Identification
NameBanoxantrone
Accession NumberDB04975
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsInvestigational
Description

Banoxantrone is a highly selective bioreductive drug that is activated in, and is preferentially toxic to, hypoxic cells in tumours. It has been shown to work synergistically with fractionated radiation to significantly delay growth of tumours compared to administration of either banoxantrone or radiation alone. Banoxantrone was also efficacious in tumour models when administered in combination with either cisplatin or chemoradiation. (PMID: 10864207)

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
AQ4N
External IDs Not Available
Product Ingredients Not Available
Approved Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International BrandsNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
Categories
UNIIW5H7E45YT3
CAS number136470-65-0
WeightAverage: 444.488
Monoisotopic: 444.200884638
Chemical FormulaC22H28N4O6
InChI KeyYZBAXVICWUUHGG-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C22H28N4O6/c1-25(2,31)11-9-23-13-5-6-14(24-10-12-26(3,4)32)18-17(13)21(29)19-15(27)7-8-16(28)20(19)22(18)30/h5-8,23-24,27-28H,9-12H2,1-4H3
IUPAC Name
SMILES
C[N+](C)([O-])CCNC1=CC=C(NCC[N+](C)(C)[O-])C2=C1C(=O)C1=C(O)C=CC(O)=C1C2=O
Pharmacology
Indication

For the treatment of various forms of cancer.

Structured Indications Not Available
Pharmacodynamics

AQ4N was rationally designed to have anti-tumor activity following bioreduction by tissue cytochrome P450 to AQ4, an active DNA topoisomerase II inhibitor. Preclinical studies demonstrated AQ4N selectively targets lymphoid tissues and hypoxic tumor tissues.

Mechanism of action

Banoxantrone (formally known as AQ4N) is preferentially and irreversibly converted to AQ4, its cytotoxic form, in hypoxic tumour cells where it remains localised. When the surrounding oxygenated cells are killed by radiotherapy or chemotherapy bringing these AQ4-containing quiescent cells closer to the oxygen source, they become reoxygenated, attempt to resume replication and, in this state, are killed by AQ4 through potent DNA intercalation and topoisomerase II inhibition.

TargetKindPharmacological actionActionsOrganismUniProt ID
DNA topoisomerase 2-alphaProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP11388 details
Related Articles
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism

AQ4N is selectively and irreversibly converted to AQ4, its cytotoxic form, in hypoxic tumor cells, which are its targeted site of action.

Route of eliminationNot Available
Half life

0.64 to 0.83 hours

ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs Not Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
AmiodaroneThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be decreased when combined with Amiodarone.Approved, Investigational
AprepitantThe serum concentration of Banoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Aprepitant.Approved, Investigational
AtazanavirThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be decreased when combined with Atazanavir.Approved, Investigational
AtomoxetineThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be decreased when combined with Atomoxetine.Approved
BexaroteneThe serum concentration of Banoxantrone can be decreased when it is combined with Bexarotene.Approved, Investigational
BoceprevirThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be decreased when combined with Boceprevir.Withdrawn
BortezomibThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be decreased when combined with Bortezomib.Approved, Investigational
BosentanThe serum concentration of Banoxantrone can be decreased when it is combined with Bosentan.Approved, Investigational
CarbamazepineThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be increased when combined with Carbamazepine.Approved, Investigational
CeritinibThe serum concentration of Banoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Ceritinib.Approved
CitalopramThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be decreased when combined with Citalopram.Approved
ClarithromycinThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be decreased when combined with Clarithromycin.Approved
ClemastineThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be decreased when combined with Clemastine.Approved
ClopidogrelThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be decreased when combined with Clopidogrel.Approved, Nutraceutical
ClotrimazoleThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be decreased when combined with Clotrimazole.Approved, Vet Approved
CobicistatThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be decreased when combined with Cobicistat.Approved
ConivaptanThe serum concentration of Banoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Conivaptan.Approved, Investigational
CrizotinibThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be decreased when combined with Crizotinib.Approved
CyclosporineThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be decreased when combined with Cyclosporine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DabrafenibThe serum concentration of Banoxantrone can be decreased when it is combined with Dabrafenib.Approved
DarunavirThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be decreased when combined with Darunavir.Approved
DasatinibThe serum concentration of Banoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Dasatinib.Approved, Investigational
DeferasiroxThe serum concentration of Banoxantrone can be decreased when it is combined with Deferasirox.Approved, Investigational
DelavirdineThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be decreased when combined with Delavirdine.Approved
DesipramineThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be decreased when combined with Desipramine.Approved
DexamethasoneThe serum concentration of Banoxantrone can be decreased when it is combined with Dexamethasone.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DihydroergotamineThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be decreased when combined with Dihydroergotamine.Approved
DiltiazemThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be decreased when combined with Diltiazem.Approved
DoxorubicinThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be decreased when combined with Doxorubicin.Approved, Investigational
DoxycyclineThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be decreased when combined with Doxycycline.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DronedaroneThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be decreased when combined with Dronedarone.Approved
EfavirenzThe serum concentration of Banoxantrone can be decreased when it is combined with Efavirenz.Approved, Investigational
EnzalutamideThe serum concentration of Banoxantrone can be decreased when it is combined with Enzalutamide.Approved
ErythromycinThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be decreased when combined with Erythromycin.Approved, Vet Approved
Eslicarbazepine acetateThe serum concentration of Banoxantrone can be decreased when it is combined with Eslicarbazepine acetate.Approved
EtravirineThe serum concentration of Banoxantrone can be decreased when it is combined with Etravirine.Approved
FluconazoleThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be decreased when combined with Fluconazole.Approved
FluvoxamineThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be decreased when combined with Fluvoxamine.Approved, Investigational
FosamprenavirThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be decreased when combined with Fosamprenavir.Approved
FosaprepitantThe serum concentration of Banoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Fosaprepitant.Approved
FosphenytoinThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be increased when combined with Fosphenytoin.Approved
Fusidic AcidThe serum concentration of Banoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Fusidic Acid.Approved
IdelalisibThe serum concentration of Banoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Idelalisib.Approved
ImatinibThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be decreased when combined with Imatinib.Approved
IndinavirThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be decreased when combined with Indinavir.Approved
IsavuconazoniumThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be decreased when combined with Isavuconazonium.Approved, Investigational
IsradipineThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be decreased when combined with Isradipine.Approved
ItraconazoleThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be decreased when combined with Itraconazole.Approved, Investigational
IvacaftorThe serum concentration of Banoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Ivacaftor.Approved
KetoconazoleThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be decreased when combined with Ketoconazole.Approved, Investigational
LopinavirThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be decreased when combined with Lopinavir.Approved
LovastatinThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be decreased when combined with Lovastatin.Approved, Investigational
LuliconazoleThe serum concentration of Banoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Luliconazole.Approved
LumacaftorThe serum concentration of Banoxantrone can be decreased when it is combined with Lumacaftor.Approved
MifepristoneThe serum concentration of Banoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Mifepristone.Approved, Investigational
MitotaneThe serum concentration of Banoxantrone can be decreased when it is combined with Mitotane.Approved
ModafinilThe serum concentration of Banoxantrone can be decreased when it is combined with Modafinil.Approved, Investigational
NafcillinThe serum concentration of Banoxantrone can be decreased when it is combined with Nafcillin.Approved
NefazodoneThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be decreased when combined with Nefazodone.Approved, Withdrawn
NelfinavirThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be decreased when combined with Nelfinavir.Approved
NetupitantThe serum concentration of Banoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Netupitant.Approved
NevirapineThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be increased when combined with Nevirapine.Approved
NilotinibThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be decreased when combined with Nilotinib.Approved, Investigational
OlaparibThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be decreased when combined with Olaparib.Approved
OsimertinibThe serum concentration of Banoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Osimertinib.Approved
PalbociclibThe serum concentration of Banoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Palbociclib.Approved
ParoxetineThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be decreased when combined with Paroxetine.Approved, Investigational
PentobarbitalThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be increased when combined with Pentobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
PhenobarbitalThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
PhenytoinThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.Approved, Vet Approved
PosaconazoleThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be decreased when combined with Posaconazole.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PrimidoneThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be increased when combined with Primidone.Approved, Vet Approved
QuazepamThe serum concentration of Banoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Quazepam.Approved, Illicit
RanolazineThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be decreased when combined with Ranolazine.Approved, Investigational
RifabutinThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be increased when combined with Rifabutin.Approved
RifampicinThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be increased when combined with Rifampicin.Approved
RifapentineThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be increased when combined with Rifapentine.Approved
RitonavirThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
SaquinavirThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be decreased when combined with Saquinavir.Approved, Investigational
SertralineThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be decreased when combined with Sertraline.Approved
SildenafilThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be decreased when combined with Sildenafil.Approved, Investigational
SiltuximabThe serum concentration of Banoxantrone can be decreased when it is combined with Siltuximab.Approved
SimeprevirThe serum concentration of Banoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Simeprevir.Approved
SorafenibThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be decreased when combined with Sorafenib.Approved, Investigational
St. John's WortThe serum concentration of Banoxantrone can be decreased when it is combined with St. John's Wort.Nutraceutical
StiripentolThe serum concentration of Banoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Stiripentol.Approved
SulfisoxazoleThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be decreased when combined with Sulfisoxazole.Approved, Vet Approved
TelaprevirThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be decreased when combined with Telaprevir.Withdrawn
TelithromycinThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be decreased when combined with Telithromycin.Approved
ThiotepaThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be decreased when combined with Thiotepa.Approved
TiclopidineThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be decreased when combined with Ticlopidine.Approved
TocilizumabThe serum concentration of Banoxantrone can be decreased when it is combined with Tocilizumab.Approved
VenlafaxineThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be decreased when combined with Venlafaxine.Approved
VerapamilThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
VoriconazoleThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be decreased when combined with Voriconazole.Approved, Investigational
ZiprasidoneThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be decreased when combined with Ziprasidone.Approved
Food InteractionsNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General References
  1. McKeown SR, Cowen RL, Williams KJ: Bioreductive drugs: from concept to clinic. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol). 2007 Aug;19(6):427-42. Epub 2007 May 4. [PubMed:17482438 ]
  2. McErlane V, Yakkundi A, McCarthy HO, Hughes CM, Patterson LH, Hirst DG, Robson T, McKeown SR: A cytochrome P450 2B6 meditated gene therapy strategy to enhance the effects of radiation or cyclophosphamide when combined with the bioreductive drug AQ4N. J Gene Med. 2005 Jul;7(7):851-9. [PubMed:15712360 ]
  3. Atkinson SJ, Loadman PM, Sutton C, Patterson LH, Clench MR: Examination of the distribution of the bioreductive drug AQ4N and its active metabolite AQ4 in solid tumours by imaging matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2007;21(7):1271-6. [PubMed:17340571 ]
  4. Lalani AS, Alters SE, Wong A, Albertella MR, Cleland JL, Henner WD: Selective tumor targeting by the hypoxia-activated prodrug AQ4N blocks tumor growth and metastasis in preclinical models of pancreatic cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2007 Apr 1;13(7):2216-25. [PubMed:17404106 ]
  5. Patterson LH, McKeown SR, Ruparelia K, Double JA, Bibby MC, Cole S, Stratford IJ: Enhancement of chemotherapy and radiotherapy of murine tumours by AQ4N, a bioreductively activated anti-tumour agent. Br J Cancer. 2000 Jun;82(12):1984-90. [PubMed:10864207 ]
  6. Loadman PM, Swaine DJ, Bibby MC, Welham KJ, Patterson LH: A preclinical pharmacokinetic study of the bioreductive drug AQ4N. Drug Metab Dispos. 2001 Apr;29(4 Pt 1):422-6. [PubMed:11259326 ]
External Links
ATC CodesNot Available
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSNot Available
Clinical Trials
Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1Unknown StatusTreatmentNon-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL) / Solid Malignancies1
1, 2Unknown StatusTreatmentChronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia (CLL) / Leukemia, Small Lymphocytic / Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL)1
1, 2Unknown StatusTreatmentGlioblastoma Multiforme1
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
PackagersNot Available
Dosage formsNot Available
PricesNot Available
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental PropertiesNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Predicted ADMET featuresNot Available
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSNot Available
Taxonomy
ClassificationNot classified

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Ubiquitin binding
Specific Function:
Control of topological states of DNA by transient breakage and subsequent rejoining of DNA strands. Topoisomerase II makes double-strand breaks. Essential during mitosis and meiosis for proper segregation of daughter chromosomes. May play a role in regulating the period length of ARNTL/BMAL1 transcriptional oscillation (By similarity).
Gene Name:
TOP2A
Uniprot ID:
P11388
Uniprot Name:
DNA topoisomerase 2-alpha
Molecular Weight:
174383.88 Da
References
  1. Atkinson SJ, Loadman PM, Sutton C, Patterson LH, Clench MR: Examination of the distribution of the bioreductive drug AQ4N and its active metabolite AQ4 in solid tumours by imaging matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2007;21(7):1271-6. [PubMed:17340571 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Vitamin d 24-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP1A1
Uniprot ID:
P04798
Uniprot Name:
Cytochrome P450 1A1
Molecular Weight:
58164.815 Da
References
  1. Yakkundi A, McErlane V, Murray M, McCarthy HO, Ward C, Hughes CM, Patterson LH, Hirst DG, McKeown SR, Robson T: Tumor-selective drug activation: a GDEPT approach utilizing cytochrome P450 1A1 and AQ4N. Cancer Gene Ther. 2006 Jun;13(6):598-605. [PubMed:16410820 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiot...
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Uniprot Name:
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
References
  1. McCarthy HO, Yakkundi A, McErlane V, Hughes CM, Keilty G, Murray M, Patterson LH, Hirst DG, McKeown SR, Robson T: Bioreductive GDEPT using cytochrome P450 3A4 in combination with AQ4N. Cancer Gene Ther. 2003 Jan;10(1):40-8. [PubMed:12489027 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase.
Gene Name:
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID:
P20813
Uniprot Name:
Cytochrome P450 2B6
Molecular Weight:
56277.81 Da
References
  1. Yakkundi A, McErlane V, Murray M, McCarthy HO, Ward C, Hughes CM, Patterson LH, Hirst DG, McKeown SR, Robson T: Tumor-selective drug activation: a GDEPT approach utilizing cytochrome P450 1A1 and AQ4N. Cancer Gene Ther. 2006 Jun;13(6):598-605. [PubMed:16410820 ]
  2. McErlane V, Yakkundi A, McCarthy HO, Hughes CM, Patterson LH, Hirst DG, Robson T, McKeown SR: A cytochrome P450 2B6 meditated gene therapy strategy to enhance the effects of radiation or cyclophosphamide when combined with the bioreductive drug AQ4N. J Gene Med. 2005 Jul;7(7):851-9. [PubMed:15712360 ]
Drug created on October 21, 2007 16:23 / Updated on September 01, 2017 11:23