Hypochlorite

Identification

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Name
Hypochlorite
Accession Number
DB11123
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

Hypochlorite is an ion composed of chlorine and oxygen with the chemical formula ClO−. Being unstable in the pure form, hypochlorite is most commonly used for bleaching, disinfectation, and water treatment purposes in its salt form, sodium hypochlorite. Hypochlorite is often used as a chemical reagent for chlorination and oxidation reactions.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • Hypochlorit
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Sodium hypochloriteDY38VHM5OD7681-52-9SUKJFIGYRHOWBL-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Active Moieties
NameKindUNIICASInChI Key
Hypochlorous acidunknown712K4CDC107790-92-3QWPPOHNGKGFGJK-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Dakin's Solution 0.5% ModifiedSolution5 gTopicalCentury Pharmaceuticals, Inc.1986-12-31Not applicableCanada
Dakins FullSolution5 mg/1mLTopicalCentury Pharmaceuticals, Inc.1983-12-08Not applicableUs
Dakins HalfSolution2.5 mg/1mLTopicalCentury Pharmaceuticals, Inc.1986-06-09Not applicableUs
Dakins QuarterSolution1.25 mg/1mLTopicalCentury Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2006-05-24Not applicableUs
Di-Dak-SolSolution0.125 mg/1mLTopicalCentury Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2001-02-05Not applicableUs
ExseptLiquid0.057 %TopicalAlcavis Hdc Llc2002-05-01Not applicableCanada
Exsept (0.114%)Liquid0.114 %TopicalAlcavis Hdc Llc2002-05-01Not applicableCanada
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Dakins FullSodium hypochlorite (5 mg/1mL)SolutionTopicalCentury Pharmaceuticals, Inc.1983-12-08Not applicableUs
Dakins HalfSodium hypochlorite (2.5 mg/1mL)SolutionTopicalCentury Pharmaceuticals, Inc.1986-06-09Not applicableUs
Dakins QuarterSodium hypochlorite (1.25 mg/1mL)SolutionTopicalCentury Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2006-05-24Not applicableUs
Di-Dak-SolSodium hypochlorite (0.125 mg/1mL)SolutionTopicalCentury Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2001-02-05Not applicableUs
Categories
UNII
T5UM7HB19N
CAS number
14380-61-1
Weight
Average: 51.452
Monoisotopic: 50.963767329
Chemical Formula
ClO
InChI Key
WQYVRQLZKVEZGA-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/ClO/c1-2/q-1
IUPAC Name
hypochlorite
SMILES
[O-]Cl

Pharmacology

Indication

Indicated for over-the-counter use as a disinfectant agent in the sodium hypochlorite form.

Pharmacodynamics

Sodium hypochlorite exerts antimicrobial actions that depends on the concentration of the available chlorine and the pH of the solution [2]. The concentration of the hypochlorite depends on the overall efficiency of disinfection [2].

Mechanism of action

Sodium hypochlorite mediate its antimicrobial action by reacting with fatty acids and amino acids. Via saponification reaction, it acts as an organic and fat solvent, degrading fatty acids to form fatty acids and glycerol [1]. This reduces the surface tension of the remaining solution. Sodium hypochlorite may react with amino acids to neutralize them and form water and salt. Hypochlorous acids (HOCl-) present in sodium hypochlorite solutions may act as solvents in contact with organic tissue to release chlorine, which forms chloramines when combined with the protein amino group that disrupt cell metabolism [1]. Chlorine in the solution is a strong oxidant that inhibits essential bacterial enzymes leading to an irreversible oxidation of SH groups [1]. Eventually hypochlorous acid and hypochlorite ions degrade and hydrolyze amino acids.

Additional Data Available
Adverse Effects

Comprehensive structured data on known drug adverse effects with statistical prevalence. MedDRA and ICD10 ids are provided for adverse effect conditions and symptoms.

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Additional Data Available
Contraindications

Structured data covering drug contraindications. Each contraindication describes a scenario in which the drug is not to be used. Includes restrictions on co-administration, contraindicated populations, and more.

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Additional Data Available
Blackbox Warnings

Structured data representing warnings from the black box section of drug labels. These warnings cover important and dangerous risks, contraindications, or adverse effects.

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Absorption

This pharmacokinetic parameter does not apply for this drug.

Volume of distribution

This pharmacokinetic parameter does not apply for this drug.

Protein binding

This pharmacokinetic parameter does not apply for this drug.

Metabolism

This pharmacokinetic parameter does not apply for this drug. Hypochlorite salts are expected to undergo dissociation.

Route of elimination

This pharmacokinetic parameter does not apply for this drug.

Half life

This pharmacokinetic parameter does not apply for this drug.

Clearance

This pharmacokinetic parameter does not apply for this drug.

Toxicity

Oral LD50 of sodium hypochlorite in an acute oral toxicity study was 5800 mg/kg in mouse [MSDS].

Affected organisms
Not Available
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
Not Available
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
  1. Estrela C, Estrela CR, Barbin EL, Spano JC, Marchesan MA, Pecora JD: Mechanism of action of sodium hypochlorite. Braz Dent J. 2002;13(2):113-7. [PubMed:12238801]
  2. Fukuzaki S: Mechanisms of actions of sodium hypochlorite in cleaning and disinfection processes. Biocontrol Sci. 2006 Dec;11(4):147-57. [PubMed:17190269]
  3. SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE - National Library of Medicine Database - Toxnet [Link]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0001050
PubChem Compound
61739
PubChem Substance
347827905
ChemSpider
55632
ChEBI
29222
Wikipedia
Hypochlorite
ATC Codes
D08AX07 — Sodium hypochlorite
AHFS Codes
  • 84:04.92 — Miscellaneous Local Anti-infectives
MSDS
Download (51.7 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1WithdrawnTreatmentAtopic Dermatitis (AD)1
2CompletedTreatmentTeeth, Endodontically-Treated1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAtopic Dermatitis (AD)1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentNecrosis / Pain NOS / Pathologic Processes / Postoperative Complications / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentRoot Canal Disinfection1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
SolutionTopical5 g
SolutionTopical5 mg/1mL
SolutionTopical2.5 mg/1mL
SolutionTopical1.25 mg/1mL
SolutionTopical0.125 mg/1mL
LiquidTopical0.057 %
LiquidTopical0.114 %
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Liquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
boiling point (°C)Decomposes at 40 (sodium hypochlorite)MSDS
water solubilitySoluble (sodium hypochlorite)MSDS
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP0.32ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Acidic)10.13ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.9ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area23.06 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity7.58 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability3.15 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as non-metal hypochlorites. These are inorganic non-metallic compounds containing a hypochlorite as its largest oxoanion.
Kingdom
Inorganic compounds
Super Class
Homogeneous non-metal compounds
Class
Non-metal oxoanionic compounds
Sub Class
Non-metal hypochlorites
Direct Parent
Non-metal hypochlorites
Alternative Parents
Inorganic oxides
Substituents
Non-metal hypochlorite / Inorganic oxide
Molecular Framework
Not Available
External Descriptors
monovalent inorganic anion, chlorine oxoanion, chlorine oxide (CHEBI:29222) / an inorganic compound (CPD-12800)

Drug created on December 03, 2015 09:51 / Updated on April 25, 2019 16:16