Glycerol Phenylbutyrate

Identification

Name
Glycerol Phenylbutyrate
Accession Number
DB08909  (DB06170)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

Glycerol phenylbutyrate is a nitrogen-binding agent. Chemically, it is a triglyceride in which three molecules of phenylbutyrate are linked to a glycerol backbone. FDA approved on February 1, 2013.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • Glyceryl Tri-4-Phenylbutyrate
  • GPB
  • GT4P
External IDs
HPN-100 / HPN100
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
RavictiLiquid1.1 g/mLOralHyperion Therapeutics, Inc.2013-02-28Not applicableUs
RavictiLiquid1.1 g/mLOralHorizon Therapeutics, Llc.2013-02-28Not applicableUs
RavictiLiquid1.1 gOralHorizon Pharma, Inc.2016-11-03Not applicableCanada
Categories
UNII
ZH6F1VCV7B
CAS number
611168-24-2
Weight
Average: 530.6512
Monoisotopic: 530.266838948
Chemical Formula
C33H38O6
InChI Key
ZSDBFLMJVAGKOU-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C33H38O6/c34-31(22-10-19-27-13-4-1-5-14-27)37-25-30(39-33(36)24-12-21-29-17-8-3-9-18-29)26-38-32(35)23-11-20-28-15-6-2-7-16-28/h1-9,13-18,30H,10-12,19-26H2
IUPAC Name
1,3-bis[(4-phenylbutanoyl)oxy]propan-2-yl 4-phenylbutanoate
SMILES
O=C(CCCC1=CC=CC=C1)OCC(COC(=O)CCCC1=CC=CC=C1)OC(=O)CCCC1=CC=CC=C1

Pharmacology

Indication

Glycerol phenylbutyrate is a nitrogen-binding agent for the chronic management of adult and pediatric patients ≥2 years of age with urea cycle disorders (UCDs) who cannot be managed by dietary protein restriction and/or amino acid supplementation alone.

Structured Indications
Pharmacodynamics

Glycerol phenylbutyrate prolongs the QTc interval.

Mechanism of action

The toxic accumulation of ammonia in the blood and brain arise from urea cycle disorders in which patients are deficient in critical enzymes or transporters that are involved in the synthesis of urea from ammonia. Glycerol phenylbutyrate is a prodrug - the major metabolite, phenylacetate (PAA) is the molecule that binds to nitrogen. PAA conjugates with glutamine (which contains 2 molecules of nitrogen) via acetylation in the liver and kidneys to form phenylacetylglutamine (PAGN), which is excreted by the kidneys. PAGN, like urea, contains 2 moles of nitrogen and provides an alternate vehicle for waste nitrogen excretion.

Absorption

Glycerol phenylbutyrate is a prodrug in which phenylbutyrate (PBA) is released from the glycerol backbone by lipases in the gastrointestinal tract. PBA then undergoes beta-oxidtion to form PAA. When a single oral dose of 2.9 mL/m2 of Glycerol phenylbutyrate is given to fasting adult subjects, the pharmacokinetic parameters are as follows: Tmax: PBA = 2 hours; PAA = 4 hours; PAGN = 4 hours. Cmax: PBA = 37.0 µg/mL; PAA = 14.9 µg/mL; PAGN = 30.2 µg/mL. In healthy subjects, the hydrolysis of glycerol phenylbutyrate is incomplete, but to what extent is unknown. When glycerol phenylbutyrate is given to adult UCD patients, maximum plasma concentrations at steady state (Cmaxss) of PBA, PAA, and PAGN occurred at 8 h, 12 h, and 10 h, respectively, after the first dose in the day. Intact glycerol phenylbutyrate was not detectable in plasma in UCD patients.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

PBA = 80.6% to 98.0%; PAA = 37.1% to 65.6%; PAGN = 7% to 12%.

Metabolism

Pancreatic lipases hydrolyze glycerol phenylbutyrate to release PBA from the glycerol backbone. PBA undergoes β-oxidation to PAA, which is conjugated with glutamine in the liver and in the kidney through the enzyme phenylacetyl-CoA: L-glutamine-N-acetyltransferase to form PAGN.

Route of elimination

Glycerol phenylbutyrate is mainly excreted as PAGN in the urine (68.9% in adults and 66.5% in pediatric UCD patients). PAA and PBA represented minor urinary metabolites, each accounting for <1% of the administered dose of PBA.

Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Most common adverse reactions in ≥10% of patients are diarrhea, flatulence, and headache.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
16-BromoepiandrosteroneThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with 16-Bromoepiandrosterone.Investigational
19-norandrostenedioneThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with 19-norandrostenedione.Experimental, Illicit
5-androstenedioneThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with 5-androstenedione.Experimental, Illicit
AlclometasoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Alclometasone.Approved
AldosteroneThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Aldosterone.Experimental, Investigational
AmcinonideThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Amcinonide.Approved
AndrostenedioneThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Androstenedione.Experimental, Illicit
AnecortaveThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Anecortave.Investigational
anecortave acetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with anecortave acetate.Investigational
AtamestaneThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Atamestane.Investigational
AtorvastatinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Glycerol Phenylbutyrate is combined with Atorvastatin.Approved
Beclomethasone dipropionateThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Beclomethasone dipropionate.Approved, Investigational
BetamethasoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Betamethasone.Approved, Vet Approved
BromocriptineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bromocriptine is combined with Glycerol Phenylbutyrate.Approved, Investigational
BudesonideThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Budesonide.Approved
CabergolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cabergoline is combined with Glycerol Phenylbutyrate.Approved
CerivastatinThe serum concentration of Cerivastatin can be increased when it is combined with Glycerol Phenylbutyrate.Withdrawn
CiclesonideThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Ciclesonide.Approved, Investigational
ClobetasolThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Clobetasol.Investigational
Clobetasol propionateThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Clobetasol propionate.Approved
ClobetasoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Clobetasone.Approved
ClocortoloneThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Clocortolone.Approved
Cortexolone 17α-propionateThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Cortexolone 17α-propionate.Investigational
CorticosteroneThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Corticosterone.Experimental
Cortisone acetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Cortisone acetate.Approved
DesoximetasoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Desoximetasone.Approved
Desoxycorticosterone acetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Desoxycorticosterone acetate.Approved
Desoxycorticosterone PivalateThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Desoxycorticosterone Pivalate.Experimental, Vet Approved
DexamethasoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Dexamethasone.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
Dexamethasone isonicotinateThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Dexamethasone isonicotinate.Vet Approved
DiflorasoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Diflorasone.Approved
DifluocortoloneThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Difluocortolone.Approved, Investigational
DifluprednateThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Difluprednate.Approved
DihydroergocornineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dihydroergocornine is combined with Glycerol Phenylbutyrate.Approved
DihydroergocristineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dihydroergocristine is combined with Glycerol Phenylbutyrate.Experimental
DihydroergocryptineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dihydroergocryptine is combined with Glycerol Phenylbutyrate.Experimental
DihydroergotamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dihydroergotamine is combined with Glycerol Phenylbutyrate.Approved
EquileninThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Equilenin.Experimental
EquilinThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Equilin.Approved
ErgonovineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ergonovine is combined with Glycerol Phenylbutyrate.Approved
ErgotamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ergotamine is combined with Glycerol Phenylbutyrate.Approved
EstroneThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Estrone.Approved
Estrone sulfateThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Estrone sulfate.Approved
FesoterodineThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Fesoterodine can be increased when Fesoterodine is used in combination with Glycerol Phenylbutyrate.Approved
fluasteroneThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with fluasterone.Investigational
FludrocortisoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Fludrocortisone.Approved
FlumethasoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Flumethasone.Approved, Vet Approved
Fluocinolone AcetonideThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Fluocinolone Acetonide.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
FluocinonideThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Fluocinonide.Approved, Investigational
FluocortoloneThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Fluocortolone.Approved, Withdrawn
FluorometholoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Fluorometholone.Approved
FluprednideneThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Fluprednidene.Approved, Withdrawn
FluprednisoloneThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Fluprednisolone.Approved
FlurandrenolideThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Flurandrenolide.Approved
FluvastatinThe serum concentration of Fluvastatin can be increased when it is combined with Glycerol Phenylbutyrate.Approved
FormestaneThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Formestane.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
HaloperidolThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Haloperidol.Approved
HE3286The therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with HE3286.Investigational
HydrocortisoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Hydrocortisone.Approved, Vet Approved
IstaroximeThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Istaroxime.Investigational
LisurideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lisuride is combined with Glycerol Phenylbutyrate.Approved, Investigational
LovastatinThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be increased when it is combined with Glycerol Phenylbutyrate.Approved, Investigational
Lysergic Acid DiethylamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lysergic Acid Diethylamide is combined with Glycerol Phenylbutyrate.Illicit, Investigational, Withdrawn
ME-609The therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with ME-609.Investigational
MedrysoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Medrysone.Approved
MelengestrolThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Melengestrol.Vet Approved
MetergolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metergoline is combined with Glycerol Phenylbutyrate.Experimental
MethylergometrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methylergometrine is combined with Glycerol Phenylbutyrate.Approved
MethylprednisoloneThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Methylprednisolone.Approved, Vet Approved
MethysergideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methysergide is combined with Glycerol Phenylbutyrate.Approved
MetoprololThe serum concentration of Metoprolol can be increased when it is combined with Glycerol Phenylbutyrate.Approved, Investigational
MevastatinThe serum concentration of Mevastatin can be increased when it is combined with Glycerol Phenylbutyrate.Experimental
NCX 1022The therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with NCX 1022.Investigational
NicergolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nicergoline is combined with Glycerol Phenylbutyrate.Approved, Investigational
Oleoyl-estroneThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Oleoyl-estrone.Investigational
ParamethasoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Paramethasone.Approved
PergolideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pergolide is combined with Glycerol Phenylbutyrate.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved, Withdrawn
PitavastatinThe serum concentration of Pitavastatin can be increased when it is combined with Glycerol Phenylbutyrate.Approved
PrasteroneThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Prasterone.Approved, Nutraceutical
Prasterone sulfateThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Prasterone sulfate.Investigational
PravastatinThe serum concentration of Pravastatin can be increased when it is combined with Glycerol Phenylbutyrate.Approved
PrednicarbateThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Prednicarbate.Approved
PrednisoloneThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Prednisolone.Approved, Vet Approved
PrednisoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Prednisone.Approved, Vet Approved
PregnenoloneThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Pregnenolone.Experimental, Investigational
ProbenecidThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be increased when Glycerol Phenylbutyrate is used in combination with Probenecid.Approved
RimexoloneThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Rimexolone.Approved
RosuvastatinThe serum concentration of Rosuvastatin can be increased when it is combined with Glycerol Phenylbutyrate.Approved
SimvastatinThe serum concentration of Simvastatin can be increased when it is combined with Glycerol Phenylbutyrate.Approved
TergurideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Terguride is combined with Glycerol Phenylbutyrate.Experimental
ThioridazineThe serum concentration of Thioridazine can be increased when it is combined with Glycerol Phenylbutyrate.Approved, Withdrawn
TixocortolThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Tixocortol.Approved
TizanidineThe serum concentration of Tizanidine can be increased when it is combined with Glycerol Phenylbutyrate.Approved
TriamcinoloneThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Triamcinolone.Approved, Vet Approved
UbidecarenoneThe serum concentration of Ubidecarenone can be increased when it is combined with Glycerol Phenylbutyrate.Approved, Experimental
Valproic AcidThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
Not Available
External Links
KEGG Drug
D10127
PubChem Compound
10482134
PubChem Substance
175427147
ChemSpider
8657541
ChEBI
134745
ChEMBL
CHEMBL2105745
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Glycerol_phenylbutyrate
ATC Codes
A16AX09 — Glycerol phenylbutyrate
FDA label
Download (458 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)1
1CompletedDiagnosticTherapeutic Agent Toxicity1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedTreatmentDeficiencies in enzymes of the urea cycle / Hepatic Encephalopathy1
1CompletedTreatmentMedium-chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase (MCAD) Deficiency1
1, 2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCystic Fibrosis (CF)1
2CompletedTreatmentHepatic Encephalopathy / Liver Cirrhosis1
2CompletedTreatmentDeficiencies in enzymes of the urea cycle1
3CompletedTreatmentDeficiencies in enzymes of the urea cycle1
4CompletedTreatmentDeficiencies in enzymes of the urea cycle1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentDeficiencies in enzymes of the urea cycle1
Not AvailableNo Longer AvailableNot AvailableByler Disease1
Not AvailableTemporarily Not AvailableNot AvailableByler Disease1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
LiquidOral1.1 g/mL
LiquidOral1.1 g
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US8404215No2012-03-092032-03-09Us
US8642012No2010-09-222030-09-22Us
US9095559No2012-03-092032-03-09Us
US5968979No1998-07-282018-07-28Us
US9254278No2012-03-092032-03-09Us
US9561197No2010-09-222030-09-22Us
US9326966No2012-03-092032-03-09Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubilityInsoluble FDA label
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility5.09e-05 mg/mLALOGPS
logP6.41ALOGPS
logP7.65ChemAxon
logS-7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)-6.6ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area78.9 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count20ChemAxon
Refractivity149.74 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability60.16 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9412
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9607
Caco-2 permeable+0.5458
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.641
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.543
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.7045
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.6494
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8712
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9079
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6711
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.7516
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorInhibitor0.8526
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9406
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorInhibitor0.8156
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8321
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.5947
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.6838
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8278
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.6179
Rat acute toxicity1.7748 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8718
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.7912
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as triacylglycerols. These are glycerides consisting of three fatty acid chains covalently bonded to a glycerol molecule through ester linkages.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Lipids and lipid-like molecules
Class
Glycerolipids
Sub Class
Triradylcglycerols
Direct Parent
Triacylglycerols
Alternative Parents
Tricarboxylic acids and derivatives / Fatty acid esters / Benzene and substituted derivatives / Carboxylic acid esters / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives / Carbonyl compounds
Substituents
Triacyl-sn-glycerol / Tricarboxylic acid or derivatives / Fatty acid ester / Fatty acyl / Benzenoid / Monocyclic benzene moiety / Carboxylic acid ester / Carboxylic acid derivative / Organic oxygen compound / Organic oxide
Molecular Framework
Aromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Not Available

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Triglyceride lipase activity
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
PNLIP
Uniprot ID
P16233
Uniprot Name
Pancreatic triacylglycerol lipase
Molecular Weight
51156.48 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID
P05177
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight
58293.76 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic...
Gene Name
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID
P10635
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2D6
Molecular Weight
55768.94 Da

Drug created on June 19, 2013 20:19 / Updated on November 09, 2017 04:42