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Identification
NamePentoxifylline
Accession NumberDB00806  (APRD00121)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Investigational
DescriptionA methylxanthine derivative that inhibits phosphodiesterase and affects blood rheology. It improves blood flow by increasing erythrocyte and leukocyte flexibility. It also inhibits platelet aggregation. Pentoxifylline modulates immunologic activity by stimulating cytokine production. [PubChem]
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Oxpentifylline
Pentoxifilina
Pentoxifyllin
Pentoxifylline
Pentoxifyllinum
Pentoxil
Trental
External Identifiers
  • BL 191
  • PTX
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Nu-pentoxifylline-SR 400 mgTablet, extended release400 mgOralNu Pharm Inc1998-03-182012-09-04Canada
Pentoxifylline SRTablet, extended release400 mgOralAa Pharma Inc1997-01-14Not applicableCanada
Ratio-pentoxifyllineTablet, extended release400 mgOralRatiopharm Inc Division Of Teva Canada Limited1997-04-152010-08-02Canada
TrentalTablet, extended release400 mgOralSanofi Aventis Canada Inc1996-10-232013-03-01Canada
Trental Srt 400mgTablet, extended release400 mgOralHoechst Roussel Canada Inc.1993-12-311998-08-12Canada
Trental Tab 400mgTablet, extended release400 mgOralHoechst Canada Inc.1984-12-311996-08-29Canada
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
PentoxifyllineTablet, extended release400 mg/1OralApotex Corp.1999-06-10Not applicableUs
PentoxifyllineTablet, extended release400 mg/1OralLake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC1998-07-31Not applicableUs
PentoxifyllineTablet, film coated, extended release400 mg/1OralCardinal Health2010-07-23Not applicableUs
PentoxifyllineTablet, extended release400 mg/1OralTeva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc1998-07-31Not applicableUs
PentoxifyllineTablet, extended release400 mg/1OralMajor Pharmaceuticals1999-06-10Not applicableUs
PentoxifyllineTablet, extended release400 mg/1OralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2009-07-01Not applicableUs
PentoxifyllineTablet, extended release400 mg/1Oralbryant ranch prepack1999-06-10Not applicableUs
PentoxifyllineTablet, extended release400 mg/1OralAidarex Pharmaceuticals LLC1999-06-10Not applicableUs
PentoxifyllineTablet, extended release400 mg/1OralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Llc2014-08-22Not applicableUs
PentoxifyllineTablet, film coated, extended release400 mg/1OralMylan Institutional Inc.1998-01-15Not applicableUs
PentoxifyllineTablet, film coated, extended release400 mg/1OralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.1997-07-08Not applicableUs
PentoxifyllineTablet, film coated, extended release400 mg/1OralCardinal Health2009-09-21Not applicableUs
PentoxifyllineTablet, extended release400 mg/1OralLake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC1999-06-10Not applicableUs
PentoxifyllineTablet, film coated, extended release400 mg/1OralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2009-07-01Not applicableUs
PentoxifyllineTablet, extended release400 mg/1OralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Llc1999-06-10Not applicableUs
PentoxifyllineTablet, extended release400 mg/1OralAv Kare, Inc.2013-07-31Not applicableUs
PentoxifyllineTablet, film coated, extended release400 mg/1OralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-03-29Not applicableUs
PentoxifyllineTablet, extended release400 mg/1OralA S Medication Solutions1998-07-31Not applicableUs
PentoxifyllineTablet, film coated, extended release400 mg/1OralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2009-09-21Not applicableUs
PentoxifyllineTablet, film coated, extended release400 mg/1OralCardinal Health1999-06-102016-03-11Us
PentoxifyllineTablet, extended release400 mg/1OralOceanside Pharmaceuticals2014-08-22Not applicableUs
PentoxifyllineTablet, extended release400 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2003-03-25Not applicableUs
PentoxifyllineTablet, film coated, extended release400 mg/1OralMc Kesson Contract Packaging2012-01-30Not applicableUs
PentoxifyllineTablet, extended release400 mg/1OralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2010-11-15Not applicableUs
PentoxifyllineTablet, film coated, extended release400 mg/1OralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2009-07-01Not applicableUs
PentoxifyllineTablet, extended release400 mg/1OralPreferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2012-09-28Not applicableUs
PentoxifyllineTablet, extended release400 mg/1OralSTAT Rx USA LLC1998-07-20Not applicableUs
PentoxifyllineTablet, extended release400 mg/1OralGolden State Medical Supply, Inc.2001-06-18Not applicableUs
PentoxifyllineTablet, extended release400 mg/1OralCardinal Health2004-02-16Not applicableUs
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
AgapurinZentiva
Agapurin SRZentiva
An Ruo NingNanjing Yaoda Bio-Pharmaceutical
AngiopentHelcor
Ao Le NiC & O Pharmaceuticals
Ao Nuo HongAosaiKang Pharmaceutical
AotongTreeful Pharmaceutical
AzupentatNot Available
BehrifilSanofi-Aventis
Bo Shu TeJisheng Pharmaceutical
ClaudicatNycomed
DurapentalMylan dura
ElorganSanofi Aventis
EndopentoksasEndokriniai
PentilinKrka
Pentilin RetardKrka
PentofluxBouchara-Recordati
PentofyllinSopharma
PentoksifilinPanfarma
PentolabLamsa
Pentomerratiopharm
PentoxilUpsher-Smith
RentylinAmdipharm
TorentalSanofi-Aventis
Trentilin RetardSanta-Farma
Brand mixtures
NameLabellerIngredients
Gapeam BudibacAlvix Laboratories, LLC
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNIISD6QCT3TSU
CAS number6493-05-6
WeightAverage: 278.307
Monoisotopic: 278.137890462
Chemical FormulaC13H18N4O3
InChI KeyBYPFEZZEUUWMEJ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C13H18N4O3/c1-9(18)6-4-5-7-17-12(19)10-11(14-8-15(10)2)16(3)13(17)20/h8H,4-7H2,1-3H3
IUPAC Name
3,7-dimethyl-1-(5-oxohexyl)-2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-purine-2,6-dione
SMILES
CN1C=NC2=C1C(=O)N(CCCCC(C)=O)C(=O)N2C
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the treatment of patients with intermittent lameness or immobility arising from chronic occlusive arterial disease of the limbs.
Structured Indications
PharmacodynamicsPentoxifylline, a synthetic dimethylxanthine derivative structurally related to theophylline and caffeine, is used in the treatment of peripheral vascular diseases and in the management of cerebrovascular insufficiency, sickle cell disease, and diabetic neuropathy.
Mechanism of actionPentoxifylline inhibits erythrocyte phosphodiesterase, resulting in an increase in erythrocyte cAMP activity. Subsequently, the erythrocyte membrane becomes more resistant to deformity. Along with erythrocyte activity, pentoxifylline also decreases blood viscosity by reducing plasma fibrinogen concentrations and increasing fibrinolytic activity. It is also a non selective adenosine receptor antagonist.
TargetKindPharmacological actionActionsOrganismUniProt ID
cAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4BProteinyes
inhibitor
HumanQ07343 details
Adenosine receptor A1Proteinyes
antagonist
HumanP30542 details
cGMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesteraseProteinyes
inhibitor
HumanO76074 details
cAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4AProteinyes
inhibitor
HumanP27815 details
Adenosine receptor A2aProteinyes
antagonist
HumanP29274 details
5'-nucleotidaseProteinunknown
inhibitor
HumanP21589 details
Related Articles
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein binding70%
MetabolismNot Available
Route of eliminationExcretion is almost totally urinary; the main biotransformation product is Metabolite V. Essentially no parent drug is found in the urine.
Half life0.4-0.8 hours
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityLD50=1385 mg/kg(orally in mice)
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
AbciximabPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Abciximab.Approved
AbirateroneThe serum concentration of Pentoxifylline can be increased when it is combined with Abiraterone.Approved
AcebutololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Acebutolol.Approved
AcenocoumarolPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Acenocoumarol.Approved
Acetylsalicylic acidPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Acetylsalicylic acid.Approved, Vet Approved
AliskirenPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Aliskiren.Approved, Investigational
AlprenololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Alprenolol.Approved, Withdrawn
AlprostadilPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Alprostadil.Approved, Investigational
AlteplasePentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Alteplase.Approved
ALX-0081Pentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of ALX-0081.Investigational
AmbrisentanPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Ambrisentan.Approved, Investigational
Ambroxol acefyllinateThe serum concentration of Ambroxol acefyllinate can be increased when it is combined with Pentoxifylline.Experimental
AminophyllineThe serum concentration of Aminophylline can be increased when it is combined with Pentoxifylline.Approved
Aminosalicylic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentoxifylline is combined with Aminosalicylic Acid.Approved
AmlodipinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Amlodipine.Approved
AnagrelidePentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Anagrelide.Approved
AncrodPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ancrod.Investigational
AnistreplasePentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Anistreplase.Approved
Antithrombin III humanPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Antithrombin III human.Approved
ApixabanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentoxifylline is combined with Apixaban.Approved
ArdeparinPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ardeparin.Approved, Withdrawn
ArgatrobanPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Argatroban.Approved, Investigational
AstaxanthinPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Astaxanthin.Investigational
AtenololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Atenolol.Approved
AzelastinePentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Azelastine.Approved
AzithromycinThe metabolism of Pentoxifylline can be decreased when combined with Azithromycin.Approved
BalsalazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentoxifylline is combined with Balsalazide.Approved, Investigational
BatroxobinPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Batroxobin.Experimental
BecaplerminPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Becaplermin.Approved, Investigational
BemiparinPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Bemiparin.Approved
BenazeprilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Benazepril.Approved, Investigational
BendroflumethiazidePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Bendroflumethiazide.Approved
BepridilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Bepridil.Approved, Withdrawn
BeraprostPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Beraprost.Investigational
BetaxololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Betaxolol.Approved
BethanidinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Bethanidine.Approved
BimatoprostPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Bimatoprost.Approved, Investigational
BisoprololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Bisoprolol.Approved
BivalirudinPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Bivalirudin.Approved, Investigational
BortezomibThe metabolism of Pentoxifylline can be decreased when combined with Bortezomib.Approved, Investigational
BosentanPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Bosentan.Approved, Investigational
BretyliumPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Bretylium.Approved
BrimonidinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Brimonidine.Approved
BupranololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Bupranolol.Approved
ButylphthalidePentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Butylphthalide.Investigational
CaffeineThe metabolism of Pentoxifylline can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved
CandesartanPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Candesartan.Approved
CandoxatrilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Candoxatril.Experimental
CangrelorPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Cangrelor.Approved
CaptoprilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Captopril.Approved
CarbamazepineThe metabolism of Pentoxifylline can be increased when combined with Carbamazepine.Approved, Investigational
CarteololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Carteolol.Approved
CarvedilolPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Carvedilol.Approved, Investigational
CeliprololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Celiprolol.Approved, Investigational
CertoparinPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Certoparin.Approved
ChlorothiazidePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Chlorothiazide.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorthalidonePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Chlorthalidone.Approved
CilazaprilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Cilazapril.Approved
CilostazolPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Cilostazol.Approved
CimetidineThe serum concentration of Pentoxifylline can be increased when it is combined with Cimetidine.Approved
CitalopramThe metabolism of Pentoxifylline can be decreased when combined with Citalopram.Approved
Citric AcidPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.Nutraceutical, Vet Approved
ClonidinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Clonidine.Approved
ClopidogrelPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Clopidogrel.Approved, Nutraceutical
ClotrimazoleThe metabolism of Pentoxifylline can be decreased when combined with Clotrimazole.Approved, Vet Approved
CollagenaseThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentoxifylline is combined with Collagenase.Approved
CryptenaminePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Cryptenamine.Approved
CyclothiazidePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Cyclothiazide.Approved
Cyproterone acetateThe serum concentration of Pentoxifylline can be decreased when it is combined with Cyproterone acetate.Approved, Investigational
Dabigatran etexilatePentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dabigatran etexilate.Approved
DalteparinPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dalteparin.Approved
DanaparoidPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Danaparoid.Approved, Withdrawn
DasatinibDasatinib may increase the anticoagulant activities of Pentoxifylline.Approved, Investigational
DebrisoquinPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Debrisoquin.Approved
DeferasiroxThe serum concentration of Pentoxifylline can be increased when it is combined with Deferasirox.Approved, Investigational
DefibrotidePentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Defibrotide.Approved, Investigational
Deoxycholic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentoxifylline is combined with Deoxycholic Acid.Approved
dersalazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentoxifylline is combined with dersalazine.Investigational
DeserpidinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Deserpidine.Approved
DesirudinPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Desirudin.Approved
DesmoteplasePentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Desmoteplase.Investigational
DextranPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dextran.Approved, Vet Approved
Dextran 40Pentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dextran 40.Approved
Dextran 70Pentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dextran 70.Approved
Dextran 75Pentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dextran 75.Approved
DiazoxidePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Diazoxide.Approved
DicoumarolPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dicoumarol.Approved
DiflunisalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentoxifylline is combined with Diflunisal.Approved
DihydralazinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Dihydralazine.Investigational
DiltiazemPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Diltiazem.Approved
DipyridamolePentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Dipyridamole.Approved
DitazolePentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ditazole.Approved, Withdrawn
DorzolamidePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Dorzolamide.Approved
DoxazosinPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Doxazosin.Approved
Drotrecogin alfaPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Drotrecogin alfa.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
DyphyllineThe serum concentration of Dyphylline can be increased when it is combined with Pentoxifylline.Approved
Edetic AcidPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Edetic Acid.Approved, Vet Approved
EdoxabanPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Edoxaban.Approved
EfonidipinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Efonidipine.Approved
EnalaprilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Enalapril.Approved, Vet Approved
EnalaprilatPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Enalaprilat.Approved
EnoxaparinPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.Approved
EpinastinePentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Epinastine.Approved, Investigational
eplivanserinePentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of eplivanserine.Investigational
EpoprostenolPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Epoprostenol.Approved
EprosartanPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Eprosartan.Approved
EptifibatidePentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Eptifibatide.Approved, Investigational
Ethyl biscoumacetatePentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ethyl biscoumacetate.Withdrawn
FelodipinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Felodipine.Approved, Investigational
FenoldopamPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Fenoldopam.Approved
FibrinolysinPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Fibrinolysin.Approved
FluindionePentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Fluindione.Investigational
FluvoxamineThe serum concentration of Pentoxifylline can be increased when it is combined with Fluvoxamine.Approved, Investigational
FondaparinuxPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Fondaparinux.Investigational
Fondaparinux sodiumPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Fondaparinux sodium.Approved, Investigational
FosinoprilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Fosinopril.Approved
GabexatePentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Gabexate.Investigational
GlucosamineGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Pentoxifylline.Approved
GuanabenzPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Guanabenz.Approved
GuanadrelPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Guanadrel.Approved
GuanethidinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Guanethidine.Approved
GuanfacinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Guanfacine.Approved, Investigational
HeparinPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Heparin.Approved, Investigational
HexamethoniumPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Experimental
HigenaminePentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Higenamine.Investigational
HirulogPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Hirulog.Experimental
HydralazinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Hydralazine.Approved
HydrochlorothiazidePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Hydrochlorothiazide.Approved, Vet Approved
HydroflumethiazidePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Hydroflumethiazide.Approved
Ibritumomab tiuxetanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentoxifylline is combined with Ibritumomab tiuxetan.Approved
IbrutinibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ibrutinib is combined with Pentoxifylline.Approved
IbudilastPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ibudilast.Approved, Investigational
Icosapent ethylPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Icosapent ethyl.Approved, Nutraceutical
idraparinuxPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of idraparinux.Investigational
IfenprodilPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ifenprodil.Approved, Withdrawn
IloprostPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Iloprost.Approved, Investigational
ImidaprilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Imidapril.Investigational
IndapamidePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Indapamide.Approved
IndenololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Indenolol.Withdrawn
IndobufenPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Indobufen.Investigational
IndoraminPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Indoramin.Withdrawn
IrbesartanPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Irbesartan.Approved, Investigational
IsradipinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Isradipine.Approved
Kct 0809Pentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Kct 0809.Investigational
KetanserinPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ketanserin.Investigational
KetorolacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Pentoxifylline.Approved
LabetalolPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Labetalol.Approved
LacidipinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Lacidipine.Approved
LatanoprostPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Latanoprost.Approved, Investigational
LepirudinPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Lepirudin.Approved
LercanidipinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Lercanidipine.Approved, Investigational
LidocaineThe metabolism of Pentoxifylline can be decreased when combined with Lidocaine.Approved, Vet Approved
LimaprostLimaprost may increase the antiplatelet activities of Pentoxifylline.Approved
LisinoprilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Lisinopril.Approved, Investigational
LofexidinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Lofexidine.Approved, Investigational
LosartanPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Losartan.Approved
MacitentanPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Macitentan.Approved
ManidipinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Manidipine.Approved
MecamylaminePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Mecamylamine.Approved
MesalazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentoxifylline is combined with Mesalazine.Approved
MethyldopaPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Methyldopa.Approved
MetipranololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Metipranolol.Approved
MetolazonePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Metolazone.Approved
MetoprololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Metoprolol.Approved, Investigational
MetyrosinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Metyrosine.Approved
MexiletineThe serum concentration of Pentoxifylline can be increased when it is combined with Mexiletine.Approved
MibefradilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Mibefradil.Withdrawn
MilrinonePentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Milrinone.Approved
MinoxidilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Minoxidil.Approved
MoexiprilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Moexipril.Approved
MoxonidinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Moxonidine.Approved
NadololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Nadolol.Approved
NadroparinPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Nadroparin.Approved
NafamostatPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Nafamostat.Investigational
NaftopidilPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Naftopidil.Investigational
NCX 4016Pentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of NCX 4016.Investigational
NebivololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Nebivolol.Approved, Investigational
NevirapineThe metabolism of Pentoxifylline can be decreased when combined with Nevirapine.Approved
NicardipinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Nicardipine.Approved
NicorandilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Nicorandil.Approved
NiguldipinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Niguldipine.Experimental
NilvadipinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Nilvadipine.Approved
NimesulidePentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Nimesulide.Approved, Withdrawn
NimodipinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Nimodipine.Approved
NisoldipinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Nisoldipine.Approved
NitrendipinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Nitrendipine.Approved
NitroaspirinPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Nitroaspirin.Investigational
NitroprussidePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Nitroprusside.Approved
ObinutuzumabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentoxifylline is combined with Obinutuzumab.Approved
OlmesartanPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Olmesartan.Approved, Investigational
OlsalazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentoxifylline is combined with Olsalazine.Approved
OmapatrilatPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Omapatrilat.Investigational
Omega-3 fatty acidsOmega-3 fatty acids may increase the antiplatelet activities of Pentoxifylline.Approved
OsimertinibThe serum concentration of Pentoxifylline can be decreased when it is combined with Osimertinib.Approved
OtamixabanPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Otamixaban.Investigational
OxprenololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Oxprenolol.Approved
PargylinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Pargyline.Approved
ParnaparinPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Parnaparin.Approved
Peginterferon alfa-2bThe serum concentration of Pentoxifylline can be increased when it is combined with Peginterferon alfa-2b.Approved
PenbutololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
PentoliniumPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Pentolinium.Approved
Pentosan PolysulfateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentosan Polysulfate is combined with Pentoxifylline.Approved
PerindoprilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved
PhenindionePentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Phenindione.Approved
PhenobarbitalThe metabolism of Pentoxifylline can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
PhenoxybenzaminePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Phenoxybenzamine.Approved
PhenprocoumonPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Phenprocoumon.Approved
PhentolaminePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Phentolamine.Approved
PinacidilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Pinacidil.Withdrawn
PindololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Pindolol.Approved
PlasminPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Plasmin.Investigational
PolythiazidePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Polythiazide.Approved
PrasugrelPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Prasugrel.Approved
PrazosinPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Prazosin.Approved
PrimidoneThe metabolism of Pentoxifylline can be increased when combined with Primidone.Approved, Vet Approved
PropranololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Propranolol.Approved, Investigational
Protein CPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Protein C.Approved
Protein S humanPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Protein S human.Approved
ProtocatechualdehydePentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Protocatechualdehyde.Approved
QuinaprilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Quinapril.Approved, Investigational
RamatrobanPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ramatroban.Investigational
RamiprilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Ramipril.Approved
RemikirenPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Remikiren.Approved
RescinnaminePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Rescinnamine.Approved
ReserpinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Reserpine.Approved
ResveratrolPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Resveratrol.Experimental, Investigational
ReteplasePentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Reteplase.Approved
ReviparinPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Reviparin.Approved
RidogrelPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ridogrel.Approved
RifampicinThe metabolism of Pentoxifylline can be increased when combined with Rifampicin.Approved
RilmenidinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Rilmenidine.Investigational
RiociguatPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Riociguat.Approved
RivaroxabanPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Rivaroxaban.Approved
RopiniroleThe metabolism of Pentoxifylline can be decreased when combined with Ropinirole.Approved, Investigational
RosiglitazonePentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Rosiglitazone.Approved, Investigational
Salicylic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentoxifylline is combined with Salicylic acid.Approved, Vet Approved
SaprisartanPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Saprisartan.Experimental
SCH-530348Pentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of SCH-530348.Investigational
SelexipagPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Selexipag.Approved
SevofluranePentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Sevoflurane.Approved, Vet Approved
SimeprevirThe metabolism of Pentoxifylline can be decreased when combined with Simeprevir.Approved
SitaxentanPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Sitaxentan.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
SpiraprilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Spirapril.Approved
SRT501Pentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of SRT501.Investigational
StreptokinasePentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Streptokinase.Approved
SulodexidePentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Sulodexide.Approved, Investigational
TelmisartanPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Telmisartan.Approved, Investigational
TemocaprilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Temocapril.Experimental, Investigational
TenecteplasePentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Tenecteplase.Approved
TenofovirThe metabolism of Pentoxifylline can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir.Approved, Investigational
TeriflunomideThe serum concentration of Pentoxifylline can be decreased when it is combined with Teriflunomide.Approved
TerlipressinPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Terlipressin.Approved, Investigational
TesmilifenePentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Tesmilifene.Investigational
TheophyllineThe serum concentration of Theophylline can be increased when it is combined with Pentoxifylline.Approved
TibolonePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Tibolone.Approved
TicagrelorPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ticagrelor.Approved
TiclopidinePentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ticlopidine.Approved
TicrynafenPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Ticrynafen.Withdrawn
TimololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Timolol.Approved
TinzaparinPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Tinzaparin.Approved
TipranavirTipranavir may increase the antiplatelet activities of Pentoxifylline.Approved, Investigational
TirofibanPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Tirofiban.Approved
TizanidineThe serum concentration of Tizanidine can be increased when it is combined with Pentoxifylline.Approved
TolazolinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Tolazoline.Approved, Vet Approved
TorasemidePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Torasemide.Approved
TositumomabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentoxifylline is combined with Tositumomab.Approved
TrandolaprilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Trandolapril.Approved
TranilastPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Tranilast.Approved, Investigational
TrapidilPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Trapidil.Approved
TravoprostPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Travoprost.Approved
TreprostinilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Treprostinil.Approved, Investigational
TrichlormethiazidePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Trichlormethiazide.Approved, Vet Approved
TriflusalPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Triflusal.Approved
TrimazosinPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Trimazosin.Experimental
TrimethaphanPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Trimethaphan.Approved
UnoprostonePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Unoprostone.Approved
UrokinasePentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Urokinase.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ValsartanPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Valsartan.Approved, Investigational
VemurafenibThe serum concentration of Pentoxifylline can be increased when it is combined with Vemurafenib.Approved
VinpocetinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Vinpocetine.Investigational
Vitamin EVitamin E may increase the antiplatelet activities of Pentoxifylline.Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet Approved
VorapaxarPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Vorapaxar.Approved
WarfarinPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Warfarin.Approved
XimelagatranPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ximelagatran.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
XylometazolinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Xylometazoline.Approved
Ym150Pentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ym150.Investigational
Food Interactions
  • Take with food to reduce irritation. Limit caffeine intake.
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General References
  1. Authors unspecified: European Pentoxifylline Multi-Infarct Dementia Study. Eur Neurol. 1996;36(5):315-21. [PubMed:8864715 ]
External Links
ATC CodesC04AD03
AHFS Codes
  • 20:24.00
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (51.7 KB)
MSDSDownload (73.9 KB)
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+1.0
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9851
Caco-2 permeable-0.5056
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.595
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.6905
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.7157
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.7023
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7897
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9117
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.6511
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.9107
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9518
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.943
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9313
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9827
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.901
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7131
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8965
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.7457
Rat acute toxicity2.4070 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.6463
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8734
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Actavis elizabeth llc
  • Apotex inc
  • Biovail laboratories inc
  • Heritage pharmaceuticals inc
  • Impax laboratories inc
  • Mylan pharmaceuticals inc
  • Pliva inc
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • Upsher smith laboratories inc
  • Sanofi aventis us llc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
KitTopical
Tablet, extended releaseOral400 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral400 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral400 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
TRENtal 400 mg Controlled Release Tabs1.4USD tab
Trental er 400 mg tablet1.27USD tablet
Pentoxifylline powder0.91USD g
Trental 400 mg Sustained-Release Tablet0.88USD tablet
Pentoxifylline 400 mg tablet sa0.71USD tablet
Pentoxifylline CR 400 mg Controlled Release Tabs0.62USD tab
Pentoxil 400 mg Controlled Release Tabs0.62USD tab
Pentoxil er 400 mg tablet0.62USD tablet
Pentoxifylline er 400 mg tablet0.6USD tablet
Apo-Pentoxifylline Sr 400 mg Sustained-Release Tablet0.4USD tablet
Nu-Pentoxifylline-Sr 400 mg Sustained-Release Tablet0.4USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point105 °CNot Available
water solubility7.7E+004 mg/L (at 25 °C)MERCK INDEX (1996)
logP0.29BIOBYTE (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility5.17 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.08ALOGPS
logP0.23ChemAxon
logS-1.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)19.64ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-0.93ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area75.51 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity73.52 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability29.27 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alkaloids and derivatives. These are naturally occurring chemical compounds that contain mostly basic nitrogen atoms. This group also includes some related compounds with neutral and even weakly acidic properties. Also some synthetic compounds of similar structure are attributed to alkaloids. In addition to carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen, alkaloids may also contain oxygen, sulfur and more rarely other elements such as chlorine, bromine, and phosphorus.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassAlkaloids and derivatives
ClassNot Available
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentAlkaloids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Alkaloid or derivatives
  • Xanthine
  • Purinone
  • 6-oxopurine
  • Purine
  • Imidazopyrimidine
  • Pyrimidone
  • Pyrimidine
  • N-substituted imidazole
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Vinylogous amide
  • Imidazole
  • Azole
  • Urea
  • Lactam
  • Ketone
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
Hydrolyzes the second messenger cAMP, which is a key regulator of many important physiological processes. May be involved in mediating central nervous system effects of therapeutic agents ranging from antidepressants to antiasthmatic and anti-inflammatory agents.
Gene Name:
PDE4B
Uniprot ID:
Q07343
Molecular Weight:
83342.695 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Purine nucleoside binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for adenosine. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name:
ADORA1
Uniprot ID:
P30542
Molecular Weight:
36511.325 Da
References
  1. Daly JW, Jacobson KA, Ukena D: Adenosine receptors: development of selective agonists and antagonists. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1987;230:41-63. [PubMed:3588607 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
Plays a role in signal transduction by regulating the intracellular concentration of cyclic nucleotides. This phosphodiesterase catalyzes the specific hydrolysis of cGMP to 5'-GMP (PubMed:9714779, PubMed:15489334). Specifically regulates nitric-oxide-generated cGMP (PubMed:15489334).
Gene Name:
PDE5A
Uniprot ID:
O76074
Molecular Weight:
99984.14 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
Hydrolyzes the second messenger cAMP, which is a key regulator of many important physiological processes.
Gene Name:
PDE4A
Uniprot ID:
P27815
Molecular Weight:
98142.155 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Identical protein binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for adenosine. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name:
ADORA2A
Uniprot ID:
P29274
Molecular Weight:
44706.925 Da
References
  1. Kreth S, Ledderose C, Luchting B, Weis F, Thiel M: Immunomodulatory properties of pentoxifylline are mediated via adenosine-dependent pathways. Shock. 2010 Jul;34(1):10-6. doi: 10.1097/SHK.0b013e3181cdc3e2. [PubMed:19997047 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Nucleotide binding
Specific Function:
Hydrolyzes extracellular nucleotides into membrane permeable nucleosides. Exhibits AMP-, NAD-, and NMN-nucleosidase activities.
Gene Name:
NT5E
Uniprot ID:
P21589
Molecular Weight:
63367.255 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
  2. Ustunsoy H, Sivrikoz MC, Tarakcioglu M, Bakir K, Guldur E, Celkan MA: The effects of pentoxifylline on the myocardial inflammation and ischemia-reperfusion injury during cardiopulmonary bypass. J Card Surg. 2006 Jan-Feb;21(1):57-61. [PubMed:16426349 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N...
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular Weight:
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Comments
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23