|DB00114||Pyridoxal phosphate||For nutritional supplementation and for treating dietary shortage or imbalance.|
The cyanocobalamin nasal spray is indicated for the maintenance of vitamin B12 concentrations after normalization with intramuscular vitamin B12 therapy in patients with deficiency of this vitamin who have no nervous system involvement [FDA label].
Note: CaloMist [FDA label], the nasal spray form, has not been evaluated for the treatment of newly diagnosed vitamin B12 deficiency.
**Injection forms (subcutaneous, intramuscular)**
These forms are indicated for vitamin B12 deficiencies due to various causes, with or without neurologic manifestations [F3736]. Vitamin B12 deficiency is frequently caused by malabsorption, which is often associated with the following conditions [L5545]:
Addisonian (pernicious) anemia
Gastrointestinal pathology, dysfunction, or surgery, including gluten enteropathy or sprue, small bowel bacterial overgrowth, total or partial gastrectomy
Fish tapeworm infestation
Malignancy of the pancreas or bowel
Folic acid deficiency
Vitamin B12 supplements are widely available and indicated in patients who require supplementation for various reasons. Dose requirements for vitamin B12 which are higher than normal (caused by pregnancy, thyrotoxicosis, hemolytic anemia, hemorrhage, malignancy, hepatic and renal disease) can usually be achieved with oral supplementation [L5545]. Oral products of vitamin B12 are not recommended in patients with malabsorption, as these forms are primarily absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract [F3739]. |
|DB00121||Biotin||For nutritional supplementation, also for treating dietary shortage or imbalance.|
|DB00126||Ascorbic acid||Used to treat vitamin C deficiency, scurvy, delayed wound and bone healing, urine acidification, and in general as an antioxidant. It has also been suggested to be an effective antiviral agent.|
|DB00132||Alpha-Linolenic Acid||For nutritional supplementation and for treating dietary shortage or imbalance.|
|DB00136||Calcitriol||Used to treat vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency, refractory rickets (vitamin D resistant rickets), familial hypophosphatemia and hypoparathyroidism, and in the management of hypocalcemia and renal osteodystrophy in patients with chronic renal failure undergoing dialysis. Also used in conjunction with calcium in the management and prevention of primary or corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis.|
|DB00140||Riboflavin||For the treatment of ariboflavinosis (vitamin B2 deficiency).|
|DB00146||Calcifediol||Used to treat vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency, refractory rickets (vitamin D resistant rickets), familial hypophosphatemia and hypoparathyroidism, and in the management of hypocalcemia and renal osteodystrophy in patients with chronic renal failure undergoing dialysis. Also used in conjunction with calcium in the management and prevention of primary or corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis.|
|DB00147||Pyridoxal||Pyridoxal is one of the natural forms available of vitamin B6, therefore, it is used for nutritional supplementation and for treating dietary shortage or imbalances.|
|DB00152||Thiamine||For the treatment of thiamine and niacin deficiency states, Korsakov's alcoholic psychosis, Wernicke-Korsakov syndrome, delirium, and peripheral neuritis.|
|DB00153||Ergocalciferol||Ergocalciferol is indicated for the treatment of hypoparathyroidism, refractory rickets, and familial hypophosphatemia.[FDA label]
Hypoparathyroidism is the result of inadequate parathyroid hormone production that occurs due to the presence of damage or removal of the parathyroid glands. This condition produces decreased calcium and increased phosphorus levels.[L6082]
Rickets is a condition produced due to a deficiency in vitamin D, calcium or phosphorus. However, this condition can also be related to renal diseases. It is characterized to present weak or soft bones.[A177664]
Familial hypophosphatemia is characterized by the impaired transport of phosphate and an altered vitamin D metabolism in the kidneys. The presence of this condition can derive in the presence of osteomalacia, bone softening and rickets.[L6085]|
|DB00158||Folic acid||Folic acid is indicated for the treatment of folic acid deficiency, megaloblastic anemia, and in anemias of nutritional origins, pregnancy, infancy, or childhood.|
|DB00159||Icosapent||EPA can be used for lowering elevated triglycerides in those who are hyperglyceridemic. In addition, EPA may play a therapeutic role in patients with cystic fibrosis by reducing disease severity and may play a similar role in type 2 diabetics in slowing the progression of diabetic nephropathy.|
|DB00162||Vitamin A||For the treatment of vitamin A deficiency.|
|DB00163||Vitamin E||Vitamin E supplementation is indicated for treatment of vitamin E deficiency which can occur in cystic fibrosis, cholestasis and severe liver disease, abetalipoproteinemia or simply poor diet[A176104,L3063].|
|DB00165||Pyridoxine||Pyridoxine is indicated for the treatment of vitamin B6 deficiency and for the prophylaxis of [DB00951]-induced peripheral neuropathy. It is also approved by Health Canada for the treatment of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy in a combination product with [DB00366] (as the commercially available product Diclectin).|
|DB00166||Lipoic Acid||For nutritional supplementation, also for treating dietary shortage or imbalance.|
|DB00168||Aspartame||Used as a diet supplement and sugar substitute.|
|DB00169||Cholecalciferol||Cholecalciferol use is indicated for the treatment of specific medical conditions like refractory rickets (or vitamin D resistant rickets), hypoparathyroidism, and familial hypophosphatemia [F4027, F4042].
Concurrently, as one of the most commonly utilized forms of vitamin D, cholecalciferol is also very frequently used as a supplement in individuals to maintain sufficient vitamin d levels in the body or to treat vitamin D deficiency, as well as various medical conditions that can be associated directly or indirectly with vitamin d insufficiency like osteoporosis and chronic kidney disease, among others [A176041, A176044, F4051].|
|DB00170||Menadione||The primary known function of vitamin K is to assist in the normal clotting of blood, but it may also play a role in normal bone calcification.|
|DB00200||Hydroxocobalamin||For treatment of pernicious anemia and the prevention and treatment of vitamin B12 deficiency arising from alcoholism, malabsorption, tapeworm infestation, celiac, hyperthyroidism, hepatic-biliary tract disease, persistent diarrhea, ileal resection, pancreatic cancer, renal disease, prolonged stress, vegan diets, macrobiotic diets or other restrictive diets. Also for the treatment of known or suspected cyanide poisoning.|
|DB00627||Niacin||For the treatment of type IV and V hyperlipidemia. It is indicated as ajunctive therapy.|
|DB00650||Leucovorin||For the treatment of osteosarcoma (after high dose methotrexate therapy). Used to diminish the toxicity and counteract the effects of impaired methotrexate elimination and of inadvertent overdosages of folic acid antagonists, and to treat megaloblastic anemias due to folic acid deficiency. Also used in combination with 5-fluorouracil to prolong survival in the palliative treatment of patients with advanced colorectal cancer.|
|DB00742||Mannitol||Used for the promotion of diuresis before irreversible renal failure becomes established, the reduction of intracranial pressure, the treatment of cerebral edema, and the promotion of urinary excretion of toxic substances.|
|DB00974||Edetic Acid||For the reduction of blood levels and depot stores of lead in lead poisoning (acute and chronic) and lead encephalopathy, in both pediatric populations and adults.|
|DB01022||Phylloquinone||For the treatment of haemorrhagic conditions in infants, antidote for coumarin anticoagulants in hypoprothrombinaemia.|
|DB01070||Dihydrotachysterol||Used for the prevention and treatment of rickets or osteomalacia, and to manage hypocalcemia associated with hypoparathyroidism or pseudohypoparathyroidism. Also used for the treatment of vitamin D dependent rickets, rickets or osteomalacia secondary to long-term high dose anticonvulsant therapy, early renal osteodystrophy, osteoporosis (in conjunction with calcium), and hypophosphatemia associated with Fanconi syndrome (with treatment of acidosis).|
|DB01592||Iron||Used in preventing and treating iron-deficiency anemia.|
|DB01593||Zinc||Zinc can be used for the treatment and prevention of zinc deficiency/its consequences, including stunted growth and acute diarrhea in children, and slowed wound healing. It is also utilized for boosting the immune system, treating the common cold and recurrent ear infections, as well as preventing lower respiratory tract infections [L2172].
|DB01638||Sorbitol||Used as a non-stimulant laxative via an oral suspension or enema.|
|DB01783||Pantothenic acid||Studied for the treatment of many uses such as treatment of testicular torsion, diabetic ulceration, wound healing, acne, obesity, diabetic peripheral polyneuropathy. It has also been investigated for its hypolipidemic effects and as cholesterol lowering agent.|
|DB03793||Benzoic Acid||Not Available|
|DB05382||Iodine||Investigated for use/treatment in breast disorders (unspecified) and pain (acute or chronic).|
|DB06410||Doxercalciferol||Doxercalciferol is indicated for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients with chronic kidney disease on dialysis, as well as for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients with Stage 3 or Stage 4 chronic kidney disease. |
|DB06755||Beta carotene||Beta-carotene is FDA approved to be used as a nutrient supplement and to be even added in infant formula as a source of vitamin A.[L2191] It is also approved to be used as a color additive for food products,[L2192] drugs (with the label of "only as a color additive")[L2193] and cosmetics.[L2194]
It is used commonly for the reduction of photosensitivity in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria and other photosensitivity diseases.[A32485]|
|DB06757||Manganese||Indicated for use as a supplement to intravenous solutions given for Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN). Administration helps to maintain plasma levels and to prevent depletion of endogenous stores and subsequent deficiency symptoms.|
|DB08830||Dehydroascorbic acid||There is no approved indication for dehydroascorbic acid, but it has potential therapeutic use in patients with certain viruses and ischemic stroke.|
|DB08842||Acetylcarnitine||Acetylcarnitine is not approved for any indication in the United states and Canada, but it is approved and indicated in Italy for cerebrovascular disorders, mental function disorders, peripheral nerve disorders, diabetic neuropathy, and nutritional supplementation; Portugal for mental function disorders; Argentina for cerebral vasculopathy, nutritional supplementation, and peripheral neuropathy; Chile for dementia; Philippines for cerebrovascular disorders and mental function disorders; Australia for nutritional supplementation; and India for nutritional supplementation to increase sperm count. Acetylcarnitine also has several potential therapeutic indications for which it is still being investigated: in Norway, acetylcarnitine is in a phase IV trial for prophylactic treatment of migraines; in Italy acetylcarnitine is in a phase II trial for use in patients with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, a phase III trial for alleviating fatigue in patients with chronic hepatitis C, and for use in patients with Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy; in the United States acetylcarnitine is in a phase II trial for the neurodegenerative disorder Progressive Supranuclear Palsy, a phase II and III trial for reducing peripheral neuropathy in cancer patients as an adjunct to chemotherapy, a phase I and II trial for treating patients in septic shock, a phase II trial for bipolar depression, a phase II trial to reduce oxidative stress in patients with Sickle Cell disease, a phase I and II trial for chronic fatigue syndrome, and a study for preventing nerve damage in HIV patients; in China acetylcarnitine is in a phase III trial for reducing peripheral neuropathy in cancer patients as an adjunct to chemotherapy; in the United Kingdom acetylcarnitine is being investigated for preventing nerve damage in HIV patients; and in Israel acetylcarnitine is being studied for the treatment of male infertility.
|DB08887||Icosapent ethyl||Icosapent ethyl is used as adjunct therapy to reduce triglyceride (TG) levels in adults with severe (>500 mg/dL) hypertriglyceridemia. |
|DB09112||Nitrous acid||For sequential use with sodium thiosulfate for the treatment of acute cyanide poisoning that is judged to be life-threatening [FDA Label].|
|DB09130||Copper||For use in the supplementation of total parenteral nutrition and in contraception with intrauterine devices [FDA Label] [L801].|
|DB09220||Nicorandil||Indicated for the prevention and treatment of chronic stable angina pectoris and reduction in the risk of acute coronary syndromes. |
|DB09270||Ubidecarenone||The diet supplements containing ubidecarenone are indicated, as stated in the product label, to assist individuals with cardiovascular complaints including congestive heart failure and systolic hypertension. In the product, ubidecarenone is used to increase the cardiac input as well as for the prevention of several other diseases like Parkinson, fibromyalgia, migraine, periodontal disease and diabetes, based on preclinical studies.[L1064] It is important to highlight that these products are not FDA approved and it is recommended to use under discretion.|
|DB09344||Invert sugar||Invert sugar presents a large variety of uses. It can be used therapeutically for parenteral hyperalimentation[T127] or to be used as an excipient with a known effect.[L1691] Invert sugar is also approved for its use in food products as a humectant, crystallization modifier, and liquid and nutritive sweetener.[T128]|
|DB09422||Soybean oil||Indicated for parenteral nutrition as a source of calories and essential fatty acids when oral or enteral nutrition is not possible, insufficient, or contraindicated. |
|DB09446||Safflower oil||No approved therapeutic indications.|
|DB09539||Omega-3-acid ethyl esters||Omega-3-Acid Ethyl Esters capsules, USP are indicated as an adjunct to diet to reduce triglyceride (TG) levels in adult patients with severe (≥500 mg/dL) hypertriglyceridemia (HTG)[FDA Label][A176687].|
|DB09567||Olive oil||For use in adults as a source of calories and fatty acids in total parenteral nutrition [FDA Label]. Sometimes used as an additive in cosmetic products.|
|DB11068||Selenic acid||Indicated for use as a nutritional supplement. |
|DB11086||Cocoa butter||Indicated for topical use in over-the-counter skin products for the treatment of skin dryness and reduction of striae gravidarum (stretch marks). |
|DB11093||Calcium Citrate||For use as an over the counter calcium supplement.|
|DB11094||Vitamin D||Vitamin D is indicated for use in the treatment of hypoparathyroidism, refractory rickets (also known as vitamin D resistant rickets), and familial hypophosphatemia [FDA Label].|
Selenium injection is indicated for use as a supplement to intravenous solutions given for total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Administration of selenious acid in TPN formulas helps to maintain plasma selenium levels and also to maintain endogenous stores to prevent deficiency [L1922].
Selenium compounds, such as selenium sulfide, are used topically in anti-dandruff shampoos and in cases of seborrhea [L1916].
For the purpose of brevity, selenite will the focus of discussion, and more information about selenium can be obtained at [DB11135].|
|DB11133||Omega-3 fatty acids||Provided as daily supplements. Aa preparation of omega-3-acid ethyl esters is licensed in UK for prevention of recurrent events after myocardial infarction in addition to treatment of hypertriglyceridaemia. |
|DB11134||Cupric oxide||No FDA- or EMA-approved therapeutic indications. |
|DB11135||Selenium||For the supplementation of total parenteral nutrition to prevent hyposelenemia [FDA Label].|
|DB11136||Chromium||Indicated for use as a supplement to intravenous solutions given for total parenteral nutrition (TPN), to maintain chromium serum levels and to prevent depletion of endogenous stores and subsequent deficiency symptoms [FDA Label].|
|DB11172||Sesame oil||Not Available|
|DB11195||Xylitol||Indicated for use as a sugar substitute, and oral hygiene active ingredient. |
|DB11209||Iron protein succinylate||Not Available|
|DB11251||Tocopherol||Tocopherol can be used as a dietary supplement for patients with a deficit of vitamin E; this is mainly prescribed in the alpha form.[A32443] Vitamin E deficiency is rare, and it is primarily found in premature babies of very low birth weight, patients with fat malabsorption or patients with abetalipoproteinemia.[L2120]
Tocopherol, due to its antioxidant properties, is studied for its use in prevention or treatment in different complex diseases such as cancer,[A32436] atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases,[A32442] and age-related macular degeneration.[A32444]|
|DB11253||Xanthan gum||Not Available|
|DB11321||Cod liver oil||Cod liver oil is predominantly manufactured, marketed, and used by the population at large as a general nutraceutical dietary supplement [A27154, A33159, L2872].
Historically, cod liver oil was often given to children because the vitamin d content in the oil had been shown to prevent or treat vitamin D deficiency and condition of rickets associated with it [A33159]. Over time, this common use in children growing up may have conferred upon cod liver oil its identity as a healthy and useful all-purpose dietary supplement.
However, since cod liver oil is a composite of several other nutritional compounds including the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as well as vitamin A and vitamin D [A33159, L2872, L2871], the presence in varying amounts of all of these compounds at once makes it difficult to recommend or use cod liver oil as an appropriate supplement to confer any one particular health effect or for any one particular nutritional deficiency.
Regardless, because it does contain a combination of a number of important and healthy nutritional compounds, cod liver oil has sometimes been recommended in the literature for conferring the health effects of some of these compounds, such as the potential use of cod liver oil supplements in post-heart attack patients for secondary prophylaxis associated with the use of omega-3 fatty acids [A33165].|
|DB11596||Levoleucovorin||Levoleucovorin is indicated for use as rescue therapy following high-dose methotrexate in the treatment of osteosarcoma or for diminishing the toxicity associated with inadvertent overdosage of folic acid antagonists. Levoleucovorin, as the product Fusilev (FDA, dosed at one-half the usual dose of racemic d,l-leucovorin), has an additional indication for use in combination chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil in the palliative treatment of patients with advanced metastatic colorectal cancer (although they should not be mixed in the same infusion as a precipitate may form).|
|DB13105||Resolvin E1||Not Available|
|DB13178||Inositol||Inositol may be used in food without any limitation. As a drug, inositol is used as a nutrient supplement in special dietary foods and infant formula.[L2561] As it presents a relevant role in ensuring oocyte fertility, inositol has been studied for its use in the management of polycystic ovaries.[A32751] Inositol is also being researched for the treatment of diabetes,[A32766] prevention of metabolic syndrome,[A32768] aid agent for weight loss,[A32769] treatment of depression, psychiatric disorder and anxiety disorder[A32770] and for prevention of cancer.[A32771]|
|DB14001||alpha-Tocopherol succinate||The primary health-related use for which alpha-tocopherol succinate is formally indicated is as a dietary supplement for patients who demonstrate a genuine vitamin E deficiency. At the same time, vitamin E deficiency is generally quite rare but may occur in premature babies of very low birth weight (< 1500 grams), individuals with fat-malabsorption disorders (as fat is required for the digestive tract to absorb vitamin E), or individuals with abetalipoproteinemia - a rare, inherited disorder that causes poor absorption of dietary fat - who require extremely large doses of supplemental vitamin E daily (around 100 mg/kg or 5-10 g/day) [L2120]. In all such cases, alpha-tocopherol is largely the preferred form of vitamin E to be administered.
Elsewhere, vitamin E's chemical profile as a fat-soluble antioxidant that is capable of neutralizing free radicals in the body continues to generate ongoing interest and study regarding how and whether or not the vitamin can help prevent or delay various chronic diseases associated with free radicals or other potential biological effects that vitamin E possesses like cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, ocular conditions, immune illnesses, cancer, and more [T166]. None of these ongoing studies have yet to elucidate any formally significant evidence, however [T166].
Similarly, more effective clinical trials are necessary to confirm what has only been accrued as preliminary data when it comes to studies proposing the demonstration of alpha-tocopherol succinate's capability to act as an anti-cancer therapy or as a regulator of inflammation [L2699, A32958, A32959].|
|DB14002||D-alpha-Tocopherol acetate||_In addition to any following information, owing to d-alpha-Tocopherol acetate's closely related chemical nature with alpha-Tocopherol acetate, please also refer to the drug information page for alpha-Tocopherol acetate for further data._
Vitamin E, known for its antioxidant activities, is protective against cardiovascular disease and some forms of cancer and has also demonstrated immune-enhancing effects. It may be of limited benefit in some with asthma and rheumatoid arthritis. It may be helpful in some neurological diseases including Alzheimer's, some eye disorders including cataracts, and diabetes and premenstrual syndrome. It may also help protect skin from ultraviolet irradiation although claims that it reverses skin aging, enhances male fertility and exercise performance are poorly supported. It may help relieve some muscle cramps.|
|DB14003||alpha-Tocopherol acetate||The primary health-related use for which alpha-tocopherol acetate is formally indicated is as a dietary supplement for patients who demonstrate a genuine vitamin E deficiency. At the same time, vitamin E deficiency is generally quite rare but may occur in premature babies of very low birth weight (< 1500 grams), individuals with fat-malabsorption disorders (as fat is required for the digestive tract to absorb vitamin E), or individuals with abetalipoproteinemia - a rare, inherited disorder that causes poor absorption of dietary fat - who require extremely large doses of supplemental vitamin E daily (around 100 mg/kg or 5-10 g/day) [L2120]. In all such cases, alpha-tocopherol is largely the preferred form of vitamin E to be administered.
Elsewhere, vitamin E's chemical profile as a fat-soluble antioxidant that is capable of neutralizing free radicals in the body continues to generate ongoing interest and study regarding how and whether or not the vitamin can help prevent or delay various chronic diseases associated with free radicals or other potential biological effects that vitamin E possesses like cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, ocular conditions, immune illnesses, cancer, and more [T166]. None of these ongoing studies have yet to elucidate any formally significant evidence, however [T166].|
|DB14184||Cinnamaldehyde||Cinnamaldehyde is approved by the FDA for use within allergenic epicutaneous patch tests which are indicated for use as an aid in the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in persons 6 years of age and older.|
|DB14482||Sodium ascorbate||Not Available|
|DB14483||Calcium ascorbate||Not Available|
|DB14484||Magnesium ascorbate||Not Available|
|DB14490||Ferrous ascorbate||Used in preventing and treating iron-deficiency anemia.|
|DB14491||Ferrous fumarate||Used in preventing and treating iron-deficiency anemia.|
|DB14598||Edetate calcium disodium anhydrous||Not Available|
|DB01914||D-glucose||Glucose pharmaceutical formulations (oral tablets, injections) are indicated for caloric supply and carbohydrate supplementation in case of nutrient deprivation. It is also used for metabolic disorders such as hypoglycemia.[L787]|
|DB03247||Flavin mononucleotide||Not Available|
|DB03756||Doconexent||Used as a high-docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) oral supplement. |
|DB14936||Menaquinone 6||Not Available|