- Physiological Phenomena
- Accession Number
The functions and properties of living organisms, including both the physical and chemical factors and processes, supporting life in single- or multi-cell organisms from their origin through the progression of life.
Drug Drug Description Pyridoxal phosphate A vitamin available in many formulations to correct vitamin B6 deficiency. Biotin A B-complex vitamin found in many multivitamin products. Ascorbic acid A vitamin used to correct vitamin C deficiency and to increase the intestinal absorption of iron. alpha-Linolenic acid A polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acid found in many supplements. Calcitriol An active metabolite of vitamin D that is used to treat hyperparathyroidism and is also used in dialysis patients to combat hypocalcemia. Riboflavin A vitamin used to correct vitamin B2 deficiency. Calcifediol An active metabolite of vitamin D used to treat hyperparathyroidism as well as to combat hypocalcemia in dialysis patients. Pyridoxal Pyridoxal is one of the natural forms available of vitamin B6, therefore, it is used for nutritional supplementation and for treating dietary shortage or imbalances. Thiamine A vitamin used to correct vitamin B1 deficiency. Ergocalciferol A vitamin found in many supplement products. Icosapent A polyunsaturated fatty acid, usually found in fish oils, that is used in many supplements. Vitamin A A vitamin important for retinal function that is used clinically to correct vitamin A deficiency. Vitamin E An antioxidant vitamin used in many skin creams and multivitamin preparations. Lipoic acid For nutritional supplementation, also for treating dietary shortage or imbalance. Aspartame Used as a diet supplement and sugar substitute. Cholecalciferol A form of Vitamin D used in the treatment of specific medical conditions such as refractory rickets, hypoparathyroidism, and familial hypophosphatemia, as well as osteoporosis and chronic kidney disease. Menadione The primary known function of vitamin K is to assist in the normal clotting of blood, but it may also play a role in normal bone calcification. Hydroxocobalamin A synthetic form of vitamin B12 used to treat vitamin B12 associated disorders and cyanide poisoning. Niacin A B vitamin used to treat hypertriglyceridemia and pellagra. Leucovorin A folate analog used to treat the toxic effects of methotrexate and other folate antagonists, to treat megaloblastic anemia, and to provide palliative treatment of colorectal cancer. Mannitol A sugar alcohol used to test for asthma, to reduce intracranial and intraocular pressure, and to measure glomerular filtration rate. Edetic acid A chelating agent used to treat mercury and lead toxicity and some blood transfusion dependent anemias. Phylloquinone A fat soluble vitamin used to treat hemorrhagic conditions in infants and coumarin overdoses. Dihydrotachysterol A synthetic analog of vitamin D that does not require renal activation like vitamin D2 or Vitamin D3. Iron An essential element commonly used for the treatment of patients with documented iron deficiency. Zinc An essential element commonly used for the treatment of patients with documented zinc deficiency. Sorbitol A product that can be used as a laxative to relieve constipation, and also as a urologic irrigating fluid. May also be used as a pharmaceutical sweetener. Pantothenic acid A vitamin B5 found in various nutritional supplements. Nicotinamide An ingredient found in a variety of cosmetic products. Sucrose A nonreducing disaccharide composed of glucose and fructose linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from sugarcane, sugar beet (beta vulgaris), and other plants and used extensively as... Maltose A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed) Benzoic acid An antimicrobial food additive. Fructose Not Available Lactose An additive and filler found in various products to maintain structure and consistency. Doxercalciferol A synthetic vitamin D2 analog used to treat secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients with chronic kidney disease with or without therapy of dialysis. Beta carotene A vitamin A precursor found in various nutritional supplements and health products. Manganese A transition metal used for supplementation of manganese during Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN). Dehydroascorbic acid There is no approved indication for dehydroascorbic acid, but it has potential therapeutic use in patients with certain viruses and ischemic stroke. Acetylcarnitine Acetylcarnitine is not approved for any indication in the United states and Canada, but it is approved and indicated in Italy for cerebrovascular disorders, mental function disorders, peripheral nerve disorders,... Icosapent ethyl An ethyl ester of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) that reduces synthesis and enhances clearance of triglycerides that is used to treat patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia. Fursultiamine Compound used for therapy of thiamine deficiency. It has also been suggested for several non-deficiency disorders but has not yet proven useful. Fursultiamine is a vitamin B1 derivative. Nitrous acid An iron binder used to reverse life-threatening acute cyanide poisoning. Copper A transition metal found in a variety of supplements and vitamins, including intravenous solutions for total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Nicorandil Indicated for the prevention and treatment of chronic stable angina pectoris and reduction in the risk of acute coronary syndromes. Ubidecarenone A cofactor found in various dietary supplements. Invert sugar Invert sugar presents a large variety of uses. It can be used therapeutically for parenteral hyperalimentation or to be used as an excipient with a known effect. Invert sugar is... Soybean oil An oil used as a source of calories and essential fatty acids in selected patients for total parenteral nutrition (TPN) therapy and prevention of essential fatty acid deficiency. Safflower oil No approved therapeutic indications. Omega-3-acid ethyl esters A mixture of fatty acids used as an adjunct to diet to reduce triglyceride (TG) levels in adult patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia. Olive oil For use in adults as a source of calories and fatty acids in total parenteral nutrition [FDA Label]. Sometimes used as an additive in cosmetic products. Casein An extract from Casein used in allergy testing. Selenic acid An ingredient found in a variety of supplements and vitamins. Cocoa butter Indicated for topical use in over-the-counter skin products for the treatment of skin dryness and reduction of striae gravidarum (stretch marks). Calcium citrate An ingredient found in a variety of supplements and vitamins. Vitamin D An ingredient found in a variety of supplements and vitamins. Selenious acid An ingredient found in supplements, vitamins, parenteral nutrition, and dandruff shampoo. Omega-3 fatty acids An ingredient found in a variety of supplements and vitamins. Cupric oxide An ingredient found in a variety of supplements and vitamins. Selenium An ingredient found in a variety of supplements and vitamins. Chromium An ingredient found in a variety of supplements and vitamins. Molybdenum An ingredient found in a variety of supplements and vitamins. Sesame oil Sesame oil is a commonly used vegetable oil in Asia and flavoring enhancer in various culinary practices. It is extracted from sesame seeds and contains linoleic acid, oleic acid, palmitic... Xylitol An ingredient added to dental products to remove bacteria. Boron Boron (B) is a chemical element with an atomic number 5 that belongs in the Period 2 and Group 13 in the periodic table. It is a low-abundant metalloid that... Tocopherol Tocopherol can be used as a dietary supplement for patients with a deficit of vitamin E; this is mainly prescribed in the alpha form. Vitamin E deficiency is rare, and... Xanthan gum Xanthan gum is a polysaccharide gum derived from* Xanthomonas campestris* by a pure-culture fermentation process and purified by recovery with isopropyl alcohol. The major constituents include D-glucose, D-mannose, and D-glucuronic... Cod liver oil An ingredient found in a variety of nutritional products. Pyridoxamine Pyridoxamine has been used in trials studying the treatment of Kidney Stones. Saccharin Saccharin has been investigated for the treatment of Hypertension and Hyperglycemia. Tocotrienol Tocotrienol has been investigated for the treatment of Cholesterol Lowering. Silicon Silicon is under investigation in clinical trial NCT00103246 (Photodynamic Therapy Using Silicon Phthalocyanine 4 in Treating Patients With Actinic Keratosis, Bowen's Disease, Skin Cancer, or Stage I or Stage II... Resolvin E1 Resolvin E1 (RX 10001) is under investigation in clinical trial NCT00941018 (Single and Multiple Ascending Oral Dose Study of Resolvin E1 in Healthy Volunteers). Inositol An ingredient found in a variety of nutritional products. Vanadium A compound used in some multivitamins and parenteral nutrition. alpha-Tocopherol succinate A form of vitamin E used to treat and prevent vitamin deficiencies. alpha-Tocopherol acetate A form of vitamin E used to treat and prevent vitamin deficiencies. Cobalamin Not Annotated Cinnamaldehyde Cinnamaldehyde is approved by the FDA for use within allergenic epicutaneous patch tests which are indicated for use as an aid in the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in... Calcium ascorbate Not Available Ferrous fumarate A medication used to treat iron-deficiency anemia. Cobalt A metal element used in various nutritional products. D-glucose A most commonly occurring isomer of glucose used as a carbohydrate supplementation in case of nutrient deprivation and metabolic disorders, such as hypoglycemia. Cocarboxylase The coenzyme form of Vitamin B1 present in many animal tissues. It is a required intermediate in the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and the ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex. Flavin mononucleotide A form of vitamin B2 used to restore riboflavin in anemia, migraine, alcoholism, and hyperhomocysteinemia. Doconexent An omega 3 fatty acid used in a variety of nutritional supplements to support central nervous system and cardiovascular health. Betadex Not Available Polydextrose Polydextrose is under investigation in clinical trial NCT02258750 (Assessing a Polydextrose Containing Soup on Food Intake, Appetite and Biomarkers of Satiation and Satiety). Menaquinone 6 Menaquinone 6 is under investigation in clinical trial NCT01194778 (Comparison of Efficacy of Different Dosages Vitamin K2). Avidin Avidin is under investigation in clinical trial NCT00345618 (Clinical Study Assessing Idrabiotaparinux Sodium Injections Once-weekly in Pulmonary Embolism Therapeutic Approach). Menaquinone Menaquinone is under investigation in clinical trial NCT01533441 (Vitamin K2 Intervention in Patients With Vitamin K Antagonists). gamma-Tocopherol gamma-Tocopherol is under investigation in clinical trial NCT00836368 (In Vitro Basophil Responsiveness to Allergen Challenge After Gamma-tocopherol Supplementation in Allergic Asthmatics). Inulin Historically used in an important medical test of renal function, specifically a measure of glomerular filtration rate. Sometimes used to help relieve symptoms of diabetes mellitus - a condition characterised... Eucalyptol A common ingredient in mouthwash and cosmetics derived naturally from the eucalyptus plant that is frequently used to to improve symptoms of airway mucus hypersecretion. Ergosterol A steroid of interest both because its biosynthesis in FUNGI is a target of ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS, notably AZOLES, and because when it is present in SKIN of animals, ULTRAVIOLET RAYS... IT-101 Investigated for use/treatment in cancer/tumors (unspecified) and solid tumors. Sugammadex A modified gamma cyclodextrin used to reverse neuromuscular blockade induced by vecuronium bromide and rocuronium bromide which are agents used for anesthesia. Dextrin 2-sulfate Investigated for use/treatment in HIV prevention. Hydroxyethyl Starch A plasma volume substitute used to treat and prevent hypovolemia. Pentastarch A plasma volume expander used as an adjunct in the management of shock due to hemorrhage, surgery, sepsis, burns or other trauma. Sodium citrate An ingredient used for the anticoagulation of whole blood as part of automated apheresis procedures. Pectin Pectin is used in food as a gelling agent and stabilizer. As a medical drug, it has obtained a great interest in its potential use as a source of dietary... Starch, corn Corn starch refers to the starch extracted from the corn grain that is commonly used as a food ingredient and chemical additive. Starch is any of a group of polysaccharides... Brexanolone Brexanolone is a synthetic neuroactive steroid gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABA(a)) receptor positive modulator indicated for the treatment of postpartum depression (PPD) in adult women [FDA Label][A176080, A176083, F4063, F4066, F4072]. Steviolbioside Steviolbioside has been used in trials studying the treatment of HIV-1 Infection. Amylopectin Amylopectin is under investigation in clinical trial NCT01708694 (Role of Slowly Digesible Starch on Diabetes Risk Factors). Amylose Amylose is under investigation in clinical trial NCT01027325 (Resistant Starch Insulin Sensitivity Trial). Hydroxypropyl betadex Hydroxypropyl betadex is under investigation in clinical trial NCT03471143 (Study of IV VTS-270 for Infantile Liver Disease Associated With Niemann-Pick Disease, Type C). Ubiquinone Q2 Not Available
- Drugs & Drug Targets