Identification

Name
Pentoxifylline
Accession Number
DB00806  (APRD00121)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Description

A methylxanthine derivative that inhibits phosphodiesterase and affects blood rheology. It improves blood flow by increasing erythrocyte and leukocyte flexibility. It also inhibits platelet aggregation. Pentoxifylline modulates immunologic activity by stimulating cytokine production. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • Oxpentifylline
  • Pentoxifilina
  • Pentoxifyllin
  • Pentoxifylline
  • Pentoxifyllinum
External IDs
BL 191 / BL-191 / C04AD03 / PTX
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Nu-pentoxifylline-SR 400 mgTablet, extended release400 mgOralNu Pharm Inc1998-03-182012-09-04Canada
Pentoxifylline SRTablet, extended release400 mgOralAa Pharma Inc1997-01-14Not applicableCanada
Ratio-pentoxifyllineTablet, extended release400 mgOralRatiopharm Inc Division Of Teva Canada Limited1997-04-152010-08-02Canada
TrentalTablet, extended release400 mgOralSanofi Aventis1996-10-232013-03-01Canada
Trental Srt 400mgTablet, extended release400 mgOralHoechst Roussel Canada Inc.1993-12-311998-08-12Canada
Trental Tab 400mgTablet, extended release400 mgOralHoechst Canada Inc.1984-12-311996-08-29Canada
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
PentoxifyllineTablet, extended release400 mg/1OralPreferreed Pharmaceuticals Inc.2012-09-28Not applicableUs60505 0033 07 nlmimage10 983c4c42
PentoxifyllineTablet, extended release400 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2003-03-25Not applicableUs00093 5116 01 nlmimage10 b92d5c8a
PentoxifyllineTablet, film coated, extended release400 mg/1OralCardinal Health1999-06-102016-03-11Us
PentoxifyllineTablet, extended release400 mg/1OralTeva1998-07-31Not applicableUs
PentoxifyllineTablet, extended release400 mg/1OralAidarex Pharmaceuticals LLC1999-06-10Not applicableUs
PentoxifyllineTablet, extended release400 mg/1OralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Inc.1999-06-10Not applicableUs
PentoxifyllineTablet, extended release400 mg/1OralMajor1999-06-10Not applicableUs
PentoxifyllineTablet, film coated, extended release400 mg/1OralMylan Institutional1998-01-15Not applicableUs
PentoxifyllineTablet, extended release400 mg/1OralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2010-11-15Not applicableUs
PentoxifyllineTablet, film coated, extended release400 mg/1OralCardinal Health2009-09-21Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Agapurin (Zentiva) / Agapurin SR (Zentiva) / An Ruo Ning (Nanjing Yaoda Bio-Pharmaceutical) / Angiopent (Helcor) / Ao Le Ni (C & O Pharmaceuticals) / Ao Nuo Hong (AosaiKang Pharmaceutical) / Aotong (Treeful Pharmaceutical) / Azupentat / Behrifil (Sanofi-Aventis) / Bo Shu Te (Jisheng Pharmaceutical) / Claudicat (Nycomed) / Durapental (Mylan dura) / Elorgan (Sanofi Aventis) / Endopentoksas (Endokriniai) / Pentilin (Krka) / Pentilin Retard (Krka) / Pentoflux (Bouchara-Recordati) / Pentofyllin (Sopharma) / Pentoksifilin (Panfarma) / Pentolab (Lamsa) / Pentomer (ratiopharm) / Pentoxil (Upsher-Smith) / Rentylin (Amdipharm) / Torental (Sanofi-Aventis) / Trental / Trentilin Retard (Santa-Farma)
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Gapeam BudibacPentoxifylline + Amantadine hydrochloride + Baclofen + Bupivacaine hydrochloride + Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride + Diclofenac sodium + GabapentinKitTopicalAlvix Laboratories2014-12-05Not applicableUs
Categories
UNII
SD6QCT3TSU
CAS number
6493-05-6
Weight
Average: 278.307
Monoisotopic: 278.137890462
Chemical Formula
C13H18N4O3
InChI Key
BYPFEZZEUUWMEJ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C13H18N4O3/c1-9(18)6-4-5-7-17-12(19)10-11(14-8-15(10)2)16(3)13(17)20/h8H,4-7H2,1-3H3
IUPAC Name
3,7-dimethyl-1-(5-oxohexyl)-2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-purine-2,6-dione
SMILES
CN1C=NC2=C1C(=O)N(CCCCC(C)=O)C(=O)N2C

Pharmacology

Indication

For the treatment of patients with intermittent lameness or immobility arising from chronic occlusive arterial disease of the limbs.

Structured Indications
Pharmacodynamics

Pentoxifylline, a synthetic dimethylxanthine derivative structurally related to theophylline and caffeine, is used in the treatment of peripheral vascular diseases and in the management of cerebrovascular insufficiency, sickle cell disease, and diabetic neuropathy.

Mechanism of action

Pentoxifylline inhibits erythrocyte phosphodiesterase, resulting in an increase in erythrocyte cAMP activity. Subsequently, the erythrocyte membrane becomes more resistant to deformity. Along with erythrocyte activity, pentoxifylline also decreases blood viscosity by reducing plasma fibrinogen concentrations and increasing fibrinolytic activity. It is also a non selective adenosine receptor antagonist.

TargetActionsOrganism
AcAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4B
inhibitor
Human
AAdenosine receptor A1
antagonist
Human
AcGMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase
inhibitor
Human
AcAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4A
inhibitor
Human
AAdenosine receptor A2a
antagonist
Human
U5'-nucleotidase
inhibitor
Human
Absorption
Not Available
Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

70%

Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination

Excretion is almost totally urinary; the main biotransformation product is Metabolite V. Essentially no parent drug is found in the urine.

Half life

0.4-0.8 hours

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

LD50=1385 mg/kg(orally in mice)

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
AbciximabPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Abciximab.Approved
AbirateroneThe serum concentration of Pentoxifylline can be increased when it is combined with Abiraterone.Approved
AcebutololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Acebutolol.Approved
AcenocoumarolPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Acenocoumarol.Approved
Acetylsalicylic acidPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Acetylsalicylic acid.Approved, Vet Approved
AliskirenPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Aliskiren.Approved, Investigational
AloxiprinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentoxifylline is combined with Aloxiprin.Experimental
AlprenololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Alprenolol.Approved, Withdrawn
AlprostadilPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Alprostadil.Approved, Investigational
AlteplasePentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Alteplase.Approved
ALX-0081Pentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of ALX-0081.Investigational
AmbrisentanPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Ambrisentan.Approved, Investigational
Ambroxol acefyllinateThe serum concentration of Ambroxol acefyllinate can be increased when it is combined with Pentoxifylline.Experimental, Investigational
AminophyllineThe serum concentration of Aminophylline can be increased when it is combined with Pentoxifylline.Approved
Aminosalicylic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentoxifylline is combined with Aminosalicylic Acid.Approved
AmlodipinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Amlodipine.Approved
AnagrelidePentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Anagrelide.Approved
AncrodPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ancrod.Investigational
AndrographolidePentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Andrographolide.Investigational
AnistreplasePentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Anistreplase.Approved
Antithrombin III humanPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Antithrombin III human.Approved
ApixabanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentoxifylline is combined with Apixaban.Approved
ArdeparinPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ardeparin.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ArgatrobanPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Argatroban.Approved, Investigational
AstaxanthinPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Astaxanthin.Investigational
AtenololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Atenolol.Approved
AzelastinePentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Azelastine.Approved
AzithromycinThe metabolism of Pentoxifylline can be decreased when combined with Azithromycin.Approved
BalsalazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentoxifylline is combined with Balsalazide.Approved, Investigational
BatroxobinPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Batroxobin.Experimental
BecaplerminPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Becaplermin.Approved, Investigational
BemiparinPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Bemiparin.Approved, Investigational
BenazeprilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Benazepril.Approved, Investigational
BendroflumethiazidePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Bendroflumethiazide.Approved
BepridilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Bepridil.Approved, Withdrawn
BeraprostPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Beraprost.Investigational
BetaxololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Betaxolol.Approved
BethanidinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Bethanidine.Approved
BietaserpinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Bietaserpine.Experimental
BimatoprostPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Bimatoprost.Approved, Investigational
BisoprololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Bisoprolol.Approved
BivalirudinPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Bivalirudin.Approved, Investigational
BortezomibThe metabolism of Pentoxifylline can be decreased when combined with Bortezomib.Approved, Investigational
BosentanPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Bosentan.Approved, Investigational
BQ-123Pentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of BQ-123.Investigational
BretyliumPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Bretylium.Approved
BrimonidinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Brimonidine.Approved
BrinasePentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Brinase.Experimental
BuflomedilPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Buflomedil.Experimental
BupranololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Bupranolol.Approved
ButylphthalidePentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Butylphthalide.Investigational
CadralazinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Cadralazine.Experimental
CafedrinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Cafedrine.Investigational
CaffeineThe metabolism of Pentoxifylline can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved
CandesartanPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Candesartan.Experimental
Candesartan cilexetilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Candesartan cilexetil.Approved
CandoxatrilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Candoxatril.Experimental
CangrelorPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Cangrelor.Approved
CaptoprilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Captopril.Approved
Carbaspirin calciumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentoxifylline is combined with Carbaspirin calcium.Experimental, Investigational
CarteololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Carteolol.Approved
CarvedilolPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Carvedilol.Approved, Investigational
CeliprololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Celiprolol.Approved, Investigational
CertoparinPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Certoparin.Approved, Investigational
ChlorothiazidePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Chlorothiazide.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorthalidonePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Chlorthalidone.Approved
CicletaninePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Cicletanine.Investigational
CilazaprilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Cilazapril.Approved
CilostazolPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Cilostazol.Approved
CimetidineThe serum concentration of Pentoxifylline can be increased when it is combined with Cimetidine.Approved
CitalopramThe metabolism of Pentoxifylline can be decreased when combined with Citalopram.Approved
Citric AcidPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet Approved
ClonidinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Clonidine.Approved
ClopidogrelPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Clopidogrel.Approved, Nutraceutical
CloranololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Cloranolol.Experimental
CloricromenPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Cloricromen.Experimental
ClorindionePentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Clorindione.Experimental
ClotrimazoleThe metabolism of Pentoxifylline can be decreased when combined with Clotrimazole.Approved, Vet Approved
Collagenase clostridium histolyticumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentoxifylline is combined with Collagenase clostridium histolyticum.Approved, Investigational
CryptenaminePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Cryptenamine.Approved
CyclopenthiazidePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Cyclopenthiazide.Experimental
CyclothiazidePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Cyclothiazide.Approved
Cyproterone acetateThe serum concentration of Pentoxifylline can be decreased when it is combined with Cyproterone acetate.Approved, Investigational
Dabigatran etexilatePentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dabigatran etexilate.Approved
DalteparinPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dalteparin.Approved
DanaparoidPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Danaparoid.Approved, Withdrawn
DarexabanPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Darexaban.Investigational
DasatinibDasatinib may increase the anticoagulant activities of Pentoxifylline.Approved, Investigational
DebrisoquinPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Debrisoquin.Approved, Investigational
DeferasiroxThe serum concentration of Pentoxifylline can be increased when it is combined with Deferasirox.Approved, Investigational
DefibrotidePentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Defibrotide.Approved, Investigational
DelaprilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Delapril.Experimental
Deoxycholic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentoxifylline is combined with Deoxycholic Acid.Approved
dersalazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentoxifylline is combined with dersalazine.Investigational
DeserpidinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Deserpidine.Approved
DesirudinPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Desirudin.Approved
DesmoteplasePentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Desmoteplase.Investigational
DextranPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dextran.Approved, Vet Approved
Dextran 40Pentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dextran 40.Approved
Dextran 70Pentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dextran 70.Approved
Dextran 75Pentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dextran 75.Approved
DiazoxidePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Diazoxide.Approved
DicoumarolPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dicoumarol.Approved
diethylnorsperminePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of diethylnorspermine.Investigational
DiflunisalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentoxifylline is combined with Diflunisal.Approved
DihydralazinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Dihydralazine.Investigational
DiltiazemPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Diltiazem.Approved
DiphenadionePentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Diphenadione.Experimental
DipyridamolePentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Dipyridamole.Approved
DitazolePentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ditazole.Approved, Withdrawn
DorzolamidePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Dorzolamide.Approved
DosulepinThe serum concentration of Pentoxifylline can be increased when it is combined with Dosulepin.Approved
DoxazosinPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Doxazosin.Approved
Drotrecogin alfaPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Drotrecogin alfa.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
DyphyllineThe serum concentration of Dyphylline can be increased when it is combined with Pentoxifylline.Approved
Edetic AcidPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Edetic Acid.Approved, Vet Approved
EdoxabanPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Edoxaban.Approved
EfonidipinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Efonidipine.Approved, Investigational
EnalaprilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Enalapril.Approved, Vet Approved
EnalaprilatPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Enalaprilat.Approved
EndralazinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Endralazine.Experimental
EnoxaparinPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.Approved
EpanololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Epanolol.Experimental
EpinastinePentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Epinastine.Approved, Investigational
EplivanserinPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Eplivanserin.Investigational
eplivanserinePentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of eplivanserine.Investigational
EpoprostenolPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Epoprostenol.Approved
EprosartanPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Eprosartan.Approved
EptifibatidePentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Eptifibatide.Approved, Investigational
Ethyl biscoumacetatePentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ethyl biscoumacetate.Withdrawn
FelodipinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Felodipine.Approved, Investigational
FenoldopamPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Fenoldopam.Approved
Ferulic acidPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Ferulic acid.Experimental
FibrinolysinPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Fibrinolysin.Investigational
FluindionePentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Fluindione.Investigational
FluvoxamineThe serum concentration of Pentoxifylline can be increased when it is combined with Fluvoxamine.Approved, Investigational
FondaparinuxPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Fondaparinux.Investigational
Fondaparinux sodiumPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Fondaparinux sodium.Approved, Investigational
FosinoprilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Fosinopril.Approved
GabexatePentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Gabexate.Investigational
GlucosamineGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Pentoxifylline.Approved
GuacetisalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentoxifylline is combined with Guacetisal.Experimental
GuanabenzPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Guanabenz.Approved, Investigational
GuanadrelPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Guanadrel.Approved
GuanazodinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Guanazodine.Experimental
GuanethidinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Guanethidine.Approved
GuanfacinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Guanfacine.Approved, Investigational
GuanoclorPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Guanoclor.Experimental
GuanoxabenzPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Guanoxabenz.Experimental
GuanoxanPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Guanoxan.Experimental
Hemoglobin crosfumarilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentoxifylline is combined with Hemoglobin crosfumaril.Experimental
HeparinPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Heparin.Approved, Investigational
HexamethoniumPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Experimental
HigenaminePentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Higenamine.Investigational
HydralazinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Hydralazine.Approved
HydrochlorothiazidePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Hydrochlorothiazide.Approved, Vet Approved
HydroflumethiazidePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Hydroflumethiazide.Approved, Investigational
HydroxytyrosolPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Hydroxytyrosol.Investigational
Ibritumomab tiuxetanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentoxifylline is combined with Ibritumomab tiuxetan.Approved
IbrutinibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ibrutinib is combined with Pentoxifylline.Approved
IbudilastPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ibudilast.Approved, Investigational
Icosapent ethylPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Icosapent ethyl.Approved, Nutraceutical
IdraparinuxPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Idraparinux.Investigational
IfenprodilPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ifenprodil.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
IfetrobanPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ifetroban.Investigational
IloprostPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Iloprost.Approved, Investigational
ImidaprilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Imidapril.Investigational
IndapamidePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Indapamide.Approved
IndenololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Indenolol.Withdrawn
IndobufenPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Indobufen.Investigational
IndoraminPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Indoramin.Withdrawn
IrbesartanPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Irbesartan.Approved, Investigational
IsradipinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Isradipine.Approved
KetanserinPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ketanserin.Investigational
KetorolacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Pentoxifylline.Approved
LabetalolPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Labetalol.Approved
LacidipinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Lacidipine.Approved, Investigational
LatanoprostPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Latanoprost.Approved, Investigational
LepirudinPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Lepirudin.Approved
LercanidipinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Lercanidipine.Approved, Investigational
LetaxabanPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Letaxaban.Investigational
LidocaineThe metabolism of Pentoxifylline can be decreased when combined with Lidocaine.Approved, Vet Approved
LimaprostLimaprost may increase the antiplatelet activities of Pentoxifylline.Approved, Investigational
LinsidominePentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Linsidomine.Experimental
LisinoprilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Lisinopril.Approved, Investigational
LobeglitazoneThe metabolism of Pentoxifylline can be decreased when combined with Lobeglitazone.Approved, Investigational
LofexidinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Lofexidine.Approved, Investigational
LosartanPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Losartan.Approved
MacitentanPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Macitentan.Approved
ManidipinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Manidipine.Approved, Investigational
MecamylaminePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Mecamylamine.Approved
MelagatranPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Melagatran.Experimental
MesalazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentoxifylline is combined with Mesalazine.Approved
MethoserpidinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Methoserpidine.Experimental
Methyl salicylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentoxifylline is combined with Methyl salicylate.Approved, Vet Approved
MethyldopaPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Methyldopa.Approved
MetipranololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Metipranolol.Approved
MetolazonePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Metolazone.Approved
MetoprololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Metoprolol.Approved, Investigational
MetyrosinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Metyrosine.Approved
MexiletineThe serum concentration of Pentoxifylline can be increased when it is combined with Mexiletine.Approved
MibefradilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Mibefradil.Investigational, Withdrawn
MidostaurinThe serum concentration of Pentoxifylline can be increased when it is combined with Midostaurin.Approved
MilrinonePentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Milrinone.Approved
MinoxidilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved
MoexiprilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Moexipril.Approved
MoxonidinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Moxonidine.Approved, Investigational
MuzoliminePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Muzolimine.Experimental
NadololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Nadolol.Approved
NadroparinPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Nadroparin.Approved
NafamostatPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Nafamostat.Approved, Investigational
NaftopidilPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Naftopidil.Investigational
NebivololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Nebivolol.Approved, Investigational
NevirapineThe metabolism of Pentoxifylline can be decreased when combined with Nevirapine.Approved
NicardipinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Nicardipine.Approved
NicorandilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Nicorandil.Approved, Investigational
NiguldipinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Niguldipine.Experimental
NilvadipinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Nilvadipine.Approved, Investigational
NimesulidePentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Nimesulide.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
NimodipinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Nimodipine.Approved
NisoldipinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Nisoldipine.Approved
NitrendipinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Nitrendipine.Approved, Investigational
NitroaspirinPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Nitroaspirin.Investigational
NitroprussidePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Nitroprusside.Approved
ObinutuzumabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentoxifylline is combined with Obinutuzumab.Approved
OlmesartanPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Olmesartan.Approved, Investigational
OlsalazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentoxifylline is combined with Olsalazine.Approved
OmapatrilatPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Omapatrilat.Investigational
Omega-3 fatty acidsOmega-3 fatty acids may increase the antiplatelet activities of Pentoxifylline.Approved, Nutraceutical
OsimertinibThe serum concentration of Pentoxifylline can be decreased when it is combined with Osimertinib.Approved
OtamixabanPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Otamixaban.Investigational
OxprenololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Oxprenolol.Approved
OzagrelPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ozagrel.Investigational
PargylinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Pargyline.Approved
ParnaparinPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Parnaparin.Approved, Investigational
Peginterferon alfa-2bThe serum concentration of Pentoxifylline can be increased when it is combined with Peginterferon alfa-2b.Approved
PenbutololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
Pentaerythritol TetranitratePentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate.Approved
PentoliniumPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Pentolinium.Approved
Pentosan PolysulfateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentosan Polysulfate is combined with Pentoxifylline.Approved
PerindoprilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved
PhenindionePentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Phenindione.Approved, Investigational
PhenoxybenzaminePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Phenoxybenzamine.Approved
PhenprocoumonPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Phenprocoumon.Approved, Investigational
PhentolaminePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Phentolamine.Approved
PicotamidePentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Picotamide.Experimental
PinacidilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Pinacidil.Withdrawn
PindololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Pindolol.Approved
Platelet Activating FactorPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Platelet Activating Factor.Experimental
PolythiazidePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Polythiazide.Approved
PrasugrelPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Prasugrel.Approved
PrazosinPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Prazosin.Approved
PropranololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Propranolol.Approved, Investigational
Protein CPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Protein C.Approved
Protein S humanPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Protein S human.Approved
ProtocatechualdehydePentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Protocatechualdehyde.Approved
QuinaprilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Quinapril.Approved, Investigational
RamatrobanPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ramatroban.Investigational
RamiprilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Ramipril.Approved
RemikirenPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Remikiren.Approved
RescinnaminePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Rescinnamine.Approved
ReserpinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Reserpine.Approved, Investigational
ResveratrolPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Resveratrol.Approved, Experimental, Investigational
ReteplasePentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Reteplase.Approved
ReviparinPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Reviparin.Approved, Investigational
RidogrelPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ridogrel.Approved
RilmenidinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Rilmenidine.Investigational
RiociguatPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Riociguat.Approved
RivaroxabanPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Rivaroxaban.Approved
RopiniroleThe metabolism of Pentoxifylline can be decreased when combined with Ropinirole.Approved, Investigational
RosiglitazonePentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Rosiglitazone.Approved, Investigational
Salicylic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentoxifylline is combined with Salicylic acid.Approved, Vet Approved
SaprisartanPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Saprisartan.Experimental
SarpogrelatePentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Sarpogrelate.Investigational
SaruplasePentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Saruplase.Experimental
SelexipagPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Selexipag.Approved
SevofluranePentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Sevoflurane.Approved, Vet Approved
SimeprevirThe metabolism of Pentoxifylline can be decreased when combined with Simeprevir.Approved
SitaxentanPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Sitaxentan.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
SpiraprilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Spirapril.Approved
SRT501Pentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of SRT501.Investigational
StreptokinasePentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Streptokinase.Approved, Investigational
SulodexidePentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Sulodexide.Approved, Investigational
TalinololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Talinolol.Investigational
TelmisartanPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Telmisartan.Approved, Investigational
TemocaprilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Temocapril.Experimental, Investigational
TenecteplasePentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Tenecteplase.Approved
Tenofovir disoproxilThe metabolism of Pentoxifylline can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
TeriflunomideThe serum concentration of Pentoxifylline can be decreased when it is combined with Teriflunomide.Approved
TerlipressinPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Terlipressin.Approved, Investigational
TesmilifenePentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Tesmilifene.Investigational
TetrahydropalmatinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Tetrahydropalmatine.Investigational
TheodrenalinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Theodrenaline.Investigational
TheophyllineThe serum concentration of Theophylline can be increased when it is combined with Pentoxifylline.Approved
TibolonePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Tibolone.Approved, Investigational
TicagrelorPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ticagrelor.Approved
TiclopidinePentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ticlopidine.Approved
TicrynafenPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Ticrynafen.Withdrawn
TimololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Timolol.Approved
TinzaparinPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Tinzaparin.Approved
TioclomarolPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Tioclomarol.Experimental
TipranavirTipranavir may increase the antiplatelet activities of Pentoxifylline.Approved, Investigational
TirofibanPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Tirofiban.Approved
TizanidineThe serum concentration of Tizanidine can be increased when it is combined with Pentoxifylline.Approved
TolazolinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Tolazoline.Approved, Vet Approved
TolonidinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Tolonidine.Experimental
TorasemidePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Torasemide.Approved
TositumomabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentoxifylline is combined with Tositumomab.Approved, Investigational
TrandolaprilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Trandolapril.Approved
TranilastPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Tranilast.Approved, Investigational
TrapidilPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Trapidil.Approved
TravoprostPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Travoprost.Approved
TreprostinilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Treprostinil.Approved, Investigational
TrichlormethiazidePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Trichlormethiazide.Approved, Vet Approved
TriflusalPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Triflusal.Approved, Investigational
TrimazosinPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Trimazosin.Experimental
TrimethaphanPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Trimethaphan.Approved, Investigational
Trolamine salicylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentoxifylline is combined with Trolamine salicylate.Approved
TroxerutinPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Troxerutin.Investigational
UnoprostonePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Unoprostone.Approved
UrapidilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Urapidil.Investigational
UrokinasePentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Urokinase.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ValsartanPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Valsartan.Approved, Investigational
VemurafenibThe serum concentration of Pentoxifylline can be increased when it is combined with Vemurafenib.Approved
VincaminePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Vincamine.Experimental
VinpocetinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Vinpocetine.Investigational
Vitamin EVitamin E may increase the antiplatelet activities of Pentoxifylline.Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet Approved
VorapaxarPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Vorapaxar.Approved
WarfarinPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Warfarin.Approved
XimelagatranPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ximelagatran.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
XipamidePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Xipamide.Experimental
XylometazolinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Xylometazoline.Approved
ZofenoprilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Zofenopril.Experimental
ZucapsaicinThe metabolism of Pentoxifylline can be decreased when combined with Zucapsaicin.Approved
Food Interactions
  • Take with food to reduce irritation. Limit caffeine intake.

References

General References
  1. Authors unspecified: European Pentoxifylline Multi-Infarct Dementia Study. Eur Neurol. 1996;36(5):315-21. [PubMed:8864715]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB14944
KEGG Drug
D00501
KEGG Compound
C07424
PubChem Compound
4740
PubChem Substance
46505940
ChemSpider
4578
BindingDB
10850
ChEBI
7986
ChEMBL
CHEMBL628
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000048
PharmGKB
PA450864
HET
PNX
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Pentoxifylline
ATC Codes
R03DA20 — Combinations of xanthinesC04AD03 — Pentoxifylline
AHFS Codes
  • 20:24.00 — Hemorrheologic Agents
PDB Entries
2a3c / 3arr / 3aru / 3tvx
FDA label
Download (51.7 KB)
MSDS
Download (73.9 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0CompletedTreatmentAcute Pancreatitis (AP)1
0Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCrohn's Disease (CD)1
0RecruitingPreventionPancreatitis1
1CompletedTreatmentBrain and Central Nervous System Tumors1
1CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
1RecruitingDiagnosticDependence, Cocaine1
1TerminatedTreatmentAlcoholic Hepatitis (AH)1
1TerminatedTreatmentHepatopulmonary Syndrome1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentMuscular Dystrophy, Duchenne2
2CompletedPreventionFibrosis1
2CompletedSupportive CareCancer, Breast / Lymphedema of the extremities1
2CompletedTreatmentAtherosclerosis / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
2CompletedTreatmentAtherosclerosis / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Vascular Diseases1
2CompletedTreatmentCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Coronary Artery Disease / Depression / Depressive Symptoms / Heart Diseases / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
2CompletedTreatmentFatty Liver1
2CompletedTreatmentFibrosis / Radiation Injuries1
2CompletedTreatmentNonalcoholic Steatohepatitis1
2CompletedTreatmentPrimary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBC)1
2CompletedTreatmentSarcoidosis, Pulmonary1
2RecruitingPreventionBrain Metastasis1
2RecruitingPreventionNeoplasms, Head and Neck1
2RecruitingTreatmentBiliary Atresia1
2RecruitingTreatmentLeishmaniasis1
2RecruitingTreatmentLong-term Adverse Effects of Radiotherapy for Pelvic Cancer1
2RecruitingTreatmentLung Cancer Non-Small Cell Cancer (NSCLC)1
2TerminatedTreatmentEnd Stage Renal Disease (ESRD)1
2TerminatedTreatmentNeoplasms, Breast1
2TerminatedTreatmentPlasmodium Falciparum Malaria1
2TerminatedTreatmentWounds and Injuries1
2Unknown StatusPreventionColorectal Cancers / Hepatic Metastases / Irradiation Damage / Radiation Induced Liver Disease1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentFibrosis1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentNecrotizing Enterocolitis1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentPatent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentDiabetic Nephropathies1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentLeishmaniasis, Cutaneous2
2, 3CompletedTreatmentLiver Diseases / Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAcute Kidney Injury (AKI) / Pentoxifylline1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentAcute Alcoholic Hepatitis1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentAcute Lymphoblastic Leukaemias (ALL)1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCancer, Breast1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentRadiation Induced Brachial Plexopathy1
3CompletedTreatmentAlcoholic Hepatitis (AH) / Severe alcoholic liver disease1
3CompletedTreatmentEndometriosis-Associated Infertility1
3CompletedTreatmentGlomerulonephritis minimal lesion1
3CompletedTreatmentHTLV-1 / Immune System Diseases / Pentoxifylline / Physical Disability / Tropical Spastic Paraparesis1
3CompletedTreatmentHepatic Failure / Liver Cirrhosis1
3CompletedTreatmentIntermittent Claudication Fontaine Stage II PAOD / Stage II Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease1
3CompletedTreatmentKidney Failure,Chronic1
3CompletedTreatmentNeonatal Late Onset Sepsis1
3Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentAcute on Chronic Pancreatitis / Acute Pancreatitis (AP) / Autoimmune Pancreatitis / Cancer Acute Pancreatitis / Drug Induced AP / Gallstone Pancreatitis / Hypertriglyceridemia Acute Pancreatitis / Hypertriglyceridemia AP / Idiopathic (Unknown) Acute Pancreatitis / Medication Induced Acute Pancreatitis / Miscellaneous (i.e. Acute on Chronic Pancreatitis) / Pancreatitis, Alcoholic / Post-ERCP AP / Post-ERCP/Post-procedural Pancreatitis / Trauma Acute Pancreatitis / Trauma AP1
3Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareCarcinoma, Breast / Fibrosis1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAvascular Necrosis / Bisphosphonate-related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw / Medication-related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw1
3RecruitingTreatmentAcute Kidney Injury (AKI)1
3RecruitingTreatmentInfection, Human Immunodeficiency Virus I1
3TerminatedTreatmentGlomerulonephritis1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentAlcoholic Hepatitis (AH)1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentOsteoradionecrosis1
4CompletedPreventionDiabetic Nephropathies1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD)1
4CompletedTreatmentEnd-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) / Hemodialysis-dependent patients / Inflammatory Reaction1
4RecruitingTreatmentChronic Renal Failure (CRF)1
4RecruitingTreatmentLumbar Disc Disease / Lumbar Radiculopathy / Prolapsed Lumbar Disc1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m21
4Unknown StatusTreatmentHepacivirus / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentIrritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentSepsis of the Newborn1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAlcoholic Hepatitis (AH) / Severe alcoholic liver disease1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPrimary Glomerulonephritis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentRecurrent Aphthous Stomatitis1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationTreatmentDizziness / Vertigo1
Not AvailableNo Longer AvailableNot AvailableDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentAdvanced Gastric Cancer Adenocarcinoma of Esophagogastric Junction1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentGraves Ophthalmopathy1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusPreventionCapsular Contractures1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusPreventionRenal Dysfunction1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentCongestive Heart Failure (CHF)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentHepatopulmonary Syndrome1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentMetabolic Parameters and Liver Histology1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentNon-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis1
Not AvailableWithdrawnPreventionContrast Induced Nephropathy (CIN) / Diabetes Mellitus (DM)1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Actavis elizabeth llc
  • Apotex inc
  • Biovail laboratories inc
  • Heritage pharmaceuticals inc
  • Impax laboratories inc
  • Mylan pharmaceuticals inc
  • Pliva inc
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • Upsher smith laboratories inc
  • Sanofi aventis us llc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
KitTopical
Tablet, extended releaseOral400 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral400 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral400 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
TRENtal 400 mg Controlled Release Tabs1.4USD tab
Trental er 400 mg tablet1.27USD tablet
Pentoxifylline powder0.91USD g
Trental 400 mg Sustained-Release Tablet0.88USD tablet
Pentoxifylline 400 mg tablet sa0.71USD tablet
Pentoxifylline CR 400 mg Controlled Release Tabs0.62USD tab
Pentoxil 400 mg Controlled Release Tabs0.62USD tab
Pentoxil er 400 mg tablet0.62USD tablet
Pentoxifylline er 400 mg tablet0.6USD tablet
Apo-Pentoxifylline Sr 400 mg Sustained-Release Tablet0.4USD tablet
Nu-Pentoxifylline-Sr 400 mg Sustained-Release Tablet0.4USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)105 °CNot Available
water solubility7.7E+004 mg/L (at 25 °C)MERCK INDEX (1996)
logP0.29BIOBYTE (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility5.17 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.08ALOGPS
logP0.23ChemAxon
logS-1.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)19.64ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-0.93ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area75.51 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity73.52 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability29.27 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+1.0
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9851
Caco-2 permeable-0.5056
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.595
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.6905
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.7157
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.7023
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7897
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9117
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.6511
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.9107
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9518
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.943
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9313
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9827
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.901
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7131
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8965
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.7457
Rat acute toxicity2.4070 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.6463
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8734
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0059-1890000000-c9be2fe26b2862cba4f5
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001r-2900000000-d54457aaede5317cef72
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0059-2970000000-95d1edcd63b61b13b22e

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as xanthines. These are purine derivatives with a ketone group conjugated at carbons 2 and 6 of the purine moiety.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organoheterocyclic compounds
Class
Imidazopyrimidines
Sub Class
Purines and purine derivatives
Direct Parent
Xanthines
Alternative Parents
6-oxopurines / Alkaloids and derivatives / Pyrimidones / N-substituted imidazoles / Vinylogous amides / Heteroaromatic compounds / Ureas / Lactams / Ketones / Azacyclic compounds
show 4 more
Substituents
Xanthine / 6-oxopurine / Purinone / Alkaloid or derivatives / Pyrimidone / N-substituted imidazole / Pyrimidine / Azole / Imidazole / Heteroaromatic compound
show 14 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
oxopurine (CHEBI:7986)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Metal ion binding
Specific Function
Hydrolyzes the second messenger cAMP, which is a key regulator of many important physiological processes. May be involved in mediating central nervous system effects of therapeutic agents ranging f...
Gene Name
PDE4B
Uniprot ID
Q07343
Uniprot Name
cAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4B
Molecular Weight
83342.695 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Details
2. Adenosine receptor A1
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Purine nucleoside binding
Specific Function
Receptor for adenosine. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name
ADORA1
Uniprot ID
P30542
Uniprot Name
Adenosine receptor A1
Molecular Weight
36511.325 Da
References
  1. Daly JW, Jacobson KA, Ukena D: Adenosine receptors: development of selective agonists and antagonists. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1987;230:41-63. [PubMed:3588607]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Metal ion binding
Specific Function
Plays a role in signal transduction by regulating the intracellular concentration of cyclic nucleotides. This phosphodiesterase catalyzes the specific hydrolysis of cGMP to 5'-GMP (PubMed:9714779, ...
Gene Name
PDE5A
Uniprot ID
O76074
Uniprot Name
cGMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase
Molecular Weight
99984.14 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Metal ion binding
Specific Function
Hydrolyzes the second messenger cAMP, which is a key regulator of many important physiological processes.
Gene Name
PDE4A
Uniprot ID
P27815
Uniprot Name
cAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4A
Molecular Weight
98142.155 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Identical protein binding
Specific Function
Receptor for adenosine. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name
ADORA2A
Uniprot ID
P29274
Uniprot Name
Adenosine receptor A2a
Molecular Weight
44706.925 Da
References
  1. Kreth S, Ledderose C, Luchting B, Weis F, Thiel M: Immunomodulatory properties of pentoxifylline are mediated via adenosine-dependent pathways. Shock. 2010 Jul;34(1):10-6. doi: 10.1097/SHK.0b013e3181cdc3e2. [PubMed:19997047]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Nucleotide binding
Specific Function
Hydrolyzes extracellular nucleotides into membrane permeable nucleosides. Exhibits AMP-, NAD-, and NMN-nucleosidase activities.
Gene Name
NT5E
Uniprot ID
P21589
Uniprot Name
5'-nucleotidase
Molecular Weight
63367.255 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
  2. Ustunsoy H, Sivrikoz MC, Tarakcioglu M, Bakir K, Guldur E, Celkan MA: The effects of pentoxifylline on the myocardial inflammation and ischemia-reperfusion injury during cardiopulmonary bypass. J Card Surg. 2006 Jan-Feb;21(1):57-61. [PubMed:16426349]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID
P05177
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 19, 2017 20:33