Hydrogen peroxide

Identification

Name
Hydrogen peroxide
Accession Number
DB11091
Description

Hydrogen peroxide is the simplest peroxide with a chemical formula H2O2. Hydrogen peroxide is an unstable compound in the presence of a base or catalyst, and is typically stored with a stabilizer in a weakly acidic solution. If heated to its boiling point, it may undergo potentially explosive thermal decomposition. Hydrogen peroxide is formed in the body of mammals during reduction of oxygen either directly in a two-electron transfer reaction 4. As a natural product of metabolism, it readily undergoes decomposition by catalase in normal cells 4.

Due to its potent and broad-spectrum antimicrobial actions, hydrogen peroxide is used in both liquid and gas form for preservative, disinfection and sterilization applications as an oxidative biocide 1. It is used in industrial and cosmetic applications as a bleaching agent. Hydrogen peroxide is also considered as a generally recognized as safe compound by the FDA 4; it is used as an antimicrobial agent in starch and cheese products, and as an oxidizing and reducing agent in products containing dried eggs, dried egg whites, and dried egg yolks.

Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Vet approved
Structure
Thumb
Weight
Average: 34.0147
Monoisotopic: 34.005479308
Chemical Formula
H2O2
Synonyms
Not Available
External IDs
  • A-101
  • NSC-19892

Pharmacology

Indication

Indicated to be used as a disinfectant and sterilizer.

Associated Conditions
Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings
Learn about our commercial Contraindications & Blackbox Warnings data.
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Pharmacodynamics

Hydrogen peroxide exhibits antimicrobial properties against most forms of microorganisms, including dormant forms with known high resistance profiles, such as bacterial spores and protozoal cysts. It acts as an oxidative biocide to generate free radical species to induce DNA, protein and membrane lipid damage via oxidation.

Mechanism of action

The production of free hydroxyl radicals in the Fenton reaction is thought to be the basis of biocidal actions of hydrogen peroxide. Free radicals eventually lead to oxidative damage proteins and membrane lipids in vivo 2. The oxidizing radical as the ferryl radical induces DNA oxidation 2.

Absorption

It is reported that hydrogen peroxide is decomposed before absorption in the intestine. Solutions of hydrogen peroxide displays poor penetration when applied to tissue 4.

Volume of distribution

Target organs affected by hydrogen peroxide include the lungs, intestine, thymus, liver, and kidney 4.

Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism

Hydrogen peroxide is reduced by glutathione peroxidase, which is an endogenous enzyme in human tissue. It is rapidly decomposed to oxygen and water when in contact with catalase, an enzyme found in blood and most tissues 4.

Hover over products below to view reaction partners

Route of elimination
Not Available
Half-life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Adverse Effects
Learn about our commercial Adverse Effects data.
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Toxicity

Oral LD50 in mouse is 2000 mg/kg, and dermal LD50 is 4060 mg/kg in rat and 2000 mg/kg pig. LC50 of hydrogen peroxide vapours in rat is 2000 mg/m at 4 hours MSDS.

Oral ingestion of high dose hydrogen peroxide may cause chest and stomach pain, loss of consciousness, motor disorders, microhemorrhages and moderate leucocytosis in humans. Inhalation of highly concentrated vapours causes extreme irritation of nose and throat 4.

Hydrogen peroxide has no known carcinogenic potential. It was shown to be mutagenic to bacteria (Salmonella typhimurium) and the fungi, Neurospora crassa and Aspergillis chevallieri, and induced DNA damage in Escheria coli 4. It also caused sister chromatid exchanges and chromosomal aberrations in mammalian cells in vitro 4.

Affected organisms
Not Available
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
Albutrepenonacog alfaHydrogen peroxide may increase the thrombogenic activities of Albutrepenonacog alfa.
Alpha-1-proteinase inhibitorAlpha-1-proteinase inhibitor may increase the thrombogenic activities of Hydrogen peroxide.
Aminocaproic acidAminocaproic acid may increase the thrombogenic activities of Hydrogen peroxide.
Andexanet alfaHydrogen peroxide may increase the thrombogenic activities of Andexanet alfa.
Anti-inhibitor coagulant complexHydrogen peroxide may increase the thrombogenic activities of Anti-inhibitor coagulant complex.
Antihemophilic Factor (Recombinant), PEGylatedHydrogen peroxide may increase the thrombogenic activities of Antihemophilic Factor (Recombinant), PEGylated.
Antihemophilic factor humanHydrogen peroxide may increase the thrombogenic activities of Antihemophilic factor human.
Antihemophilic factor, human recombinantHydrogen peroxide may increase the thrombogenic activities of Antihemophilic factor, human recombinant.
AprotininAprotinin may increase the thrombogenic activities of Hydrogen peroxide.
Beroctocog alfaHydrogen peroxide may increase the thrombogenic activities of Beroctocog alfa.
Additional Data Available
  • Extended Description
    Extended Description

    Extended description of the mechanism of action and particular properties of each drug interaction.

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  • Severity
    Severity

    A severity rating for each drug interaction, from minor to major.

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  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level

    A rating for the strength of the evidence supporting each drug interaction.

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  • Action
    Action

    An effect category for each drug interaction. Know how this interaction affects the subject drug.

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Food Interactions
No interactions found.

Products

Brand Name Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
EskataSolution40 mg/100mgTopicalAclaris Therapeutics, Inc.2017-12-14Not applicableUs
EskataSolution40 mg/100mgTopicalAclaris Therapeutics, Inc.2017-12-14Not applicableUs
Perioselect Hydrogen Peroxide Solution 1.7%LiquidDentalSultan Healthcare1992-12-311996-09-06Canada
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
16oz Hydorgen PeroxideLiquid3 mL/1TopicalNingbo Liyuan Daily Chemical Products Co., Ltd.2017-01-04Not applicableUs
3% Hydrogen Peroxide Well at WalgreensSpray3 g/100mLTopicalWalgreens2014-02-152018-03-08Us
Antiseptic Oral CleanserMouthwash150 mg/100LOralDOLGENCORP, LLC2009-04-19Not applicableUs
Aplicare Hydrogen PeroxideLiquid3 mL/100mLTopicalAplicare Products, Llc1983-12-01Not applicableUs
Blossom HP 3Liquid2.65 mL/100mLTopicalBlossom Pharmaceuticals2014-01-29Not applicableUs
CleanCleanerLiquid0.085 mL/70mLTopicalWS2020-04-18Not applicableUs
ComfortLiquid2.65 mL/100mLTopicalWeimei Lianyungang Household Articles Manufacturing, Co. Ltd2012-06-01Not applicableUs
Crane Safety Hydrogen PeroxideSpray43.275 g/1LTopicalCrane Safety LLC2020-01-17Not applicableUs
CURAD Hydrogen PeroxideLiquid3 mL/100mLTopicalMedline Industries2012-03-01Not applicableUs
DivasLiquid3 mL/100mLTopicalJmd All Star Impex Inc.2010-07-26Not applicableUs
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

    Learn more
  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
4234 First Aid KitHydrogen peroxide (3 mL/100mL) + Ammonia (0.045 g/0.3mL) + Bacitracin zinc (400 [iU]/1g) + Benzalkonium chloride (1.3 mg/1mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (2 g/100g) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Polymyxin B sulfate (5000 [iU]/1g)KitRespiratory (inhalation); TopicalHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc.2018-09-13Not applicableUs
BANEN Rinse-free Hand Sanitizer (II)Hydrogen peroxide (0.5 mL/500mL) + Ethanol (400 mL/500mL)LiquidExtracorporealLIONSER Medical Disinfectant(Hangzhou) Co., Ltd.2020-03-24Not applicableUs
Dio WhiteningHydrogen peroxide (2.14 g/100g) + Silicon dioxide (7 g/100g) + alpha-Tocopherol acetate (0.2 g/100g)Paste, dentifriceDentalDio2015-01-22Not applicableUs
Dr.EL TOOTH WHITE TOOTHHydrogen peroxide (2.14 g/100g) + Silicon dioxide (7 g/100g) + alpha-Tocopherol acetate (0.2 g/100g)Paste, dentifriceDentalDr. EL CO., LTD.2019-08-01Not applicableUs
Dr.Mollis Anti-Virus Wet WipesHydrogen peroxide (0.12 g/100mL) + Ethanol (80 mL/100mL)ClothTopicalTRUVA SERAMIK KOZMETIK TEMIZLIK PAZARLAMA MUTEAHHITLIK NAKLIYAT SANAYI VE TICARET LTD STI2020-07-03Not applicableUs
Hand SanitizerHydrogen peroxide (4 mL/100mL) + Ethanol (70 mL/100mL)Aerosol, sprayTopicalSingtech Inc.2020-03-30Not applicableUs
Hand SanitizerHydrogen peroxide (4 mL/100mL) + Ethanol (70 mL/100mL)Aerosol, sprayTopicalSingtech Inc.2020-03-30Not applicableUs
Hand SanitizerHydrogen peroxide (4 mL/100mL) + Ethanol (70 mL/100mL)Aerosol, sprayTopicalSingtech Inc.2020-03-30Not applicableUs
Hand SanitizerHydrogen peroxide (4 mL/100mL) + Ethanol (70 mL/100mL)Aerosol, sprayTopicalSingtech Inc.2020-03-30Not applicableUs
Hand SanitizerHydrogen peroxide (4 mL/100mL) + Ethanol (70 mL/100mL)Aerosol, sprayTopicalSingtech Inc.2020-03-30Not applicableUs
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing EndRegionImage
4234 First Aid KitHydrogen peroxide (3 mL/100mL) + Ammonia (0.045 g/0.3mL) + Bacitracin zinc (400 [iU]/1g) + Benzalkonium chloride (1.3 mg/1mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (2 g/100g) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Polymyxin B sulfate (5000 [iU]/1g)KitRespiratory (inhalation); TopicalHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc.2018-09-13Not applicableUs
Dio WhiteningHydrogen peroxide (2.14 g/100g) + Silicon dioxide (7 g/100g) + alpha-Tocopherol acetate (0.2 g/100g)Paste, dentifriceDentalDio2015-01-22Not applicableUs
Dr.EL TOOTH WHITE TOOTHHydrogen peroxide (2.14 g/100g) + Silicon dioxide (7 g/100g) + alpha-Tocopherol acetate (0.2 g/100g)Paste, dentifriceDentalDr. EL CO., LTD.2019-08-01Not applicableUs
Eco WhiteningHydrogen peroxide (8.57 g/100mL)GelDentalJn Pharm2014-02-08Not applicableUs
Nobda Hydrogen peroxide compound disinfectantHydrogen peroxide (15 mg/500mL)LiquidExtracorporealChongqing Kunding Biologic Technology Co., Ltd.2020-04-07Not applicableUs
Nobda Hydrogen peroxide compound disinfectantHydrogen peroxide (15 mg/500mL)LiquidExtracorporealChongqing Kunding Biologic Technology Co., Ltd.2020-04-072020-04-09Us
Premium WhiteningHydrogen peroxide (35 mL/100mL)Gel, dentifriceDentalHankuk Bowonbio Co., Ltd2011-09-13Not applicableUs
PureOxyWashHydrogen peroxide (3 mL/100mL) + Sodium bicarbonate (742.7 mg/1mL)KitDentalPureOxyWash Inc2013-03-242018-08-21Us
SALON CODE Glam Hair Color Glam BrownHydrogen peroxide (5.845 g/100mL) + p-Aminophenol (0.34 g/100mL)KitTopicalDaolcosmetic Co.,ltd2018-09-04Not applicableUs
SALON CODE Glam Hair Color Glam CacaoHydrogen peroxide (5.845 g/100mL) + p-Aminophenol (0.44 g/100mL)KitTopicalDaolcosmetic Co.,ltd2018-09-04Not applicableUs

Categories

ATC Codes
D08AX01 — Hydrogen peroxideS02AA06 — Hydrogen peroxideD11AX25 — Hydrogen peroxideA01AB02 — Hydrogen peroxide
Drug Categories
Chemical TaxonomyProvided by Classyfire
Description
This compound belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as homogeneous other non-metal compounds. These are inorganic non-metallic compounds in which the largest atom belongs to the class of 'other non-metals'.
Kingdom
Inorganic compounds
Super Class
Homogeneous non-metal compounds
Class
Homogeneous other non-metal compounds
Sub Class
Not Available
Direct Parent
Homogeneous other non-metal compounds
Alternative Parents
Not Available
Substituents
Homogeneous other non metal
Molecular Framework
Not Available
External Descriptors
reactive oxygen species, inorganic peroxide (CHEBI:16240) / a small molecule (HYDROGEN-PEROXIDE)

Chemical Identifiers

UNII
BBX060AN9V
CAS number
7722-84-1
InChI Key
MHAJPDPJQMAIIY-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/H2O2/c1-2/h1-2H
IUPAC Name
peroxol
SMILES
OO

References

General References
  1. Finnegan M, Linley E, Denyer SP, McDonnell G, Simons C, Maillard JY: Mode of action of hydrogen peroxide and other oxidizing agents: differences between liquid and gas forms. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2010 Oct;65(10):2108-15. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkq308. Epub 2010 Aug 16. [PubMed:20713407]
  2. Linley E, Denyer SP, McDonnell G, Simons C, Maillard JY: Use of hydrogen peroxide as a biocide: new consideration of its mechanisms of biocidal action. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2012 Jul;67(7):1589-96. doi: 10.1093/jac/dks129. Epub 2012 Apr 24. [PubMed:22532463]
  3. HYDROGEN PEROXIDE - National Library of Medicine HSDB ... - Toxnet [Link]
  4. Chemical Summary for Hydrogen Peroxide - SSWM [Link]
  5. FDA Approved Drug Products: Eskata Hydrogen Peroxide Topical Solution (Discontinued) [Link]
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0003125
KEGG Compound
C00027
PubChem Compound
784
PubChem Substance
347827892
ChemSpider
763
RxNav
5499
ChEBI
16240
ChEMBL
CHEMBL71595
PDBe Ligand
PEO
Wikipedia
Hydrogen_peroxide
PDB Entries
1ao2 / 1ao4 / 1asp / 1d6z / 1g5l / 1ggf / 1gj2 / 1h57 / 1h5f / 1h5g
show 68 more
MSDS
Download (53.8 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4CompletedTreatmentSeborrheic Keratosis (SK)1
4CompletedTreatmentSensitivity / Tooth Whitening1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPeriodontitis, Chronic1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentVerruca Vulgaris1
3CompletedTreatmentSeborrheic Keratosis (SK)3
3CompletedTreatmentTooth Sensitivity1
3CompletedTreatmentTooth Whitening1
3CompletedTreatmentVerruca Vulgaris2
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentBleeding Gum / Gingivitis1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentBleeding Gum / Periodontitis / Pocket, Periodontal1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage Forms
FormRouteStrength
LiquidTopical3 mL/1
SprayTopical3 g/100mL
KitRespiratory (inhalation); Topical
MouthwashOral150 mg/100L
LiquidExtracorporeal
LiquidTopical0.085 mL/70mL
LiquidTopical2.65 mL/100mL
Paste, dentifriceDental
LiquidTopical3 mL/100mL
LiquidTopical3 g/100mL
ClothTopical
GelDental8.57 g/100mL
SolutionTopical40 mg/100mg
Spray, meteredTopical3.54 mL/119mL
Aerosol, sprayTopical
CreamTopical
LiquidOral0.015 mg/1mL
LiquidOral; Topical2.65 mL/100mL
LiquidOral; Topical3 mL/100mL
LiquidTopical.3 kg/100L
LiquidTopical0.3 mL/1mL
LiquidTopical3 mg/1mL
LiquidTopical30 mL/1L
LiquidTopical50 mL/100mL
LiquidTopical8.57 g/100mL
LotionTopical3 kg/100L
SolutionOral; Topical3 mL/100mL
SolutionTopical.3 kg/100L
SolutionTopical0.03 mL/1mL
SolutionTopical3 mL/100mL
SolutionTopical3 mg/100mL
SolutionTopical30 mg/1mL
SprayTopical3.57 mL/118mL
SprayTopical30 mL/1L
SprayTopical30 mg/1mL
SwabTopical0.03 mL/1
LiquidTopical
LiquidOral1.5 1/1001
SolutionTopical
KitOral
KitOral0.015 mg/1mL
LiquidTopical30 mg/1mL
SprayTopical43.275 g/1L
MouthwashDental15 mg/1mL
LiquidOral15 mg/1mL
SprayTopical0.48 g/40mL
LiquidExtracorporeal15 mg/500mL
LiquidOral
LiquidOral0.015 mL/1mL
MouthwashOral
RinseOral0.03 mL/20mL
GelDental17 mg/1g
LiquidDental
MouthwashBuccal15 mg/1mL
RinseOral1 mL/1.5mL
RinseBuccal15 mg/1mL
ClothTopical30 mg/1mL
LiquidTopical3 g/100g
LiquidTopical3 mL/1mL
SwabTopical30 mg/1mL
Gel, dentifriceDental35 mL/100mL
LiquidTopical1.5 g/100mL
LiquidTopical
GelOral3 g/100g
KitDental
KitBuccal
GelTopical
KitTopical
LiquidTopical5.845 g/100mL
ClothTopical0.03 mL/1mL
SprayTopical3 mL/100mL
MouthwashTopical1588 mg/1mL
KitBuccal15 mg/1mL
RinseDental0.15 mL/100mL
Paste, dentifriceDental2.14 g/100g
KitBuccal15 [iU]/1mL
ClothTopical0.6684 g/44.56g
Paste, dentifriceOral
LiquidOral
LiquidOral0.42 g/15g
LiquidOral2.8 g/100g
Spray, meteredTopical3.57 mL/119mL
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)Region
US7381427No2008-06-032022-06-08Us
US9675639No2017-06-132035-07-04Us
US9980983No2018-05-292035-04-21Us
US10098910No2018-10-162035-04-21Us
US10493103No2019-12-032035-04-21Us
Additional Data Available
  • Filed On
    Filed On

    The date on which a patent was filed with the relevant government.

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Properties

State
Liquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)-33MSDS
boiling point (°C)108MSDS
water solubilitySoluble in cold waterMSDS
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-0.45ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Acidic)11.52ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.2ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area40.46 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity5.13 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability2.29 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET Features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-50a90bb1548c24e83fbe
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-50a90bb1548c24e83fbe
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-50a90bb1548c24e83fbe
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-9000000000-a9a93dd42f2cfa0b34c4
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-9000000000-a9a93dd42f2cfa0b34c4
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-9000000000-a9a93dd42f2cfa0b34c4

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Sh3 domain binding
Specific Function
Protects the hemoglobin in erythrocytes from oxidative breakdown.
Gene Name
GPX1
Uniprot ID
P07203
Uniprot Name
Glutathione peroxidase 1
Molecular Weight
22087.94 Da
References
  1. Gaetani GF, Galiano S, Canepa L, Ferraris AM, Kirkman HN: Catalase and glutathione peroxidase are equally active in detoxification of hydrogen peroxide in human erythrocytes. Blood. 1989 Jan;73(1):334-9. [PubMed:2491951]
  2. HYDROGEN PEROXIDE - National Library of Medicine HSDB ... - Toxnet [Link]
  3. Chemical Summary for Hydrogen Peroxide - SSWM [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Receptor binding
Specific Function
Occurs in almost all aerobically respiring organisms and serves to protect cells from the toxic effects of hydrogen peroxide. Promotes growth of cells including T-cells, B-cells, myeloid leukemia c...
Gene Name
CAT
Uniprot ID
P04040
Uniprot Name
Catalase
Molecular Weight
59755.82 Da
References
  1. Gaetani GF, Galiano S, Canepa L, Ferraris AM, Kirkman HN: Catalase and glutathione peroxidase are equally active in detoxification of hydrogen peroxide in human erythrocytes. Blood. 1989 Jan;73(1):334-9. [PubMed:2491951]
  2. HYDROGEN PEROXIDE - National Library of Medicine HSDB ... - Toxnet [Link]
  3. Chemical Summary for Hydrogen Peroxide - SSWM [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Metal ion binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
ALPPL2
Uniprot ID
P10696
Uniprot Name
Alkaline phosphatase, placental-like
Molecular Weight
57376.515 Da
References
  1. Finnegan M, Linley E, Denyer SP, McDonnell G, Simons C, Maillard JY: Mode of action of hydrogen peroxide and other oxidizing agents: differences between liquid and gas forms. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2010 Oct;65(10):2108-15. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkq308. Epub 2010 Aug 16. [PubMed:20713407]

Drug created on December 03, 2015 09:51 / Updated on June 12, 2020 10:53

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