Glutathione reductase, mitochondrial

Details

Name
Glutathione reductase, mitochondrial
Synonyms
  • 1.8.1.7
  • GLUR
  • GR
  • GRD1
Gene Name
GSR
Organism
Humans
Amino acid sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0001292|Glutathione reductase, mitochondrial
MALLPRALSAGAGPSWRRAARAFRGFLLLLPEPAALTRALSRAMACRQEPQPQGPPPAAG
AVASYDYLVIGGGSGGLASARRAAELGARAAVVESHKLGGTCVNVGCVPKKVMWNTAVHS
EFMHDHADYGFPSCEGKFNWRVIKEKRDAYVSRLNAIYQNNLTKSHIEIIRGHAAFTSDP
KPTIEVSGKKYTAPHILIATGGMPSTPHESQIPGASLGITSDGFFQLEELPGRSVIVGAG
YIAVEMAGILSALGSKTSLMIRHDKVLRSFDSMISTNCTEELENAGVEVLKFSQVKEVKK
TLSGLEVSMVTAVPGRLPVMTMIPDVDCLLWAIGRVPNTKDLSLNKLGIQTDDKGHIIVD
EFQNTNVKGIYAVGDVCGKALLTPVAIAAGRKLAHRLFEYKEDSKLDYNNIPTVVFSHPP
IGTVGLTEDEAIHKYGIENVKTYSTSFTPMYHAVTKRKTKCVMKMVCANKEEKVVGIHMQ
GLGCDEMLQGFAVAVKMGATKADFDNTVAIHPTSSEELVTLR
Number of residues
522
Molecular Weight
56256.565
Theoretical pI
8.66
GO Classification
Functions
electron carrier activity / flavin adenine dinucleotide binding / glutathione-disulfide reductase activity / NADP binding
Processes
cell redox homeostasis / gene expression / glutathione metabolic process / nucleobase-containing small molecule interconversion / nucleobase-containing small molecule metabolic process / response to reactive oxygen species / small molecule metabolic process / transcription initiation from RNA polymerase II promoter
Components
cytosol / external side of plasma membrane / extracellular exosome / mitochondrial matrix
General Function
Nadp binding
Specific Function
Maintains high levels of reduced glutathione in the cytosol.
Pfam Domain Function
Transmembrane Regions
Not Available
Cellular Location
Mitochondrion
Gene sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0016164|Glutathione reductase, mitochondrial (GSR)
ATGGCCCTGCTGCCCCGAGCCCTGAGCGCCGGCGCGGGACCGAGCTGGCGGCGGGCGGCG
CGCGCCTTCCGAGGCTTCCTGCTGCTTCTGCCCGAGCCCGCGGCCCTCACGCGCGCCCTC
TCCCGTGCCATGGCCTGCAGGCAGGAGCCGCAGCCGCAGGGCCCGCCGCCCGCTGCTGGC
GCCGTGGCCTCCTATGACTACCTGGTGATCGGGGGCGGCTCGGGCGGGCTGGCCAGCGCG
CGCAGGGCGGCCGAGCTGGGTGCCAGGGCCGCCGTGGTGGAGAGCCACAAGCTGGGTGGC
ACTTGCGTGAATGTTGGATGTGTACCCAAAAAGGTAATGTGGAACACAGCTGTCCACTCT
GAATTCATGCATGATCATGCTGATTATGGCTTTCCAAGTTGTGAGGGTAAATTCAATTGG
CGTGTTATTAAGGAAAAGCGGGATGCCTATGTGAGCCGCCTGAATGCCATCTATCAAAAC
AATCTCACCAAGTCCCATATAGAAATCATCCGTGGCCATGCAGCCTTCACGAGTGATCCC
AAGCCCACAATAGAGGTCAGTGGGAAAAAGTACACCGCCCCACACATCCTGATCGCCACA
GGTGGTATGCCCTCCACCCCTCATGAGAGCCAGATCCCCGGTGCCAGCTTAGGAATAACC
AGCGATGGATTTTTTCAGCTGGAAGAATTGCCCGGCCGCAGCGTCATTGTTGGTGCAGGT
TACATTGCTGTGGAGATGGCAGGGATCCTGTCAGCCCTGGGTTCTAAGACATCACTGATG
ATACGGCATGATAAGGTACTTAGAAGTTTTGATTCAATGATCAGCACCAACTGCACGGAG
GAGCTGGAGAACGCTGGCGTGGAGGTGCTGAAGTTCTCCCAGGTCAAGGAGGTTAAAAAG
ACTTTGTCGGGCTTGGAAGTCAGCATGGTTACTGCAGTTCCCGGTAGGCTACCAGTCATG
ACCATGATTCCAGATGTTGACTGCCTGCTCTGGGCCATTGGGCGGGTCCCGAATACCAAG
GACCTGAGTTTAAACAAACTGGGGATTCAAACCGATGACAAGGGTCATATCATCGTAGAC
GAATTCCAGAATACCAACGTCAAAGGCATCTATGCAGTTGGGGATGTATGTGGAAAAGCT
CTTCTTACTCCAGTTGCAATAGCTGCTGGCCGAAAACTTGCCCATCGACTTTTTGAATAT
AAGGAAGATTCCAAATTAGATTATAACAACATCCCAACTGTGGTCTTCAGCCACCCCCCT
ATTGGGACAGTGGGACTCACGGAAGATGAAGCCATTCATAAATATGGAATAGAAAATGTG
AAGACCTATTCAACGAGCTTTACCCCGATGTATCACGCAGTTACCAAAAGGAAAACAAAA
TGTGTGATGAAAATGGTCTGTGCTAACAAGGAAGAAAAGGTGGTTGGGATCCATATGCAG
GGACTTGGGTGTGATGAAATGCTGCAGGGTTTTGCTGTTGCAGTGAAGATGGGAGCAACG
AAGGCAGACTTTGACAACACAGTCGCCATTCACCCTACCTCTTCAGAAGAGCTGGTCACA
CTTCGTTGA
Chromosome Location
8
Locus
8p21.1
External Identifiers
ResourceLink
UniProtKB IDP00390
UniProtKB Entry NameGSHR_HUMAN
GenBank Protein ID31825
GenBank Gene IDX15722
GenAtlas IDGSR
HGNC IDHGNC:4623
General References
  1. Tutic M, Lu XA, Schirmer RH, Werner D: Cloning and sequencing of mammalian glutathione reductase cDNA. Eur J Biochem. 1990 Mar 30;188(3):523-8. [PubMed:2185014]
  2. Kelner MJ, Montoya MA: Structural organization of the human glutathione reductase gene: determination of correct cDNA sequence and identification of a mitochondrial leader sequence. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000 Mar 16;269(2):366-8. [PubMed:10708558]
  3. Satoh N, Watanabe N, Kanda A, Sugaya-Fukasawa M, Hisatomi H: Expression of glutathione reductase splice variants in human tissues. Biochem Genet. 2010 Oct;48(9-10):816-21. doi: 10.1007/s10528-010-9362-z. Epub 2010 Jul 14. [PubMed:20628807]
  4. Nusbaum C, Mikkelsen TS, Zody MC, Asakawa S, Taudien S, Garber M, Kodira CD, Schueler MG, Shimizu A, Whittaker CA, Chang JL, Cuomo CA, Dewar K, FitzGerald MG, Yang X, Allen NR, Anderson S, Asakawa T, Blechschmidt K, Bloom T, Borowsky ML, Butler J, Cook A, Corum B, DeArellano K, DeCaprio D, Dooley KT, Dorris L 3rd, Engels R, Glockner G, Hafez N, Hagopian DS, Hall JL, Ishikawa SK, Jaffe DB, Kamat A, Kudoh J, Lehmann R, Lokitsang T, Macdonald P, Major JE, Matthews CD, Mauceli E, Menzel U, Mihalev AH, Minoshima S, Murayama Y, Naylor JW, Nicol R, Nguyen C, O'Leary SB, O'Neill K, Parker SC, Polley A, Raymond CK, Reichwald K, Rodriguez J, Sasaki T, Schilhabel M, Siddiqui R, Smith CL, Sneddon TP, Talamas JA, Tenzin P, Topham K, Venkataraman V, Wen G, Yamazaki S, Young SK, Zeng Q, Zimmer AR, Rosenthal A, Birren BW, Platzer M, Shimizu N, Lander ES: DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 8. Nature. 2006 Jan 19;439(7074):331-5. [PubMed:16421571]
  5. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. [PubMed:15489334]
  6. Krauth-Siegel RL, Blatterspiel R, Saleh M, Schiltz E, Schirmer RH, Untucht-Grau R: Glutathione reductase from human erythrocytes. The sequences of the NADPH domain and of the interface domain. Eur J Biochem. 1982 Jan;121(2):259-67. [PubMed:7060551]
  7. Krohne-Ehrich G, Schirmer RH, Untucht-Grau R: Glutathione reductase from human erythrocytes. Isolation of the enzyme and sequence analysis of the redox-active peptide. Eur J Biochem. 1977 Oct 17;80(1):65-71. [PubMed:923580]
  8. Rush J, Moritz A, Lee KA, Guo A, Goss VL, Spek EJ, Zhang H, Zha XM, Polakiewicz RD, Comb MJ: Immunoaffinity profiling of tyrosine phosphorylation in cancer cells. Nat Biotechnol. 2005 Jan;23(1):94-101. Epub 2004 Dec 12. [PubMed:15592455]
  9. Burkard TR, Planyavsky M, Kaupe I, Breitwieser FP, Burckstummer T, Bennett KL, Superti-Furga G, Colinge J: Initial characterization of the human central proteome. BMC Syst Biol. 2011 Jan 26;5:17. doi: 10.1186/1752-0509-5-17. [PubMed:21269460]
  10. Bian Y, Song C, Cheng K, Dong M, Wang F, Huang J, Sun D, Wang L, Ye M, Zou H: An enzyme assisted RP-RPLC approach for in-depth analysis of human liver phosphoproteome. J Proteomics. 2014 Jan 16;96:253-62. doi: 10.1016/j.jprot.2013.11.014. Epub 2013 Nov 22. [PubMed:24275569]
  11. Vaca Jacome AS, Rabilloud T, Schaeffer-Reiss C, Rompais M, Ayoub D, Lane L, Bairoch A, Van Dorsselaer A, Carapito C: N-terminome analysis of the human mitochondrial proteome. Proteomics. 2015 Jul;15(14):2519-24. doi: 10.1002/pmic.201400617. Epub 2015 Jun 8. [PubMed:25944712]
  12. Thieme R, Pai EF, Schirmer RH, Schulz GE: Three-dimensional structure of glutathione reductase at 2 A resolution. J Mol Biol. 1981 Nov 15;152(4):763-82. [PubMed:7334521]
  13. Karplus PA, Schulz GE: Refined structure of glutathione reductase at 1.54 A resolution. J Mol Biol. 1987 Jun 5;195(3):701-29. [PubMed:3656429]
  14. Savvides SN, Karplus PA: Kinetics and crystallographic analysis of human glutathione reductase in complex with a xanthene inhibitor. J Biol Chem. 1996 Apr 5;271(14):8101-7. [PubMed:8626496]
  15. Stoll VS, Simpson SJ, Krauth-Siegel RL, Walsh CT, Pai EF: Glutathione reductase turned into trypanothione reductase: structural analysis of an engineered change in substrate specificity. Biochemistry. 1997 May 27;36(21):6437-47. [PubMed:9174360]
  16. Becker K, Savvides SN, Keese M, Schirmer RH, Karplus PA: Enzyme inactivation through sulfhydryl oxidation by physiologic NO-carriers. Nat Struct Biol. 1998 Apr;5(4):267-71. [PubMed:9546215]

Drug Relations

Drug Relations
DrugBank IDNameDrug groupPharmacological action?ActionsDetails
DB00262Carmustineapproved, investigationalyesinhibitorDetails
DB00157NADHapproved, nutraceuticalunknownDetails
DB00143Glutathioneapproved, investigational, nutraceuticalunknownDetails
DB016443,6-dihydroxy-xanthene-9-propionic acidexperimentalunknownDetails
DB021533-sulfino-L-alanineexperimentalunknownDetails
DB02553Glutathionylspermidine DisulfideexperimentalunknownDetails
DB028953-(Prop-2-Ene-1-Sulfinyl)-Propene-1-ThiolexperimentalunknownDetails
DB03147Flavin adenine dinucleotideapprovedunknownDetails
DB03310Glutathione disulfideapproved, experimental, investigationalunknownDetails
DB03867Meta-Nitro-TyrosineexperimentalunknownDetails
DB073932-(2-PHENYL-3-PYRIDIN-2-YL-4,5,6,7-TETRAHYDRO-2H-ISOPHOSPHINDOL-1-YL)PYRIDINEexperimentalunknownDetails
DB077146-(3-METHYL-1,4-DIOXO-1,4-DIHYDRONAPHTHALEN-2-YL)HEXANOIC ACIDexperimentalunknownDetails
DB09110Coenzyme Mapproved, investigationalyessubstrateDetails
DB11135Seleniumapproved, investigational, vet_approvednosubstrateDetails
DB09130Copperapproved, investigationalunknownDetails
DB09061Cannabidiolapproved, investigationalunknownDetails
DB11590ThimerosalapprovedunknowninducerDetails
DB14011NabiximolsinvestigationalunknownDetails
DB14009Medical Cannabisexperimental, investigationalunknownDetails