Identification

Name
Sucrose
Accession Number
DB02772  (EXPT02977)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Experimental
Description

A nonreducing disaccharide composed of glucose and fructose linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from sugarcane, sugar beet (beta vulgaris), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Not Available
External IDs
GNE-410 / NSC-406942 / S-67F
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Childrens Emetrol Dye Free GrapeSucrose (3.74 g/5mL) + Phosphoric acid (21.5 mg/5mL)SolutionOralWell Spring Pharmaceutical Corporation2013-04-212016-09-30Us
Emetrol CherrySucrose (3.74 g/5mL) + Phosphoric acid (21.5 mg/5mL)SolutionOralPreferreed Pharmaceuticals Inc.2012-04-23Not applicableUs
Select Brand Anti-NauseaSucrose (3.74 g/5mL) + Phosphoric acid (21.5 mg/5mL)SolutionOralSelect Brands Distributors2008-01-01Not applicableUs
Categories
UNII
C151H8M554
CAS number
57-50-1
Weight
Average: 342.2965
Monoisotopic: 342.116211546
Chemical Formula
C12H22O11
InChI Key
CZMRCDWAGMRECN-UGDNZRGBSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C12H22O11/c13-1-4-6(16)8(18)9(19)11(21-4)23-12(3-15)10(20)7(17)5(2-14)22-12/h4-11,13-20H,1-3H2/t4-,5-,6-,7-,8+,9-,10+,11-,12+/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
(2R,3R,4S,5S,6R)-2-{[(2S,3S,4S,5R)-3,4-dihydroxy-2,5-bis(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-3,4,5-triol
SMILES

Pharmacology

Indication
Not Available
Structured Indications
Not Available
Pharmacodynamics
Not Available
Mechanism of action
TargetActionsOrganism
UBeta-lactamaseNot AvailableEscherichia coli (strain K12)
UNitric oxide synthase oxygenaseNot AvailableStaphylococcus aureus (strain MW2)
ULysozyme CNot AvailableHuman
USeptum formation protein MafNot AvailableBacillus subtilis (strain 168)
UGDP-mannose 6-dehydrogenaseNot AvailablePseudomonas aeruginosa (strain ATCC 15692 / PAO1 / 1C / PRS 101 / LMG 12228)
UActin, alpha skeletal muscleNot AvailableHuman
UBeta-glucosidaseNot AvailableStreptomyces sp.
UAmylosucraseNot AvailableNeisseria polysaccharea
UBeta-lactamaseNot AvailableEscherichia coli
UBeta-lactamase CTX-MNot AvailableEscherichia coli
UHeme oxygenaseNot AvailableCorynebacterium diphtheriae (strain ATCC 700971 / NCTC 13129 / Biotype gravis)
UCopper transport protein ATOX1Not AvailableHuman
UtRNA-splicing ligase RtcB homologNot AvailableHuman
UOrange carotenoid-binding proteinNot AvailableArthrospira maxima
USucrose porinNot AvailableSalmonella typhimurium
ULevansucraseNot AvailableBacillus subtilis (strain 168)
UBeta-lactamase CTX-M-27Not AvailableEscherichia coli
UTaste receptor type 1 member 2Not AvailableHuman
Absorption
Not Available
Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity
Not Available
Affected organisms
Not Available
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
Not Available
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Francois B. Paul, Pierre F. Monsan, Magali M. C. Remaud, Vincent P. Pelenc, "Process for the enzymatic preparation from sucrose of a mixture of sugars having a high content of isomaltose, and products obtained." U.S. Patent US4861381, issued April, 1956.

US4861381
General References
  1. Ten S, Maclaren N: Insulin resistance syndrome in children. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Jun;89(6):2526-39. [PubMed:15181020]
  2. Aguilera AA, Diaz GH, Barcelata ML, Guerrero OA, Ros RM: Effects of fish oil on hypertension, plasma lipids, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in rats with sucrose-induced metabolic syndrome. J Nutr Biochem. 2004 Jun;15(6):350-7. [PubMed:15157941]
  3. Fukuchi S, Hamaguchi K, Seike M, Himeno K, Sakata T, Yoshimatsu H: Role of fatty acid composition in the development of metabolic disorders in sucrose-induced obese rats. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2004 Jun;229(6):486-93. [PubMed:15169967]
  4. Lombardo YB, Drago S, Chicco A, Fainstein-Day P, Gutman R, Gagliardino JJ, Gomez Dumm CL: Long-term administration of a sucrose-rich diet to normal rats: relationship between metabolic and hormonal profiles and morphological changes in the endocrine pancreas. Metabolism. 1996 Dec;45(12):1527-32. [PubMed:8969287]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB00258
KEGG Drug
D00025
KEGG Compound
C00089
PubChem Compound
5988
PubChem Substance
46506134
ChemSpider
5768
ChEBI
17992
ChEMBL
CHEMBL253582
PharmGKB
PA451525
HET
SUC
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Wikipedia
Sucrose
PDB Entries
1a0t / 1ex2 / 1fe0 / 1fe4 / 1fee / 1gnx / 1iw0 / 1iw1 / 1jcq / 1jgi
show 227 more

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1, 2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCongestive Heart Failure (CHF)1
1, 2CompletedPreventionAcute Gastroenteritis / Norwalk Virus Infection1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentRetinopathy of Prematurity1
2CompletedNot AvailableInfants, Premature1
2CompletedTreatmentPain1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPain in Preterm Neonates1
3CompletedScreeningPain1
3CompletedSupportive CareAnalgesia1
3CompletedTreatmentELBW / Neonates / Pain1
3CompletedTreatmentOccasional Constipation1
3CompletedTreatmentPain1
3RecruitingSupportive CarePain1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentVaccination Pain Management1
4CompletedPreventionInfections, Pneumococcal / Thalassaemic disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentProcedural Pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentPain Due to Certain Specified Procedures1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentRetinopathy of Prematurity1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionMemory Disturbances1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentInfants, Premature / Retinal Disorders1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusPreventionDevelopment1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentDiabetes / Newborn Infants / Pain1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
SolutionOral
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)185.5 °CPhysProp
water solubility2.1E+006 mg/L (at 25 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP-3.70HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Caco2 permeability-5.77ADME Research, USCD
pKa12.6MERCK INDEX (1996)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility824.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-2.6ALOGPS
logP-4.5ChemAxon
logS0.38ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)11.84ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count11ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count8ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area189.53 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity68.77 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability31.03 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption-0.8682
Blood Brain Barrier+0.7245
Caco-2 permeable-0.8957
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.6386
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8721
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9402
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8146
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8747
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8561
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6536
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9425
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9377
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9395
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8821
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9716
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9258
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9132
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9565
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.7256
Rat acute toxicity1.0936 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9633
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.883
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (8 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-0gba-0930000000-594ae5d59d217235e6c7
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)GC-MSsplash10-02ta-0932000000-8fa2c23f886fb0c63312
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (8 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-00di-9731000000-0d702b863a0419bd559c
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-0gba-0930000000-594ae5d59d217235e6c7
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-02ta-0932000000-8fa2c23f886fb0c63312
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-00di-9731000000-0d702b863a0419bd559c
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-0i01-0932000000-a84ab9868385a177391a
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-05dm-9100000000-ff1c60103a4253a94cf7
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0900000000-1ba130720abffe5e93d0
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-002r-9600000000-bf4df12e3ec24b4de57b
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9100000000-5308faa0508d0796ef2c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0fdx-9804000000-018a029ba3843a8db2bd
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0fdx-9804000000-018a029ba3843a8db2bd
13C NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
13C NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,1H] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,13C] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as o-glycosyl compounds. These are glycoside in which a sugar group is bonded through one carbon to another group via a O-glycosidic bond.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic oxygen compounds
Class
Organooxygen compounds
Sub Class
Carbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates
Direct Parent
O-glycosyl compounds
Alternative Parents
Disaccharides / C-glycosyl compounds / Ketals / Oxanes / Tetrahydrofurans / Secondary alcohols / Polyols / Oxacyclic compounds / Primary alcohols / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
O-glycosyl compound / Disaccharide / C-glycosyl compound / Ketal / Oxane / Tetrahydrofuran / Secondary alcohol / Oxacycle / Organoheterocyclic compound / Polyol
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
glycosyl glycoside (CHEBI:17992) / Disaccharides (C00089)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Beta-lactamase activity
Specific Function
This protein is a serine beta-lactamase with a substrate specificity for cephalosporins.
Gene Name
ampC
Uniprot ID
P00811
Uniprot Name
Beta-lactamase
Molecular Weight
41555.3 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Staphylococcus aureus (strain MW2)
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nitric-oxide synthase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the production of nitric oxide.
Gene Name
nos
Uniprot ID
P0A094
Uniprot Name
Nitric oxide synthase oxygenase
Molecular Weight
41709.935 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Lysozyme activity
Specific Function
Lysozymes have primarily a bacteriolytic function; those in tissues and body fluids are associated with the monocyte-macrophage system and enhance the activity of immunoagents.
Gene Name
LYZ
Uniprot ID
P61626
Uniprot Name
Lysozyme C
Molecular Weight
16536.885 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Bacillus subtilis (strain 168)
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Involved in septum formation.
Gene Name
maf
Uniprot ID
Q02169
Uniprot Name
Septum formation protein Maf
Molecular Weight
21295.18 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (strain ATCC 15692 / PAO1 / 1C / PRS 101 / LMG 12228)
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Udp-glucose 6-dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the oxidation of guanosine diphospho-D-mannose (GDP-D-mannose) to GDP-D-mannuronic acid, a precursor for alginate polymerization. The alginate layer causes a mucoid phenotype and provides...
Gene Name
algD
Uniprot ID
P11759
Uniprot Name
GDP-mannose 6-dehydrogenase
Molecular Weight
47599.155 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Structural constituent of cytoskeleton
Specific Function
Actins are highly conserved proteins that are involved in various types of cell motility and are ubiquitously expressed in all eukaryotic cells.
Gene Name
ACTA1
Uniprot ID
P68133
Uniprot Name
Actin, alpha skeletal muscle
Molecular Weight
42050.67 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Streptomyces sp.
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Beta-glucosidase activity
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
bgl3
Uniprot ID
Q59976
Uniprot Name
Beta-glucosidase
Molecular Weight
52382.78 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Neisseria polysaccharea
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Cation binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the synthesis of alpha-glucan from sucrose. Catalyzes, in addition, sucrose hydrolysis, maltose and maltotriose synthesis by successive transfers of the glucosyl moiety of sucrose onto th...
Gene Name
ams
Uniprot ID
Q9ZEU2
Uniprot Name
Amylosucrase
Molecular Weight
72343.005 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Escherichia coli
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Beta-lactamase activity
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
blaCTX-M-9a
Uniprot ID
Q9L5C8
Uniprot Name
Beta-lactamase
Molecular Weight
30951.03 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Escherichia coli
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Beta-lactamase activity
Gene Name
blaCTX-M-14
Uniprot ID
Q9L5C7
Uniprot Name
Beta-lactamase
Molecular Weight
30979.09 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Corynebacterium diphtheriae (strain ATCC 700971 / NCTC 13129 / Biotype gravis)
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Metal ion binding
Specific Function
Allows the bacteria to use the host heme as an iron source. Involved in the oxidation of heme and subsequent release of iron from the heme moiety.
Gene Name
hmuO
Uniprot ID
P71119
Uniprot Name
Heme oxygenase
Molecular Weight
24115.81 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Metallochaperone activity
Specific Function
Binds and deliver cytosolic copper to the copper ATPase proteins. May be important in cellular antioxidant defense.
Gene Name
ATOX1
Uniprot ID
O00244
Uniprot Name
Copper transport protein ATOX1
Molecular Weight
7401.575 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Vinculin binding
Specific Function
Catalytic subunit of the tRNA-splicing ligase complex that acts by directly joining spliced tRNA halves to mature-sized tRNAs by incorporating the precursor-derived splice junction phosphate into t...
Gene Name
RTCB
Uniprot ID
Q9Y3I0
Uniprot Name
tRNA-splicing ligase RtcB homolog
Molecular Weight
55209.95 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Arthrospira maxima
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Photoreceptor activity
Specific Function
Acts as a blue-light photoreceptor and photo-protectant. Essential for inhibiting damaged induced by excess blue-green light via a process known as non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). Binding carote...
Gene Name
Not Available
Uniprot ID
P83689
Uniprot Name
Orange carotenoid-binding protein
Molecular Weight
35347.29 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Salmonella typhimurium
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Porin activity
Specific Function
Porin for sucrose uptake.
Gene Name
scrY
Uniprot ID
P22340
Uniprot Name
Sucrose porin
Molecular Weight
55466.87 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Bacillus subtilis (strain 168)
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Levansucrase activity
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
sacB
Uniprot ID
P05655
Uniprot Name
Levansucrase
Molecular Weight
52970.73 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Escherichia coli
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Beta-lactamase activity
Gene Name
blaCTX-M-27
Uniprot ID
Q840M4
Uniprot Name
Beta-lactamase
Molecular Weight
30921.06 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Taste receptor activity
Specific Function
Putative taste receptor. TAS1R2/TAS1R3 recognizes diverse natural and synthetic sweeteners.
Gene Name
TAS1R2
Uniprot ID
Q8TE23
Uniprot Name
Taste receptor type 1 member 2
Molecular Weight
95182.54 Da
References
  1. Servant G, Tachdjian C, Tang XQ, Werner S, Zhang F, Li X, Kamdar P, Petrovic G, Ditschun T, Java A, Brust P, Brune N, DuBois GE, Zoller M, Karanewsky DS: Positive allosteric modulators of the human sweet taste receptor enhance sweet taste. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Mar 9;107(10):4746-51. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0911670107. Epub 2010 Feb 19. [PubMed:20173092]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 09, 2017 03:18