Identification

Name
Pentoxifylline
Accession Number
DB00806  (APRD00121)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Description

A methylxanthine derivative that inhibits phosphodiesterase and affects blood rheology. It improves blood flow by increasing erythrocyte and leukocyte flexibility. It also inhibits platelet aggregation. Pentoxifylline modulates immunologic activity by stimulating cytokine production. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • Oxpentifylline
  • Pentoxifilina
  • Pentoxifyllin
  • Pentoxifylline
  • Pentoxifyllinum
External IDs
BL 191 / BL-191 / C04AD03 / PTX
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Pentoxifylline SRTablet, extended release400 mgOralAa Pharma Inc1997-01-14Not applicableCanada
TrentalTablet, extended release400 mgOralSanofi Aventis1996-10-232013-03-01Canada
Trental Srt 400mgTablet, extended release400 mgOralHoechst Roussel Canada Inc.1993-12-311998-08-12Canada
Trental Tab 400mgTablet, extended release400 mgOralHoechst Canada Inc.1984-12-311996-08-29Canada
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Nu-pentoxifylline-SR 400 mgTablet, extended release400 mgOralNu Pharm Inc1998-03-182012-09-04Canada
PentoxifyllineTablet, extended release400 mg/1OralTeva1998-07-31Not applicableUs0093 511620180815 3285 1s16y5f
PentoxifyllineTablet, extended release400 mg/1OralGolden State Medical Supply2001-06-18Not applicableUs
PentoxifyllineTablet, extended release400 mg/1OralAidarex Pharmaceuticals LLC1999-06-10Not applicableUs
PentoxifyllineTablet, extended release400 mg/1OralA S Medication Solutions1998-07-312017-06-20Us
PentoxifyllineTablet, extended release400 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2003-03-25Not applicableUs00093 5116 01 nlmimage10 b92d5c8a
PentoxifyllineTablet, film coated, extended release400 mg/1OralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2009-07-01Not applicableUs
PentoxifyllineTablet, extended release400 mg/1OralRemedy Repack2018-07-06Not applicableUs
PentoxifyllineTablet, extended release400 mg/1OralLake Erie Medical Dba Quality Care Produts Llc1999-06-102018-03-22Us
PentoxifyllineTablet, film coated, extended release400 mg/1OralCardinal Health2010-07-232018-06-26Us
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Gapeam BudibacPentoxifylline + Amantadine hydrochloride + Baclofen + Bupivacaine hydrochloride + Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride + Diclofenac sodium + GabapentinKitTopicalAlvix Laboratories2014-12-052018-03-14Us
International/Other Brands
Agapurin (Zentiva) / Agapurin SR (Zentiva) / An Ruo Ning (Nanjing Yaoda Bio-Pharmaceutical) / Angiopent (Helcor) / Ao Le Ni (C & O Pharmaceuticals) / Ao Nuo Hong (AosaiKang Pharmaceutical) / Aotong (Treeful Pharmaceutical) / Azupentat / Behrifil (Sanofi-Aventis) / Bo Shu Te (Jisheng Pharmaceutical) / Claudicat (Nycomed) / Durapental (Mylan dura) / Elorgan (Sanofi Aventis) / Endopentoksas (Endokriniai) / Pentilin (Krka) / Pentilin Retard (Krka) / Pentoflux (Bouchara-Recordati) / Pentofyllin (Sopharma) / Pentoksifilin (Panfarma) / Pentolab (Lamsa) / Pentomer (ratiopharm) / Pentoxil (Upsher-Smith) / Rentylin (Amdipharm) / Torental (Sanofi-Aventis) / Trental / Trentilin Retard (Santa-Farma)
Categories
UNII
SD6QCT3TSU
CAS number
6493-05-6
Weight
Average: 278.307
Monoisotopic: 278.137890462
Chemical Formula
C13H18N4O3
InChI Key
BYPFEZZEUUWMEJ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C13H18N4O3/c1-9(18)6-4-5-7-17-12(19)10-11(14-8-15(10)2)16(3)13(17)20/h8H,4-7H2,1-3H3
IUPAC Name
3,7-dimethyl-1-(5-oxohexyl)-2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-purine-2,6-dione
SMILES
CN1C=NC2=C1C(=O)N(CCCCC(C)=O)C(=O)N2C

Pharmacology

Indication

For the treatment of patients with intermittent lameness or immobility arising from chronic occlusive arterial disease of the limbs.

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Pentoxifylline, a synthetic dimethylxanthine derivative structurally related to theophylline and caffeine, is used in the treatment of peripheral vascular diseases and in the management of cerebrovascular insufficiency, sickle cell disease, and diabetic neuropathy.

Mechanism of action

Pentoxifylline inhibits erythrocyte phosphodiesterase, resulting in an increase in erythrocyte cAMP activity. Subsequently, the erythrocyte membrane becomes more resistant to deformity. Along with erythrocyte activity, pentoxifylline also decreases blood viscosity by reducing plasma fibrinogen concentrations and increasing fibrinolytic activity. It is also a non selective adenosine receptor antagonist.

TargetActionsOrganism
AcAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4B
inhibitor
Human
AAdenosine receptor A1
antagonist
Human
AcGMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase
inhibitor
Human
AcAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4A
inhibitor
Human
AAdenosine receptor A2a
antagonist
Human
U5'-nucleotidase
inhibitor
Human
Absorption
Not Available
Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

70%

Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination

Excretion is almost totally urinary; the main biotransformation product is Metabolite V. Essentially no parent drug is found in the urine.

Half life

0.4-0.8 hours

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

LD50=1385 mg/kg(orally in mice)

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
AbciximabPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Abciximab.Approved
AbirateroneThe serum concentration of Pentoxifylline can be increased when it is combined with Abiraterone.Approved
AcebutololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Acebutolol.Approved, Investigational
AcenocoumarolPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Acenocoumarol.Approved, Investigational
AcepromazinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Acepromazine.Approved, Vet Approved
Acetylsalicylic acidPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Acetylsalicylic acid.Approved, Vet Approved
AdenosineThe therapeutic efficacy of Adenosine can be decreased when used in combination with Pentoxifylline.Approved, Investigational
AlfuzosinPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Alfuzosin.Approved, Investigational
AliskirenPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Aliskiren.Approved, Investigational
AloxiprinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentoxifylline is combined with Aloxiprin.Experimental
AlprenololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Alprenolol.Approved, Withdrawn
AlprostadilPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Alprostadil.Approved, Investigational
AlteplasePentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Alteplase.Approved
AmbrisentanPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Ambrisentan.Approved, Investigational
Ambroxol acefyllinateThe serum concentration of Ambroxol acefyllinate can be increased when it is combined with Pentoxifylline.Experimental, Investigational
AminophyllineThe serum concentration of Aminophylline can be increased when it is combined with Pentoxifylline.Approved
Aminosalicylic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentoxifylline is combined with Aminosalicylic Acid.Approved
AmitriptylinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Amitriptyline.Approved
AmoxapinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Amoxapine.Approved
Amyl NitritePentoxifylline may increase the vasodilatory activities of Amyl Nitrite.Approved
AnagrelidePentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Anagrelide.Approved
AncrodPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ancrod.Approved, Investigational
AndrographolidePentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Andrographolide.Investigational
AnistreplasePentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Anistreplase.Approved
Antithrombin III humanPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Antithrombin III human.Approved
ApixabanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentoxifylline is combined with Apixaban.Approved
ArdeparinPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ardeparin.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ArgatrobanPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Argatroban.Approved, Investigational
AripiprazolePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Aripiprazole.Approved, Investigational
AsenapinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Asenapine.Approved
AstaxanthinPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Astaxanthin.Investigational
AtenololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Atenolol.Approved
AvanafilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Avanafil is combined with Pentoxifylline.Approved
AzelastinePentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Azelastine.Approved
AzithromycinThe metabolism of Pentoxifylline can be decreased when combined with Azithromycin.Approved
BalsalazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentoxifylline is combined with Balsalazide.Approved, Investigational
BatroxobinPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Batroxobin.Experimental
BecaplerminPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Becaplermin.Approved, Investigational
BemiparinPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Bemiparin.Approved, Investigational
BenazeprilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Benazepril.Approved, Investigational
BendroflumethiazidePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Bendroflumethiazide.Approved
BenzphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benzphetamine is combined with Pentoxifylline.Approved, Illicit
BeraprostPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Beraprost.Investigational
BetaxololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Betaxolol.Approved, Investigational
BethanidinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Bethanidine.Approved
BevantololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Bevantolol.Approved
BietaserpinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Bietaserpine.Experimental
BimatoprostPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Bimatoprost.Approved, Investigational
BisoprololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Bisoprolol.Approved
BivalirudinPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Bivalirudin.Approved, Investigational
BortezomibThe metabolism of Pentoxifylline can be decreased when combined with Bortezomib.Approved, Investigational
BosentanPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Bosentan.Approved, Investigational
BQ-123Pentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of BQ-123.Investigational
BretyliumPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Bretylium.Approved
BrexpiprazolePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Brexpiprazole.Approved, Investigational
BrimonidinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Brimonidine.Approved
BrinasePentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Brinase.Experimental
BucindololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Bucindolol.Investigational
BuflomedilPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Buflomedil.Experimental
BunazosinPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Bunazosin.Investigational
BupranololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Bupranolol.Approved
ButylphthalidePentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Butylphthalide.Investigational
CadralazinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Cadralazine.Experimental
CafedrinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Cafedrine.Investigational
CaffeineThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be increased when it is combined with Pentoxifylline.Approved
CandesartanPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Candesartan.Experimental
Candesartan cilexetilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Candesartan cilexetil.Approved
CandoxatrilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Candoxatril.Experimental
CangrelorPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Cangrelor.Approved
CaplacizumabPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Caplacizumab.Investigational
CaptoprilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Captopril.Approved
CarbamazepineThe serum concentration of Pentoxifylline can be decreased when it is combined with Carbamazepine.Approved, Investigational
Carbaspirin calciumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentoxifylline is combined with Carbaspirin calcium.Experimental, Investigational
CarteololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Carteolol.Approved
CeliprololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Celiprolol.Approved, Investigational
CertoparinPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Certoparin.Approved, Investigational
ChlorothiazidePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Chlorothiazide.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorpromazinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Chlorpromazine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ChlorthalidonePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Chlorthalidone.Approved
CicletaninePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Cicletanine.Investigational
CilazaprilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Cilazapril.Approved
CilostazolPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Cilostazol.Approved, Investigational
CimetidineThe serum concentration of Pentoxifylline can be increased when it is combined with Cimetidine.Approved, Investigational
CiprofloxacinThe serum concentration of Pentoxifylline can be increased when it is combined with Ciprofloxacin.Approved, Investigational
CitalopramThe metabolism of Pentoxifylline can be decreased when combined with Citalopram.Approved
ClonidinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Clonidine.Approved
ClopidogrelPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Clopidogrel.Approved
CloranololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Cloranolol.Experimental
CloricromenPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Cloricromen.Experimental
ClorindionePentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Clorindione.Experimental
ClozapinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Clozapine.Approved
Collagenase clostridium histolyticumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentoxifylline is combined with Collagenase clostridium histolyticum.Approved, Investigational
CryptenaminePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Cryptenamine.Approved
CurcuminThe metabolism of Pentoxifylline can be decreased when combined with Curcumin.Approved, Investigational
CyclopenthiazidePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Cyclopenthiazide.Experimental
CyclothiazidePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Cyclothiazide.Approved
Cyproterone acetateThe serum concentration of Pentoxifylline can be decreased when it is combined with Cyproterone acetate.Approved, Investigational
Dabigatran etexilatePentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dabigatran etexilate.Approved
DalteparinPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dalteparin.Approved
DanaparoidPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Danaparoid.Approved, Withdrawn
DapiprazolePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Dapiprazole.Approved
DapoxetineDapoxetine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Pentoxifylline.Investigational
DarexabanPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Darexaban.Investigational
DasatinibDasatinib may increase the anticoagulant activities of Pentoxifylline.Approved, Investigational
DebrisoquinPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Debrisoquin.Approved, Investigational
DeferasiroxThe serum concentration of Pentoxifylline can be increased when it is combined with Deferasirox.Approved, Investigational
DefibrotidePentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Defibrotide.Approved, Investigational
DelaprilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Delapril.Investigational
Deoxycholic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentoxifylline is combined with Deoxycholic Acid.Approved
DersalazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentoxifylline is combined with Dersalazine.Investigational
DeserpidinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Deserpidine.Approved
DesirudinPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Desirudin.Approved
DesmoteplasePentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Desmoteplase.Investigational
DesvenlafaxineDesvenlafaxine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Pentoxifylline.Approved, Investigational
DextranPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dextran.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DextroamphetaminePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Dextroamphetamine.Approved, Illicit
DiazoxidePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Diazoxide.Approved
DicoumarolPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dicoumarol.Approved
DiethylnorsperminePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Diethylnorspermine.Investigational
DiethylpropionThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diethylpropion is combined with Pentoxifylline.Approved, Illicit
DiflunisalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentoxifylline is combined with Diflunisal.Approved, Investigational
DihydralazinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Dihydralazine.Approved, Investigational
DiphenadionePentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Diphenadione.Experimental
DipyridamolePentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Dipyridamole.Approved
DitazolePentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ditazole.Approved, Withdrawn
DorzolamidePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Dorzolamide.Approved
DosulepinThe serum concentration of Pentoxifylline can be increased when it is combined with Dosulepin.Approved
DoxepinPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Doxepin.Approved, Investigational
DronedaronePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Dronedarone.Approved
DroperidolPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Droperidol.Approved, Vet Approved
Drotrecogin alfaPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Drotrecogin alfa.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
DyphyllineThe serum concentration of Dyphylline can be increased when it is combined with Pentoxifylline.Approved
Edetic AcidPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Edetic Acid.Approved, Vet Approved
EdoxabanPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Edoxaban.Approved
EnalaprilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Enalapril.Approved, Vet Approved
EnalaprilatPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Enalaprilat.Approved
EndralazinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Endralazine.Experimental
EnoxaparinPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.Approved
EpanololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Epanolol.Experimental
EpinastinePentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Epinastine.Approved, Investigational
EpinephrinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Epinephrine.Approved, Vet Approved
EplivanserinPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Eplivanserin.Investigational
EpoprostenolPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Epoprostenol.Approved
EprosartanPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Eprosartan.Approved
EptifibatidePentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Eptifibatide.Approved, Investigational
Erythrityl TetranitratePentoxifylline may increase the vasodilatory activities of Erythrityl Tetranitrate.Approved, Investigational
EscitalopramPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational
EstradiolThe serum concentration of Pentoxifylline can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
EthanolEthanol may increase the hypotensive activities of Pentoxifylline.Approved
Ethinyl EstradiolThe serum concentration of Pentoxifylline can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved
EthosuximideEthosuximide may increase the excretion rate of Pentoxifylline which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.Approved
Ethyl biscoumacetatePentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ethyl biscoumacetate.Withdrawn
EtravirineThe serum concentration of Pentoxifylline can be decreased when it is combined with Etravirine.Approved
EverolimusThe metabolism of Pentoxifylline can be decreased when combined with Everolimus.Approved
FenoldopamPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Fenoldopam.Approved
Ferulic acidPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Ferulic acid.Experimental
FibrinolysinPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Fibrinolysin.Investigational
FluindionePentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Fluindione.Approved, Investigational
FlunarizineFlunarizine may increase the excretion rate of Pentoxifylline which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.Approved
FluoxetineFluoxetine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Pentoxifylline.Approved, Vet Approved
FlupentixolPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Flupentixol.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
FluvoxamineThe metabolism of Pentoxifylline can be decreased when combined with Fluvoxamine.Approved, Investigational
FondaparinuxPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Fondaparinux sodium.Approved, Investigational
FostamatinibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentoxifylline is combined with Fostamatinib.Approved, Investigational
GabapentinGabapentin may increase the excretion rate of Pentoxifylline which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.Approved, Investigational
GabexatePentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Gabexate.Investigational
GanciclovirThe serum concentration of Ganciclovir can be increased when it is combined with Pentoxifylline.Approved, Investigational
GlucosamineGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Pentoxifylline.Approved, Investigational
GuacetisalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentoxifylline is combined with Guacetisal.Experimental
GuanabenzPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Guanabenz.Approved, Investigational
GuanadrelPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Guanadrel.Approved
GuanazodinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Guanazodine.Experimental
GuanethidinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Guanethidine.Approved
GuanoclorPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Guanoclor.Experimental
GuanoxabenzPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Guanoxabenz.Experimental
GuanoxanPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Guanoxan.Experimental
Hemoglobin crosfumarilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentoxifylline is combined with Hemoglobin crosfumaril.Experimental
HeparinPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Heparin.Approved, Investigational
HexamethoniumPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Hexamethonium.Experimental
HigenaminePentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Higenamine.Investigational
HydralazinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Hydralazine.Approved
HydroflumethiazidePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Hydroflumethiazide.Approved, Investigational
HydroxytyrosolPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Hydroxytyrosol.Investigational
Ibritumomab tiuxetanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentoxifylline is combined with Ibritumomab tiuxetan.Approved, Investigational
IbrutinibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ibrutinib is combined with Pentoxifylline.Approved
IbudilastPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ibudilast.Approved, Investigational
Icosapent ethylPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Icosapent ethyl.Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical
IdraparinuxPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Idraparinux.Investigational
IfenprodilPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ifenprodil.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
IfetrobanPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ifetroban.Investigational
IloperidonePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Iloperidone.Approved
IloprostPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Iloprost.Approved, Investigational
ImidaprilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Imidapril.Investigational
ImipraminePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Imipramine.Approved
IndapamidePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Indapamide.Approved
IndenololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Indenolol.Withdrawn
IndobufenPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Indobufen.Investigational
IndoraminPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Indoramin.Withdrawn
IrbesartanPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Irbesartan.Approved, Investigational
Isosorbide DinitrateThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Pentoxifylline is combined with Isosorbide Dinitrate.Approved, Investigational
Isosorbide MononitratePentoxifylline may increase the vasodilatory activities of Isosorbide Mononitrate.Approved
KetanserinPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ketanserin.Investigational
KetorolacThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Pentoxifylline.Approved
LabetalolPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Labetalol.Approved
LamotrigineLamotrigine may increase the excretion rate of Pentoxifylline which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.Approved, Investigational
LepirudinPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Lepirudin.Approved
LetaxabanPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Letaxaban.Investigational
LevetiracetamLevetiracetam may increase the excretion rate of Pentoxifylline which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.Approved, Investigational
LidocaineThe metabolism of Pentoxifylline can be decreased when combined with Lidocaine.Approved, Vet Approved
LimaprostLimaprost may increase the antiplatelet activities of Pentoxifylline.Approved, Investigational
LinsidominePentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Linsidomine.Experimental
LisdexamfetaminePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Lisdexamfetamine.Approved, Investigational
LisinoprilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Lisinopril.Approved, Investigational
LobeglitazoneThe metabolism of Pentoxifylline can be decreased when combined with Lobeglitazone.Approved, Investigational
LofexidinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Lofexidine.Approved, Investigational
LorcaserinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lorcaserin is combined with Pentoxifylline.Approved
MacitentanPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Macitentan.Approved
Magnesium sulfateMagnesium sulfate may increase the excretion rate of Pentoxifylline which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
MecamylaminePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Mecamylamine.Approved, Investigational
MelagatranPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Melagatran.Experimental
MesalazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentoxifylline is combined with Mesalazine.Approved
MethimazoleThe serum concentration of Pentoxifylline can be increased when it is combined with Methimazole.Approved
MethoserpidinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Methoserpidine.Experimental
MethotrimeprazinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Methotrimeprazine.Approved, Investigational
MethsuximideMethsuximide may increase the excretion rate of Pentoxifylline which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.Approved
Methyl salicylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentoxifylline is combined with Methyl salicylate.Approved, Vet Approved
MethyldopaPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Methyldopa.Approved
Methylpropylpropanediol dinitratePentoxifylline may increase the vasodilatory activities of Methylpropylpropanediol dinitrate.Experimental
MetipranololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Metipranolol.Approved
MetolazonePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Metolazone.Approved
MetyrosinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Metyrosine.Approved
MexiletineThe serum concentration of Pentoxifylline can be increased when it is combined with Mexiletine.Approved, Investigational
MidostaurinThe serum concentration of Pentoxifylline can be increased when it is combined with Midostaurin.Approved, Investigational
MilrinonePentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Milrinone.Approved
MirodenafilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mirodenafil is combined with Pentoxifylline.Investigational
MoexiprilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Moexipril.Approved
MolsidomineMolsidomine may increase the hypotensive activities of Pentoxifylline.Approved, Investigational
MoxifloxacinThe metabolism of Pentoxifylline can be decreased when combined with Moxifloxacin.Approved, Investigational
MoxonidinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Moxonidine.Approved, Investigational
MuzoliminePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Muzolimine.Experimental
NadololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Nadolol.Approved
NadroparinPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Nadroparin.Approved, Investigational
NafamostatPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Nafamostat.Approved, Investigational
NaftopidilPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Naftopidil.Investigational
NebivololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Nebivolol.Approved, Investigational
NefazodonePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Nefazodone.Approved, Withdrawn
NevirapineThe metabolism of Pentoxifylline can be decreased when combined with Nevirapine.Approved
NicergolinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Nicergoline.Approved, Investigational
NicorandilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Nicorandil.Approved, Investigational
NimesulidePentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Nimesulide.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
NitroaspirinPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Nitroaspirin.Investigational
NitroglycerinPentoxifylline may increase the vasodilatory activities of Nitroglycerin.Approved, Investigational
NitroprussidePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Nitroprusside.Approved, Investigational
NortriptylinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Nortriptyline.Approved
NylidrinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nylidrin is combined with Pentoxifylline.Approved
NystatinThe metabolism of Pentoxifylline can be decreased when combined with Nystatin.Approved, Vet Approved
ObinutuzumabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentoxifylline is combined with Obinutuzumab.Approved, Investigational
OlanzapinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Olanzapine.Approved, Investigational
OlmesartanPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Olmesartan.Approved, Investigational
OlsalazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentoxifylline is combined with Olsalazine.Approved
OmapatrilatPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Omapatrilat.Investigational
Omega-3 fatty acidsOmega-3 fatty acids may increase the antiplatelet activities of Pentoxifylline.Approved, Nutraceutical
OsimertinibThe serum concentration of Pentoxifylline can be decreased when it is combined with Osimertinib.Approved
OtamixabanPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Otamixaban.Investigational
OxprenololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Oxprenolol.Approved
OxymetazolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxymetazoline is combined with Pentoxifylline.Approved, Investigational
OzagrelPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ozagrel.Investigational
PaliperidonePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Paliperidone.Approved
PargylinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Pargyline.Approved
ParnaparinPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Parnaparin.Approved, Investigational
ParoxetineParoxetine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Pentoxifylline.Approved, Investigational
Peginterferon alfa-2bThe serum concentration of Pentoxifylline can be increased when it is combined with Peginterferon alfa-2b.Approved
PenbutololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
Pentaerythritol TetranitratePentoxifylline may increase the vasodilatory activities of Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate.Approved
PentoliniumPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Pentolinium.Approved
Pentosan PolysulfateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentosan Polysulfate is combined with Pentoxifylline.Approved
PerindoprilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Perindopril.Approved
PhenindionePentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Phenindione.Approved, Investigational
PhenobarbitalThe serum concentration of Pentoxifylline can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
PhenoxybenzaminePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Phenoxybenzamine.Approved
PhenprocoumonPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Phenprocoumon.Approved, Investigational
PhentolaminePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Phentolamine.Approved
Phenyl aminosalicylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentoxifylline is combined with Phenyl aminosalicylate.Approved
PhenylephrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenylephrine is combined with Pentoxifylline.Approved
PicotamidePentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Picotamide.Experimental
PinacidilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Pinacidil.Approved
PindololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Pindolol.Approved, Investigational
PizotifenPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Pizotifen.Approved
Platelet Activating FactorPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Platelet Activating Factor.Experimental
PolythiazidePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Polythiazide.Approved
Potassium CitratePentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Potassium Citrate.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PrasugrelPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Prasugrel.Approved
PrazosinPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Prazosin.Approved
PregabalinPregabalin may increase the excretion rate of Pentoxifylline which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
PromazinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Promazine.Approved, Vet Approved
PropafenoneThe serum concentration of Pentoxifylline can be increased when it is combined with Propafenone.Approved
Propatyl nitratePentoxifylline may increase the vasodilatory activities of Propatyl nitrate.Experimental, Investigational
PropericiazinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Propericiazine.Approved, Investigational
PropiomazinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Propiomazine.Approved
PropiverinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Propiverine.Approved, Investigational
Protein CPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Protein C.Approved
Protein S humanPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Protein S human.Approved
ProtocatechualdehydePentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Protocatechualdehyde.Approved
PseudoephedrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pseudoephedrine is combined with Pentoxifylline.Approved
QuetiapineThe risk or severity of hypotension, dyspepsia, and headache can be increased when Pentoxifylline is combined with Quetiapine.Approved
QuinaprilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Quinapril.Approved, Investigational
QuinidinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Quinidine.Approved, Investigational
RacepinephrinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Racepinephrine.Approved
RamatrobanPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ramatroban.Investigational
RamiprilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Ramipril.Approved
RelcovaptanPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Relcovaptan.Investigational
RemikirenPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Remikiren.Approved
RescinnaminePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Rescinnamine.Approved
ReserpinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Reserpine.Approved, Investigational
ResveratrolPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Resveratrol.Approved, Experimental, Investigational
ReteplasePentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Reteplase.Approved, Investigational
ReviparinPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Reviparin.Approved, Investigational
RidogrelPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ridogrel.Approved
RifampicinThe metabolism of Pentoxifylline can be increased when combined with Rifampicin.Approved
RilmenidinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Rilmenidine.Approved, Investigational
RiociguatPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Riociguat.Approved
RisperidonePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Risperidone.Approved, Investigational
RivaroxabanPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Rivaroxaban.Approved
RopiniroleThe metabolism of Pentoxifylline can be decreased when combined with Ropinirole.Approved, Investigational
RucaparibThe metabolism of Pentoxifylline can be decreased when combined with Rucaparib.Approved, Investigational
Salicylic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentoxifylline is combined with Salicylic acid.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
SaprisartanPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Saprisartan.Experimental
SapropterinSapropterin may increase the hypotensive activities of Pentoxifylline.Approved, Investigational
SarpogrelatePentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Sarpogrelate.Investigational
SaruplasePentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Saruplase.Experimental
SelexipagPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Selexipag.Approved
SevofluranePentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Sevoflurane.Approved, Vet Approved
SildenafilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sildenafil is combined with Pentoxifylline.Approved, Investigational
SilodosinPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Silodosin.Approved
SimeprevirThe serum concentration of Pentoxifylline can be increased when it is combined with Simeprevir.Approved
SitaxentanPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Sitaxentan.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
Sodium CitrateThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium Citrate can be increased when used in combination with Pentoxifylline.Approved, Investigational
SpiraprilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Spirapril.Approved
SRT501Pentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of SRT501.Investigational
StreptokinasePentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Streptokinase.Approved, Investigational
SulfasalazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentoxifylline is combined with Sulfasalazine.Approved
SulodexidePentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Sulodexide.Approved, Investigational
TadalafilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tadalafil is combined with Pentoxifylline.Approved, Investigational
TalinololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Talinolol.Investigational
TamsulosinPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Tamsulosin.Approved, Investigational
TelmisartanPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Telmisartan.Approved, Investigational
TemocaprilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Temocapril.Experimental, Investigational
TenecteplasePentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Tenecteplase.Approved
TenitraminePentoxifylline may increase the vasodilatory activities of Tenitramine.Experimental
Tenofovir disoproxilThe metabolism of Pentoxifylline can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
TerazosinPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Terazosin.Approved
TeriflunomideThe serum concentration of Pentoxifylline can be decreased when it is combined with Teriflunomide.Approved
TerlipressinPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Terlipressin.Approved, Investigational
TesmilifenePentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Tesmilifene.Investigational
TheodrenalinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Theodrenaline.Investigational
TheophyllineThe serum concentration of Theophylline can be increased when it is combined with Pentoxifylline.Approved
ThioproperazinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Thioproperazine.Approved
ThioridazinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Thioridazine.Approved, Withdrawn
TibolonePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Tibolone.Approved, Investigational
TicagrelorPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ticagrelor.Approved
TiclopidinePentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ticlopidine.Approved
TicrynafenPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Ticrynafen.Withdrawn
TimololPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Timolol.Approved
TinzaparinPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Tinzaparin.Approved
TioclomarolPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Tioclomarol.Experimental
TipranavirTipranavir may increase the antiplatelet activities of Pentoxifylline.Approved, Investigational
TirofibanPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Tirofiban.Approved
TizanidineThe serum concentration of Tizanidine can be increased when it is combined with Pentoxifylline.Approved, Investigational
TolazolinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Tolazoline.Approved, Vet Approved
TolonidinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Tolonidine.Experimental
TopiramateTopiramate may increase the excretion rate of Pentoxifylline which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.Approved
TorasemidePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Torasemide.Approved
TositumomabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentoxifylline is combined with Tositumomab.Approved, Investigational
TrandolaprilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Trandolapril.Approved
TranilastPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Tranilast.Approved, Investigational
TrapidilPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Trapidil.Approved
TravoprostPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Travoprost.Approved
TrazodonePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Trazodone.Approved, Investigational
TreprostinilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Treprostinil.Approved, Investigational
TrichlormethiazidePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Trichlormethiazide.Approved, Vet Approved
TrifluoperazinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Trifluoperazine.Approved, Investigational
TriflusalPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Triflusal.Approved, Investigational
TrimazosinPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Trimazosin.Experimental
TrimethadioneTrimethadione may increase the excretion rate of Pentoxifylline which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.Approved
TrimethaphanPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Trimethaphan.Approved, Investigational
TrimipraminePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Trimipramine.Approved
Trolamine salicylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentoxifylline is combined with Trolamine salicylate.Approved
TrolnitratePentoxifylline may increase the vasodilatory activities of Trolnitrate.Experimental
TroxerutinPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Troxerutin.Investigational
UdenafilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Udenafil is combined with Pentoxifylline.Approved, Investigational
UnoprostonePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Unoprostone.Approved, Investigational
UrapidilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Urapidil.Investigational
UrokinasePentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Urokinase.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ValaciclovirThe serum concentration of Valaciclovir can be increased when it is combined with Pentoxifylline.Approved, Investigational
Valproic AcidValproic Acid may increase the excretion rate of Pentoxifylline which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.Approved, Investigational
ValsartanPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Valsartan.Approved, Investigational
VardenafilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Vardenafil is combined with Pentoxifylline.Approved
VemurafenibThe serum concentration of Pentoxifylline can be increased when it is combined with Vemurafenib.Approved
VenlafaxineVenlafaxine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Pentoxifylline.Approved
VerapamilThe risk or severity of hypotension, dyspepsia, and headache can be increased when Pentoxifylline is combined with Verapamil.Approved
VincaminePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Vincamine.Experimental
VinpocetineVinpocetine may increase the excretion rate of Pentoxifylline which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.Investigational
Vitamin EVitamin E may increase the antiplatelet activities of Pentoxifylline.Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet Approved
VorapaxarPentoxifylline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Vorapaxar.Approved
WarfarinPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Warfarin.Approved
XimelagatranPentoxifylline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ximelagatran.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
XipamidePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Xipamide.Experimental
XylometazolinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Xylometazoline.Approved, Investigational
ZiprasidonePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Ziprasidone.Approved
ZofenoprilPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Zofenopril.Experimental
ZonisamideZonisamide may increase the excretion rate of Pentoxifylline which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.Approved, Investigational
ZucapsaicinThe metabolism of Pentoxifylline can be decreased when combined with Zucapsaicin.Approved, Investigational
ZuclopenthixolPentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Zuclopenthixol.Approved, Investigational
Food Interactions
  • Take with food to reduce irritation. Limit caffeine intake.

References

General References
  1. Authors unspecified: European Pentoxifylline Multi-Infarct Dementia Study. Eur Neurol. 1996;36(5):315-21. [PubMed:8864715]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0014944
KEGG Drug
D00501
KEGG Compound
C07424
PubChem Compound
4740
PubChem Substance
46505940
ChemSpider
4578
BindingDB
10850
ChEBI
7986
ChEMBL
CHEMBL628
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000048
PharmGKB
PA450864
HET
PNX
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Pentoxifylline
ATC Codes
R03DA20 — Combinations of xanthinesC04AD03 — Pentoxifylline
AHFS Codes
  • 20:24.00 — Hemorrheologic Agents
PDB Entries
2a3c / 3arr / 3aru / 3tvx
FDA label
Download (51.7 KB)
MSDS
Download (73.9 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0CompletedTreatmentAcute Pancreatitis (AP)1
0RecruitingPreventionPancreatitis1
0RecruitingTreatmentCrohn's Disease (CD)1
1CompletedTreatmentBrain and Central Nervous System Tumors1
1CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
1TerminatedTreatmentAlcoholic Hepatitis (AH)1
1TerminatedTreatmentHepatopulmonary Syndrome1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentMuscular Dystrophy, Duchenne2
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentLong-term Adverse Effects of Radiotherapy for Pelvic Cancer1
2CompletedPreventionColorectal Cancers / Hepatic Metastases / Irradiation Damage / Radiation Induced Liver Disease1
2CompletedPreventionFibrosis1
2CompletedSupportive CareCancer, Breast / Lymphedema of the extremities1
2CompletedTreatmentAtherosclerosis / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
2CompletedTreatmentAtherosclerosis / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Vascular Diseases1
2CompletedTreatmentCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Coronary Artery Disease / Depression / Depressive Symptoms / Heart Diseases / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
2CompletedTreatmentFatty Liver1
2CompletedTreatmentFibrosis / Radiation Injuries1
2CompletedTreatmentNonalcoholic Steatohepatitis1
2CompletedTreatmentPrimary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBC)1
2CompletedTreatmentSarcoidosis, Pulmonary1
2RecruitingPreventionBrain Metastasis1
2RecruitingPreventionNeoplasms, Head and Neck1
2RecruitingTreatmentBiliary Atresia1
2RecruitingTreatmentLeishmaniasis1
2RecruitingTreatmentLung Cancer Non-Small Cell Cancer (NSCLC)1
2TerminatedTreatmentEnd Stage Renal Disease (ESRD)1
2TerminatedTreatmentNeoplasms, Breast1
2TerminatedTreatmentPlasmodium Falciparum Malaria1
2TerminatedTreatmentWounds and Injuries1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentFibrosis1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentNecrotizing Enterocolitis1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentPatent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentDiabetic Nephropathies1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentLeishmaniasis, Cutaneous2
2, 3CompletedTreatmentLiver Diseases / Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAcute Kidney Injury (AKI) / Pentoxifylline1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentAcute Alcoholic Hepatitis1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentAcute Lymphoblastic Leukaemias (ALL)1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCancer, Breast1
3CompletedTreatmentAcute on Chronic Pancreatitis / Acute Pancreatitis (AP) / Autoimmune Pancreatitis / Cancer Acute Pancreatitis / Drug Induced AP / Gallstone Pancreatitis / Hypertriglyceridemia Acute Pancreatitis / Hypertriglyceridemia AP / Idiopathic (Unknown) Acute Pancreatitis / Medication Induced Acute Pancreatitis / Miscellaneous (i.e. Acute on Chronic Pancreatitis) / Pancreatitis, Alcoholic / Post-ERCP AP / Post-ERCP/Post-procedural Pancreatitis / Trauma Acute Pancreatitis / Trauma AP1
3CompletedTreatmentAlcoholic Hepatitis (AH) / Severe alcoholic liver disease1
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Renal Failure (CRF)1
3CompletedTreatmentEndometriosis-Associated Infertility1
3CompletedTreatmentGlomerulonephritis minimal lesion1
3CompletedTreatmentHTLV-1 / Immune System Diseases / Pentoxifylline / Physical Disability / Tropical Spastic Paraparesis1
3CompletedTreatmentHepatic Failure / Liver Cirrhosis1
3CompletedTreatmentInfection, Human Immunodeficiency Virus I1
3CompletedTreatmentIntermittent Claudication Fontaine Stage II PAOD / Stage II Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease1
3CompletedTreatmentNeonatal Late Onset Sepsis1
3CompletedTreatmentRadiation Induced Brachial Plexopathy1
3Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareCarcinoma, Breast / Fibrosis1
3RecruitingTreatmentAcute Kidney Injury (AKI)1
3RecruitingTreatmentAvascular Necrosis / Bisphosphonate-related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw / Medication-related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw1
3RecruitingTreatmentErectile Dysfunction (ED) / Prostate Cancer1
3TerminatedTreatmentGlomerulonephritis1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentAlcoholic Hepatitis (AH)1
4CompletedPreventionDiabetic Nephropathies1
4CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m21
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD)1
4CompletedTreatmentEnd-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) / Hemodialysis-dependent patients / Inflammatory Reaction1
4CompletedTreatmentOsteoradionecrosis1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentDiabetic Kidney Disease1
4RecruitingTreatmentChronic Renal Failure (CRF)1
4RecruitingTreatmentLumbar Disc Disease / Lumbar Radiculopathy / Prolapsed Lumbar Disc1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentHepacivirus / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentIrritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentSepsis of the Newborn1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAlcoholic Hepatitis (AH) / Severe alcoholic liver disease1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPrimary Glomerulonephritis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentRecurrent Aphthous Stomatitis1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationTreatmentDizziness / Vertigo1
Not AvailableNo Longer AvailableNot AvailableDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentAdvanced Gastric Cancer Adenocarcinoma of Esophagogastric Junction1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentGraves Ophthalmopathy1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusPreventionCapsular Contractures1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusPreventionRenal Dysfunction1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentCongestive Heart Failure (CHF)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentHepatopulmonary Syndrome1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentMetabolic Parameters and Liver Histology1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentNon-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis1
Not AvailableWithdrawnPreventionContrast Induced Nephropathy (CIN) / Diabetes Mellitus (DM)1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Actavis elizabeth llc
  • Apotex inc
  • Biovail laboratories inc
  • Heritage pharmaceuticals inc
  • Impax laboratories inc
  • Mylan pharmaceuticals inc
  • Pliva inc
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • Upsher smith laboratories inc
  • Sanofi aventis us llc
Packagers
  • Amerisource Health Services Corp.
  • Amneal Pharmaceuticals
  • Apotex Inc.
  • A-S Medication Solutions LLC
  • Atlantic Biologicals Corporation
  • Biovail Pharmaceuticals
  • Cardinal Health
  • Dept Health Central Pharmacy
  • Dispensing Solutions
  • Diversified Healthcare Services Inc.
  • Gallipot
  • Golden State Medical Supply Inc.
  • Heartland Repack Services LLC
  • Lake Erie Medical and Surgical Supply
  • Major Pharmaceuticals
  • Mckesson Corp.
  • Merrell Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Murfreesboro Pharmaceutical Nursing Supply
  • Mylan
  • Nucare Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Pharmedix
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Pliva Inc.
  • Prepak Systems Inc.
  • Remedy Repack
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Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
KitTopical
Tablet, extended releaseOral400 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral400 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral400 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
TRENtal 400 mg Controlled Release Tabs1.4USD tab
Trental er 400 mg tablet1.27USD tablet
Pentoxifylline powder0.91USD g
Trental 400 mg Sustained-Release Tablet0.88USD tablet
Pentoxifylline 400 mg tablet sa0.71USD tablet
Pentoxifylline CR 400 mg Controlled Release Tabs0.62USD tab
Pentoxil 400 mg Controlled Release Tabs0.62USD tab
Pentoxil er 400 mg tablet0.62USD tablet
Pentoxifylline er 400 mg tablet0.6USD tablet
Apo-Pentoxifylline Sr 400 mg Sustained-Release Tablet0.4USD tablet
Nu-Pentoxifylline-Sr 400 mg Sustained-Release Tablet0.4USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)105 °CNot Available
water solubility7.7E+004 mg/L (at 25 °C)MERCK INDEX (1996)
logP0.29BIOBYTE (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility5.17 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.08ALOGPS
logP0.23ChemAxon
logS-1.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)19.64ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-0.93ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area75.51 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity73.52 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability29.27 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+1.0
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9851
Caco-2 permeable-0.5056
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.595
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.6905
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.7157
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.7023
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7897
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9117
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.6511
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.9107
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9518
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.943
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9313
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9827
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.901
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7131
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8965
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.7457
Rat acute toxicity2.4070 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.6463
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8734
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0059-1890000000-c9be2fe26b2862cba4f5
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001r-2900000000-d54457aaede5317cef72
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0059-2970000000-95d1edcd63b61b13b22e

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as xanthines. These are purine derivatives with a ketone group conjugated at carbons 2 and 6 of the purine moiety.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organoheterocyclic compounds
Class
Imidazopyrimidines
Sub Class
Purines and purine derivatives
Direct Parent
Xanthines
Alternative Parents
6-oxopurines / Alkaloids and derivatives / Pyrimidones / N-substituted imidazoles / Vinylogous amides / Heteroaromatic compounds / Ureas / Lactams / Ketones / Azacyclic compounds
show 4 more
Substituents
Xanthine / 6-oxopurine / Purinone / Alkaloid or derivatives / Pyrimidone / N-substituted imidazole / Pyrimidine / Azole / Imidazole / Heteroaromatic compound
show 14 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
oxopurine (CHEBI:7986)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Metal ion binding
Specific Function
Hydrolyzes the second messenger cAMP, which is a key regulator of many important physiological processes. May be involved in mediating central nervous system effects of therapeutic agents ranging f...
Gene Name
PDE4B
Uniprot ID
Q07343
Uniprot Name
cAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4B
Molecular Weight
83342.695 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Details
2. Adenosine receptor A1
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Purine nucleoside binding
Specific Function
Receptor for adenosine. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name
ADORA1
Uniprot ID
P30542
Uniprot Name
Adenosine receptor A1
Molecular Weight
36511.325 Da
References
  1. Daly JW, Jacobson KA, Ukena D: Adenosine receptors: development of selective agonists and antagonists. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1987;230:41-63. [PubMed:3588607]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Metal ion binding
Specific Function
Plays a role in signal transduction by regulating the intracellular concentration of cyclic nucleotides. This phosphodiesterase catalyzes the specific hydrolysis of cGMP to 5'-GMP (PubMed:9714779, ...
Gene Name
PDE5A
Uniprot ID
O76074
Uniprot Name
cGMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase
Molecular Weight
99984.14 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Metal ion binding
Specific Function
Hydrolyzes the second messenger cAMP, which is a key regulator of many important physiological processes.
Gene Name
PDE4A
Uniprot ID
P27815
Uniprot Name
cAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4A
Molecular Weight
98142.155 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Identical protein binding
Specific Function
Receptor for adenosine. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name
ADORA2A
Uniprot ID
P29274
Uniprot Name
Adenosine receptor A2a
Molecular Weight
44706.925 Da
References
  1. Kreth S, Ledderose C, Luchting B, Weis F, Thiel M: Immunomodulatory properties of pentoxifylline are mediated via adenosine-dependent pathways. Shock. 2010 Jul;34(1):10-6. doi: 10.1097/SHK.0b013e3181cdc3e2. [PubMed:19997047]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Nucleotide binding
Specific Function
Hydrolyzes extracellular nucleotides into membrane permeable nucleosides. Exhibits AMP-, NAD-, and NMN-nucleosidase activities.
Gene Name
NT5E
Uniprot ID
P21589
Uniprot Name
5'-nucleotidase
Molecular Weight
63367.255 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
  2. Ustunsoy H, Sivrikoz MC, Tarakcioglu M, Bakir K, Guldur E, Celkan MA: The effects of pentoxifylline on the myocardial inflammation and ischemia-reperfusion injury during cardiopulmonary bypass. J Card Surg. 2006 Jan-Feb;21(1):57-61. [PubMed:16426349]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID
P05177
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Lee SH, Slattery JT: Cytochrome P450 isozymes involved in lisofylline metabolism to pentoxifylline in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos. 1997 Dec;25(12):1354-8. [PubMed:9394024]
  3. Zhou SF, Yang LP, Zhou ZW, Liu YH, Chan E: Insights into the substrate specificity, inhibitors, regulation, and polymorphisms and the clinical impact of human cytochrome P450 1A2. AAPS J. 2009 Sep;11(3):481-94. doi: 10.1208/s12248-009-9127-y. Epub 2009 Jul 10. [PubMed:19590965]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 15, 2018 09:45