichomonas infections.|
|DB00919||Spectinomycin||For use in the treatment of acute gonorrheal urethritis and proctitis in the male and acute gonorrheal cervicitis and proctitis in the female when due to susceptible strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.|
|DB00923||Ceforanide||For the treatment of infections caused by susceptible organisms.|
|DB00931||Metacycline||For the treatment of acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis|
|DB00932||Tipranavir||For combination antiretroviral treatment of HIV-1 infected adult patients with evidence of viral replication, who are highly treatment-experienced or have HIV-1 strains resistant to multiple protease inhibitors.|
|DB00936||Salicylic acid||Key additive in many skin-care products for the treatment of acne, psoriasis, callouses, corns, keratosis pilaris and warts.|
|DB00943||Zalcitabine||For the treatment of Human immunovirus (HIV) infections in conjunction with other antivirals.|
|DB00948||Mezlocillin||Used to treat serious gram–negative infections of the lungs, urinary tract, and skin.|
|DB00951||Isoniazid||For the treatment of all forms of tuberculosis in which organisms are susceptible.|
|DB00954||Dirithromycin||For the treatment of the following mild-to-moderate infections caused by susceptible strains of microorganisms: acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, secondary bacterial infection of acute bronchitis, community-acquired pneumonia, pharyngitis/tonsilitis, and uncomplicated skin and skin structure infections.|
|DB00955||Netilmicin||For the treatment of bacteremia, septicaemia, respiratory tract infections, skin and soft-tissue infection, burns, wounds, and peri-operative infections caused by susceptible strains.|
|DB00970||Dactinomycin||For the treatment of Wilms' tumor, childhood rhabdomyosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma and metastatic, nonseminomatous testicular cancer as part of a combination chemotherapy and/or multi-modality treatment regimen|
|DB00976||Telithromycin||For the treatment of Pneumococcal infection, acute sinusitis, acute bacterial tonsillitis, acute bronchitis and bronchiolitis, lower respiratory tract infection and lobar (pneumococcal) pneumonia.|
|DB00978||Lomefloxacin||For the treatment of bacterial infections of the respiratory tract (chronic bronchitis) and urinary tract, and as a pre-operative prophylactic to prevent urinary tract infection caused by: S.pneumoniae, H.influenzae, S.aureus, P.aeruginosa, E. cloacae, P. mirabilis, C. civersus, S. asprphyticus, E.coli, and K.pneumoniae.|
|DB00987||Cytarabine||For the treatment of acute non-lymphocytic leukemia, acute lymphocytic leukemia and blast phase of chronic myelocytic leukemia.|
|DB00994||Neomycin||Topical uses include treatment for superficial eye infections caused by susceptible bacteria (used in combination with other antiinfectives), treatment of otitis externa caused by susceptible bacteria, treatment or prevention of bacterial infections in skin lesions, and use as a continuous short-term irrigant or rinse to prevent bacteriuria and gram negative rod bacteremia in abacteriuric patients with indwelling catheters. May be used orally to treat hepatic encephalopathy, as a perioperative prophylactic agent, and as an adjunct to fluid and electrolyte replacement in the treatment of diarrhea caused to enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC). |
|DB01000||Cyclacillin||For the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible organisms.|
|DB01004||Ganciclovir||For induction and maintenance in the treatment of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in immunocompromised patients, including patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Also used in the treatment of severe cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease, including CMV pneumonia, CMV gastrointestinal disease, and disseminated CMV infections, in immunocompromised patients.|
|DB01007||Tioconazole||For the local treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis (moniliasis).|
|DB01015||Sulfamethoxazole||For the treatment bacterial infections causing bronchitis, prostatitis and urinary tract infections.|
|DB01017||Minocycline||For the treatment of infections caused by susceptible strains of microorganisms, such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever, typhus fever and the typhus group, Q fever, rickettsial pox and tick fevers caused by Rickettsiae, upper respiratory tract infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae and for the treatment of asymptomatic carriers of Neisseria meningitidis.|
|DB01026||Ketoconazole||For the treatment of the following systemic fungal infections: candidiasis, chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, oral thrush, candiduria, blastomycosis, coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, chromomycosis, and paracoccidioidomycosis.|
|DB01034||Cerulenin||For use as a biochemical tool, Cerulenin is shown to cause dramatic weight loss in animals|
|DB01041||Thalidomide||For the acute treatment of the cutaneous manifestations of moderate to severe erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL). Also for use as maintenance therapy for prevention and suppression of the cutaneous manifestations of ENL recurrence.|
|DB01044||Gatifloxacin||For the treatment of bronchitis, sinusitis, community-acquired pneumonia, and skin infections (abscesses, wounds) caused by S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, S. aureus, M. pneumoniae, C. pneumoniae, L. pneumophila, S. pyogenes|
|DB01045||Rifampicin||For the treatment of Tuberculosis and Tuberculosis-related mycobacterial infections.|
|DB01048||Abacavir||For the treatment of HIV-1 infection, in combination with other antiretroviral agents.|
|DB01051||Novobiocin||For the treatment of infections due to staphylococci and other susceptible organisms|
|DB01053||Benzylpenicillin||For use in the treatment of severe infections caused by penicillin G-susceptible microorganisms when rapid and high penicillin levels are required such as in the treatment of septicemia, meningitis, pericarditis, endocarditis and severe pneumonia.|
|DB01058||Praziquantel||For the treatment of infections due to all species of schistosoma.|
|DB01059||Norfloxacin||For the treatment of urinary tract infection|
|DB01060||Amoxicillin||For the treatment of infections of the ear, nose, and throat, the genitourinary tract, the skin and skin structure, and the lower respiratory tract due to susceptible (only b-lactamase-negative) strains of Streptococcus spp. (a- and b-hemolytic strains only), S. pneumoniae, Staphylococcus spp., H. influenzae, E. coli, P. mirabilis, or E. faecalis. Also for the treatment of acute, uncomplicated gonorrhea (ano-genital and urethral infections) due to N. gonorrhoeae (males and females).|
|DB01061||Azlocillin||For the treatment of infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Haemophilus influenzae.|
|DB01066||Cefditoren||For the treatment of mild to moderate infections in adults and adolescents (12 years of age or older) which are caused by susceptible strains of microorganisms in acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, community-acquired pneumonia, pharyngitis/tonsillitis, and uncomplicated skin and skin-structure infections.|
|DB01072||Atazanavir||Used in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of HIV-1 infection, as well as postexposure prophylaxis of HIV infection in individuals who have had occupational or nonoccupational exposure to potentially infectious body fluids of a person known to be infected with HIV when that exposure represents a substantial risk for HIV transmission.|
|DB01082||Streptomycin||For the treatment of tuberculosis. May also be used in combination with other drugs to treat tularemia (Francisella tularensis), plague (Yersia pestis), severe M. avium complex, brucellosis, and enterococcal endocarditis (e.g. E. faecalis, E. faecium).|
|DB01087||Primaquine||For the treatment of malaria.|
|DB01091||Butenafine||For the topical treatment of the following dermatologic infections: tinea (pityriasis) versicolor due to M. furfur, interdigital tinea pedis (athlete’s foot), tinea corporis (ringworm) and tinea cruris (jock itch) due to E. floccosum, T. mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, and T. tonsurans.|
|DB01096||Oxamniquine||For treatment of Schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma mansoni|
|DB01099||Flucytosine||For the treatment (in combination with amphotericin B) of serious infections caused by susceptible strains of Candida (septicemia, endocarditis and urinary system infections) and/or Cryptococcus (meningitis and pulmonary infections).|
|DB01103||Quinacrine||For the treatment of giardiasis and cutaneous leishmaniasis and the management of malignant effusions.|
|DB01110||Miconazole||For topical application in the treatment of tinea pedis (athlete’s foot), tinea cruris, and tinea corporis caused by Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Epidermophyton floccosum, in the treatment of cutaneous candidiasis (moniliasis), and in the treatment of tinea versicolor.|
|DB01112||Cefuroxime||For the treatment of many different types of bacterial infections such as bronchitis, sinusitis, tonsillitis, ear infections, skin infections, gonorrhea, and urinary tract infections.|
|DB01117||Atovaquone||For the treatment or prevention of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients who are intolerant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX). Also indicated for the acute oral treatment of mild to moderate PCP in patients who are intolerant to TMP-SMX.|
|DB01123||Proflavine||Topical antiseptic used mainly in wound dressings.|
|DB01127||Econazole||For topical application in the treatment of tinea pedis, tinea cruris, and tinea corporis caused by Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton tonsurans, Microsporum canis, Microsporum audouini, Microsporum gypseum, and Epidermophyton floccosum, in the treatment of cutaneous candidiasis, and in the treatment of tinea versicolor.|
|DB01131||Proguanil||For the causal prevention and suppression of malaria caused by susceptible strains of P. falciparum and other species of Plasmodium found in some geographical areas of the world.|
|DB01137||Levofloxacin||For the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis caused by susceptible strains of the following organisms: Corynebacterium species, Staphylococus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus (Groups C/F/G), Viridans group streptococci, Acinetobacter lwoffii, Haemophilus influenzae, Serratia marcescens.|
|DB01139||Cefapirin||For treatment of infections caused by susceptible bacteria.|
|DB01140||Cefadroxil||For the treatment of the following infections (skin, UTI, ENT) caused by; S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, staphylococci, S. pyogenes (group A beta-hemolytic streptococci), E. coli, P. mirabilis, Klebsiella sp, coagulase-negative staphylococci and Streptococcus pyogenes|
|DB01141||Micafungin||For use in the treatment of candidemia, acute disseminated candidiasis, and certain other invasive Candida infections, as well as esophageal candidiasis, and prophylaxis of Candida infections in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Micafungin is also used as an alternative for the treatment of oropharyngeal candidiases and has been used with some success as primary or salvage therapy, alone or in combination with other antifungals, for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis.|
|DB01147||Cloxacillin||Used to treat infections caused by penicillinase-producing staphylococci, including pneumococci, group A beta-hemolytic streptococci, and penicillin G-sensitive and penicillin G-resistant staphylococci.|
|DB01150||Cefprozil||For the treatment of the following infections (respiratory, skin, soft tissue, UTI, ENT) caused by; S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, staphylococci, S. pyogenes (group A beta-hemolytic streptococci), E. coli, P. mirabilis, Klebsiella sp, coagulase-negative staph|
|DB01152||Candicidin||Used in the topical treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis.|
|DB01153||Sertaconazole||For the topical treatment of interdigital tinea pedis in immunocompetent patients 12 years of age and older, caused by Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Epidermophyton floccosum.|
|DB01155||Gemifloxacin||For the treatment of bacterial infection caused by susceptible strains such as S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, H. parainfluenzae, or M. catarrhalis, S. pneumoniae (including multi-drug resistant strains [MDRSP]), M. pneumoniae, C. pneumoniae, or K. pneumoniae.|
|DB01157||Trimetrexate||For use, with concurrent leucovorin administration (leucovorin protection), as an alternative therapy for the treatment of moderate-to-severe Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) in immunocompromised patients, including patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Also used to treat several types of cancer including colon cancer.|
|DB01163||Amdinocillin||Used in the treatment of urinary tract infections caused by some strains of E. coli and klebsiella and enterobacter species. Used mainly against Gram negative organisms.|
|DB01165||Ofloxacin||For the treatment of infections (respiratory tract, kidney, skin, soft tissue, UTI), urethral and cervical gonorrhoea.|
|DB01167||Itraconazole||For the treatment of the following fungal infections in immunocompromised and non-immunocompromised patients: pulmonary and extrapulmonary blastomycosis, histoplasmosis, aspergillosis, and onychomycosis.|
|DB01172||Kanamycin||For treatment of infections where one or more of the following are the known or suspected pathogens: E. coli, Proteus species (both indole-positive and indole-negative), E. aerogenes, K. pneumoniae, S. marcescens, and Acinetobacter species.|
|DB01188||Ciclopirox||Used as a topical treatment in immunocompetent patients with mild to moderate onychomycosis of fingernails and toenails without lunula involvement, due to Trichophyton rubrum.|
|DB01190||Clindamycin||For the treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible anaerobic bacteria, including Bacteroides spp., Peptostreptococcus, anaerobic streptococci, Clostridium spp., and microaerophilic streptococci. May be useful in polymicrobic infections such as intra-abdominal or pelvic infections, osteomyelitis, diabetic foot ulcers, aspiration pneumonia and dental infections. May also be used to treat MSSA and respiratory infections caused by S. pneumoniae and S. pyogenes in patients who are intolerant to other indicated antibiotics or who are infected with resistant organism. May be used vaginally to treat vaginosis caused by Gardnerella vaginosa. Clindamycin reduces the toxin producing effects of S. aureus and S. pyogenes and as such, may be particularly useful for treating necrotizing fasciitis. May be used topically to treat acne.|
|DB01201||Rifapentine||For the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis.|
|DB01208||Sparfloxacin||For the treatment of adults with the following infections caused by susceptible strains microorganisms: community-acquired pneumonia (caused by Chlamydia pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, or Streptococcus pneumoniae) and acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (caused by Chlamydia pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Staphylococcus aureus, or Streptococcus pneumoniae).|
|DB01211||Clarithromycin||An alternative medication for the treatment of acute otitis media caused by H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis, or S. pneumoniae in patients with a history of type I penicillin hypersensitivity. Also for the treatment of pharyngitis and tonsillitis caused by susceptible Streptococcus pyogenes, as well as respiratory tract infections including acute maxillary sinusitis, acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, mild to moderate community-acquired pneuomia, Legionnaires' disease, and pertussis. Other indications include treatment of uncomplicated skin or skin structure infections, helicobacter pylori infection, duodenal ulcer disease, bartonella infections, early Lyme disease, and encephalitis caused by Toxoplasma gondii (in HIV infected patients in conjunction with pyrimethamine). Clarithromycin may also decrease the incidence of cryptosporidiosis, prevent the occurence of α-hemolytic (viridans group) streptococcal endocarditis, as well as serve as a primary prevention for Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) bacteremia or disseminated infections (in adults, adolescents, and children with advanced HIV infection).|
|DB01212||Ceftriaxone||For the treatment of the infections (respiratory, skin, soft tissue, UTI, ENT) caused by S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, staphylococci, S. pyogenes (group A beta-hemolytic streptococci), E. coli, P. mirabilis, Klebsiella sp, coagulase-negative staph|
|DB01218||Halofantrine||For treatment of Severe malaria|
|DB01220||Rifaximin||Rifaximin has multiple indications by the FDA: for the treatment of patients (≥12 years of age) with traveller's diarrhea caused by noninvasive strains of Escherichia coli; for the reduction of overt hepatic encephalopathy recurrence in patients ≥18 years of age; and in May 2015 it was approved for irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea (IBS-D) treatment in adult men and women. |
|DB01232||Saquinavir||For the treatment of HIV-1 with advanced immunodeficiency together with antiretroviral nucleoside analogues.|
|DB01243||Chloroxine||Used in the treatment of dandruff and mild to moderately severe seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp.|
|DB01263||Posaconazole||For prophylaxis of invasive Aspergillus and Candida infections in patients, 13 years of age and older, who are at high risk of developing these infections due to being severely immunocompromised as a result of procedures such as hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients with graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), or due to hematologic malignancies with prolonged neutropenia from chemotherapy. Also for the treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis, including oropharyngeal candidiasis refractory to itraconazole and/or fluconazole. Posaconazole is used as an alternative treatment for invasive aspergillosis, Fusarium infections, and zygomycosis in patients who are intolerant of, or whose disease is refractory to, other antifungals.|
|DB01264||Darunavir||Darunavir, co-administered with ritonavir, and with other antiretroviral agents, is indicated for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in antiretroviral treatment-experienced adult patients, such as those with HIV-1 strains resistant to more than one protease inhibitor.|
|DB01265||Telbivudine||For the treatment of chronic hepatitis B in adult and adolescent patients ≥16 years of age with evidence of viral replication and either evidence of persistent elevations in serum aminotransferases (ALT or AST) or histologically active disease.|
|DB01299||Sulfadoxine||Sulfadoxine is used in combination with pyrimethamine for the treatment or prevention of malaria. It can also be used to treat various infections in livestock as well.
Sulfadoxine and pyrimethamine is indicated for the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in those patients in whom chloroquine resistance is suspected. |
|DB01301||Rolitetracycline||Rolitetracycline is a broad-spectrum antibiotic used in cases needing high concentrations or when oral administration is impractical.|
|DB01319||Fosamprenavir||Indicated in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection, as well as postexposure prophylaxis of HIV infection in individuals who have had occupational or nonoccupational exposure to potentially infectious body fluids of a person known to be infected with HIV when that exposure represents a substantial risk for HIV transmission. The use of fosamprenavir is pending revision due to a potential association between the drug and myocardial infarction and dyslipidemia in HIV infected adults.|
|DB01321||Josamycin||For the treatment of bacterial infections.|
|DB01326||Cefamandole||For the treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible strains of microorganisms.|
|DB01327||Cefazolin||Mainly used to treat bacterial infections of the skin. It can also be used to treat moderately severe bacterial infections involving the lung, bone, joint, stomach, blood, heart valve, and urinary tract. It is clinically effective against infections caused by staphylococci and streptococci species of Gram positive bacteria. May be used for surgical prophylaxis; if required metronidazole may be added to cover B. fragilis.|
|DB01328||Cefonicid||For the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible microorganisms.|
|DB01329||Cefoperazone||For the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible microorganisms.|
|DB01330||Cefotetan||For prophylaxis and treatment of bacterial infections.|
|DB01331||Cefoxitin||For the treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible strains microorganisms.|
|DB01332||Ceftizoxime||For the treatment of infections due to susceptible strains of microorganisms.|
|DB01369||Quinupristin||For the treatment of bacterial infections (usually in combination with dalfopristin).|
|DB01405||Temafloxacin||For the treatment of lower respiratory tract infections, genital and urinary infections like prostatitis, and skin infections.|
|DB01413||Cefepime||For the treatment of pneumonia (moderate to severe) caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, including cases associated with concurrent bacteremia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, or Enterobacter species. Also for empiric treatment of febrile neutropenic patients and uncomplicated and complicated urinary tract infections (including pyelonephritis) caused by Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae, when the infection is severe, or caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, or Proteus mirabilis, when the infection is mild to moderate, including cases associated with concurrent bacteremia with these microorganisms. Also for the treatment of uncomplicated skin and skin structure infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-susceptible strains only) or Streptococcus pyogenes and complicated intra-abdominal infections (used in combination with metronidazole) caused by Escherichia coli, viridans group streptococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter species, or Bacteroides fragilis.|
|DB01414||Cefacetrile||Cefacetrile is a broad-spectrum first generation cephalosporin antibiotic effective in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial infections.|
|DB01415||Ceftibuten||Used to treat acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (ABECB), acute bacterial otitis media, pharyngitis, and tonsilitis.|
|DB01416||Cefpodoxime||For the treatment of patients with mild to moderate infections caused by susceptible strains of the designated microorganisms.|
|DB01421||Paromomycin||For the treatment of acute and chronic intestinal amebiasis (it is not effective in extraintestinal amebiasis). Also for the management of hepatic coma as adjunctive therapy.|
|DB01422||Nitroxoline||Nitroxoline is an antibiotic agent.|
|DB01423||Stepronin||Strepronin is a mucolytic (expectorant) drug.|
|DB01581||Sulfamerazine||A sulfanilamide that is used as an antibacterial agent. It can be used to treat bronchitis, prostatitis and urinary tract infections.|
|DB01582||Sulfamethazine||For the treatment bacterial infections causing bronchitis, prostatitis and urinary tract infections.|
|DB01598||Imipenem||For the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible bacteria.|
|DB01601||Lopinavir||Indicated in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of HIV-infection.|
|DB01602||Bacampicillin||For infections at the following sites: upper and lower respiratory tract; skin and soft tissue; urinary tract and acute uncomplicated gonococcal urethritis, when due to sensitive strains of the following organisms: Gram-positive: streptococci (including S. faecalis and S. pneumoniae) and nonpenicillinase-producing staphylococci; Gram-negative: H. influenzae, N. gonorrhoeae, E. coli, P. mirabilis, Salmonellae and Shigellae.|
|DB01603||Meticillin||Used to treat infections caused by susceptible Gram-positive bacteria, particularly beta-lactamase-producing organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus that would otherwise be resistant to most penicillins.|
|DB01604||Pivampicillin||or the treatment of respiratory tract infections (including acute bronchitis, acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis and pneumonia); ear, nose and throat infections; gynecological infections; urinary tract infections (including acute uncomplicated gonococcal urethritis) when caused by non penicillinase-producing susceptible strains of the following organisms: gram-positive organisms, e.g., streptococci, pneumococci and staphylococci; gram-negative organisms, e.g., H. influenzae, N. gonorrhoeae, E. coli, P. mirabilis. |
|DB01605||Pivmecillinam||Used to treat infections due to mecillinam-sensitive organisms such as urinary tract infections, salmonellosis and typhoid fever.|
|DB01606||Tazobactam||Used in combination with piperacillin to broaden the spectrum of piperacillin antibacterial action.|
|DB01607||Ticarcillin||For the treatment of bacterial infections.|
|DB01610||Valganciclovir||Valganciclovir is an antiviral medication used for the treatment of cytomegalovirus infections.|
|DB01611||Hydroxychloroquine||For the suppressive treatment and treatment of acute attacks of malaria due to Plasmodium vivax, P. malariae, P. ovale, and susceptible strains of P. falciparum. It is also indicated for the treatment of discoid and systemic lupus erythematosus, and rheumatoid arthritis.|
|DB01627||Lincomycin||Lincomycin is an antibiotic used in the treatment of staphylococcal, streptococcal, and Bacteroides fragilis infections.|
|DB01669||Virginiamycin M1||For the treatment of bacterial infections.|
|DB01764||Dalfopristin||For the treatment of bacterial infections (usually in combination with quinupristin).|
|DB02703||Fusidic Acid||For the treatment of bacterial infections.|
|DB02823||Phosphonoacetic Acid||Not Available|
|DB03006||Arsanilic acid||Not Available|
|DB03255||Phenol||Phenol is primarily indicated for minor sore throat pain, sore mouth, minor mouth irritation, and pain associated with canker sores. Additionally, phenol is indicated in the treatment of focal spasticity. |
|DB03424||Ubenimex||An adjuvant therapy used for acute and chronic myelonous leukemia, lung cancer and nasopharyngeal cancer. It is also used to treat hypercholesterolaemia.|
|DB03459||Sparfosic acid||Not Available|
|DB03600||Capric acid||Not Available|
|DB03793||Benzoic Acid||Not Available|
|DB03819||Salicylhydroxamic Acid||Not Available|
|DB03843||Formaldehyde||Use for drying skin before or after surgical removal of warts or where dryness is required. |
|DB03895||Malachite Green||Not Available|
|DB04066||para-Coumaric Acid||Not Available|
|DB04209||Dequalinium||Effective local treatment as vaginal tablets for infections such as fluor vaginalis, bacterial vaginosis, aerobic vaginitis, vulvo-vaginal candidiasis and trichomoniasis. Used as a topical antimicrobial agent. |
|DB04339||Carbocisteine||Used to help relieve the symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD) and bronchiectasis.|
|DB04570||Latamoxef||Latamoxef is an oxacephem antibiotic usually grouped with the cephalosporins. It is used to treat bacterial infections. Latamoxef is primarily indicated in conditions like Bone and joint infection, GI infections, Gynecological infections, Meningitis, Respiratory tract infections, Septicaemia, Skin infections, Soft tissue infections, UTI. |
|DB04576||Fleroxacin||Fleroxacin is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial fluoroquinolone.|
|DB04626||Apramycin||For the treatment of bacterial infections in animals.|
|DB04786||Suramin||For treatment of human sleeping sickness, onchocerciasis and other diseases caused by trypanosomes and worms.|
|DB04794||Bifonazole||Used for the treatment of various topical fungal infections, including athlete's foot (tinea pedis).|
|DB04835||Maraviroc||For treatment-experienced adult patients infected with only CCR5-tropic HIV-1 detectable, who have evidence of viral replication and HIV-1 strains resistant to multiple antiretroviral agents.|
|DB04866||Halofuginone||For the treatment of scleroderma, cancer, and restenosis.|
|DB04886||Calanolide A||For use in combination treatment of HIV infection (AIDS).|
|DB04910||Oxibendazole||Investigated for use/treatment in infectious and parasitic disease (unspecified) and pediatric indications.|
|DB04911||Oritavancin||Investigated for use/treatment in bacterial infection and skin infections/disorders.|
|DB04918||Ceftobiprole||For the treatment of serious bacterial infections in hospitalised patients.|
|DB04934||Rifalazil||Investigated for use/treatment in atherosclerosis, bacterial infection, and peripheral vascular disease.|
|DB04952||Ramoplanin||For the treatment of bacterial infections.|
|DB04961||Troxacitabine||Investigated for use/treatment in leukemia (myeloid).|
|DB04967||Lucanthone||Intended for use as a radiation sensitizer in the treatment of brain cancer.|
|DB05022||Amonafide||Investigated for use/treatment in breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and prostate cancer.|
|DB05105||Pleconaril||Investigated for use/treatment in upper respiratory infection.|
|DB05245||Silver sulfadiazine||Indicated as an adjunct for the prevention and treatment of wound sepsis in patients with second- and third-degree burns.|
|DB05258||Natural alpha interferon||Investigated for use/treatment in hepatitis (viral, C), leukemia (lymphoid), leukemia (myeloid), leukemia (unspecified), and melanoma.|
|DB05265||Ecabet||For the treatment of reflux oesophagitis and peptic ulcer disease.|
|DB05382||Iodine||Investigated for use/treatment in breast disorders (unspecified) and pain (acute or chronic).|
|DB05630||Sodium stibogluconate||For the treatment of various types of a protozoal infection called leishmaniasis, which may result from sandfly bites in tropical and temperate parts of the world. Also investigated for use/treatment in cancer/tumors (unspecified) and solid tumors.|
|DB05767||Andrographolide||Investigated for use/treatment in ulcerative colitis.|
|DB05941||Leronlimab||Investigated for use/treatment in HIV infection.|
|DB06145||Spiramycin||Macrolide antibiotic for treatment of various infections.|
|DB06147||Sulfathiazole||Sulfathiazole is effective against a wide range of gram positive and gram negative pathogenic microorganisms. Although no longer used in humans, it is used in cattle.|
|DB06149||Teicoplanin||For the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible microorganisms.|
|DB06150||Sulfadimethoxine||For use in the treatment of infections.|
|DB06151||Acetylcysteine||Acetylcysteine is used mainly as a mucolytic and in the management of paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdose.|
|DB06160||Garenoxacin||Investigated for use/treatment in bacterial infection.|
|DB06198||Alovudine||Investigated for use/treatment in HIV infection.|
|DB06219||Dalbavancin||Dalbavancin for injection is indicated for the treatment of adult patients with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI), caused by susceptible isolates of the following gram-positive microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus (including methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant strains), Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus anginosus group (including Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus intermedius, Streptococcus constellatus) and Enterococcus faecalis (vancomycin susceptible strains) [FDA Label, F2356].
Dalbavancin is not active against gram-negative bacteria; therefore, combination therapy may be clinically indicated if the ABSSSI is polymicrobial and includes a suspected or documented gram-negative pathogen [F2356].
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of dalbavancin and other antibacterial drugs, dalbavancin should be used only to treat infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria [FDA Label, F2356]. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy [FDA Label, F2356]. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy [FDA Label, F2356]. |
|DB06243||Eflornithine||Eflornithine is indicated in the treatment of facial hirsutism (excessive hair growth).|
|DB06266||Lonidamine||Investigated for use/treatment in benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostate disorders, and cancer/tumors (unspecified).|
|DB06290||Simeprevir||Indicated for the treatment of adults with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection: typically in combination with sofosbuvir in patients with HCV genotype 1 without cirrhosis or with compensated cirrhosis and in combination with peginterferon alfa (Peg-IFN-alfa) and ribavirin (RBV) in patients with HCV genotype 1 or 4 without cirrhosis or with compensated cirrhosis.
Resistance: Reduced susceptibility to simeprevir was most commonly associated with the viral NS3 Q80K polymorphism. Amino acid substitutions at NS3 positions S122, R155 and/or D168 are also shown to reduce susceptibility to simeprevir in genotype 1a/b patients.
|DB06402||Telavancin||For the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI) caused by gram-positive bacteria like methicillin-susceptible or -resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-susceptible Enterococcus faecalis, and Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, or Streptococcus anginosus group. Also for the treatment of adult patients with hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia (VAP), known or suspected to be caused by susceptible isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (including methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant S. aureus).|
|DB06414||Etravirine||Indicated as an adjunct therapy in the treatment of adult HIV-1 infections resistant to therapy with other NNRTIs and antiretroviral agents. |
|DB06419||Cethromycin||Investigated for use/treatment in bacterial infection, pediatric indications, and pneumonia.|
|DB06461||Squalamine||Investigated for use/treatment in ovarian cancer, lung cancer, and macular degeneration.|
|DB06608||Tafenoquine||Tafenoquine is used for the treatment and prevention of relapse of Vivax malaria in patients 16 years and older. Tafenoquine is not indicated to treat acute vivax malaria.[A35671]
Malaria is a disease that remains to occur in many tropical countries. Vivax malaria, caused by _Plasmodium vivax_, is known to be less virulent and seldom causes death. However, it causes a substantive illness-related burden in endemic areas and it is known to present dormant forms in the hepatocytes named hypnozoites which can remain dormant for weeks or even months. This dormant form produces ongoing relapses.[A35671]|
|DB06614||Peramivir||Investigated for use/treatment in influenza.|
|DB06683||Clevudine||Investigated for use/treatment in hepatitis (viral, B).|
|DB06693||Mevastatin||Not used therapeutically due to its many side effects. |
|DB06696||Arbekacin||Arbekacin is used for the short term treatment of multi-resistant bacterial infections, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).|
|DB06697||Artemether||Artemether and lumefantrine combination therapy is indicated for the treatment of acute uncomplicated malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum, including malaria acquired in chloroquine-resistant areas. May also be used to treat uncomplicated malaria when the Plasmodium species has not been identified. Indicated for use in adults and children greater than 5 kg. |
|DB06708||Lumefantrine||Lumefantrine and artemether combination therapy is indicated for the treatment of acute uncomplicated malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum, including malaria acquired in chloroquine-resistant areas. May also be used to treat uncomplicated malaria when the Plasmodium species has not been identified. Indicated for use in adults and children greater than 5 kg. |
|DB06729||Sulfaphenazole||For the treatment bacterial infections.|
|DB06733||Bafilomycin A1||Not Available|
|DB06759||Fomivirsen||Indicated for the local treatment of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), when other therapy has been ineffective or is considered unsuitable [FDA Label, L1428].|
|DB06795||Mafenide||Mafenide is indicated in the treatment of severe burns.|
|DB06799||Methenamine||For prophylactic or suppressive treatment of frequently recurring urinary tract infections when long-term therapy is considered necessary. This drug is not used to treat infection and should only be used after appropriate eradication of infection with antimicrobial agents.|
|DB06803||Niclosamide||For the treatment of tapeworm and intestinal fluke infections: Taenia saginata (Beef Tapeworm), Taenia solium (Pork Tapeworm), Diphyllobothrium latum (Fish Tapeworm), Fasciolopsis buski (large intestinal fluke). Niclosamide is also used as a molluscicide in the control of schistosomiasis.|
|DB06809||Plerixafor||Used in combination with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF, filgrastim) to mobilize hematopoietic stem cells to the peripheral blood for collection and subsequent autologous transplantation in patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) and multiple myeloma (MM).|
|DB06812||Povidone-iodine||For topical application in the treatment and prevention of infection in wounds.|
|DB06816||Pyrvinium||Pyrvinium was once used in the treatment of pinworm infestations [T39].|
|DB06817||Raltegravir||For the treatment of HIV-1 infection in conjunction with other antiretrovirals.|
|DB06820||Sulconazole||Sulconazole solution 1.0% is indicated for the treatment of tinea cruris and tinea corporis caused by Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Microsporum canis; and for the treatment of tinea versicolor. Effectiveness has not been proven in tinea pedis (athlete’s foot).|
|DB06827||Viomycin||Viomycin is an essential component in the drug cocktail currently used to fight infections of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.|
|DB07348||Brefeldin A||Not Available|
|DB07565||Chloramphenicol succinate||Not Available|
|DB08604||Triclosan||Triclosan is used in a variety of common household products, including soaps, mouthwashes, dish detergents, toothpastes, deodorants, and hand sanitizers. It is also used in health care settings in surgical scrubs and personnel hand washes.|
|DB08792||Diloxanide||Diloxanide is used alone as a primary agent in the treatment of asymptomatic (cyst passers) intestinal amebiasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica. Diloxanide may also be used concurrently, or sequentially, with other agents such as the nitroimidazoles (eg. metronidazole) in the treatment of invasive or extraintestinal forms of amebiasis.
|DB08798||Sulfamoxole||For the treatment of bacterial infection.|
|DB08831||2-deoxyglucose||As of July 2013, there is no approved therapeutic indication for 2-deoxyglucose. 2-deoxyglucose may have several potential indications as an adjunct to chemotherapy and radiotherapy in the treatment of solid tumors, as an antiviral treatment in herpes simplex patients, and as an antiepileptic in temporal lobe epilepsy patients.|
|DB08834||Tauroursodeoxycholic acid||Used in the treatment of cholesterol gallstones. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid is also being investigated for use in several conditions such as Primary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBC), insulin resistance, amyloidosis, Cystic Fibrosis, Cholestasis, and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.|
|DB08843||GS 0573||Not Available|
|DB08864||Rilpivirine||Rilpivirine, in combination with other agents, is indicated for the treatment of HIV-1 infections in antiretroviral treatment-naive patients with HIV-1 RNA ≤100,000 copies/mL and CD4+ cell count >200 cells/mm3.[L1030] The FDA combination therapy approval of rilpivirine and dolutegravir is indicated for adults with HIV-1 infections whose virus is currently suppressed (< 50 copies/ml) on a stable regimen for at least six months, without history of treatment failure and no known substitutions associated to resistance to any of the two components of the therapy.[L1031]|
|DB08903||Bedaquiline||Bedaquiline is indicated as part of combination therapy in adults (≥ 18 years) with pulmonary multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). |
|DB08930||Dolutegravir||Dolutegravir is indicated in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of patients with HIV-1 infection that comply with the characteristics of being adults or children aged 12 years and older and present at least a weight of 40 kg.[A7520] The FDA combination therapy approval of dolutegravir and rilpivirine is indicated for adults with HIV-1 infections whose virus is currently suppressed (< 50 copies/ml) on a stable regimen for at least six months, without history of treatment failure and no known substitutions associated to resistance to any of the two components of the therapy.[L1031]|
|DB08934||Sofosbuvir||Sofosbuvir is used in combination therapy with other antiviral medications to treat chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected patients with HCV genoptypes 1-6, and to treat HCV and HIV co-infected patients. Depending on the level of cirrhosis or decompensation, combination therapy can also include either ribavirin alone or ribavirin and peg-interferon alfa.
When used in combination with [DB09027] as the combination product Harvoni, sofosbuvir has the following indications: treatment of genotypes 1, 4, 5, or 6 infection without cirrhosis or with compensated cirrhosis; in combination with [DB00811] for genotype 1 infection with decompensated cirrhosis; or in combination with [DB00811] for the treatment of genotype 1 or 4 infection who are liver transplant recipients without cirrhosis or with compensated cirrhosis.
When used in combination with [DB11613] as the combination product Epclusa, sofosbuvir is indicated for the treatment of adult patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 infection without cirrhosis or with compensated cirrhosis, or in combination with [DB00811] if associated with decompensated cirrhosis.
Resistance: Reduced susceptibility to sofosbuvir has been associated with the NS5B substitution mutation S282T [A19634].|
|DB09027||Ledipasvir||When used in combination with the antiviral medication [DB08934] as the commercially available product Harvoni, ledipasvir is indicated for the treatment of HCV genotypes 1, 4, 5, and 6 with or without [DB00811] depending on the level of liver damage or cirrhosis [FDA Label]. Its use has also proven successful in the treatment of HCV in patients co-infected with HIV [A19627].|
|DB09031||Miltefosine||For the treatment of mucosal (caused by Leishmania braziliensis), cutaneous (caused by L. braziliensis, L. guyanensis, and L. panamensis), and visceral leishmaniasis (caused by L. donovani). In comparing Leishmania drug susceptibility, it has been found that L. donovani is the most susceptible to miltefosine while L. major is the least susceptible. Off-label use includes treatment of free-living amebae (FLA) infections (unlabeled use; CDC, 2013). |
|DB09040||Efinaconazole||Indicated in the treatment of fungal infection of the nail, known as onychomycosis.|
|DB09041||Tavaborole||Indicated for the treatment of onychomycosis (a fungal infection) of the toenails due to Trichophyton rubrum or Trichophyton mentagrophytes. |
|DB09042||Tedizolid phosphate||Tedizolid Phosphate is an oxazolidinone antibacterial drug indicated in adults for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) caused by susceptible isolates of the following Gram-positive microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus (including methicillin-resistant [MRSA] and methicillin-susceptible [MSSA] isolates), Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus anginosus Group (including Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus intermedius, and Streptococcus constellatus), and Enterococcus faecalis.|
|DB09060||Avibactam||AVYCAZ (ceftazidime-avibactam), in combination with metronidazole, is indicated for the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections caused by the following susceptible microorganisms: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Providencia stuartii, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in patients 18 years or older.
AVYCAZ is also indicated for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections including pyelonephritis caused by the following susceptible microorganisms: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter koseri, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter freundii, Proteus spp., and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in patients 18 years or older.|
|DB09065||Cobicistat||Cobicistat is a CYP3A inhibitor indicated to increase systemic exposure of atazanavir or darunavir (once daily dosing regimen) in combination with other antiretroviral agents in the treatment of HIV-1 infection. It is not interchangeable with ritonavir to increase systemic exposure of darunavir 600 mg twice daily, fosamprenavir, saquinavir, or tipranavir due to lack of exposure data. The use of cobicistat is not recommended with darunavir 600 mg twice daily, fosamprenavir, saquinavir or tipranavir. Complex or unknown mechanisms of drug interactions preclude extrapolation of ritonavir drug interactions to certain cobicistat interactions. Cobicistat and ritonavir when administered with either atazanavir or darunavir may result in different drug interactions when used with concomitant medications.|
|DB09086||Eugenol||Eugenol is not currently available in any FDA-approved drug products. There are a number of unapproved OTC products that advertise it for the use of toothache. Eugenol is is also commonly used in combination with zinc oxide in dental procedures for the cementation of temporary prostheses and the temporary restoration of teeth and cavities.|
|DB09093||Chlortetracycline||Used in the manufacuring of medicated animal feeds [FDA Label].|
|DB09115||Diiodohydroxyquinoline||Used in the treatment of amoebiasis.|
|DB09274||Artesunate||For the treatment of severe malaria caused by *Plasmodium falciparum* in adults and children [L891]|
|DB09319||Carindacillin||For the treatment of acute and chronic infections of the upper and lower urinary tract and in asymptomatic bacteriuria (due to susceptible strains Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Morganella morganii, Providencia rettgeri, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, and Enterococci.). Also indicated in the treatment of prostatitis (due to susceptible strains Escherichia coli Enterococcus (S. faecalis), Proteus mirabilis Enterobacter sp.).|
|DB09320||Procaine benzylpenicillin||For the treatment of a number of bacterial infections such as syphilis, anthrax, mouth infections, pneumonia and diphtheria. |
|DB09324||Sulbactam||Sulbactam is currently available in combination products with ampicillin. Within this formulation it is indicated for the treatment of infections due to susceptible strains of the designated microorganisms in the conditions listed below.
Skin and Skin Structure Infections caused by beta-lactamase producing strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. (including K. pneumoniae), Proteus mirabilis, Bacteroides fragilis, Enterobacter spp., and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus.
Intra-Abdominal Infections caused by beta-lactamase producing strains of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. (including K. pneumoniae), Bacteroides spp. (including B. fragilis), and Enterobacter spp.
Gynecological Infections caused by beta-lactamase producing strains of Escherichia coli, and Bacteroides spp. (including B. fragilis).|
|DB09348||Propiolactone||Propiolactone was used for vaccines, tissue grafts, surgical instruments, and enzymes, as a sterilant of blood plasma, water, milk and nutrient broth as a vapor-phase disinfectant in enclosed spaces. Its sporicidal action is used against vegetative bacteria, pathologic fungi, and viruses.[L1717] It is no longer used in medical procedures or in food.[A32144]|
|DB09499||Thiosulfuric acid||Antidote: Sodium thiosulfate is indicated to counteract or neutralize actions of poisons, e.g. cyanide poisoning.
Antineoplastic adjunct: |
|DB11073||Cetylpyridinium||Typically employed as the cetylpyridinium chloride salt, this compound is commonly used as an active ingredient in various over-the-counter mouthwashes, toothpastes, lozenges, and mouth sprays where it is generally indicated for antiseptic actions, gingivitis and plaque prevention, as well as action or prevention against some other oropharyngeal bacterial infections [A24813, L2754, L2755].|
|DB11080||Silver nitrate||Not Available|
|DB11091||Hydrogen peroxide||Indicated to be used as a disinfectant and sterilizer. |
|DB11105||Benzalkonium||When used as an active ingredient in products like antibacterial, antiseptic, or disinfectant soaps, topical sanitizers, or cleaning agents, benzalkonium is primarily implemented in its salt form, benzalkonium chloride, where it may often be the only active ingredient present and indicated for the primary purpose of topical washing to decrease bacteria on skin [L1806].
Conversely, when implemented as an excipient ingredient in a variety of multidose aqueous nose, eye, or ear products, benzalkonium chloride is being used as the antimicrobial preservative of choice to facilitate effective bactericidal and fungicidal actions to help minimize the growth of unwanted organisms in the multidose containers [FDA Label]. |
|DB11121||Chloroxylenol||The predominant medical applications for which chloroxylenol is formally indicated for therapeutic use is as an application to the skin for use in cuts, bites, stings, abrasions, and for use as antiseptic hand cleaner [L1992].|
|DB11123||Hypochlorite||Indicated for over-the-counter use as a disinfectant agent in the sodium hypochlorite form. |
|DB11125||Benzethonium||Indicated as an antiseptic agent. No therapeutic indications for clinical use. |
|DB11155||Triclocarban||Triclocarban (TCC), or 3,4,4'-trichlorocarbanilide, is an antibacterial agent used in bar and liquid soaps and body washes [L2685].|
|DB11156||Pyrantel||For the treatment of enterobiasis including roundworm (ascariasis), pinworm (enterobius) and hookworm (strongyloides) and hookworm (ancylostoma) in the pyrantel pamoate form [L1893].
Pyrantel is available in various formulations for humans, dogs, and cats as the pamoate (US Pharmacopeia nomenclature) or embonate (European Pharmacopoeia nomenclature) salt, which contains 34.7% pyrantel base combined with pamoic acid [L1893]. [L1900], [A32283].
Pyrantel pamoate (embonate) ingested orally is effective for removal and control of ascarid and hookworm infections in puppies and dogs (adult Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Ancylostoma tubaeforme, An. braziliense, Uncinaria stenocephala), cats (adult Toxocara cati, Toxa. leonina, An. caninum, An. braziliense, U. stenocephala), horses and ponies (adult and immature Parascaris equorum, adult Strongylus vulgaris, S. edentatus, S. equinus, Cyathostomes (Triodontophorus spp., Cyathostomum spp., Cylicodontophorus spp., Cylicocyclus spp., Cylicostephanus spp., Poteriostomum spp.), Oxyuris equi, Anoplocephala perfoliata), swine (adult Ascaris suum, Oesophagostomum dentatum), and humans (adult A. lumbricoides, Enterobius vermicularis, An. duodenale, Necator americanus) [L1900].|
|DB11218||Tea tree oil||Indicated for topical use to help protect against infection in minor cuts, scrapes, and burns. No FDA-approved therapeutic indications.|
|DB11254||Hexylresorcinol||Hexylresorcinol is predominantly employed as the active ingredient in lotions, sprays, or lozenges indicated as a (a) topical antiseptic to help prevent skin infection in minor cuts, scrapes, or burns, or (b) as an antiseptic and local anesthetic for the relief of a sore throat and its associated pain [L2734, L2735].
In addition, hexylresorcinol is used as an active ingredient in various commercial cosmetic skincare products as an anti-aging cream [L2736] while other studies have looked into whether or not the compound could be used effectively as an anti-inflammatory agent or even as an anti-cancer therapy [L2736].|
|DB11279||Brilliant green cation||Not Available|
|DB11304||Phenoxyethanol||Antimicrobial agent used as a preservative in cosmetics [L2618], [L2619], [L2625].|
|DB11431||Moxidectin||Moxidectin is indicated for the treatment of river blindness, also called onchocerciasis, in patients aged 12 years and older. River blindness is caused by a parasitic worm _Onchocerca volvulus_ and it is manifested as severe itching, disfiguring skin conditions and visual impairment caused by the worm's larvae.[L2971]
The transmission of _Onchocerca volvulus_ is performed person to person by black flies that breed in fast-flowing rivers in sub-Saharan Africa, Yemen and South and Central America. The larvae released by the adult parasite invade skin and eyes where they can produce the severe disease manifestations.[L2971]|
|DB11583||Cetalkonium||Cetalkonium is used as a surfactant, germicide, fungicide, mildew preventive agents in silicone-based water repellents, emulsifier, disinfectant, topical anti-infective, and antiseptic antimicrobial for pharmaceuticals. For its chemical properties and its antiseptical characteristics, cetalkonium can be used in a wide variety of products as part of the formulations and it is also determined to be an active antiseptic ingredient in over-the-counter preparations.[T211]|
|DB11593||Isatoic anhydride||Not Available|
|DB11638||Artenimol||For the treatment of uncomplicated *Plasmodium falciparum* infection in adults, children, and infants aged 6 months and up weighing over 5 kg [FDA Label]. Used in combination with [DB13941].|
|DB11989||Benznidazole||For use in the treatment of Chagas disease in children 2-12 years of age [L939].|
|DB12453||Chlorine Dioxide||Not Available|
|DB12834||Secnidazole||Indicated for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis in adult women . |
|DB12939||Nikkomycin Z||Not Available|
|DB13154||Parachlorophenol||Used as an intermediate in organic synthesis of dyes and drugs.
Local antibacterial agent in root canal therapy, as topical antiseptic in ointments
|DB13156||Inosine pranobex||Inosine pranobex is also indicated for mucocutaneous infections due to herpes simplex virus (type 1 and type II) and for treatment of genital warts as adjunctive therapy to podophyllin or carbon dioxide laser. |
|DB13179||Troleandomycin||For the treatment of bacterial infection.|
|DB13268||Acetarsol||Acetarsol has been used for the treatment of different diseases such as syphilis, amoebiasis, yaws, trypanosomiasis, and malaria.[L2624] Acetarsol was used commonly for the treatment of vaginitis due to _Trichomonas vaginalis_ and _Candida albicans_.[A32839, A32841] When orally administered, acetarsol can be used for the treatment of intestinal amoebiasis and in the form of suppositories it has been researched for the treatment of proctitis.[L2626]
Protozoan infections are parasitic diseases characterized to be caused by organisms classified in the kingdom Protozoa which is formed by a great diversity of organisms.[L2627]|
|DB13421||Edoxudine||Edoxudine was used in Europe, in the form of a topical antiviral, for the treatment of human herpes keratitis.[A32643] Human herpes keratitis is an inflammation of the cornea in the eye caused by herpes simplex virus infection. This infection is a cause of significant morbidity whose incidence is significantly increased in the presence of recurrent infection and it can even produce corneal blindness.[A32645]
Edoxudine 3% cream was also indicated for the treatment of dermal herpes simplex virus.[A32643] This virus can produce an infection ubiquitously and it is highly contagious. There are two types of herpes virus, type 1 that is mainly transmitted by oral-to-oral contact and type 2 that is sexually transmitted.[L2411]|
|DB13456||Midecamycin||Midecamycin was used for the treatment of infections in the oral cavity, upper and lower respiratory tracts and skin and soft tissue infections. The alone use of midecamycin was mainly used in Europe or Japan.[T207] |
|DB13503||Tyrothricin||Tyrothricin is used as an over the counter topical antibiotic.|
|DB13627||Oxolinic acid||Not Available|
|DB13732||Meglumine antimoniate||Not Available|
|DB13765||Mercuric chloride||Not Available|
|DB13871||Albendazole oxide||Not Available|
|DB13909||Bismuth subgallate||The most common medical purpose for which bismuth subgallate is currently and formally indicated for is the use as a non-prescription internal deodorant product for the purpose of deodorizing flatulence and stools [L2309, L2312, A32566].
Additionally, there are also various non-prescription (over the counter) bismuth subgallate based wound healing products as well as ongoing studies into whether or not the substance can be utilized as a legitimate hemostatic agent - usually for soft tissue surgery in otorhinolaryngology and/or dermatologic settings [A32567, A32568, A32569, A32570].
Moreover, in the past bismuth subgallate may have seen some use as a treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection [A32571]. In contrast, contemporary first-line therapies generally involve proton pump inhibitor and antibiotic combination therapies that generally achieve high rates of pathogen eradication, ease of administration, and patient compliance.|
|DB13941||Piperaquine||For the treatment of uncomplicated *Plasmodium falciparum* infection in adults, children, and infants aged 6 months and up weighing over 5 kg [FDA Label]. Used in combination with [DB11638].|
|DB13960||Bronopol||Bronopol as an active ingredient is registered as a commercial biocide and preservative in many industrial processes. Registered biocidal uses include pulp and paper mills, water cooling towers, waste water treatment, evaporative condensers, heat exchangers, food pasteurizing plants, metalworking fluids, and oilfield applications [F2317]. In addition, preservative uses include household products (e.g., dishwashing liquids, laundry products), latex emulsions, polymer lattices, pigments, leather and milk samples for analysis [F2317]. Bronopol is also formulated into granular domestic end-use products in the form of cat litter [F2317].|
|DB14015||Sodium bisulfite||Not Available|
|DB04815||Clioquinol||Used as a topical antifungal treatment.|
|DB06771||Besifloxacin||Treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis. Bacterial isolates that are susceptible to besifloxacin include: CDC coryneform group G; Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum; Corynebacterium striatum; Haemophilus influenzae; Moraxella lacunata; Staphylococcus aureus; Staphylococcus epidermidis; Staphylococcus hominis; Staphylococcus lugdunensis; Streptococcus mitis group; Streptococcus oralis; Streptococcus pneumoniae; Streptococcus salivarius* |
|DB11326||Boric acid||No FDA- or EMA-approved therapeutic indications on its own.|
|DB03166||Acetic acid||Used to treat infections in the ear canal.|
|DB11085||Resorcinol||Contemporary therapeutic uses for resorcinol primarily revolve around the use of the phenol derivative as an active ingredient in topical antiseptics [L2745, L2744, L2727, F61] or as topical antibacterial skin treatment products for conditions like acne, seborrheic dermatitis, eczema, and others [L2746, L2745, L2744, L2727, F61].|
|DB14062||Concanamycin A||Not Available|
|DB14091||Carbomer homopolymer type C||Not Available|
|DB06815||Pyrithione||Indicated for the treatment of dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis [A27133]. |
|DB14193||Ditiocarb Zinc||Ditiocarb Zinc is approved for use within allergenic epicutaneous patch tests which are indicated for use as an aid in the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in persons 6 years of age and older.|
|DB14479||Acetylcysteine zinc||Not Available|
|DB14505||Sodium borate||No FDA- or EMA-approved therapeutic indications on its own.|
|DB14556||Peracetic acid||Not Available|
|DB14638||Diloxanide furoate||Diloxanide is used alone as a primary agent in the treatment of asymptomatic (cyst passers) intestinal amebiasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica. Diloxanide may also be used concurrently, or sequentially, with other agents such as the nitroimidazoles (eg. metronidazole) in the treatment of invasive or extraintestinal forms of amebiasis.
|DB02192||Phenylethyl alcohol||Not Available|
|DB02600||Oseltamivir acid||Not Available|
|DB12480||Betulinic Acid||Not Available|
|DB13092||Meclocycline||Currently under investigation for the topical treatment of ulcerative oral mucositis [L797]|
|DB03766||Propanoic acid||Propanoic acid and various direct sodium or calcium salt formulations of the acid are currently most commonly approved and indicated by organizations like the FDA and EMA for use as an antibacterial food additive preservative in animal feed and food for human consumption [L2715, L2716].
Similarly, although the use of propanoic acid or any of its direct sodium or calcium salt formulations as excipient ingredients in pharmaceuticals is not necessarily a major role for the compound today, sodium propionate was used in some vaginal cream preparations indicated for cervicitis, cervical tears, and/or postcauterization, postcryosurgery, and postconization of the cervix [T193]. In such products, the sodium propionate was primarily used to elicit a preservative, bacteriostatic [L2710, F50] effect while other active ingredients combined in the formulation like urea, benzalkonium chloride, inositol, and methionine and cystine amino acids facilitated debridement, enhanced medication spread, epithelialization promotion, and wound healing, respectively [L2710, A32973].
Nevertheless, a great variety of propionic acid derivatives exist as separate pharmaceuticals, each with their own unique therapeutic categories, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacokinetics.|
|DB14725||Cefamandole nafate||Not Available|
|DB00781||Polymyxin B sulfate||For treatment of infections of the urinary tract, meninges, and blood stream, caused by susceptible strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.|
|DB00091||Ciclosporin||Cyclosporine is officially approved for different conditions listed below:
* Prophylaxis of organ rejection in kidney, liver, and heart allogeneic transplants. For this indication, it can be used concomitantly with azathioprine and corticosteroids.
* Treatment of patients with severe active, rheumatoid arthritis when the patient no longer responds to methotrexate.
* Concomitantly with methotrexate for the treatment of patients with severe active rheumatoid arthritis when patients do not respond to methotrexate treatment alone.
* Treatment of adult nonimmunocompromised patients with severe, recalcitrant, plaque psoriasis that have failed to respond to at least one systemic therapy or when systemic therapies are not tolerated or contraindicated.[FDA label]
* Its ophthalmic solution is indicated to increase tear production in patients with keratoconjunctivitis sicca in patients from 4 years old.[L5158]
* Prevention of graft rejection following bone marrow transplantation and in the treatment of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD).
* Treatment of steroid dependent and steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome due to glomerular diseases such as minimal change nephropathy, focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis or membranous glomerulonephritis in adults and children.[F3091]
Away from all this approved and reviewed indications, cyclosporine is commonly used on dermatology for the treatment of various inflammatory skin conditions such as atopic dermatitis, blistering disorders, and connective tissue diseases.[A174085]|
|DB14733||Ceftobiprole medocaril||Not Available|