Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)

Also known as: Patent Ductus Arteriosus / Ductus Arteriosus Patent / Ductus Arteriosus, Patent / PDA / Patent arterial duct / Patent ductus Botallo / Patent ductus arteriosis

DrugDrug NameDrug Description
DB00770AlprostadilAlprostadil is produced endogenously and causes vasodilation by means of a direct effect on vascular and ductus arteriosus (DA) smooth muscle, preventing or reversing the functional closure of the DA that occurs shortly after birth. This results in increased pulmonary or systemic blood flow in infants. In infants, it is used for palliative, not definitive, therapy to temporarily maintain the patency of the ductus arteriosus until corrective or palliative surgery can be performed in neonates who have congenital heart defects and who depend upon the patent ductus for survival. In adults, it is used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction due to neurogenic, vasculogenic, psychogenic, or mixed etiology.
DB01050IbuprofenIbuprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) derived from propionic acid and it is considered the first of the propionics.[A39074] The formula of ibuprofen is 2-(4-isobutylphenyl) propionic acid and its initial development was in 1960 while researching for a safer alternative for aspirin.[A39075] Ibuprofen was finally patented in 1961 and this drug was first launched against rheumatoid arthritis in the UK in 1969 and USA in 1974. It was the first available over-the-counter NSAID.[A39076] On the available products, ibuprofen is administered as a racemic mixture. Once administered, the R-enantiomer undergoes extensive interconversion to the S-enantiomer _in vivo_ by the activity of the alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase. In particular, it is generally proposed that the S-enantiomer is capable of eliciting stronger pharmacological activity than the R-enantiomer.[A39194]
DB00328IndometacinIndometacin, or indomethacin, is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic properties. NSAIDs consist of agents that are structurally unrelated; the NSAID chemical classification of indometacin is an indole-acetic acid derivative with the chemical name 1- (p-chlorobenzoyl)25-methoxy-2-methylindole-3-acetic acid.[A177871] The pharmacological effect of indometacin is not fully understood, however, it is thought to be mediated through potent and nonselective inhibition of the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX), which is the main enzyme responsible for catalyzes the rate-limiting step in prostaglandin and thromboxane biosynthesis via the arachidonic acid (AA) pathway. Indometacin was first discovered in 1963 and it was first approved for use in the U.S. by the Food and Drug Administration in 1965, [A486] along with other acetic acid derivatives such as [diclofenac] and [sulindac] that were also developed during the 1960s.[A177871] Since then, indometacin has been extensively studied in clinical trials as one of the most potent NSAIDs in blocking prostaglandin synthesis and was among the first NSAIDs to be used in the symptomatic treatment of migraine and for headaches that eventually became known as “indomethacin-responsive” headache disorders.[A177871] Most commonly used in rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, osteoarthritis, acute shoulder pains, and acute gouty arthritis, indometacin is currently available as oral capsules as well as other methods of administration, including rectal and intravenous formulations. Intravenous indometacin is administered to close a hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus, as indicated by clinical evidence, in premature infants.[F4600] Ophthalmic indometacin has been studied and used in the symptomatic treatment of postoperative ocular inflammation and pain and/or complications after cataract surgery. Although deemed effective in reducing ocular inflammation in clinical studies, topical NSAIDs were also associated with a potential reduction in corneal sensitivity accompanied by an increased risk of superficial punctate keratitis and subjective symptoms of discomfort, including pain, burning or pricking, or a tingling sensation after instillation into the cul‐de‐sac.[A177949]
DrugDrug NameTargetType
DB00770AlprostadilProstaglandin E2 receptor EP2 subtypetarget
DB00770AlprostadilProstaglandin E2 receptor EP1 subtypetarget
DB00770AlprostadilMultidrug resistance-associated protein 5transporter
DB00770AlprostadilSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2B1transporter
DB00770AlprostadilSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 3A1transporter
DB00770AlprostadilMultidrug resistance-associated protein 4transporter
DB00770AlprostadilSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2A1transporter
DB00770AlprostadilProstaglandin D2 receptor 2target
DB00770AlprostadilSolute carrier family 22 member 6transporter
DB01050IbuprofenProstaglandin G/H synthase 1target
DB01050IbuprofenProstaglandin G/H synthase 2target
DB01050IbuprofenCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB01050IbuprofenSerum albumincarrier
DB01050IbuprofenMultidrug resistance-associated protein 4transporter
DB01050IbuprofenMultidrug resistance-associated protein 1transporter
DB01050IbuprofenSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2transporter
DB01050IbuprofenSolute carrier family 22 member 6transporter
DB01050IbuprofenSolute carrier family 22 member 8transporter
DB01050IbuprofenSolute carrier family 22 member 11transporter
DB01050IbuprofenSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2B1transporter
DB01050IbuprofenMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB01050IbuprofenUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-3enzyme
DB01050IbuprofenUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-9enzyme
DB01050IbuprofenUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B4enzyme
DB01050IbuprofenUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7enzyme
DB01050IbuprofenCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB01050IbuprofenCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB01050IbuprofenApoptosis regulator Bcl-2target
DB01050IbuprofenThrombomodulintarget
DB01050IbuprofenFatty acid-binding protein, intestinaltarget
DB01050IbuprofenPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gammatarget
DB01050IbuprofenCystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulatortarget
DB01050IbuprofenPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alphatarget
DB01050IbuprofenPlatelet glycoprotein Ib alpha chaintarget
DB01050IbuprofenProtein S100-A7target
DB01050IbuprofenAlpha-methylacyl-CoA racemaseenzyme
DB00328IndometacinProstaglandin G/H synthase 1target
DB00328IndometacinProstaglandin G/H synthase 2target
DB00328IndometacinCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00328IndometacinUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-9enzyme
DB00328IndometacinPhospholipase A2, membrane associatedtarget
DB00328IndometacinProstaglandin reductase 2target
DB00328IndometacinLactoylglutathione lyasetarget
DB00328IndometacinProstaglandin D2 receptor 2target
DB00328IndometacinPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gammatarget
DB00328IndometacinSerum albumincarrier
DB00328IndometacinCanalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 2transporter
DB00328IndometacinMultidrug resistance-associated protein 4transporter
DB00328IndometacinMultidrug resistance-associated protein 6transporter
DB00328IndometacinMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00328IndometacinMultidrug resistance-associated protein 1transporter
DB00328IndometacinSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2transporter
DB00328IndometacinSolute carrier family 22 member 6transporter
DB00328IndometacinSolute carrier family 22 member 8transporter
DB00328IndometacinCanalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1transporter
DB00328IndometacinATP-binding cassette sub-family C member 11transporter
DB00328IndometacinSolute carrier family 22 member 11transporter
DB00328IndometacinSodium/bile acid cotransportertransporter
DB00328IndometacinSolute carrier family 22 member 7transporter
DB00328IndometacinCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00328IndometacinUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
DB00328IndometacinLiver carboxylesterase 1enzyme
DB00328IndometacinUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7enzyme
DB00328IndometacinPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alphatarget
DB00328IndometacinAldo-keto reductase family 1 member C3target
DB00328IndometacinSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1transporter
DB00328IndometacinBile salt export pumptransporter
DrugDrug NamePhaseStatusCount
DB00316Acetaminophen1Recruiting2
DB01050Ibuprofen1Recruiting2
DB09153Sodium chloride1Recruiting1
DB01050Ibuprofen1 / 2Unknown Status1
DB00316Acetaminophen2Recruiting2
DB00316Acetaminophen2Unknown Status1
DB01050Ibuprofen2Recruiting2
DB01050Ibuprofen2Withdrawn1
DB00328Indometacin2Completed1
DB00328Indometacin2Unknown Status1
DB00328Indometacin2Withdrawn1
DB00806Pentoxifylline2Unknown Status1
DB00316Acetaminophen2 / 3Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00316Acetaminophen2 / 3Recruiting2
DB11121Chloroxylenol2 / 3Recruiting1
DB00800Fenoldopam2 / 3Recruiting1
DB01050Ibuprofen2 / 3Completed1
DB01050Ibuprofen2 / 3Recruiting2
DB00328Indometacin2 / 3Terminated1
DB00316Acetaminophen3Completed1
DB00316Acetaminophen3Recruiting2
DB11874Crocin3Completed1
DB01050Ibuprofen3Active Not Recruiting1
DB01050Ibuprofen3Completed2
DB01050Ibuprofen3Recruiting1
DB00328Indometacin3Completed2
DB00328Indometacin3Recruiting1
DB00316Acetaminophen4Active Not Recruiting1
DB00316Acetaminophen4Completed1
DB00316Acetaminophen4Unknown Status1
DB06761Beractant4Terminated1
DB01050Ibuprofen4Active Not Recruiting1
DB01050Ibuprofen4Completed4
DB01050Ibuprofen4Terminated1
DB01050Ibuprofen4Unknown Status1
DB01050Ibuprofen4Withdrawn1
DB00328Indometacin4Completed1
DB00328Indometacin4Withdrawn1
DB09113Poractant alfa4Terminated1
DB00316AcetaminophenNot AvailableRecruiting3
DB01050IbuprofenNot AvailableCompleted3
DB01050IbuprofenNot AvailableRecruiting3
DB01050IbuprofenNot AvailableTerminated2
DB00328IndometacinNot AvailableRecruiting1
DB00328IndometacinNot AvailableTerminated1