Identification

Name
Glutathione
Accession Number
DB00143  (NUTR00029, EXPT01650)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical
Description

A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • 5-L-Glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycine
  • gamma-L-Glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine
  • Glutathione
  • Glutathione-SH
  • GSH
  • N-(N-gamma-L-Glutamyl-L-cysteinyl)glycine
  • Reduced glutathione
International/Other Brands
Isethion
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Bss PlusGlutathione (0.184 mg/mL) + Calcium Chloride (0.154 mg/mL) + Glucose (0.92 mg/mL) + Magnesium chloride (0.2 mg/mL) + Potassium Chloride (0.38 mg/mL) + Sodium Chloride (7.14 mg/mL) + Sodium bicarbonate (2.1 mg/mL) + Sodium phosphate (0.42 mg/mL)KitAlcon, Inc.1982-06-282017-05-31Us
Categories
UNII
GAN16C9B8O
CAS number
70-18-8
Weight
Average: 307.323
Monoisotopic: 307.083805981
Chemical Formula
C10H17N3O6S
InChI Key
RWSXRVCMGQZWBV-WDSKDSINSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C10H17N3O6S/c11-5(10(18)19)1-2-7(14)13-6(4-20)9(17)12-3-8(15)16/h5-6,20H,1-4,11H2,(H,12,17)(H,13,14)(H,15,16)(H,18,19)/t5-,6-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(2S)-2-amino-4-{[(1R)-1-[(carboxymethyl)carbamoyl]-2-sulfanylethyl]carbamoyl}butanoic acid
SMILES
N[[email protected]@H](CCC(=O)N[[email protected]@H](CS)C(=O)NCC(O)=O)C(O)=O

Pharmacology

Indication

For nutritional supplementation, also for treating dietary shortage or imbalance

Structured Indications
Not Available
Pharmacodynamics
Not Available
Mechanism of action

Glutathione (GSH) participates in leukotriene synthesis and is a cofactor for the enzyme glutathione peroxidase. It is also important as a hydrophilic molecule that is added to lipophilic toxins and waste in the liver during biotransformation before they can become part of the bile. Glutathione is also needed for the detoxification of methylglyoxal, a toxin produced as a by-product of metabolism. This detoxification reaction is carried out by the glyoxalase system. Glyoxalase I catalyzes the conversion of methylglyoxal and reduced glutathione to S-D-Lactoyl-glutathione. Glyoxalase II catalyzes the conversion of S-D-Lactoyl Glutathione to Reduced Glutathione and D-lactate. GSH is known as a cofactor in both conjugation reactions and reduction reactions, catalyzed by glutathione S-transferase enzymes in cytosol, microsomes, and mitochondria. However, it is capable of participating in non-enzymatic conjugation with some chemicals, as it is hypothesized to do to a significant extent with n-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI), the reactive cytochrome P450 reactive metabolite formed by toxic overdose of acetaminophen. Glutathione in this capacity binds to NAPQI as a suicide substrate and in the process detoxifies it, taking the place of cellular protein sulfhydryl groups which would otherwise be toxically adducted. The preferred medical treatment to an overdose of this nature, whose efficacy has been consistently supported in literature, is the administration (usually in atomized form) of N-acetylcysteine, which is used by cells to replace spent GSSG and allow a usable GSH pool.

TargetActionsOrganism
UGlutathione reductase, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UGlutathione synthetaseNot AvailableHuman
UGlutathione S-transferase Mu 1Not AvailableHuman
UGlutathione S-transferase kappa 1Not AvailableHuman
UGlutathione S-transferase A3Not AvailableHuman
UGlutathione S-transferase Mu 3Not AvailableHuman
UGlutathione S-transferase A4Not AvailableHuman
UGlutathione S-transferase Mu 4Not AvailableHuman
UGlutathione S-transferase A5Not AvailableHuman
UGlutathione S-transferase PNot AvailableHuman
UGlutathione S-transferase omega-1Not AvailableHuman
UGlutathione peroxidase 1
cofactor
Human
UGlutathione peroxidase 2
cofactor
Human
UGlutathione S-transferase theta-1Not AvailableHuman
UMaleylacetoacetate isomeraseNot AvailableHuman
UEpididymal secretory glutathione peroxidase
cofactor
Human
UGlutathione peroxidase 3
cofactor
Human
ULactoylglutathione lyaseNot AvailableHuman
ULeukotriene C4 synthaseNot AvailableHuman
UMicrosomal glutathione S-transferase 3Not AvailableHuman
UHematopoietic prostaglandin D synthaseNot AvailableHuman
UThioredoxin domain-containing protein 12Not AvailableHuman
UGlutathione S-transferase A1Not AvailableHuman
UGlutathione S-transferase A2Not AvailableHuman
UMicrosomal glutathione S-transferase 1Not AvailableHuman
US-formylglutathione hydrolaseNot AvailableHuman
UGamma-glutamyltranspeptidase 1Not AvailableHuman
UGlutathione S-transferase Mu 2Not AvailableHuman
UGlutaredoxin-1Not AvailableHuman
UPhospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase, mitochondrial
cofactor
Human
UGlutathione S-transferase Mu 5Not AvailableHuman
UGlutathione peroxidase 6
cofactor
Human
UHydroxyacylglutathione hydrolase, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UGlutathione peroxidaseNot AvailableHuman
UProbable glutathione peroxidase 8Not AvailableHuman
UGlutathione peroxidase 7
cofactor
Human
UMicrosomal glutathione S-transferase 2Not AvailableHuman
UGlutathione S-transferase omega-2Not AvailableHuman
UGlutaredoxin-2, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UAldose reductaseNot AvailableHuman
UMatrix metalloproteinase-9Not AvailableHuman
UCytochrome P450 3A4Not AvailableHuman
Absorption

Research suggests that glutathione is not orally bioactive, and that very little of oral glutathione tablets or capsules is actually absorbed by the body.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

ORL-MUS LD50 5000 mg/kg, IPR-MUS LD50 4020 mg/kg, SCU-MUS LD50 5000 mg/kg, IVN-RBT LD50 > 2000 mg/kg, IMS-MUS LD50 4000 mg/kg

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
2-Hydroxyglutric Aciduria (D And L Form)Disease
Leigh SyndromeDisease
4-Hydroxybutyric Aciduria/Succinic Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase DeficiencyDisease
Glutathione Synthetase DeficiencyDisease
Hyperinsulinism-Hyperammonemia SyndromeDisease
5-oxoprolinase deficiencyDisease
Acetaminophen Metabolism PathwayDrug metabolism
Lornoxicam Action PathwayDrug action
Phenylbutazone Action PathwayDrug action
Salsalate Action PathwayDrug action
Acetaminophen Action PathwayDrug action
Glutamate MetabolismMetabolic
Ketorolac Action PathwayDrug action
Suprofen Action PathwayDrug action
Valdecoxib Action PathwayDrug action
5-OxoprolinuriaDisease
Diflunisal Action PathwayDrug action
Pyruvate Decarboxylase E1 Component Deficiency (PDHE1 Deficiency)Disease
Leukotriene C4 Synthesis DeficiencyDisease
HomocarnosinosisDisease
Cyclophosphamide Metabolism PathwayDrug metabolism
Trisalicylate-choline Action PathwayDrug action
Glutathione MetabolismMetabolic
Arachidonic Acid MetabolismMetabolic
Meloxicam Action PathwayDrug action
Mefenamic Acid Action PathwayDrug action
Gamma-Glutamyltransferase DeficiencyDisease
Pyruvaldehyde DegradationMetabolic
Gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase deficiencyDisease
Primary hyperoxaluria II, PH2Disease
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
Not Available
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Akihiro Mizutani, "Complexes of polysaccharides or derivatives thereof with reduced glutathione and process for preparing said complexes." U.S. Patent US4009264, issued February, 1971.

US4009264
General References
  1. Struzynska L, Chalimoniuk M, Sulkowski G: The role of astroglia in Pb-exposed adult rat brain with respect to glutamate toxicity. Toxicology. 2005 Sep 1;212(2-3):185-94. [PubMed:15955607]
  2. Witschi A, Reddy S, Stofer B, Lauterburg BH: The systemic availability of oral glutathione. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1992;43(6):667-9. [PubMed:1362956]
  3. Yim CY, Hibbs JB Jr, McGregor JR, Galinsky RE, Samlowski WE: Use of N-acetyl cysteine to increase intracellular glutathione during the induction of antitumor responses by IL-2. J Immunol. 1994 Jun 15;152(12):5796-805. [PubMed:8207209]
  4. Drevet JR: The antioxidant glutathione peroxidase family and spermatozoa: a complex story. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2006 May 16;250(1-2):70-9. Epub 2006 Jan 19. [PubMed:16427183]
  5. Wu G, Fang YZ, Yang S, Lupton JR, Turner ND: Glutathione metabolism and its implications for health. J Nutr. 2004 Mar;134(3):489-92. [PubMed:14988435]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB00125
KEGG Drug
D00014
KEGG Compound
C02471
PubChem Compound
124886
PubChem Substance
46504598
ChemSpider
111188
BindingDB
50422268
ChEBI
16856
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1543
PharmGKB
PA449780
HET
GSH
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Glutathione
ATC Codes
V03AB32 — Glutathione
PDB Entries
11gs / 13gs / 19gs / 1aqw / 1b48 / 1b4q / 1dnc / 1dug / 1eem / 1f2e
show 350 more
MSDS
Download (71.9 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1CompletedPreventionReperfusion Injury1
1CompletedTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)1
1CompletedTreatmentSkin Whitening1
1RecruitingTreatmentLung Transplant1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentGulf War Syndrome1
2CompletedPreventionCancer, Breast1
2CompletedTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)2
2RecruitingSupportive CareCystic Fibrosis (CF)1
2RecruitingTreatmentReperfusion Injury1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentAdenocarincoma of Pancreas / Stage III Pancreatic Cancer / Stage IVA Pancreatic Cancer / Stage IVB Pancreatic Cancer1
3CompletedSupportive CareChemotherapeutic Agent Toxicity / Neuropathy / Neurotoxicity Syndrome / Pain / Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer / Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer / Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer / Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer / Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer / Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer / Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer / Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer / Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer / Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer / Stage IV Ovarian Cancer / Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer1
3CompletedTreatmentCataracts2
3RecruitingPreventionEnd Stage Liver Diseases / Functional disorders of the biliary tract / Hepatic Failure1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentCystic Fibrosis (CF)1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Adults1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionEnd Stage Liver Failure1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionOxidative Stress / Renal Dysfunction1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAlcohol Drinking1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAutism, Early Infantile / Severe Behavior Disorder1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentHepatic Failure / Viral Hepatitis B1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Kit
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Glutathione crystals21.32USD g
Glutathione-l reduced powder10.71USD g
L-glutathione powder3.0USD g
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)195 °CPhysProp
logP-6.4Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.879 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-2.7ALOGPS
logP-4.9ChemAxon
logS-2.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.94ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.22ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count7ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count6ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area158.82 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count9ChemAxon
Refractivity69.11 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability29.11 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption-0.7892
Blood Brain Barrier+0.6491
Caco-2 permeable-0.8191
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.5706
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9195
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.99
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9445
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8791
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8096
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7544
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9437
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9179
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9502
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.919
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.939
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9898
Ames testAMES toxic0.9107
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9224
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.597
Rat acute toxicity1.7842 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9897
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9476
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (x TMS)GC-MSsplash10-0a4i-0900000000-5841845f736f9a667622
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (x TMS)GC-MSsplash10-0a4i-0900000000-bdecde153761cb67852e
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-0a4i-0900000000-5841845f736f9a667622
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-0a4i-0900000000-bdecde153761cb67852e
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-0a4i-1910000000-52bc43dd913b68d74f84
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-08fs-3960000000-63ce34def2ae94b95515
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-0pb9-0921000000-88168b0a9f5fc5fead3f
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-3795000000-d019cd7dcbad1f8a9e78
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-003r-9400000000-a83bf6292d41988256e3
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-9000000000-305a92f8a9ffea58fa0e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0009000000-e950bfc5867b391c6960
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0910000000-83f6c079d1112e74ecf4
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-003r-0910000000-5b243cf8bd357ab270b1
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0009000000-29ef335479f56b620d88
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0009001000-d1f5986166efa523d024
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-056s-0495300000-dba7be381fd1ef776527
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0920000000-de5b8a5a377324599b39
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-053r-0007920000-7500cef211e48c8ea244
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0119003000-4eb7ed4e2a4cf6a83c66
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0uki-0290000000-6893386899c6eed6a1a6
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-05g0-0190000000-cacc2de4ab18ed59798b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0009000000-6b4268add43ab66ef015
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-08fr-0015009000-a01bdc13a34d6ce8416f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0uki-0290000000-ea94ec8247b4e025adbe
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0039210000-e1f721157a9ea89959d6
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a59-0039210000-35ce450ea95922abf0e1
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0009000000-9b01fba547d1fcde113a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0952000000-4a2a42699cf4aab2c559
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-002f-2900000000-bd9ba27b48b1322b7618
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004m-5900000000-cc7184d5bba50e6e49d0
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-9200000000-aecd0eb18a10c3ffb7ab
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0009000000-9b01fba547d1fcde113a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0952000000-4a2a42699cf4aab2c559
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-002f-2900000000-bd9ba27b48b1322b7618
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004m-5900000000-e05be36ebc9fc7bdaf05
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-9200000000-aecd0eb18a10c3ffb7ab
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0uki-0290000000-6893386899c6eed6a1a6
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-05g0-0190000000-cccd0b65aefdd67fa671
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0009000000-6b4268add43ab66ef015
MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0uk9-0190000000-4759fac8a98c2052c965
MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0uk9-0190000000-1a64c6db546b7c220ada
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0910000000-83f6c079d1112e74ecf4
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-003r-0910000000-9c27bf97745c4dc22144
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0009000000-09002790850768e62fcb
MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-01u3-0971000000-00b0ae32f9b2e5cbc16c
MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-01u3-0971000000-083d195717f16a0f3d48
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
13C NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,13C] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as peptides. These are compounds containing an amide derived from two or more amino carboxylic acid molecules (the same or different) by formation of a covalent bond from the carbonyl carbon of one to the nitrogen atom of another.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic acids and derivatives
Class
Carboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub Class
Amino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct Parent
Peptides
Alternative Parents
N-acyl-alpha amino acids / L-alpha-amino acids / Fatty acids and conjugates / Dicarboxylic acids and derivatives / Amino acids / Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compounds / Carboxylic acids / Carboximidic acids / Alkylthiols / Organopnictogen compounds
show 4 more
Substituents
Alpha peptide / N-acyl-alpha-amino acid / N-acyl-alpha amino acid or derivatives / Alpha-amino acid / Alpha-amino acid or derivatives / L-alpha-amino acid / Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives / Fatty acid / Amino acid or derivatives / Amino acid
show 19 more
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
thiol, L-cysteine derivative, tripeptide (CHEBI:16856) / Coenzymes (C00051)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nadp binding
Specific Function
Maintains high levels of reduced glutathione in the cytosol.
Gene Name
GSR
Uniprot ID
P00390
Uniprot Name
Glutathione reductase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
56256.565 Da
References
  1. Messarah M, Boulakoud MS, Boumendjel A, Abdennour C, El Feki A: The impact of thyroid activity variations on some oxidizing-stress parameters in rats. C R Biol. 2007 Feb;330(2):107-12. Epub 2006 Dec 12. [PubMed:17303537]
  2. Brocardo PS, Assini F, Franco JL, Pandolfo P, Muller YM, Takahashi RN, Dafre AL, Rodrigues AL: Zinc attenuates malathion-induced depressant-like behavior and confers neuroprotection in the rat brain. Toxicol Sci. 2007 May;97(1):140-8. Epub 2007 Feb 27. [PubMed:17327255]
  3. Guruvayoorappan C, Afira AH, Kuttan G: Antioxidant potential of Biophytum sensitivum extract in vitro and in vivo. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2006;17(4):255-67. [PubMed:17338281]
  4. Markaryan AA, Dubinskaya VA, Dargaeva TD: Peroxide-eliminating oxidoreductases as biosensors of antioxidant components of medicinal plants. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2006 Jul;142(1):55-6. [PubMed:17369902]
  5. Maity S, Roy S, Chaudhury S, Bhattacharya S: Antioxidant responses of the earthworm Lampito mauritii exposed to Pb and Zn contaminated soil. Environ Pollut. 2008 Jan;151(1):1-7. Epub 2007 May 23. [PubMed:17512104]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
GSS
Uniprot ID
P48637
Uniprot Name
Glutathione synthetase
Molecular Weight
52384.325 Da
References
  1. Herrera K, Cahoon RE, Kumaran S, Jez J: Reaction mechanism of glutathione synthetase from Arabidopsis thaliana: site-directed mutagenesis of active site residues. J Biol Chem. 2007 Jun 8;282(23):17157-65. Epub 2007 Apr 22. [PubMed:17452339]
  2. Mohanpuria P, Rana NK, Yadav SK: Cadmium induced oxidative stress influence on glutathione metabolic genes of Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze. Environ Toxicol. 2007 Aug;22(4):368-74. [PubMed:17607728]
  3. Forcella M, Berra E, Giacchini R, Parenti P: Antioxidant defenses preserve membrane transport activity in Chironomus riparius larvae exposed to anoxia. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 2007 Aug;65(4):181-94. [PubMed:17630655]
  4. Janaky R, Dohovics R, Saransaari P, Oja SS: Modulation of [3H]dopamine release by glutathione in mouse striatal slices. Neurochem Res. 2007 Aug;32(8):1357-64. Epub 2007 Mar 31. [PubMed:17401648]
  5. Bridges CC, Battle JR, Zalups RK: Transport of thiol-conjugates of inorganic mercury in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2007 Jun 1;221(2):251-60. Epub 2007 Mar 23. [PubMed:17467761]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles.
Gene Name
GSTM1
Uniprot ID
P09488
Uniprot Name
Glutathione S-transferase Mu 1
Molecular Weight
25711.555 Da
References
  1. Moore LE, Malats N, Rothman N, Real FX, Kogevinas M, Karami S, Garcia-Closas R, Silverman D, Chanock S, Welch R, Tardon A, Serra C, Carrato A, Dosemeci M, Garcia-Closas M: Polymorphisms in one-carbon metabolism and trans-sulfuration pathway genes and susceptibility to bladder cancer. Int J Cancer. 2007 Jun 1;120(11):2452-8. [PubMed:17311259]
  2. Sakoda LC, Blackston CR, Xue K, Doherty JA, Ray RM, Lin MG, Stalsberg H, Gao DL, Feng Z, Thomas DB, Chen C: Glutathione S-transferase M1 and P1 polymorphisms and risk of breast cancer and fibrocystic breast conditions in Chinese women. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2008 May;109(1):143-55. Epub 2007 Jul 12. [PubMed:17624589]
  3. Ouerhani S, Tebourski F, Slama MR, Marrakchi R, Rabeh M, Hassine LB, Ayed M, Elgaaied AB: The role of glutathione transferases M1 and T1 in individual susceptibility to bladder cancer in a Tunisian population. Ann Hum Biol. 2006 Sep-Dec;33(5-6):529-35. [PubMed:17381051]
  4. Contreras-Vergara CA, Valenzuela-Soto E, Garcia-Orozco KD, Sotelo-Mundo RR, Yepiz-Plascencia G: A Mu-class glutathione S-transferase from gills of the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: purification and characterization. J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2007;21(2):62-7. [PubMed:17427177]
  5. Schwartzbaum JA, Ahlbom A, Lonn S, Warholm M, Rannug A, Auvinen A, Christensen HC, Henriksson R, Johansen C, Lindholm C, Malmer B, Salminen T, Schoemaker MJ, Swerdlow AJ, Feychting M: An international case-control study of glutathione transferase and functionally related polymorphisms and risk of primary adult brain tumors. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007 Mar;16(3):559-65. [PubMed:17372252]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Receptor binding
Specific Function
Significant glutathione conjugating activity is found only with the model substrate, 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB).
Gene Name
GSTK1
Uniprot ID
Q9Y2Q3
Uniprot Name
Glutathione S-transferase kappa 1
Molecular Weight
25496.625 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Robinson A, Huttley GA, Booth HS, Board PG: Modelling and bioinformatics studies of the human Kappa-class glutathione transferase predict a novel third glutathione transferase family with similarity to prokaryotic 2-hydroxychromene-2-carboxylate isomerases. Biochem J. 2004 May 1;379(Pt 3):541-52. [PubMed:14709161]
  4. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Glutathione transferase activity
Specific Function
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. Catalyzes isomerization reactions that contribute to the biosynthesis of steroid hormones....
Gene Name
GSTA3
Uniprot ID
Q16772
Uniprot Name
Glutathione S-transferase A3
Molecular Weight
25301.355 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Board PG: Identification of cDNAs encoding two human alpha class glutathione transferases (GSTA3 and GSTA4) and the heterologous expression of GSTA4-4. Biochem J. 1998 Mar 1;330 ( Pt 2):827-31. [PubMed:9480897]
  4. McHugh TE, Atkins WM, Racha JK, Kunze KL, Eaton DL: Binding of the aflatoxin-glutathione conjugate to mouse glutathione S-transferase A3-3 is saturated at only one ligand per dimer. J Biol Chem. 1996 Nov 1;271(44):27470-4. [PubMed:8910329]
  5. McDonagh PD, Judah DJ, Hayes JD, Lian LY, Neal GE, Wolf CR, Roberts GC: Determinants of specificity for aflatoxin B1-8,9-epoxide in alpha-class glutathione S-transferases. Biochem J. 1999 Apr 1;339 ( Pt 1):95-101. [PubMed:10085232]
  6. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. May govern uptake and detoxification of both endogenous compounds and xenobiotics at the t...
Gene Name
GSTM3
Uniprot ID
P21266
Uniprot Name
Glutathione S-transferase Mu 3
Molecular Weight
26559.32 Da
References
  1. Schwartzbaum JA, Ahlbom A, Lonn S, Warholm M, Rannug A, Auvinen A, Christensen HC, Henriksson R, Johansen C, Lindholm C, Malmer B, Salminen T, Schoemaker MJ, Swerdlow AJ, Feychting M: An international case-control study of glutathione transferase and functionally related polymorphisms and risk of primary adult brain tumors. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007 Mar;16(3):559-65. [PubMed:17372252]
  2. Moore LE, Brennan P, Karami S, Hung RJ, Hsu C, Boffetta P, Toro J, Zaridze D, Janout V, Bencko V, Navratilova M, Szeszenia-Dabrowska N, Mates D, Mukeria A, Holcatova I, Welch R, Chanock S, Rothman N, Chow WH: Glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms, cruciferous vegetable intake and cancer risk in the Central and Eastern European Kidney Cancer Study. Carcinogenesis. 2007 Sep;28(9):1960-4. Epub 2007 Jul 7. [PubMed:17617661]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. This isozyme has a high catalytic efficiency with 4-hydroxyalkenals such as 4-hydroxynonen...
Gene Name
GSTA4
Uniprot ID
O15217
Uniprot Name
Glutathione S-transferase A4
Molecular Weight
25703.905 Da
References
  1. Gallagher EP, Huisden CM, Gardner JL: Transfection of HepG2 cells with hGSTA4 provides protection against 4-hydroxynonenal-mediated oxidative injury. Toxicol In Vitro. 2007 Dec;21(8):1365-72. Epub 2007 Apr 27. [PubMed:17553661]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. Active on 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene.
Gene Name
GSTM4
Uniprot ID
Q03013
Uniprot Name
Glutathione S-transferase Mu 4
Molecular Weight
25561.095 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Cantlay AM, Smith CA, Wallace WA, Yap PL, Lamb D, Harrison DJ: Heterogeneous expression and polymorphic genotype of glutathione S-transferases in human lung. Thorax. 1994 Oct;49(10):1010-4. [PubMed:7974294]
  4. Beuckmann CT, Fujimori K, Urade Y, Hayaishi O: Identification of mu-class glutathione transferases M2-2 and M3-3 as cytosolic prostaglandin E synthases in the human brain. Neurochem Res. 2000 May;25(5):733-8. [PubMed:10905636]
  5. Efferth T, Volm M: Glutathione-related enzymes contribute to resistance of tumor cells and low toxicity in normal organs to artesunate. In Vivo. 2005 Jan-Feb;19(1):225-32. [PubMed:15796179]
  6. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Glutathione transferase activity
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
GSTA5
Uniprot ID
Q7RTV2
Uniprot Name
Glutathione S-transferase A5
Molecular Weight
25721.725 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. McDonagh PD, Judah DJ, Hayes JD, Lian LY, Neal GE, Wolf CR, Roberts GC: Determinants of specificity for aflatoxin B1-8,9-epoxide in alpha-class glutathione S-transferases. Biochem J. 1999 Apr 1;339 ( Pt 1):95-101. [PubMed:10085232]
  4. McLeod R, Ellis EM, Arthur JR, Neal GE, Judah DJ, Manson MM, Hayes JD: Protection conferred by selenium deficiency against aflatoxin B1 in the rat is associated with the hepatic expression of an aldo-keto reductase and a glutathione S-transferase subunit that metabolize the mycotoxin. Cancer Res. 1997 Oct 1;57(19):4257-66. [PubMed:9331086]
  5. Kazi S, Ellis EM: Expression of rat liver glutathione-S-transferase GSTA5 in cell lines provides increased resistance to alkylating agents and toxic aldehydes. Chem Biol Interact. 2002 May 20;140(2):121-35. [PubMed:12076520]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
S-nitrosoglutathione binding
Specific Function
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. Regulates negatively CDK5 activity via p25/p35 translocation to prevent neurodegeneration.
Gene Name
GSTP1
Uniprot ID
P09211
Uniprot Name
Glutathione S-transferase P
Molecular Weight
23355.625 Da
References
  1. Ramachandran K, Navarro L, Gordian E, Das PM, Singal R: Methylation-mediated silencing of genes is not altered by selenium treatment of prostate cancer cells. Anticancer Res. 2007 Mar-Apr;27(2):921-5. [PubMed:17465221]
  2. Kadokawa Y, Ohba K, Omagari K, Akazawa S, Hayashida K, Ohnita K, Takeshima F, Mizuta Y, Kohno S: Intracellular balance of oxidative stress and cytoprotective molecules in damaged interlobular bile ducts in autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis: In situ detection of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and glutathione-S-transferase-pi. Hepatol Res. 2007 Aug;37(8):620-7. Epub 2007 May 22. [PubMed:17517071]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity
Specific Function
Exhibits glutathione-dependent thiol transferase and dehydroascorbate reductase activities. Has S-(phenacyl)glutathione reductase activity. Has also glutathione S-transferase activity. Participates...
Gene Name
GSTO1
Uniprot ID
P78417
Uniprot Name
Glutathione S-transferase omega-1
Molecular Weight
27565.6 Da
References
  1. Tulayakul P, Dong KS, Li JY, Manabe N, Kumagai S: The effect of feeding piglets with the diet containing green tea extracts or coumarin on in vitro metabolism of aflatoxin B1 by their tissues. Toxicon. 2007 Sep 1;50(3):339-48. Epub 2007 Apr 22. [PubMed:17537474]
  2. Harju TH, Peltoniemi MJ, Rytila PH, Soini Y, Salmenkivi KM, Board PG, Ruddock LW, Kinnula VL: Glutathione S-transferase omega in the lung and sputum supernatants of COPD patients. Respir Res. 2007 Jul 6;8:48. [PubMed:17617905]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Sh3 domain binding
Specific Function
Protects the hemoglobin in erythrocytes from oxidative breakdown.
Gene Name
GPX1
Uniprot ID
P07203
Uniprot Name
Glutathione peroxidase 1
Molecular Weight
22087.94 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Destro-Bisol G, Spedini G: Anthropological survey on red cell glutathione peroxidase (GPX1) polymorphism in central western Africa: a tentative hypothesis on the interaction between GPX1*2 and Hb beta *S allelic products. Am J Phys Anthropol. 1989 Jun;79(2):217-24. [PubMed:2742004]
  4. Liddell JR, Hoepken HH, Crack PJ, Robinson SR, Dringen R: Glutathione peroxidase 1 and glutathione are required to protect mouse astrocytes from iron-mediated hydrogen peroxide toxicity. J Neurosci Res. 2006 Aug 15;84(3):578-86. [PubMed:16721761]
  5. Ursini F, Maiorino M: Native specific activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx-1), phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) does not differ between normo- and hypomotile human sperm samples. Int J Androl. 2005 Feb;28(1):61-2; author reply 63-4. [PubMed:15679624]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Glutathione peroxidase activity
Specific Function
Could play a major role in protecting mammals from the toxicity of ingested organic hydroperoxides. Tert-butyl hydroperoxide, cumene hydroperoxide and linoleic acid hydroperoxide but not phosphatid...
Gene Name
GPX2
Uniprot ID
P18283
Uniprot Name
Glutathione peroxidase 2
Molecular Weight
21953.835 Da
References
  1. Walshe J, Serewko-Auret MM, Teakle N, Cameron S, Minto K, Smith L, Burcham PC, Russell T, Strutton G, Griffin A, Chu FF, Esworthy S, Reeve V, Saunders NA: Inactivation of glutathione peroxidase activity contributes to UV-induced squamous cell carcinoma formation. Cancer Res. 2007 May 15;67(10):4751-8. [PubMed:17510403]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Glutathione transferase activity
Specific Function
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. Acts on 1,2-epoxy-3-(4-nitrophenoxy)propane, phenethylisothiocyanate 4-nitrobenzyl chlorid...
Gene Name
GSTT1
Uniprot ID
P30711
Uniprot Name
Glutathione S-transferase theta-1
Molecular Weight
27334.755 Da
References
  1. Ouerhani S, Tebourski F, Slama MR, Marrakchi R, Rabeh M, Hassine LB, Ayed M, Elgaaied AB: The role of glutathione transferases M1 and T1 in individual susceptibility to bladder cancer in a Tunisian population. Ann Hum Biol. 2006 Sep-Dec;33(5-6):529-35. [PubMed:17381051]
  2. Schwartzbaum JA, Ahlbom A, Lonn S, Warholm M, Rannug A, Auvinen A, Christensen HC, Henriksson R, Johansen C, Lindholm C, Malmer B, Salminen T, Schoemaker MJ, Swerdlow AJ, Feychting M: An international case-control study of glutathione transferase and functionally related polymorphisms and risk of primary adult brain tumors. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007 Mar;16(3):559-65. [PubMed:17372252]
  3. Moore LE, Brennan P, Karami S, Hung RJ, Hsu C, Boffetta P, Toro J, Zaridze D, Janout V, Bencko V, Navratilova M, Szeszenia-Dabrowska N, Mates D, Mukeria A, Holcatova I, Welch R, Chanock S, Rothman N, Chow WH: Glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms, cruciferous vegetable intake and cancer risk in the Central and Eastern European Kidney Cancer Study. Carcinogenesis. 2007 Sep;28(9):1960-4. Epub 2007 Jul 7. [PubMed:17617661]
  4. Gawecki W, Kostrzewska-Poczekaj M, Gajecka M, Milecki P, Szyfter K, Szyfter W: The role of genetic factor in etiopathogenesis of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck in young adults. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2007 Dec;264(12):1459-65. Epub 2007 Jul 26. [PubMed:17653748]
  5. Jonsson LS, Broberg K, Bergendorf U, Axmon A, Littorin M, Jonsson BA: Levels of 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (TTCA) and effect modification of polymorphisms of glutathione-related genes in vulcanization workers in the southern Sweden rubber industries. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2007 Jul;80(7):589-98. Epub 2007 Feb 28. [PubMed:17333241]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
Bifunctional enzyme showing minimal glutathione-conjugating activity with ethacrynic acid and 7-chloro-4-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole and maleylacetoacetate isomerase activity. Has also low glutathi...
Gene Name
GSTZ1
Uniprot ID
O43708
Uniprot Name
Maleylacetoacetate isomerase
Molecular Weight
24212.005 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Fernandez-Canon JM, Baetscher MW, Finegold M, Burlingame T, Gibson KM, Grompe M: Maleylacetoacetate isomerase (MAAI/GSTZ)-deficient mice reveal a glutathione-dependent nonenzymatic bypass in tyrosine catabolism. Mol Cell Biol. 2002 Jul;22(13):4943-51. [PubMed:12052898]
  4. Hagedorn SR, Chapman PJ: Glutathione-independent maleylacetoacetate isomerase in gram-positive bacteria. J Bacteriol. 1985 Aug;163(2):803-5. [PubMed:4019417]
  5. Lim CE, Matthaei KI, Blackburn AC, Davis RP, Dahlstrom JE, Koina ME, Anders MW, Board PG: Mice deficient in glutathione transferase zeta/maleylacetoacetate isomerase exhibit a range of pathological changes and elevated expression of alpha, mu, and pi class glutathione transferases. Am J Pathol. 2004 Aug;165(2):679-93. [PubMed:15277241]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Glutathione peroxidase activity
Specific Function
Protects cells and enzymes from oxidative damage, by catalyzing the reduction of hydrogen peroxide, lipid peroxides and organic hydroperoxide, by glutathione. May constitute a glutathione peroxidas...
Gene Name
GPX5
Uniprot ID
O75715
Uniprot Name
Epididymal secretory glutathione peroxidase
Molecular Weight
25202.14 Da
References
  1. Koh CS, Didierjean C, Navrot N, Panjikar S, Mulliert G, Rouhier N, Jacquot JP, Aubry A, Shawkataly O, Corbier C: Crystal structures of a poplar thioredoxin peroxidase that exhibits the structure of glutathione peroxidases: insights into redox-driven conformational changes. J Mol Biol. 2007 Jul 13;370(3):512-29. Epub 2007 Apr 19. [PubMed:17531267]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Transcription factor binding
Specific Function
Protects cells and enzymes from oxidative damage, by catalyzing the reduction of hydrogen peroxide, lipid peroxides and organic hydroperoxide, by glutathione.
Gene Name
GPX3
Uniprot ID
P22352
Uniprot Name
Glutathione peroxidase 3
Molecular Weight
25552.185 Da
References
  1. Jacobson GA, Yee KC, Ng CH: Elevated plasma glutathione peroxidase concentration in acute severe asthma: comparison with plasma glutathione peroxidase activity, selenium and malondialdehyde. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2007;67(4):423-30. [PubMed:17558897]
  2. Carmeli E, Bachar A, Barchad S: Biochemical assessments of total antioxidant status in active and nonactive female adults with intellectual disability. Res Sports Med. 2007 Apr-Jun;15(2):93-101. [PubMed:17578749]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the conversion of hemimercaptal, formed from methylglyoxal and glutathione, to S-lactoylglutathione. Involved in the regulation of TNF-induced transcriptional activity of NF-kappa-B. Requ...
Gene Name
GLO1
Uniprot ID
Q04760
Uniprot Name
Lactoylglutathione lyase
Molecular Weight
20777.515 Da
References
  1. Barati MT, Merchant ML, Kain AB, Jevans AW, McLeish KR, Klein JB: Proteomic analysis defines altered cellular redox pathways and advanced glycation end-product metabolism in glomeruli of db/db diabetic mice. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2007 Oct;293(4):F1157-65. Epub 2007 Jul 3. [PubMed:17609286]
  2. Deponte M, Sturm N, Mittler S, Harner M, Mack H, Becker K: Allosteric coupling of two different functional active sites in monomeric Plasmodium falciparum glyoxalase I. J Biol Chem. 2007 Sep 28;282(39):28419-30. Epub 2007 Jul 30. [PubMed:17664277]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Lipid binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the conjugation of leukotriene A4 with reduced glutathione to form leukotriene C4.
Gene Name
LTC4S
Uniprot ID
Q16873
Uniprot Name
Leukotriene C4 synthase
Molecular Weight
16566.465 Da
References
  1. Martinez Molina D, Wetterholm A, Kohl A, McCarthy AA, Niegowski D, Ohlson E, Hammarberg T, Eshaghi S, Haeggstrom JZ, Nordlund P: Structural basis for synthesis of inflammatory mediators by human leukotriene C4 synthase. Nature. 2007 Aug 2;448(7153):613-6. Epub 2007 Jul 15. [PubMed:17632546]
  2. Ago H, Kanaoka Y, Irikura D, Lam BK, Shimamura T, Austen KF, Miyano M: Crystal structure of a human membrane protein involved in cysteinyl leukotriene biosynthesis. Nature. 2007 Aug 2;448(7153):609-12. Epub 2007 Jul 15. [PubMed:17632548]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Peroxidase activity
Specific Function
Also functions as a glutathione peroxidase.
Gene Name
MGST3
Uniprot ID
O14880
Uniprot Name
Microsomal glutathione S-transferase 3
Molecular Weight
16516.185 Da
References
  1. Ago H, Kanaoka Y, Irikura D, Lam BK, Shimamura T, Austen KF, Miyano M: Crystal structure of a human membrane protein involved in cysteinyl leukotriene biosynthesis. Nature. 2007 Aug 2;448(7153):609-12. Epub 2007 Jul 15. [PubMed:17632548]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
Bifunctional enzyme which catalyzes both the conversion of PGH2 to PGD2, a prostaglandin involved in smooth muscle contraction/relaxation and a potent inhibitor of platelet aggregation, and the con...
Gene Name
HPGDS
Uniprot ID
O60760
Uniprot Name
Hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase
Molecular Weight
23343.65 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Aritake K, Kado Y, Inoue T, Miyano M, Urade Y: Structural and functional characterization of HQL-79, an orally selective inhibitor of human hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase. J Biol Chem. 2006 Jun 2;281(22):15277-86. Epub 2006 Mar 17. [PubMed:16547010]
  4. Inoue T, Okano Y, Kado Y, Aritake K, Irikura D, Uodome N, Okazaki N, Kinugasa S, Shishitani H, Matsumura H, Kai Y, Urade Y: First determination of the inhibitor complex structure of human hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase. J Biochem. 2004 Mar;135(3):279-83. [PubMed:15113825]
  5. Urade Y, Kitahama K, Ohishi H, Kaneko T, Mizuno N, Hayaishi O: Dominant expression of mRNA for prostaglandin D synthase in leptomeninges, choroid plexus, and oligodendrocytes of the adult rat brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Oct 1;90(19):9070-4. [PubMed:8415655]
  6. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Protein-disulfide reductase (glutathione) activity
Specific Function
Possesses significant protein thiol-disulfide oxidase activity.
Gene Name
TXNDC12
Uniprot ID
O95881
Uniprot Name
Thioredoxin domain-containing protein 12
Molecular Weight
19205.615 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Glutathione transferase activity
Specific Function
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles.
Gene Name
GSTA1
Uniprot ID
P08263
Uniprot Name
Glutathione S-transferase A1
Molecular Weight
25630.785 Da
References
  1. Kim I, Keam B, Lee KH, Kim JH, Oh SY, Ra EK, Yoon SS, Park SS, Kim CS, Park S, Hong YC, Kim BK: Glutathione S-transferase A1 polymorphisms and acute graft-vs.-host disease in HLA-matched sibling allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Clin Transplant. 2007 Mar-Apr;21(2):207-13. [PubMed:17425746]
  2. Soderdahl T, Kuppers-Munther B, Heins N, Edsbagge J, Bjorquist P, Cotgreave I, Jernstrom B: Glutathione transferases in hepatocyte-like cells derived from human embryonic stem cells. Toxicol In Vitro. 2007 Aug;21(5):929-37. Epub 2007 Feb 2. [PubMed:17346923]
  3. Jonsson LS, Broberg K, Bergendorf U, Axmon A, Littorin M, Jonsson BA: Levels of 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (TTCA) and effect modification of polymorphisms of glutathione-related genes in vulcanization workers in the southern Sweden rubber industries. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2007 Jul;80(7):589-98. Epub 2007 Feb 28. [PubMed:17333241]
  4. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Glutathione transferase activity
Specific Function
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles.
Gene Name
GSTA2
Uniprot ID
P09210
Uniprot Name
Glutathione S-transferase A2
Molecular Weight
25663.675 Da
References
  1. Sharma P, Ahmad Shah Z, Kumar A, Islam F, Mishra KP: Role of combined administration of Tiron and glutathione against aluminum-induced oxidative stress in rat brain. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2007;21(1):63-70. Epub 2007 Feb 6. [PubMed:17317527]
  2. Skamarauskas J, Carter W, Fowler M, Madjd A, Lister T, Mavroudis G, Ray DE: The selective neurotoxicity produced by 3-chloropropanediol in the rat is not a result of energy deprivation. Toxicology. 2007 Apr 11;232(3):268-76. Epub 2007 Jan 21. [PubMed:17321661]
  3. Ozkilic AC, Cengiz M, Ozaydin A, Cobanoglu A, Kanigur G: The role of N-acetylcysteine treatment on anti-oxidative status in patients with type II diabetes mellitus. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2006;17(4):245-54. [PubMed:17338280]
  4. Guruvayoorappan C, Afira AH, Kuttan G: Antioxidant potential of Biophytum sensitivum extract in vitro and in vivo. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2006;17(4):255-67. [PubMed:17338281]
  5. Gupta S, Sarotra P, Aggarwal R, Dutta N, Agnihotri N: Role of oxidative stress in celecoxib-induced renal damage in wistar rats. Dig Dis Sci. 2007 Nov;52(11):3092-8. Epub 2007 Mar 31. [PubMed:17401685]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Glutathione transferase activity
Specific Function
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. Has a wide substrate specificity.
Gene Name
MGST1
Uniprot ID
P10620
Uniprot Name
Microsomal glutathione S-transferase 1
Molecular Weight
17598.45 Da
References
  1. Siritantikorn A, Johansson K, Ahlen K, Rinaldi R, Suthiphongchai T, Wilairat P, Morgenstern R: Protection of cells from oxidative stress by microsomal glutathione transferase 1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007 Apr 6;355(2):592-6. Epub 2007 Feb 12. [PubMed:17306223]
  2. Busenlehner LS, Alander J, Jegerscohld C, Holm PJ, Bhakat P, Hebert H, Morgenstern R, Armstrong RN: Location of substrate binding sites within the integral membrane protein microsomal glutathione transferase-1. Biochemistry. 2007 Mar 13;46(10):2812-22. Epub 2007 Feb 13. [PubMed:17297922]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
S-formylglutathione hydrolase activity
Specific Function
Serine hydrolase involved in the detoxification of formaldehyde.
Gene Name
ESD
Uniprot ID
P10768
Uniprot Name
S-formylglutathione hydrolase
Molecular Weight
31462.545 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Yurimoto H, Lee B, Yano T, Sakai Y, Kato N: Physiological role of S-formylglutathione hydrolase in C(1) metabolism of the methylotrophic yeast Candida boidinii. Microbiology. 2003 Aug;149(Pt 8):1971-9. [PubMed:12904537]
  4. Neben I, Sahm H, Kula MR: Studies on an enzyme, S-formylglutathione hydrolase, of the dissimilatory pathway of methanol in Candida boidinii. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1980 Jul 10;614(1):81-91. [PubMed:7397203]
  5. Sabatier L, Hoffschir F, al Achkar WA, Turleau C, de Grouchy J, Dutrillaux B: The decrease of catalase or esterase D activity in patients with microdeletions of 11p or 13q does not increase their radiosensitivity. Ann Genet. 1989;32(3):144-8. [PubMed:2554783]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Glutathione hydrolase activity
Specific Function
Cleaves the gamma-glutamyl bond of extracellular glutathione (gamma-Glu-Cys-Gly), glutathione conjugates, and other gamma-glutamyl compounds. The metabolism of glutathione releases free glutamate a...
Gene Name
GGT1
Uniprot ID
P19440
Uniprot Name
Gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase 1
Molecular Weight
61409.67 Da
References
  1. Ohkama-Ohtsu N, Zhao P, Xiang C, Oliver DJ: Glutathione conjugates in the vacuole are degraded by gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase GGT3 in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2007 Mar;49(5):878-88. [PubMed:17316176]
  2. Martin MN, Saladores PH, Lambert E, Hudson AO, Leustek T: Localization of members of the gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase family identifies sites of glutathione and glutathione S-conjugate hydrolysis. Plant Physiol. 2007 Aug;144(4):1715-32. Epub 2007 Jun 1. [PubMed:17545509]
  3. Anilakumar KR, Nagaraj NS, Santhanam K: Reduction of hexachlorocyclohexane-induced oxidative stress and cytotoxicity in rat liver by Emblica officinalis gaertn. Indian J Exp Biol. 2007 May;45(5):450-4. [PubMed:17569287]
  4. Adamis PD, Panek AD, Eleutherio EC: Vacuolar compartmentation of the cadmium-glutathione complex protects Saccharomyces cerevisiae from mutagenesis. Toxicol Lett. 2007 Aug 30;173(1):1-7. Epub 2007 Jun 14. [PubMed:17644279]
  5. Zhu Y, Carvey PM, Ling Z: Altered glutathione homeostasis in animals prenatally exposed to lipopolysaccharide. Neurochem Int. 2007 Mar;50(4):671-80. Epub 2007 Jan 13. [PubMed:17291629]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Receptor binding
Specific Function
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles.
Gene Name
GSTM2
Uniprot ID
P28161
Uniprot Name
Glutathione S-transferase Mu 2
Molecular Weight
25744.395 Da
References
  1. Kurtovic S, Jansson R, Mannervik B: Colorimetric endpoint assay for enzyme-catalyzed iodide ion release for high-throughput screening in microtiter plates. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2007 Aug 15;464(2):284-7. Epub 2007 Apr 24. [PubMed:17490601]
  2. Vararattanavech A, Ketterman AJ: A functionally conserved basic residue in glutathione transferases interacts with the glycine moiety of glutathione and is pivotal for enzyme catalysis. Biochem J. 2007 Sep 1;406(2):247-56. [PubMed:17523921]
  3. Gallagher EP, Huisden CM, Gardner JL: Transfection of HepG2 cells with hGSTA4 provides protection against 4-hydroxynonenal-mediated oxidative injury. Toxicol In Vitro. 2007 Dec;21(8):1365-72. Epub 2007 Apr 27. [PubMed:17553661]
  4. Yalcinkaya S, Unlucerci Y, Uysal M: Methionine-supplemented diet augments hepatotoxicity and prooxidant status in chronically ethanol-treated rats. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2007 Aug;58(6):455-9. Epub 2007 May 11. [PubMed:17498936]
  5. Roh JY, Jung IH, Lee JY, Choi J: Toxic effects of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate on mortality, growth, reproduction and stress-related gene expression in the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Toxicology. 2007 Jul 31;237(1-3):126-33. Epub 2007 May 18. [PubMed:17604895]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Protein n-terminus binding
Specific Function
Has a glutathione-disulfide oxidoreductase activity in the presence of NADPH and glutathione reductase. Reduces low molecular weight disulfides and proteins.
Gene Name
GLRX
Uniprot ID
P35754
Uniprot Name
Glutaredoxin-1
Molecular Weight
11775.665 Da
References
  1. Diwakar L, Kenchappa RS, Annepu J, Ravindranath V: Downregulation of glutaredoxin but not glutathione loss leads to mitochondrial dysfunction in female mice CNS: implications in excitotoxicity. Neurochem Int. 2007 Jul;51(1):37-46. Epub 2007 Apr 5. [PubMed:17512091]
  2. Rouhier N, Unno H, Bandyopadhyay S, Masip L, Kim SK, Hirasawa M, Gualberto JM, Lattard V, Kusunoki M, Knaff DB, Georgiou G, Hase T, Johnson MK, Jacquot JP: Functional, structural, and spectroscopic characterization of a glutathione-ligated [2Fe-2S] cluster in poplar glutaredoxin C1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 May 1;104(18):7379-84. Epub 2007 Apr 25. [PubMed:17460036]
  3. Hakansson KO, Winther JR: Structure of glutaredoxin Grx1p C30S mutant from yeast. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2007 Mar;63(Pt 3):288-94. Epub 2007 Feb 21. [PubMed:17327665]
  4. Lu J, Chew EH, Holmgren A: Targeting thioredoxin reductase is a basis for cancer therapy by arsenic trioxide. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Jul 24;104(30):12288-93. Epub 2007 Jul 18. [PubMed:17640917]
  5. Wang J, Pan S, Berk BC: Glutaredoxin mediates Akt and eNOS activation by flow in a glutathione reductase-dependent manner. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2007 Jun;27(6):1283-8. Epub 2007 Apr 12. [PubMed:17431186]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Phospholipid-hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase activity
Specific Function
Protects cells against membrane lipid peroxidation and cell death. Required for normal sperm development and male fertility. Could play a major role in protecting mammals from the toxicity of inges...
Gene Name
GPX4
Uniprot ID
P36969
Uniprot Name
Phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
22174.52 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Moreno SG, Laux G, Brielmeier M, Bornkamm GW, Conrad M: Testis-specific expression of the nuclear form of phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx). Biol Chem. 2003 Apr;384(4):635-43. [PubMed:12751792]
  4. Baek IJ, Seo DS, Yon JM, Lee SR, Jin Y, Nahm SS, Jeong JH, Choo YK, Kang JK, Lee BJ, Yun YW, Nam SY: Tissue expression and cellular localization of phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx) mRNA in male mice. J Mol Histol. 2007 Jun;38(3):237-44. Epub 2007 May 15. [PubMed:17503194]
  5. Nam SY, Baek IJ, Lee BJ, In CH, Jung EY, Yon JM, Ahn B, Kang JK, Yu WJ, Yun YW: Effects of 17beta-estradiol and tamoxifen on the selenoprotein phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx) mRNA expression in male reproductive organs of rats. J Reprod Dev. 2003 Oct;49(5):389-96. [PubMed:14967915]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Glutathione transferase activity
Specific Function
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles.
Gene Name
GSTM5
Uniprot ID
P46439
Uniprot Name
Glutathione S-transferase Mu 5
Molecular Weight
25674.455 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Schnakenberg E, Breuer R, Werdin R, Dreikorn K, Schloot W: Susceptibility genes: GSTM1 and GSTM3 as genetic risk factors in bladder cancer. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 2000;91(1-4):234-8. [PubMed:11173863]
  4. Rao AV, Shaha C: Multiple glutathione S-transferase isoforms are present on male germ cell plasma membrane. FEBS Lett. 2001 Oct 26;507(2):174-80. [PubMed:11684093]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Glutathione peroxidase activity
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
GPX6
Uniprot ID
P59796
Uniprot Name
Glutathione peroxidase 6
Molecular Weight
24970.46 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Brigelius-Flohe R: Glutathione peroxidases and redox-regulated transcription factors. Biol Chem. 2006 Oct-Nov;387(10-11):1329-35. [PubMed:17081103]
  4. Myllyla V, Kihlstrom M, Takala TE, Tolonen U, Salminen A, Vihko V: Activities of some antioxidative and hexose monophosphate shunt enzymes of skeletal muscle in neuromuscular diseases. Acta Neurol Scand. 1986 Jul;74(1):17-24. [PubMed:3532684]
  5. Giovannini C, Scazzocchio B, Matarrese P, Vari R, D'Archivio M, Di Benedetto R, Casciani S, Dessi MR, Straface E, Malorni W, Masella R: Apoptosis induced by oxidized lipids is associated with up-regulation of p66Shc in intestinal Caco-2 cells: protective effects of phenolic compounds. J Nutr Biochem. 2008 Feb;19(2):118-28. Epub 2007 Jun 27. [PubMed:17588737]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Metal ion binding
Specific Function
Thiolesterase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of S-D-lactoyl-glutathione to form glutathione and D-lactic acid.
Gene Name
HAGH
Uniprot ID
Q16775
Uniprot Name
Hydroxyacylglutathione hydrolase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
33805.645 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Ridderstrom M, Jemth P, Cameron AD, Mannervik B: The active-site residue tyr-175 in human glyoxalase II contributes to binding of glutathione derivatives. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000 Sep 29;1481(2):344-8. [PubMed:11018726]
  4. Chyan MK, Elia AC, Principato GB, Giovannini E, Rosi G, Norton SJ: S-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl glutathione and diesters: inhibition of mammalian glyoxalase II. Enzyme Protein. 1994-1995;48(3):164-73. [PubMed:8589803]
  5. Al-Timari A, Douglas KT: Inhibition by glutathione derivatives of bovine liver glyoxalase II (hydroxyacylglutathione hydrolase) as a probe of the N- and S-sites for substrate binding. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1986 Mar 28;870(2):219-25. [PubMed:3955057]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Glutathione peroxidase activity
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
GPX1
Uniprot ID
Q6NSD4
Uniprot Name
Glutathione peroxidase
Molecular Weight
16179.36 Da
References
  1. Chattopadhyay S, Sahoo DK, Subudhi U, Chainy GB: Differential expression profiles of antioxidant enzymes and glutathione redox status in hyperthyroid rats: a temporal analysis. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2007 Sep;146(3):383-91. Epub 2007 May 3. [PubMed:17561443]
  2. Du X, Takagi H: N-Acetyltransferase Mpr1 confers ethanol tolerance on Saccharomyces cerevisiae by reducing reactive oxygen species. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2007 Jul;75(6):1343-51. Epub 2007 Mar 27. [PubMed:17387467]
  3. Sheridan PA, Zhong N, Carlson BA, Perella CM, Hatfield DL, Beck MA: Decreased selenoprotein expression alters the immune response during influenza virus infection in mice. J Nutr. 2007 Jun;137(6):1466-71. [PubMed:17513408]
  4. Walshe J, Serewko-Auret MM, Teakle N, Cameron S, Minto K, Smith L, Burcham PC, Russell T, Strutton G, Griffin A, Chu FF, Esworthy S, Reeve V, Saunders NA: Inactivation of glutathione peroxidase activity contributes to UV-induced squamous cell carcinoma formation. Cancer Res. 2007 May 15;67(10):4751-8. [PubMed:17510403]
  5. Sordillo LM, O'Boyle N, Gandy JC, Corl CM, Hamilton E: Shifts in thioredoxin reductase activity and oxidant status in mononuclear cells obtained from transition dairy cattle. J Dairy Sci. 2007 Mar;90(3):1186-92. [PubMed:17297093]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Peroxidase activity
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
GPX8
Uniprot ID
Q8TED1
Uniprot Name
Probable glutathione peroxidase 8
Molecular Weight
23880.83 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Peroxidase activity
Specific Function
It protects esophageal epithelia from hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress. It suppresses acidic bile acid-induced reactive oxigen species (ROS) and protects against oxidative DNA damage and ...
Gene Name
GPX7
Uniprot ID
Q96SL4
Uniprot Name
Glutathione peroxidase 7
Molecular Weight
20995.88 Da
References
  1. Giovannini C, Scazzocchio B, Matarrese P, Vari R, D'Archivio M, Di Benedetto R, Casciani S, Dessi MR, Straface E, Malorni W, Masella R: Apoptosis induced by oxidized lipids is associated with up-regulation of p66Shc in intestinal Caco-2 cells: protective effects of phenolic compounds. J Nutr Biochem. 2008 Feb;19(2):118-28. Epub 2007 Jun 27. [PubMed:17588737]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Leukotriene-c4 synthase activity
Specific Function
Can catalyze the production of LTC4 from LTA4 and reduced glutathione. Can catalyze the conjugation of 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene with reduced glutathione.
Gene Name
MGST2
Uniprot ID
Q99735
Uniprot Name
Microsomal glutathione S-transferase 2
Molecular Weight
16620.4 Da
References
  1. Ago H, Kanaoka Y, Irikura D, Lam BK, Shimamura T, Austen KF, Miyano M: Crystal structure of a human membrane protein involved in cysteinyl leukotriene biosynthesis. Nature. 2007 Aug 2;448(7153):609-12. Epub 2007 Jul 15. [PubMed:17632548]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity
Specific Function
Exhibits glutathione-dependent thiol transferase activity. Has high dehydroascorbate reductase activity and may contribute to the recycling of ascorbic acid. Participates in the biotransformation o...
Gene Name
GSTO2
Uniprot ID
Q9H4Y5
Uniprot Name
Glutathione S-transferase omega-2
Molecular Weight
28253.52 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Whitbread AK, Masoumi A, Tetlow N, Schmuck E, Coggan M, Board PG: Characterization of the omega class of glutathione transferases. Methods Enzymol. 2005;401:78-99. [PubMed:16399380]
  4. Board PG, Anders MW: Glutathione transferase omega 1 catalyzes the reduction of S-(phenacyl)glutathiones to acetophenones. Chem Res Toxicol. 2007 Jan;20(1):149-54. [PubMed:17226937]
  5. Whitbread AK, Tetlow N, Eyre HJ, Sutherland GR, Board PG: Characterization of the human Omega class glutathione transferase genes and associated polymorphisms. Pharmacogenetics. 2003 Mar;13(3):131-44. [PubMed:12618591]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Protein disulfide oxidoreductase activity
Specific Function
Glutathione-dependent oxidoreductase that facilitates the maintenance of mitochondrial redox homeostasis upon induction of apoptosis by oxidative stress. Involved in response to hydrogen peroxide a...
Gene Name
GLRX2
Uniprot ID
Q9NS18
Uniprot Name
Glutaredoxin-2, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
18051.515 Da
References
  1. Hashemy SI, Johansson C, Berndt C, Lillig CH, Holmgren A: Oxidation and S-nitrosylation of cysteines in human cytosolic and mitochondrial glutaredoxins: effects on structure and activity. J Biol Chem. 2007 May 11;282(19):14428-36. Epub 2007 Mar 13. [PubMed:17355958]
  2. Sagemark J, Elgan TH, Burglin TR, Johansson C, Holmgren A, Berndt KD: Redox properties and evolution of human glutaredoxins. Proteins. 2007 Sep 1;68(4):879-92. [PubMed:17546662]
  3. Sheng J, Ye J, Rosen BP: Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of Escherichia coliglutaredoxin 2 in complex with glutathione and of a cysteine-less variant without glutathione. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2007 Apr 1;63(Pt 4):280-2. Epub 2007 Mar 12. [PubMed:17401194]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Glyceraldehyde oxidoreductase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of a wide variety of carbonyl-containing compounds to their corresponding alcohols with a broad range of catalytic efficiencies.
Gene Name
AKR1B1
Uniprot ID
P15121
Uniprot Name
Aldose reductase
Molecular Weight
35853.125 Da
References
  1. Ramana KV, Dixit BL, Srivastava S, Bhatnagar A, Balendiran GK, Watowich SJ, Petrash JM, Srivastava SK: Characterization of the glutathione binding site of aldose reductase. Chem Biol Interact. 2001 Jan 30;130-132(1-3):537-48. [PubMed:11306073]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
May play an essential role in local proteolysis of the extracellular matrix and in leukocyte migration. Could play a role in bone osteoclastic resorption. Cleaves KiSS1 at a Gly-|-Leu bond. Cleaves...
Gene Name
MMP9
Uniprot ID
P14780
Uniprot Name
Matrix metalloproteinase-9
Molecular Weight
78457.51 Da
References
  1. Pei P, Horan MP, Hille R, Hemann CF, Schwendeman SP, Mallery SR: Reduced nonprotein thiols inhibit activation and function of MMP-9: implications for chemoprevention. Free Radic Biol Med. 2006 Oct 15;41(8):1315-24. Epub 2006 Jul 15. [PubMed:17015178]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Davydov DR, Davydova NY, Tsalkova TN, Halpert JR: Effect of glutathione on homo- and heterotropic cooperativity in cytochrome P450 3A4. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2008 Mar 15;471(2):134-45. doi: 10.1016/j.abb.2008.01.001. Epub 2008 Jan 11. [PubMed:18206979]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Glutathione transferase activity
Specific Function
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles.
Gene Name
GSTA2
Uniprot ID
P09210
Uniprot Name
Glutathione S-transferase A2
Molecular Weight
25663.675 Da
References
  1. Hayes JD, Flanagan JU, Jowsey IR: Glutathione transferases. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2005;45:51-88. [PubMed:15822171]
  2. Armstrong RN: Glutathione S-transferases: reaction mechanism, structure, and function. Chem Res Toxicol. 1991 Mar-Apr;4(2):131-40. [PubMed:1782341]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Glutathione transferase activity
Specific Function
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles.
Gene Name
GSTA1
Uniprot ID
P08263
Uniprot Name
Glutathione S-transferase A1
Molecular Weight
25630.785 Da
References
  1. Hayes JD, Flanagan JU, Jowsey IR: Glutathione transferases. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2005;45:51-88. [PubMed:15822171]
  2. Armstrong RN: Glutathione S-transferases: reaction mechanism, structure, and function. Chem Res Toxicol. 1991 Mar-Apr;4(2):131-40. [PubMed:1782341]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates export of organic anions and drugs from the cytoplasm. Mediates ATP-dependent transport of glutathione and glutathione conjugates, leukotriene C4, estradiol-17-beta-o-glucuronide, methotre...
Gene Name
ABCC1
Uniprot ID
P33527
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance-associated protein 1
Molecular Weight
171589.5 Da
References
  1. Heijn M, Hooijberg JH, Scheffer GL, Szabo G, Westerhoff HV, Lankelma J: Anthracyclines modulate multidrug resistance protein (MRP) mediated organic anion transport. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1997 May 22;1326(1):12-22. [PubMed:9188796]
  2. Evers R, de Haas M, Sparidans R, Beijnen J, Wielinga PR, Lankelma J, Borst P: Vinblastine and sulfinpyrazone export by the multidrug resistance protein MRP2 is associated with glutathione export. Br J Cancer. 2000 Aug;83(3):375-83. [PubMed:10917554]
  3. Jedlitschky G, Leier I, Buchholz U, Barnouin K, Kurz G, Keppler D: Transport of glutathione, glucuronate, and sulfate conjugates by the MRP gene-encoded conjugate export pump. Cancer Res. 1996 Mar 1;56(5):988-94. [PubMed:8640791]
  4. Minich T, Riemer J, Schulz JB, Wielinga P, Wijnholds J, Dringen R: The multidrug resistance protein 1 (Mrp1), but not Mrp5, mediates export of glutathione and glutathione disulfide from brain astrocytes. J Neurochem. 2006 Apr;97(2):373-84. Epub 2006 Mar 15. [PubMed:16539673]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates hepatobiliary excretion of numerous organic anions. May function as a cellular cisplatin transporter.
Gene Name
ABCC2
Uniprot ID
Q92887
Uniprot Name
Canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1
Molecular Weight
174205.64 Da
References
  1. Paulusma CC, van Geer MA, Evers R, Heijn M, Ottenhoff R, Borst P, Oude Elferink RP: Canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter/multidrug resistance protein 2 mediates low-affinity transport of reduced glutathione. Biochem J. 1999 Mar 1;338 ( Pt 2):393-401. [PubMed:10024515]
  2. Hagmann W, Nies AT, Konig J, Frey M, Zentgraf H, Keppler D: Purification of the human apical conjugate export pump MRP2 reconstitution and functional characterization as substrate-stimulated ATPase. Eur J Biochem. 1999 Oct 1;265(1):281-9. [PubMed:10491184]
  3. Nishida T, Gatmaitan Z, Roy-Chowdhry J, Arias IM: Two distinct mechanisms for bilirubin glucuronide transport by rat bile canalicular membrane vesicles. Demonstration of defective ATP-dependent transport in rats (TR-) with inherited conjugated hyperbilirubinemia. J Clin Invest. 1992 Nov;90(5):2130-5. [PubMed:1430236]
  4. Stieger B, Fattinger K, Madon J, Kullak-Ublick GA, Meier PJ: Drug- and estrogen-induced cholestasis through inhibition of the hepatocellular bile salt export pump (Bsep) of rat liver. Gastroenterology. 2000 Feb;118(2):422-30. [PubMed:10648470]
  5. Madon J, Hagenbuch B, Landmann L, Meier PJ, Stieger B: Transport function and hepatocellular localization of mrp6 in rat liver. Mol Pharmacol. 2000 Mar;57(3):634-41. [PubMed:10692506]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
May act as an inducible transporter in the biliary and intestinal excretion of organic anions. Acts as an alternative route for the export of bile acids and glucuronides from cholestatic hepatocyte...
Gene Name
ABCC3
Uniprot ID
O15438
Uniprot Name
Canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 2
Molecular Weight
169341.14 Da
References
  1. Zelcer N, Saeki T, Reid G, Beijnen JH, Borst P: Characterization of drug transport by the human multidrug resistance protein 3 (ABCC3). J Biol Chem. 2001 Dec 7;276(49):46400-7. [PubMed:11581266]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Atpase activity, coupled to transmembrane movement of substances
Specific Function
May be an organic anion pump relevant to cellular detoxification.
Gene Name
ABCC4
Uniprot ID
O15439
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance-associated protein 4
Molecular Weight
149525.33 Da
References
  1. Lai L, Tan TM: Role of glutathione in the multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4/ABCC4)-mediated efflux of cAMP and resistance to purine analogues. Biochem J. 2002 Feb 1;361(Pt 3):497-503. [PubMed:11802779]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Acts as a multispecific organic anion pump which can transport nucleotide analogs.
Gene Name
ABCC5
Uniprot ID
O15440
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance-associated protein 5
Molecular Weight
160658.8 Da
References
  1. Minich T, Riemer J, Schulz JB, Wielinga P, Wijnholds J, Dringen R: The multidrug resistance protein 1 (Mrp1), but not Mrp5, mediates export of glutathione and glutathione disulfide from brain astrocytes. J Neurochem. 2006 Apr;97(2):373-84. Epub 2006 Mar 15. [PubMed:16539673]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 07, 2017 01:33