Identification

Name
Copper
Accession Number
DB09130
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Description

Copper is a transition metal and a trace element in the body. It is important to the function of many enzymes including cytochrome c oxidase, monoamine oxidase and superoxide dismutase [Label]. Copper is commonly used in contraceptive intrauterine devices (IUD) [5].

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • cobre
  • cuivre
  • cuprum
  • Kupfer
Active Moieties
NameKindUNIICASInChI Key
Cupric oxideunknownV1XJQ704R41317-38-0KKCXRELNMOYFLS-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Micro CuSolution0.4 mgIntravenousSandoz Canada Incorporated1993-12-31Not applicableCanada
ParaGard T 380AIntrauterine device313.4 mg/1IntrauterineTeva Women's Health2004-01-01Not applicableUs
ParaGard T 380AIntrauterine device313.4 mg/1IntrauterineCooperSurgical, Inc.2017-11-02Not applicableUs
ParaGard T380AIntrauterine device311 mg/1IntrauterineDuramed Pharmaceuticals Inc2007-08-042007-08-04Us
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Chela Copper Tab 3mgTablet3 mgOralNu Life Nutrition Ltd.1986-12-312000-03-03Canada
Chelated Copper Supplement - Tab 2mgTablet2 mgOralAlbion1996-09-062001-09-07Canada
Chelazome Copper Cap 5mgCapsule5 mgOralTrophic Canada Ltd.1987-12-312008-08-29Canada
Copper (gluconate) 2 Mg TabletsTablet2 mgOralGeneral Nutrition Canada Inc.1997-04-182006-08-03Canada
Copper Chelate - 5mg TabTablet5 mgOralProfessional Health Products1995-12-312010-05-10Canada
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
24 Multivitamins + MineralsCopper (1 mg) + Ascorbic acid (150 mg) + Beta carotene (10000 unit) + Biotin (25 mcg) + Calcium (130 mg) + Cholecalciferol (400 unit) + Choline bitartrate (25 mg) + Chromium (20 mcg) + Cyanocobalamin (25 mcg) + Ferrous fumarate (15 mg) + Folic Acid (.8 mg) + Inositol (25 mg) + Magnesium (65 mg) + Manganese (2 mg) + Molybdenum (20 mcg) + Niacin (25 mg) + Calcium pantothenate (25 mg) + Potassium (15 mg) + Potassium Iodide (.1 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (25 mg) + Racemethionine (25 mg) + Riboflavin (25 mg) + Selenium (20 mcg) + Thiamine hydrochloride (25 mg) + Vanadium (20 mcg) + Vitamin A palmitate (5000 unit) + Vitamin E (50 unit) + Zinc (10 mg)TabletOralStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.1997-04-302002-07-31Canada
50 Plus Multiple Vitamins & MineralsCopper (2 mg) + Ascorbic acid (90 mg) + Biotin (45 mcg) + Calcium (200 mg) + Cholecalciferol (400 unit) + Chromium (10 mcg) + Cyanocobalamin (25 mcg) + Folic Acid (0.4 mg) + Magnesium (100 mg) + Manganese (5 mg) + Molybdenum (25 mcg) + Nicotinamide (40 mg) + Pantothenic acid (10 mg) + Potassium Iodide (0.15 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (3 mg) + Riboflavin (3.2 mg) + Selenium (25 mcg) + Thiamine mononitrate (2.25 mg) + Vanadium (10 mcg) + Vitamin A palmitate (6000 unit) + Zinc (15 mg)TabletOralGfr Pharma Ltd.2002-10-202004-06-15Canada
A.R.T.H. Away FormulaCopper (0.232 mg) + Calcium (24 mg) + Cholecalciferol (45 unit) + Folic Acid (0.025 mg) + Manganese (0.58 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (0.5 mg) + Selenium (1.54 mcg) + Zinc (0.63 mg)CapsuleOralAbundance Marketing Ltd.1999-02-012006-06-16Canada
A/o-26 - CapletCopper (1 mg) + Beta carotene (7500 unit) + Calcium (75 mg) + Calcium ascorbate (250 mg) + DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate (100 unit) + Folic Acid (.4 mg) + Manganese (2.5 mg) + Racemethionine (50 mg) + Selenium (100 mcg) + Zinc (7.5 mg)TabletOralEnviro Tech International Canada1996-12-191999-07-26Canada
ActyformCopper (1 mg) + Iron (4.18 mg) + Magnesium (61.15 mg) + Zinc (9 mg)CapsuleOralTechnodiet S.E.N.C.1999-10-262008-08-13Canada
Advanced B & T FormulaCopper (0.5 mg) + Ascorbic acid (33.3 mg) + Calcium (200 mg) + Chromium (33.33 mcg) + Cyanocobalamin (6.67 mcg) + Folic Acid (0.133 mg) + Iron (1.67 mg) + Magnesium (83.3 mg) + Manganese (3.33 mg) + Nicotinamide (6.67 mg) + Calcium pantothenate (5 mg) + Phosphorus (100 mg) + Potassium (16.67 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (6.67 mg) + Riboflavin (2.67 mg) + Selenium (33.33 mcg) + Silicon (0.333 mg) + Sodium molybdate (16.67 mcg) + Thiamine (2.67 mg) + Vanadium (8.33 mg) + Vitamin D (66.67 unit) + Zinc (5 mg)CapsuleOralNutraceutical CorporationNot applicableNot applicableCanada
B & J Formula Dietary SupplementCopper (0.33 mg) + Ascorbic acid (16.6 mg) + Calcium (133.3 mg) + Cholecalciferol (33.3 unit) + Magnesium (66.6 mg) + Manganese (0.83 mg) + Zinc (2.5 mg)TabletOralGarden State NutritionalsNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Body RoxCopper (0.33 mg) + Beta carotene (3000.0 unit) + Biotin (100.0 mcg) + Calcium (75.0 mg) + Calcium ascorbate (167.0 mg) + Cholecalciferol (133.0 unit) + Choline bitartrate (15.0 mg) + Chromium (50.0 mcg) + Cyanocobalamin (20.0 mcg) + Folic Acid (0.267 mg) + Inositol (10.0 mg) + Magnesium (37.5 mg) + Manganese (1.0 mg) + Molybdenum (15.0 mcg) + Niacin (1.66 mg) + Nicotinamide (3.3 mg) + Calcium pantothenate (10.0 mg) + Potassium Iodide (0.05 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (3.0 mg) + Riboflavin (3.0 mg) + Selenium (40.0 mcg) + Silicon (1.0 mg) + Thiamine hydrochloride (3.0 mg) + Vanadium (10.0 mcg) + Zinc (4.0 mg) + alpha-Tocopherol succinate (66.7 unit)TabletOralUsana Health Sciences, Inc.2003-09-022008-06-27Canada
C. Vit-min FormulaCopper (5 mg) + Ascorbic acid (100 mg) + Biotin (30 mcg) + Calcium (175 mg) + Cholecalciferol (400 unit) + Choline (30 mg) + Chromium (50 mcg) + Cyanocobalamin (100 mcg) + Ferrous fumarate (10 mg) + Folic Acid (0.600 mg) + Inositol (30 mg) + Magnesium (80 mg) + Manganese (5 mg) + Molybdenum (25 mcg) + Nicotinamide (50 mg) + Calcium pantothenate (50 mg) + Potassium (40 mg) + Potassium Iodide (0.15 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (50 mg) + Racemethionine (3 mg) + Riboflavin (50 mg) + Sodium selenite (200 mcg) + Silicon (0.01 mg) + Thiamine (50 mg) + Vanadium (10 mcg) + Vitamin A (5000 unit) + Zinc (40 mg) + alpha-Tocopherol acetate (100 unit)TabletOralNutramed Laboratories Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
C.A.G. TabCopper (1 mg) + Ascorbic acid (250 mg) + Inositol (2.5 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (12.5 mg) + Riboflavin (12.5 mg) + Zinc (25 mg)TabletOralNutrition For Life International1996-11-272000-08-11Canada
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Cavan-EC SOD DHACopper (2 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (130 mg/1) + Beta carotene (3000 [iU]/1) + Calcium (230 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (410 [iU]/1) + Cyanocobalamin (12 ug/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Magnesium (25 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Omega-3 fatty acids (440 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (28 mg/1) + Riboflavin (4 mg/1) + Sodium feredetate (30 mg/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (1.8 mg/1) + Vitamin E (30 mg/1) + Zinc (26 mg/1)KitOralSeton Pharmaceuticals2010-01-102014-07-15Us
CitraNatal AssureCopper (2 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Calcium citrate tetrahydrate (125 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1) + Doconexent (300 mg/1) + Docusate sodium (50 mg/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Icosapent (0.75 mg/1) + Iodine (150 ug/1) + Iron (35 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (25 mg/1) + Riboflavin (3.4 mg/1) + Thiamine chloride (3 mg/1) + Vitamin E (30 [iU]/1) + Zinc (25 mg/1)KitMission Pharmacal2008-11-19Not applicableUs
CitraNatal AssureCopper (2 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Calcium citrate tetrahydrate (124 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1) + Doconexent (300 mg/1) + Docusate sodium (50 mg/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Icosapent (0.75 mg/1) + Iodine (150 ug/1) + Iron (35 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (25 mg/1) + Riboflavin (3.4 mg/1) + Thiamine chloride (3 mg/1) + Vitamin E (30 [iU]/1) + Zinc (25 mg/1)KitMission Pharmacal Company2014-04-30Not applicableUs
EscaviteCopper (1 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (100 mg/1) + Biotin (45 ug/1) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1) + Cyanocobalamin (9 ug/1) + Folic Acid (0.4 mg/1) + Iron (7.5 mg/1) + Magnesium (60 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Calcium pantothenate (10 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (2 mg/1) + Riboflavin (1.7 mg/1) + Sodium fluoride (0.25 mg/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (1.5 mg/1) + Vitamin A acetate (1000 [iU]/1) + Zinc (7.4 mg/1) + alpha-Tocopherol acetate (30 [iU]/1)Tablet, chewableOralGm Pharmaceuticals2012-02-01Not applicableUs
healthy mamaBE WELL ROUNDED BE WELL ROUNDEDCopper (2 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Beta carotene (4000 [iU]/1) + Biotin (30 ug/1) + Calcium Carbonate (200 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1) + DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate (30 [iU]/1) + Ferrous bisglycinate (28 mg/1) + Folic Acid (800 ug/1) + Magnesium oxide (30 mg/1) + Methylcobalamin (8 ug/1) + Niacin (20 mg/1) + Calcium pantothenate (10 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (2.6 mg/1) + Riboflavin (1.7 mg/1) + Thiamine chloride (1.8 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (25 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralMATERNAL SCIENCE, LLC2013-07-09Not applicableUs
M-Natal PlusCopper (2 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Calcium (200 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (12 ug/1) + Ferrous fumarate (27 mg/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Niacin (20 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (10 mg/1) + Riboflavin (3 mg/1) + Thiamine chloride (1.84 mg/1) + Vitamin A (4000 [iU]/1) + Vitamin D (400 [iU]/1) + Zinc (25 mg/1) + alpha-Tocopherol acetate (22 [iU]/1)TabletOralMethod Pharmaceuticals, LLC2018-10-01Not applicableUs
MacuvexCopper (1 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (250 mg/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Lutein (5 mg/1) + Zeaxanthin (1 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (40 mg/1) + alpha-Tocopherol acetate (200 [iU]/1)CapsuleOralSterling-knight Pharmaceuticals,LLC2014-11-162015-07-28Us
MacuzinCopper (2 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (500 mg/1) + DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate (400 [iU]/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Lutein (10 mg/1) + Zeaxanthin (2 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (80 mg/1)CapsuleOralSterling-Knight Pharmaceuticals, LLC2015-04-302018-08-01Us
Nata KompleteCopper (2 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Biotin (30 ug/1) + Calcium (100 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1) + Choline bitartrate (55 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (12 ug/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Iron (25 mg/1) + Magnesium (50 mg/1) + Niacin (20 mg/1) + Pantothenic acid (8 mg/1) + Pyridoxine (30 mg/1) + Riboflavin (3.5 mg/1) + Selenium (50 ug/1) + Thiamine chloride (3 mg/1) + Vitamin A (2700 [iU]/1) + Vitamin E (20 [iU]/1) + Zinc (15 mg/1)TabletOralWh Nutritionals, Llc2011-06-252014-05-31Us
Neonatal Plus VitaminCopper (2 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (20 mg/1) + Boron (0.2 mg/1) + Calcium (200 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (10 ug/1) + Citrus bioflavonoids (2 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (12 ug/1) + Ferrous fumarate (27 mg/1) + Folic Acid (1000 ug/1) + Inositol (5 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (10 mg/1) + Riboflavin (3 mg/1) + Thiamine chloride (1.84 mg/1) + Vitamin A (1200 ug/1) + Zinc oxide (25 mg/1) + alpha-Tocopherol acetate (9.2 mg/1)TabletOralNeomed Pharmaceutical2018-07-31Not applicableUs
Categories
UNII
789U1901C5
CAS number
7440-50-8
Weight
Average: 63.546
Monoisotopic: 62.929601079
Chemical Formula
Cu
InChI Key
RYGMFSIKBFXOCR-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/Cu
IUPAC Name
copper
SMILES
[Cu]

Pharmacology

Indication

For use in the supplementation of total parenteral nutrition and in contraception with intrauterine devices [Label] [5].

Associated Therapies
Pharmacodynamics

Copper is incorporated into many enzymes throughout the body as an essential part of their function [2]. Copper ions are known to reduce fertility when released from copper-containing IUDs [3].

Mechanism of action

Copper is absorbed from the gut via high affinity copper uptake protein and likely through low affinity copper uptake protein and natural resistance-associated macrophage protein-2 [4]. It is believed that copper is reduced to the Cu1+ form prior to transport. Once inside the enterocyte, it is bound to copper transport protein ATOX1 which shuttles the ion to copper transporting ATPase-1 on the golgi membrane which take up copper into the golgi apparatus. Once copper has been secreted by enterocytes into the systemic circulation it remain largely bound by ceruloplasmin (65-90%), albumin (18%), and alpha 2-macroglobulin (12%).

Copper is an essential element in the body and is incorporated into many oxidase enzymes as a cofactor [2]. It is also a component of zinc/copper super oxide dismutase, giving it an anti-oxidant role. Copper defiency occurs in Occipital Horn Syndrome and Menke's disease both of which are associated with impaired development of connective tissue due to the lack of copper to act as a cofactor in protein-lysine-6-oxidase. Menke's disease is also associated with progressive neurological impairment leading to death in infancy. The precise mechanisms of the effects of copper deficiency are vague due to the wide range of enzymes which use the ion as a cofactor.

Copper appears to reduce the viabilty and motility of spermatozoa [3]. This reduces the likelyhood of fertilization with a copper IUD, producing copper's contraceptive effect [3]. The exact mechanism of copper's effect on sperm are unknown.

TargetActionsOrganism
UAmyloid beta A4 protein
aggregation inhibitor
Human
UAdenosylhomocysteinase
allosteric modulator
Human
UHistone H2B type 1-C/E/F/G/INot AvailableHuman
UGlyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenaseNot AvailableHuman
UNucleoside diphosphate kinase ANot AvailableHuman
UHistone H1.4Not AvailableHuman
UPeroxiredoxin-1Not AvailableHuman
UProtein S100-A8Not AvailableHuman
U40S ribosomal protein SANot AvailableHuman
UActin, cytoplasmic 2Not AvailableHuman
UAlpha-enolaseNot AvailableHuman
UElongation factor 1-alpha 1Not AvailableHuman
UKeratin, type II cytoskeletal 8Not AvailableHuman
UProtein disulfide-isomeraseNot AvailableHuman
UProtein disulfide-isomerase A3Not AvailableHuman
U60 kDa heat shock protein, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UHeat shock 70 kDa protein 13Not AvailableHuman
U78 kDa glucose-regulated proteinNot AvailableHuman
UEndoplasminNot AvailableHuman
USerotransferrinNot AvailableHuman
UCell growth-regulating nucleolar proteinNot AvailableMouse
U40S ribosomal protein S2Not AvailableHuman
USerine/arginine-rich splicing factor 1Not AvailableHuman
UHeterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins A2/B1Not AvailableHuman
UHeterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein HNot AvailableHuman
UHeterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H3Not AvailableHuman
UCobalt-precorrin-5B C(1)-methyltransferaseNot AvailableTreponema denticola (strain ATCC 35405 / CIP 103919 / DSM 14222)
UHeterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein LNot AvailableHuman
USplicing factor, proline- and glutamine-richNot AvailableHuman
USplicing factor 3A subunit 2Not AvailableHuman
UReceptor of activated protein C kinase 1Not AvailableHuman
UAlpha-actinin-1Not AvailableHuman
UAminoacylase-1Not AvailableHuman
UAnnexin A4Not AvailableHuman
UAnnexin A5Not AvailableHuman
UCalreticulinNot AvailableHuman
UPyruvate kinase PKMNot AvailableHuman
UAlcohol dehydrogenase [NADP(+)]Not AvailableHuman
UNADH-cytochrome b5 reductase 3Not AvailableHuman
UGlutathione reductase, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UTransketolaseNot AvailableHuman
UPeroxiredoxin-2Not AvailableHuman
UPeroxiredoxin-6Not AvailableHuman
UPeptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase ANot AvailableHuman
UHeat shock cognate 71 kDa proteinNot AvailableHuman
UHeat shock protein HSP 90-alphaNot AvailableHuman
UProstaglandin E synthase 3Not AvailableHuman
UStress-induced-phosphoprotein 1Not AvailableHuman
UTranslation elongation factor 1 alpha 1-like 14Not AvailableHuman
UEukaryotic translation initiation factor 6Not AvailableHuman
UEukaryotic initiation factor 4A-INot AvailableHuman
UGlucose-6-phosphate isomeraseNot AvailableHuman
UL-lactate dehydrogenase A chainNot AvailableHuman
UPhosphoglycerate kinase 1Not AvailableHuman
UTubulin alpha-3C/D chainNot AvailableHuman
UTubulin beta chainNot AvailableHuman
UCofilin-1Not AvailableHuman
U14-3-3 protein beta/alphaNot AvailableHuman
UAspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmicNot AvailableHuman
UGlutathione synthetaseNot AvailableHuman
UHepatoma-derived growth factorNot AvailableHuman
UIsocitrate dehydrogenase [NAD] subunit alpha, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UChloride intracellular channel protein 1Not AvailableHuman
UProteasome activator complex subunit 1Not AvailableHuman
UPhosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein 1Not AvailableHuman
UPhosphoglycerate mutase 1Not AvailableHuman
URan-specific GTPase-activating proteinNot AvailableHuman
UUDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenaseNot AvailableHuman
UBeta-2-microglobulinNot AvailableHuman
UProtein SCO1 homolog, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UAlternative prion proteinNot AvailableHuman
UGlycine receptor subunit alpha-1Not AvailableHuman
UHuntingtinNot AvailableHuman
UEndonuclease 8-like 1Not AvailableHuman
UEndonuclease 8-like 2Not AvailableHuman
UHephaestin-like protein 1
cofactor
Human
UPlasminogen activator inhibitor 1Not AvailableHuman
UProtein S100-A2Not AvailableHuman
UProtein S100-A4Not AvailableHuman
UAlpha-synucleinNot AvailableHuman
UBrain-derived neurotrophic factor
cofactor
Human
UProtein DJ-1Not AvailableHuman
UIslet amyloid polypeptideNot AvailableHuman
UTachykinin-3Not AvailableHuman
UAlpha-1B-glycoproteinNot AvailableHuman
UAfaminNot AvailableHuman
UAngiotensinogenNot AvailableHuman
UAlpha-2-HS-glycoproteinNot AvailableHuman
USerum amyloid P-componentNot AvailableHuman
UApolipoprotein A-INot AvailableHuman
UApolipoprotein A-IINot AvailableHuman
UApolipoprotein A-IVNot AvailableHuman
UApolipoprotein B receptorNot AvailableHuman
UApolipoprotein C-IINot AvailableHuman
UApolipoprotein C-IIINot AvailableHuman
UApolipoprotein DNot AvailableHuman
UApolipoprotein ENot AvailableHuman
UBeta-2-glycoprotein 1Not AvailableHuman
UZinc-alpha-2-glycoproteinNot AvailableHuman
UComplement C1q subcomponent subunit CNot AvailableHuman
UComplement C1s subcomponentNot AvailableHuman
UComplement C3Not AvailableHuman
UComplement C4-BNot AvailableHuman
UC4b-binding protein alpha chainNot AvailableHuman
UComplement C5Not AvailableHuman
UComplement component C8 beta chainNot AvailableHuman
UComplement component C9Not AvailableHuman
UComplement factor HNot AvailableHuman
UComplement factor INot AvailableHuman
UTetranectinNot AvailableHuman
UClusterinNot AvailableHuman
UProthrombinNot AvailableHuman
UComplement component 1 Q subcomponent-binding protein, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UGelsolinNot AvailableHuman
UHemoglobin subunit alphaNot AvailableHuman
UHemoglobin subunit betaNot AvailableHuman
UChromobox protein homolog 5Not AvailableHuman
UHaptoglobin-related proteinNot AvailableHuman
UInsulin-like growth factor-binding protein complex acid labile subunitNot AvailableHuman
UIg gamma-1 chain C regionNot AvailableHuman
UIg gamma-4 chain C regionNot AvailableHuman
UIg kappa chain V-III region GOLNot AvailableHuman
UImmunoglobulin lambda-like polypeptide 1Not AvailableHuman
UInter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H2Not AvailableHuman
UKininogen-1Not AvailableHuman
UKeratin, type II cytoskeletal 1Not AvailableHuman
UKeratin, type I cytoskeletal 10Not AvailableHuman
UKeratin, type II cytoskeletal 2 epidermalNot AvailableHuman
UKeratin, type I cytoskeletal 9Not AvailableHuman
ULeucine-rich alpha-2-glycoproteinNot AvailableHuman
ULumicanNot AvailableHuman
UN-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidaseNot AvailableHuman
UPlasminogenNot AvailableHuman
USerum paraoxonase/arylesterase 1Not AvailableHuman
UPlatelet basic proteinNot AvailableHuman
UAlpha-1-antitrypsinNot AvailableHuman
UKallistatinNot AvailableHuman
UCorticosteroid-binding globulinNot AvailableHuman
UThyroxine-binding globulinNot AvailableHuman
UAntithrombin-IIINot AvailableHuman
UHeparin cofactor 2Not AvailableHuman
UPigment epithelium-derived factorNot AvailableHuman
UAlpha-2-antiplasminNot AvailableHuman
UPlasma protease C1 inhibitorNot AvailableHuman
UTransthyretinNot AvailableHuman
UVitronectinNot AvailableHuman
UAmyloid-like protein 1
cofactor
Human
Absorption

Copper absorption varies inversely with intake. Absorption range is 12-65%.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

Copper is nearly entirely bound by ceruloplasmin (65-90%), plasma albumin (18%), and alpha 2-macroglobulin (12%) [4].

Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination

Copper appears to be eliminated primarily through bile [1].

Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Copper toxicity is belevied to be due to fenton-type redox reactions occuring with high copper concentrations which produce damaging reactive oxygen species [1].

Affected organisms
Not Available
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
Not Available
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
  1. Bost M, Houdart S, Oberli M, Kalonji E, Huneau JF, Margaritis I: Dietary copper and human health: Current evidence and unresolved issues. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2016 May;35:107-15. doi: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2016.02.006. Epub 2016 Mar 5. [PubMed:27049134]
  2. Tapiero H, Townsend DM, Tew KD: Trace elements in human physiology and pathology. Copper. Biomed Pharmacother. 2003 Nov;57(9):386-98. [PubMed:14652164]
  3. Ortiz ME, Croxatto HB: Copper-T intrauterine device and levonorgestrel intrauterine system: biological bases of their mechanism of action. Contraception. 2007 Jun;75(6 Suppl):S16-30. Epub 2007 Mar 29. [PubMed:17531610]
  4. van den Berghe PV, Klomp LW: New developments in the regulation of intestinal copper absorption. Nutr Rev. 2009 Nov;67(11):658-72. doi: 10.1111/j.1753-4887.2009.00250.x. [PubMed:19906252]
  5. Product Monograph: Copper IUD [Link]
External Links
KEGG Compound
C00070
PubChem Compound
23978
PubChem Substance
310265045
ChemSpider
22414
ChEBI
28694
PharmGKB
PA449114
Wikipedia
Copper
AHFS Codes
  • 88:29.00* — Minerals
  • 40:12.00 — Replacement Preparations
FDA label
Download (139 KB)
MSDS
Download (107 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1RecruitingTreatmentProstate Cancer1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentAmyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)1
1, 2SuspendedTreatmentGlioblastoma Multiforme (GBM)1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentRecurrent Glioblastoma1
2CompletedTreatmentCentral Serous Chorioretinopathy (CSC)1
2CompletedTreatmentNon-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentGlioblastoma Multiforme (GBM)1
2RecruitingTreatmentBreast Neoplasm Female / Metastatic Breast Cancer (MBC)1
4RecruitingBasic ScienceHormonal Contraception1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
KitOral
TabletOral3 mg
CapsuleOral5 mg
Kit
Tablet, extended releaseOral
TabletOral2 mg
TabletOral5 mg
Tablet, effervescentOral
Tablet, chewableOral
Tablet, film coatedOral
PowderOral
SolutionIntravenous
SolutionIntravenous0.4 mg
LiquidIntravenous
Intrauterine deviceIntrauterine313.4 mg/1
Intrauterine deviceIntrauterine311 mg/1
CapsuleOral
Capsule, gelatin coatedOral
Tablet, coatedOral
Capsule, liquid filledOral
TabletOral
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)1083MSDS
boiling point (°C)2597MSDS
water solubility8.96g/mLMSDS
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP0.16ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity0 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability1.78 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as homogeneous transition metal compounds. These are inorganic compounds containing only metal atoms,with the largest atom being a transition metal atom.
Kingdom
Inorganic compounds
Super Class
Homogeneous metal compounds
Class
Homogeneous transition metal compounds
Sub Class
Not Available
Direct Parent
Homogeneous transition metal compounds
Alternative Parents
Not Available
Substituents
Homogeneous transition metal
Molecular Framework
Not Available
External Descriptors
elemental copper (CHEBI:30052)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Aggregation inhibitor
General Function
Transition metal ion binding
Specific Function
Functions as a cell surface receptor and performs physiological functions on the surface of neurons relevant to neurite growth, neuronal adhesion and axonogenesis. Involved in cell mobility and tra...
Gene Name
APP
Uniprot ID
P05067
Uniprot Name
Amyloid beta A4 protein
Molecular Weight
86942.715 Da
References
  1. Tapiero H, Townsend DM, Tew KD: Trace elements in human physiology and pathology. Copper. Biomed Pharmacother. 2003 Nov;57(9):386-98. [PubMed:14652164]
  2. Suzuki K, Miura T, Takeuchi H: Inhibitory effect of copper(II) on zinc(II)-induced aggregation of amyloid beta-peptide. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001 Jul 27;285(4):991-6. [PubMed:11467850]
  3. White AR, Multhaup G, Galatis D, McKinstry WJ, Parker MW, Pipkorn R, Beyreuther K, Masters CL, Cappai R: Contrasting, species-dependent modulation of copper-mediated neurotoxicity by the Alzheimer's disease amyloid precursor protein. J Neurosci. 2002 Jan 15;22(2):365-76. [PubMed:11784781]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Allosteric modulator
General Function
Nad binding
Specific Function
Adenosylhomocysteine is a competitive inhibitor of S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent methyl transferase reactions; therefore adenosylhomocysteinase may play a key role in the control of methylation...
Gene Name
AHCY
Uniprot ID
P23526
Uniprot Name
Adenosylhomocysteinase
Molecular Weight
47715.715 Da
References
  1. Li Y, Chen J, Liu J, Yang X, Wang K: Binding of Cu2+ to S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase. J Inorg Biochem. 2004 Jun;98(6):977-83. [PubMed:15149804]
  2. Tapiero H, Townsend DM, Tew KD: Trace elements in human physiology and pathology. Copper. Biomed Pharmacother. 2003 Nov;57(9):386-98. [PubMed:14652164]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Dna binding
Specific Function
Core component of nucleosome. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a centra...
Gene Name
HIST1H2BC
Uniprot ID
P62807
Uniprot Name
Histone H2B type 1-C/E/F/G/I
Molecular Weight
13906.035 Da
References
  1. She YM, Narindrasorasak S, Yang S, Spitale N, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Identification of metal-binding proteins in human hepatoma lines by immobilized metal affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2003 Dec;2(12):1306-18. Epub 2003 Oct 7. [PubMed:14534351]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Peptidyl-cysteine s-nitrosylase activity
Specific Function
Has both glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and nitrosylase activities, thereby playing a role in glycolysis and nuclear functions, respectively. Participates in nuclear events including tran...
Gene Name
GAPDH
Uniprot ID
P04406
Uniprot Name
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase
Molecular Weight
36053.0 Da
References
  1. She YM, Narindrasorasak S, Yang S, Spitale N, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Identification of metal-binding proteins in human hepatoma lines by immobilized metal affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2003 Dec;2(12):1306-18. Epub 2003 Oct 7. [PubMed:14534351]
  2. Smith SD, She YM, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Using immobilized metal affinity chromatography, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify hepatocellular proteins with copper-binding ability. J Proteome Res. 2004 Jul-Aug;3(4):834-40. [PubMed:15359738]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Ribosomal small subunit binding
Specific Function
Major role in the synthesis of nucleoside triphosphates other than ATP. The ATP gamma phosphate is transferred to the NDP beta phosphate via a ping-pong mechanism, using a phosphorylated active-sit...
Gene Name
NME1
Uniprot ID
P15531
Uniprot Name
Nucleoside diphosphate kinase A
Molecular Weight
17148.635 Da
References
  1. She YM, Narindrasorasak S, Yang S, Spitale N, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Identification of metal-binding proteins in human hepatoma lines by immobilized metal affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2003 Dec;2(12):1306-18. Epub 2003 Oct 7. [PubMed:14534351]
  2. Smith SD, She YM, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Using immobilized metal affinity chromatography, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify hepatocellular proteins with copper-binding ability. J Proteome Res. 2004 Jul-Aug;3(4):834-40. [PubMed:15359738]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Poly(a) rna binding
Specific Function
Histone H1 protein binds to linker DNA between nucleosomes forming the macromolecular structure known as the chromatin fiber. Histones H1 are necessary for the condensation of nucleosome chains int...
Gene Name
HIST1H1E
Uniprot ID
P10412
Uniprot Name
Histone H1.4
Molecular Weight
21865.02 Da
References
  1. She YM, Narindrasorasak S, Yang S, Spitale N, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Identification of metal-binding proteins in human hepatoma lines by immobilized metal affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2003 Dec;2(12):1306-18. Epub 2003 Oct 7. [PubMed:14534351]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Thioredoxin peroxidase activity
Specific Function
Involved in redox regulation of the cell. Reduces peroxides with reducing equivalents provided through the thioredoxin system but not from glutaredoxin. May play an important role in eliminating pe...
Gene Name
PRDX1
Uniprot ID
Q06830
Uniprot Name
Peroxiredoxin-1
Molecular Weight
22110.19 Da
References
  1. She YM, Narindrasorasak S, Yang S, Spitale N, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Identification of metal-binding proteins in human hepatoma lines by immobilized metal affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2003 Dec;2(12):1306-18. Epub 2003 Oct 7. [PubMed:14534351]
  2. Smith SD, She YM, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Using immobilized metal affinity chromatography, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify hepatocellular proteins with copper-binding ability. J Proteome Res. 2004 Jul-Aug;3(4):834-40. [PubMed:15359738]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
S100A8 is a calcium- and zinc-binding protein which plays a prominent role in the regulation of inflammatory processes and immune response. It can induce neutrophil chemotaxis and adhesion. Predominantly found as calprotectin (S100A8/A9) which has a wide plethora of intra- and extracellular functions. The intracellular functions include: facilitating leukocyte arachidonic acid trafficking and metabolism, modulation of the tubulin-dependent cytoskeleton during migration of phagocytes and activation of the neutrophilic NADPH-oxidase. Activates NADPH-oxidase by facilitating the enzyme complex assembly at the cell membrane, transferring arachidonic acid, an essential cofactor, to the enzyme complex and S100A8 contributes to the enzyme assembly by directly binding to NCF2/P67PHOX. The extracellular functions involve proinfammatory, antimicrobial, oxidant-scavenging and apoptosis-inducing activities. Its proinflammatory activity includes recruitment of leukocytes, promotion of cytokine and chemokine production, and regulation of leukocyte adhesion and migration. Acts as an alarmin or a danger associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule and stimulates innate immune cells via binding to pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (AGER). Binding to TLR4 and AGER activates the MAP-kinase and NF-kappa-B signaling pathways resulting in the amplification of the proinflammatory cascade. Has antimicrobial activity towards bacteria and fungi and exerts its antimicrobial activity probably via chelation of Zn(2+) which is essential for microbial growth. Can induce cell death via autophagy and apoptosis and this occurs through the cross-talk of mitochondria and lysosomes via reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the process involves BNIP3. Can regulate neutrophil number and apoptosis by an anti-apoptotic effect; regulates cell survival via ITGAM/ITGB and TLR4 and a signaling mechanism involving MEK-ERK. Its role as an oxidant scavenger has a protective role in preventing exaggerated tissue damage by scavenging oxidants. Can act as a potent amplifier of inflammation in autoimmunity as well as in cancer development and tumor spread. The iNOS-S100A8/A9 transnitrosylase complex directs selective inflammatory stimulus-dependent S-nitrosylation of GAPDH and probably multiple targets such as ANXA5, EZR, MSN and VIM by recognizing a [IL]-x-C-x-x-[DE] motif; S100A8 seems to contribute to S-nitrosylation site selectivity.
Specific Function
Arachidonic acid binding
Gene Name
S100A8
Uniprot ID
P05109
Uniprot Name
Protein S100-A8
Molecular Weight
10834.43 Da
References
  1. She YM, Narindrasorasak S, Yang S, Spitale N, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Identification of metal-binding proteins in human hepatoma lines by immobilized metal affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2003 Dec;2(12):1306-18. Epub 2003 Oct 7. [PubMed:14534351]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Virus receptor activity
Specific Function
Required for the assembly and/or stability of the 40S ribosomal subunit. Required for the processing of the 20S rRNA-precursor to mature 18S rRNA in a late step of the maturation of 40S ribosomal s...
Gene Name
RPSA
Uniprot ID
P08865
Uniprot Name
40S ribosomal protein SA
Molecular Weight
32853.79 Da
References
  1. She YM, Narindrasorasak S, Yang S, Spitale N, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Identification of metal-binding proteins in human hepatoma lines by immobilized metal affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2003 Dec;2(12):1306-18. Epub 2003 Oct 7. [PubMed:14534351]
  2. Smith SD, She YM, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Using immobilized metal affinity chromatography, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify hepatocellular proteins with copper-binding ability. J Proteome Res. 2004 Jul-Aug;3(4):834-40. [PubMed:15359738]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Specific Function
Actins are highly conserved proteins that are involved in various types of cell motility and are ubiquitously expressed in all eukaryotic cells.
Gene Name
ACTG1
Uniprot ID
P63261
Uniprot Name
Actin, cytoplasmic 2
Molecular Weight
41792.48 Da
References
  1. She YM, Narindrasorasak S, Yang S, Spitale N, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Identification of metal-binding proteins in human hepatoma lines by immobilized metal affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2003 Dec;2(12):1306-18. Epub 2003 Oct 7. [PubMed:14534351]
  2. Smith SD, She YM, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Using immobilized metal affinity chromatography, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify hepatocellular proteins with copper-binding ability. J Proteome Res. 2004 Jul-Aug;3(4):834-40. [PubMed:15359738]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Transcription factor activity, sequence-specific dna binding
Specific Function
Multifunctional enzyme that, as well as its role in glycolysis, plays a part in various processes such as growth control, hypoxia tolerance and allergic responses. May also function in the intravas...
Gene Name
ENO1
Uniprot ID
P06733
Uniprot Name
Alpha-enolase
Molecular Weight
47168.555 Da
References
  1. She YM, Narindrasorasak S, Yang S, Spitale N, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Identification of metal-binding proteins in human hepatoma lines by immobilized metal affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2003 Dec;2(12):1306-18. Epub 2003 Oct 7. [PubMed:14534351]
  2. Smith SD, She YM, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Using immobilized metal affinity chromatography, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify hepatocellular proteins with copper-binding ability. J Proteome Res. 2004 Jul-Aug;3(4):834-40. [PubMed:15359738]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Trna binding
Specific Function
This protein promotes the GTP-dependent binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to the A-site of ribosomes during protein biosynthesis. With PARP1 and TXK, forms a complex that acts as a T helper 1 (Th1) cell-sp...
Gene Name
EEF1A1
Uniprot ID
P68104
Uniprot Name
Elongation factor 1-alpha 1
Molecular Weight
50140.565 Da
References
  1. She YM, Narindrasorasak S, Yang S, Spitale N, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Identification of metal-binding proteins in human hepatoma lines by immobilized metal affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2003 Dec;2(12):1306-18. Epub 2003 Oct 7. [PubMed:14534351]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Structural molecule activity
Specific Function
Together with KRT19, helps to link the contractile apparatus to dystrophin at the costameres of striated muscle.
Gene Name
KRT8
Uniprot ID
P05787
Uniprot Name
Keratin, type II cytoskeletal 8
Molecular Weight
53703.76 Da
References
  1. She YM, Narindrasorasak S, Yang S, Spitale N, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Identification of metal-binding proteins in human hepatoma lines by immobilized metal affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2003 Dec;2(12):1306-18. Epub 2003 Oct 7. [PubMed:14534351]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Protein heterodimerization activity
Specific Function
This multifunctional protein catalyzes the formation, breakage and rearrangement of disulfide bonds. At the cell surface, seems to act as a reductase that cleaves disulfide bonds of proteins attach...
Gene Name
P4HB
Uniprot ID
P07237
Uniprot Name
Protein disulfide-isomerase
Molecular Weight
57115.795 Da
References
  1. She YM, Narindrasorasak S, Yang S, Spitale N, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Identification of metal-binding proteins in human hepatoma lines by immobilized metal affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2003 Dec;2(12):1306-18. Epub 2003 Oct 7. [PubMed:14534351]
  2. Smith SD, She YM, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Using immobilized metal affinity chromatography, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify hepatocellular proteins with copper-binding ability. J Proteome Res. 2004 Jul-Aug;3(4):834-40. [PubMed:15359738]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Cysteine-type endopeptidase activity
Gene Name
PDIA3
Uniprot ID
P30101
Uniprot Name
Protein disulfide-isomerase A3
Molecular Weight
56781.84 Da
References
  1. She YM, Narindrasorasak S, Yang S, Spitale N, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Identification of metal-binding proteins in human hepatoma lines by immobilized metal affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2003 Dec;2(12):1306-18. Epub 2003 Oct 7. [PubMed:14534351]
  2. Smith SD, She YM, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Using immobilized metal affinity chromatography, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify hepatocellular proteins with copper-binding ability. J Proteome Res. 2004 Jul-Aug;3(4):834-40. [PubMed:15359738]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Chaperonin implicated in mitochondrial protein import and macromolecular assembly. Together with Hsp10, facilitates the correct folding of imported proteins. May also prevent misfolding and promote the refolding and proper assembly of unfolded polypeptides generated under stress conditions in the mitochondrial matrix (PubMed:1346131, PubMed:11422376). The functional units of these chaperonins consist of heptameric rings of the large subunit Hsp60, which function as a back-to-back double ring. In a cyclic reaction, Hsp60 ring complexes bind one unfolded substrate protein per ring, followed by the binding of ATP and association with 2 heptameric rings of the co-chaperonin Hsp10. This leads to sequestration of the substrate protein in the inner cavity of Hsp60 where, for a certain period of time, it can fold undisturbed by other cell components. Synchronous hydrolysis of ATP in all Hsp60 subunits results in the dissociation of the chaperonin rings and the release of ADP and the folded substrate protein (Probable).
Specific Function
Apolipoprotein a-i binding
Gene Name
HSPD1
Uniprot ID
P10809
Uniprot Name
60 kDa heat shock protein, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
61054.17 Da
References
  1. She YM, Narindrasorasak S, Yang S, Spitale N, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Identification of metal-binding proteins in human hepatoma lines by immobilized metal affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2003 Dec;2(12):1306-18. Epub 2003 Oct 7. [PubMed:14534351]
  2. Smith SD, She YM, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Using immobilized metal affinity chromatography, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify hepatocellular proteins with copper-binding ability. J Proteome Res. 2004 Jul-Aug;3(4):834-40. [PubMed:15359738]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Has peptide-independent ATPase activity.
Specific Function
Atp binding
Gene Name
HSPA13
Uniprot ID
P48723
Uniprot Name
Heat shock 70 kDa protein 13
Molecular Weight
51927.08 Da
References
  1. She YM, Narindrasorasak S, Yang S, Spitale N, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Identification of metal-binding proteins in human hepatoma lines by immobilized metal affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2003 Dec;2(12):1306-18. Epub 2003 Oct 7. [PubMed:14534351]
  2. Smith SD, She YM, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Using immobilized metal affinity chromatography, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify hepatocellular proteins with copper-binding ability. J Proteome Res. 2004 Jul-Aug;3(4):834-40. [PubMed:15359738]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Unfolded protein binding
Specific Function
Probably plays a role in facilitating the assembly of multimeric protein complexes inside the endoplasmic reticulum. Involved in the correct folding of proteins and degradation of misfolded protein...
Gene Name
HSPA5
Uniprot ID
P11021
Uniprot Name
78 kDa glucose-regulated protein
Molecular Weight
72332.425 Da
References
  1. She YM, Narindrasorasak S, Yang S, Spitale N, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Identification of metal-binding proteins in human hepatoma lines by immobilized metal affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2003 Dec;2(12):1306-18. Epub 2003 Oct 7. [PubMed:14534351]
  2. Smith SD, She YM, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Using immobilized metal affinity chromatography, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify hepatocellular proteins with copper-binding ability. J Proteome Res. 2004 Jul-Aug;3(4):834-40. [PubMed:15359738]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Virion binding
Specific Function
Molecular chaperone that functions in the processing and transport of secreted proteins. When associated with CNPY3, required for proper folding of Toll-like receptors (By similarity). Functions in...
Gene Name
HSP90B1
Uniprot ID
P14625
Uniprot Name
Endoplasmin
Molecular Weight
92468.06 Da
References
  1. She YM, Narindrasorasak S, Yang S, Spitale N, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Identification of metal-binding proteins in human hepatoma lines by immobilized metal affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2003 Dec;2(12):1306-18. Epub 2003 Oct 7. [PubMed:14534351]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Transferrin receptor binding
Specific Function
Transferrins are iron binding transport proteins which can bind two Fe(3+) ions in association with the binding of an anion, usually bicarbonate. It is responsible for the transport of iron from si...
Gene Name
TF
Uniprot ID
P02787
Uniprot Name
Serotransferrin
Molecular Weight
77063.195 Da
References
  1. She YM, Narindrasorasak S, Yang S, Spitale N, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Identification of metal-binding proteins in human hepatoma lines by immobilized metal affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2003 Dec;2(12):1306-18. Epub 2003 Oct 7. [PubMed:14534351]
  2. Smith SD, She YM, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Using immobilized metal affinity chromatography, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify hepatocellular proteins with copper-binding ability. J Proteome Res. 2004 Jul-Aug;3(4):834-40. [PubMed:15359738]
  3. Luo LZ, Jin HW, Huang L, Huang HQ: Different binding affinities of Pb2+ and Cu2+ to glycosylation variants of human serum transferrin interfere with the detection of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2011 Dec;144(1-3):487-95. doi: 10.1007/s12011-011-9150-6. Epub 2011 Jul 27. [PubMed:21792595]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Mouse
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Metal ion binding
Gene Name
Lyar
Uniprot ID
Q08288
Uniprot Name
Cell growth-regulating nucleolar protein
Molecular Weight
43735.435 Da
References
  1. Smith SD, She YM, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Using immobilized metal affinity chromatography, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify hepatocellular proteins with copper-binding ability. J Proteome Res. 2004 Jul-Aug;3(4):834-40. [PubMed:15359738]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Cadherin binding
Gene Name
RPS2
Uniprot ID
P15880
Uniprot Name
40S ribosomal protein S2
Molecular Weight
31324.22 Da
References
  1. Smith SD, She YM, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Using immobilized metal affinity chromatography, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify hepatocellular proteins with copper-binding ability. J Proteome Res. 2004 Jul-Aug;3(4):834-40. [PubMed:15359738]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Plays a role in preventing exon skipping, ensuring the accuracy of splicing and regulating alternative splicing. Interacts with other spliceosomal components, via the RS domains, to form a bridge between the 5'- and 3'-splice site binding components, U1 snRNP and U2AF. Can stimulate binding of U1 snRNP to a 5'-splice site-containing pre-mRNA. Binds to purine-rich RNA sequences, either the octamer, 5'-RGAAGAAC-3' (r=A or G) or the decamers, AGGACAGAGC/AGGACGAAGC. Binds preferentially to the 5'-CGAGGCG-3' motif in vitro. Three copies of the octamer constitute a powerful splicing enhancer in vitro, the ASF/SF2 splicing enhancer (ASE) which can specifically activate ASE-dependent splicing. Isoform ASF-2 and isoform ASF-3 act as splicing repressors. May function as export adapter involved in mRNA nuclear export through the TAP/NXF1 pathway.
Specific Function
Dna topoisomerase binding
Gene Name
SRSF1
Uniprot ID
Q07955
Uniprot Name
Serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 1
Molecular Weight
27744.335 Da
References
  1. Smith SD, She YM, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Using immobilized metal affinity chromatography, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify hepatocellular proteins with copper-binding ability. J Proteome Res. 2004 Jul-Aug;3(4):834-40. [PubMed:15359738]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) that associates with nascent pre-mRNAs, packaging them into hnRNP particles. The hnRNP particle arrangement on nascent hnRNA is non-random and sequence-dependent and serves to condense and stabilize the transcripts and minimize tangling and knotting. Packaging plays a role in various processes such as transcription, pre-mRNA processing, RNA nuclear export, subcellular location, mRNA translation and stability of mature mRNAs (PubMed:19099192). Forms hnRNP particles with at least 20 other different hnRNP and heterogeneous nuclear RNA in the nucleus. Involved in transport of specific mRNAs to the cytoplasm in oligodendrocytes and neurons: acts by specifically recognizing and binding the A2RE (21 nucleotide hnRNP A2 response element) or the A2RE11 (derivative 11 nucleotide oligonucleotide) sequence motifs present on some mRNAs, and promotes their transport to the cytoplasm (PubMed:10567417). Specifically binds single-stranded telomeric DNA sequences, protecting telomeric DNA repeat against endonuclease digestion (By similarity). Also binds other RNA molecules, such as primary miRNA (pri-miRNAs): acts as a nuclear 'reader' of the N6-methyladenosine (m6A) mark by specifically recognizing and binding a subset of nuclear m6A-containing pri-miRNAs. Binding to m6A-containing pri-miRNAs promotes pri-miRNA processing by enhancing binding of DGCR8 to pri-miRNA transcripts (PubMed:26321680). Involved in miRNA sorting into exosomes following sumoylation, possibly by binding (m6A)-containing pre-miRNAs (PubMed:24356509). Acts as a regulator of efficiency of mRNA splicing, possibly by binding to m6A-containing pre-mRNAs (PubMed:26321680).
Specific Function
G-rich strand telomeric dna binding
Gene Name
HNRNPA2B1
Uniprot ID
P22626
Uniprot Name
Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins A2/B1
Molecular Weight
37429.71 Da
References
  1. Smith SD, She YM, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Using immobilized metal affinity chromatography, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify hepatocellular proteins with copper-binding ability. J Proteome Res. 2004 Jul-Aug;3(4):834-40. [PubMed:15359738]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
This protein is a component of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) complexes which provide the substrate for the processing events that pre-mRNAs undergo before becoming functional, translatable mRNAs in the cytoplasm. Mediates pre-mRNA alternative splicing regulation. Inhibits, together with CUGBP1, insulin receptor (IR) pre-mRNA exon 11 inclusion in myoblast. Binds to the IR RNA. Binds poly(RG).
Specific Function
Poly(u) rna binding
Gene Name
HNRNPH1
Uniprot ID
P31943
Uniprot Name
Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H
Molecular Weight
49229.25 Da
References
  1. Smith SD, She YM, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Using immobilized metal affinity chromatography, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify hepatocellular proteins with copper-binding ability. J Proteome Res. 2004 Jul-Aug;3(4):834-40. [PubMed:15359738]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Involved in the splicing process and participates in early heat shock-induced splicing arrest. Due to their great structural variations the different isoforms may possess different functions in the splicing reaction.
Specific Function
Rna binding
Gene Name
HNRNPH3
Uniprot ID
P31942
Uniprot Name
Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H3
Molecular Weight
36926.445 Da
References
  1. Smith SD, She YM, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Using immobilized metal affinity chromatography, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify hepatocellular proteins with copper-binding ability. J Proteome Res. 2004 Jul-Aug;3(4):834-40. [PubMed:15359738]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Treponema denticola (strain ATCC 35405 / CIP 103919 / DSM 14222)
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Catalyzes the methylation of C-1 in cobalt-precorrin-5B to form cobalt-precorrin-6A.
Specific Function
Methyltransferase activity
Gene Name
cbiD
Uniprot ID
P61987
Uniprot Name
Cobalt-precorrin-5B C(1)-methyltransferase
Molecular Weight
39699.48 Da
References
  1. Smith SD, She YM, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Using immobilized metal affinity chromatography, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify hepatocellular proteins with copper-binding ability. J Proteome Res. 2004 Jul-Aug;3(4):834-40. [PubMed:15359738]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Splicing factor binding to exonic or intronic sites and acting as either an activator or repressor of exon inclusion. Exhibits a binding preference for CA-rich elements (PubMed:11809897, PubMed:22570490, PubMed:24164894, PubMed:25623890, PubMed:26051023). Component of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) complexes and associated with most nascent transcripts (PubMed:2687284). Associates, together with APEX1, to the negative calcium responsive element (nCaRE) B2 of the APEX2 promoter (PubMed:11809897).
Specific Function
Mrna 3'-utr binding
Gene Name
HNRNPL
Uniprot ID
P14866
Uniprot Name
Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein L
Molecular Weight
64132.45 Da
References
  1. Smith SD, She YM, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Using immobilized metal affinity chromatography, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify hepatocellular proteins with copper-binding ability. J Proteome Res. 2004 Jul-Aug;3(4):834-40. [PubMed:15359738]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
DNA- and RNA binding protein, involved in several nuclear processes. Essential pre-mRNA splicing factor required early in spliceosome formation and for splicing catalytic step II, probably as a heteromer with NONO. Binds to pre-mRNA in spliceosome C complex, and specifically binds to intronic polypyrimidine tracts. Involved in regulation of signal-induced alternative splicing. During splicing of PTPRC/CD45, a phosphorylated form is sequestered by THRAP3 from the pre-mRNA in resting T-cells; T-cell activation and subsequent reduced phosphorylation is proposed to lead to release from THRAP3 allowing binding to pre-mRNA splicing regulatotry elements which represses exon inclusion. Interacts with U5 snRNA, probably by binding to a purine-rich sequence located on the 3' side of U5 snRNA stem 1b. May be involved in a pre-mRNA coupled splicing and polyadenylation process as component of a snRNP-free complex with SNRPA/U1A. The SFPQ-NONO heteromer associated with MATR3 may play a role in nuclear retention of defective RNAs. SFPQ may be involved in homologous DNA pairing; in vitro, promotes the invasion of ssDNA between a duplex DNA and produces a D-loop formation. The SFPQ-NONO heteromer may be involved in DNA unwinding by modulating the function of topoisomerase I/TOP1; in vitro, stimulates dissociation of TOP1 from DNA after cleavage and enhances its jumping between separate DNA helices. The SFPQ-NONO heteromer binds DNA (PubMed:25765647). The SFPQ-NONO heteromer may be involved in DNA non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) required for double-strand break repair and V(D)J recombination and may stabilize paired DNA ends; in vitro, the complex strongly stimulates DNA end joining, binds directly to the DNA substrates and cooperates with the Ku70/G22P1-Ku80/XRCC5 (Ku) dimer to establish a functional preligation complex. SFPQ is involved in transcriptional regulation. Functions as transcriptional activator (PubMed:25765647). Transcriptional repression is mediated by an interaction of SFPQ with SIN3A and subsequent recruitment of histone deacetylases (HDACs). The SFPQ-NONO-NR5A1 complex binds to the CYP17 promoter and regulates basal and cAMP-dependent transcriptional avtivity. SFPQ isoform Long binds to the DNA binding domains (DBD) of nuclear hormone receptors, like RXRA and probably THRA, and acts as transcriptional corepressor in absence of hormone ligands. Binds the DNA sequence 5'-CTGAGTC-3' in the insulin-like growth factor response element (IGFRE) and inhibits IGF-I-stimulated transcriptional activity. Regulates the circadian clock by repressing the transcriptional activator activity of the CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1 heterodimer. Required for the transcriptional repression of circadian target genes, such as PER1, mediated by the large PER complex through histone deacetylation (By similarity). Required for the assembly of nuclear speckles (PubMed:25765647).
Specific Function
Chromatin binding
Gene Name
SFPQ
Uniprot ID
P23246
Uniprot Name
Splicing factor, proline- and glutamine-rich
Molecular Weight
76149.15 Da
References
  1. Smith SD, She YM, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Using immobilized metal affinity chromatography, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify hepatocellular proteins with copper-binding ability. J Proteome Res. 2004 Jul-Aug;3(4):834-40. [PubMed:15359738]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Subunit of the splicing factor SF3A required for 'A' complex assembly formed by the stable binding of U2 snRNP to the branchpoint sequence (BPS) in pre-mRNA. Sequence independent binding of SF3A/SF3B complex upstream of the branch site is essential, it may anchor U2 snRNP to the pre-mRNA. May also be involved in the assembly of the 'E' complex.
Specific Function
Rna binding
Gene Name
SF3A2
Uniprot ID
Q15428
Uniprot Name
Splicing factor 3A subunit 2
Molecular Weight
49255.355 Da
References
  1. Smith SD, She YM, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Using immobilized metal affinity chromatography, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify hepatocellular proteins with copper-binding ability. J Proteome Res. 2004 Jul-Aug;3(4):834-40. [PubMed:15359738]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Involved in the recruitment, assembly and/or regulation of a variety of signaling molecules. Interacts with a wide variety of proteins and plays a role in many cellular processes. Component of the 40S ribosomal subunit involved in translational repression (PubMed:23636399). Involved in the initiation of the ribosome quality control (RQC), a pathway that takes place when a ribosome has stalled during translation, by promoting ubiquitination of a subset of 40S ribosomal subunits (PubMed:28132843). Binds to and stabilizes activated protein kinase C (PKC), increasing PKC-mediated phosphorylation. May recruit activated PKC to the ribosome, leading to phosphorylation of EIF6. Inhibits the activity of SRC kinases including SRC, LCK and YES1. Inhibits cell growth by prolonging the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. Enhances phosphorylation of BMAL1 by PRKCA and inhibits transcriptional activity of the BMAL1-CLOCK heterodimer. Facilitates ligand-independent nuclear translocation of AR following PKC activation, represses AR transactivation activity and is required for phosphorylation of AR by SRC. Modulates IGF1R-dependent integrin signaling and promotes cell spreading and contact with the extracellular matrix. Involved in PKC-dependent translocation of ADAM12 to the cell membrane. Promotes the ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation of proteins such as CLEC1B and HIF1A. Required for VANGL2 membrane localization, inhibits Wnt signaling, and regulates cellular polarization and oriented cell division during gastrulation. Required for PTK2/FAK1 phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. Regulates internalization of the muscarinic receptor CHRM2. Promotes apoptosis by increasing oligomerization of BAX and disrupting the interaction of BAX with the anti-apoptotic factor BCL2L. Inhibits TRPM6 channel activity. Regulates cell surface expression of some GPCRs such as TBXA2R. Plays a role in regulation of FLT1-mediated cell migration. Involved in the transport of ABCB4 from the Golgi to the apical bile canalicular membrane (PubMed:19674157). Promotes migration of breast carcinoma cells by binding to and activating RHOA (PubMed:20499158).
Specific Function
Cadherin binding
Gene Name
RACK1
Uniprot ID
P63244
Uniprot Name
Receptor of activated protein C kinase 1
Molecular Weight
35076.47 Da
References
  1. Smith SD, She YM, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Using immobilized metal affinity chromatography, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify hepatocellular proteins with copper-binding ability. J Proteome Res. 2004 Jul-Aug;3(4):834-40. [PubMed:15359738]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
F-actin cross-linking protein which is thought to anchor actin to a variety of intracellular structures. This is a bundling protein.
Specific Function
Actin filament binding
Gene Name
ACTN1
Uniprot ID
P12814
Uniprot Name
Alpha-actinin-1
Molecular Weight
103056.695 Da
References
  1. Smith SD, She YM, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Using immobilized metal affinity chromatography, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify hepatocellular proteins with copper-binding ability. J Proteome Res. 2004 Jul-Aug;3(4):834-40. [PubMed:15359738]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Metallopeptidase activity
Specific Function
Involved in the hydrolysis of N-acylated or N-acetylated amino acids (except L-aspartate).
Gene Name
ACY1
Uniprot ID
Q03154
Uniprot Name
Aminoacylase-1
Molecular Weight
45884.705 Da
References
  1. Smith SD, She YM, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Using immobilized metal affinity chromatography, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify hepatocellular proteins with copper-binding ability. J Proteome Res. 2004 Jul-Aug;3(4):834-40. [PubMed:15359738]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Calcium/phospholipid-binding protein which promotes membrane fusion and is involved in exocytosis.
Specific Function
Calcium ion binding
Gene Name
ANXA4
Uniprot ID
P09525
Uniprot Name
Annexin A4
Molecular Weight
35882.36 Da
References
  1. Smith SD, She YM, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Using immobilized metal affinity chromatography, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify hepatocellular proteins with copper-binding ability. J Proteome Res. 2004 Jul-Aug;3(4):834-40. [PubMed:15359738]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Phospholipid binding
Specific Function
This protein is an anticoagulant protein that acts as an indirect inhibitor of the thromboplastin-specific complex, which is involved in the blood coagulation cascade.
Gene Name
ANXA5
Uniprot ID
P08758
Uniprot Name
Annexin A5
Molecular Weight
35936.375 Da
References
  1. Smith SD, She YM, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Using immobilized metal affinity chromatography, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify hepatocellular proteins with copper-binding ability. J Proteome Res. 2004 Jul-Aug;3(4):834-40. [PubMed:15359738]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Calcium-binding chaperone that promotes folding, oligomeric assembly and quality control in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) via the calreticulin/calnexin cycle. This lectin interacts transiently wit...
Gene Name
CALR
Uniprot ID
P27797
Uniprot Name
Calreticulin
Molecular Weight
48141.2 Da
References
  1. Smith SD, She YM, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Using immobilized metal affinity chromatography, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify hepatocellular proteins with copper-binding ability. J Proteome Res. 2004 Jul-Aug;3(4):834-40. [PubMed:15359738]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Pyruvate kinase activity
Specific Function
Glycolytic enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to ADP, generating ATP. Stimulates POU5F1-mediated transcriptional activation. Plays a general rol...
Gene Name
PKM
Uniprot ID
P14618
Uniprot Name
Pyruvate kinase PKM
Molecular Weight
57936.38 Da
References
  1. Smith SD, She YM, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Using immobilized metal affinity chromatography, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify hepatocellular proteins with copper-binding ability. J Proteome Res. 2004 Jul-Aug;3(4):834-40. [PubMed:15359738]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
L-glucuronate reductase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of a variety of aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes to their corresponding alcohols. Catalyzes the reduction of mevaldate to mevalonic acid and of glyceraldehyd...
Gene Name
AKR1A1
Uniprot ID
P14550
Uniprot Name
Alcohol dehydrogenase [NADP(+)]
Molecular Weight
36572.71 Da
References
  1. Smith SD, She YM, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Using immobilized metal affinity chromatography, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify hepatocellular proteins with copper-binding ability. J Proteome Res. 2004 Jul-Aug;3(4):834-40. [PubMed:15359738]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nad binding
Specific Function
Desaturation and elongation of fatty acids, cholesterol biosynthesis, drug metabolism, and, in erythrocyte, methemoglobin reduction.
Gene Name
CYB5R3
Uniprot ID
P00387
Uniprot Name
NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase 3
Molecular Weight
34234.55 Da
References
  1. Smith SD, She YM, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Using immobilized metal affinity chromatography, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify hepatocellular proteins with copper-binding ability. J Proteome Res. 2004 Jul-Aug;3(4):834-40. [PubMed:15359738]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nadp binding
Specific Function
Maintains high levels of reduced glutathione in the cytosol.
Gene Name
GSR
Uniprot ID
P00390
Uniprot Name
Glutathione reductase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
56256.565 Da
References
  1. Smith SD, She YM, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Using immobilized metal affinity chromatography, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify hepatocellular proteins with copper-binding ability. J Proteome Res. 2004 Jul-Aug;3(4):834-40. [PubMed:15359738]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Transketolase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the transfer of a two-carbon ketol group from a ketose donor to an aldose acceptor, via a covalent intermediate with the cofactor thiamine pyrophosphate.
Gene Name
TKT
Uniprot ID
P29401
Uniprot Name
Transketolase
Molecular Weight
67876.95 Da
References
  1. Smith SD, She YM, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Using immobilized metal affinity chromatography, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify hepatocellular proteins with copper-binding ability. J Proteome Res. 2004 Jul-Aug;3(4):834-40. [PubMed:15359738]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Thioredoxin peroxidase activity
Specific Function
Involved in redox regulation of the cell. Reduces peroxides with reducing equivalents provided through the thioredoxin system. It is not able to receive electrons from glutaredoxin. May play an imp...
Gene Name
PRDX2
Uniprot ID
P32119
Uniprot Name
Peroxiredoxin-2
Molecular Weight
21891.725 Da
References
  1. Smith SD, She YM, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Using immobilized metal affinity chromatography, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify hepatocellular proteins with copper-binding ability. J Proteome Res. 2004 Jul-Aug;3(4):834-40. [PubMed:15359738]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Specific Function
Involved in redox regulation of the cell. Can reduce H(2)O(2) and short chain organic, fatty acid, and phospholipid hydroperoxides. May play a role in the regulation of phospholipid turnover as wel...
Gene Name
PRDX6
Uniprot ID
P30041
Uniprot Name
Peroxiredoxin-6
Molecular Weight
25034.715 Da
References
  1. Smith SD, She YM, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Using immobilized metal affinity chromatography, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify hepatocellular proteins with copper-binding ability. J Proteome Res. 2004 Jul-Aug;3(4):834-40. [PubMed:15359738]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Virion binding
Specific Function
PPIases accelerate the folding of proteins. It catalyzes the cis-trans isomerization of proline imidic peptide bonds in oligopeptides.
Gene Name
PPIA
Uniprot ID
P62937
Uniprot Name
Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase A
Molecular Weight
18012.42 Da
References
  1. Smith SD, She YM, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Using immobilized metal affinity chromatography, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify hepatocellular proteins with copper-binding ability. J Proteome Res. 2004 Jul-Aug;3(4):834-40. [PubMed:15359738]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Unfolded protein binding
Specific Function
Acts as a repressor of transcriptional activation. Inhibits the transcriptional coactivator activity of CITED1 on Smad-mediated transcription. Chaperone. Component of the PRP19-CDC5L complex that f...
Gene Name
HSPA8
Uniprot ID
P11142
Uniprot Name
Heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein
Molecular Weight
70897.565 Da
References
  1. Smith SD, She YM, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Using immobilized metal affinity chromatography, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify hepatocellular proteins with copper-binding ability. J Proteome Res. 2004 Jul-Aug;3(4):834-40. [PubMed:15359738]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Tpr domain binding
Specific Function
Molecular chaperone that promotes the maturation, structural maintenance and proper regulation of specific target proteins involved for instance in cell cycle control and signal transduction. Under...
Gene Name
HSP90AA1
Uniprot ID
P07900
Uniprot Name
Heat shock protein HSP 90-alpha
Molecular Weight
84659.015 Da
References
  1. Smith SD, She YM, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Using immobilized metal affinity chromatography, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify hepatocellular proteins with copper-binding ability. J Proteome Res. 2004 Jul-Aug;3(4):834-40. [PubMed:15359738]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Unfolded protein binding
Specific Function
Cytosolic prostaglandin synthase that catalyzes the oxidoreduction of prostaglandin endoperoxide H2 (PGH2) to prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) (PubMed:10922363). Molecular chaperone that localizes to genomi...
Gene Name
PTGES3
Uniprot ID
Q15185
Uniprot Name
Prostaglandin E synthase 3
Molecular Weight
18697.195 Da
References
  1. Smith SD, She YM, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Using immobilized metal affinity chromatography, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify hepatocellular proteins with copper-binding ability. J Proteome Res. 2004 Jul-Aug;3(4):834-40. [PubMed:15359738]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Acts as a co-chaperone for HSP90AA1 (PubMed:27353360). Mediates the association of the molecular chaperones HSPA8/HSC70 and HSP90 (By similarity).
Specific Function
Chaperone binding
Gene Name
STIP1
Uniprot ID
P31948
Uniprot Name
Stress-induced-phosphoprotein 1
Molecular Weight
62638.7 Da
References
  1. Smith SD, She YM, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Using immobilized metal affinity chromatography, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify hepatocellular proteins with copper-binding ability. J Proteome Res. 2004 Jul-Aug;3(4):834-40. [PubMed:15359738]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Gtp binding
Gene Name
EEF1A1L14
Uniprot ID
Q96RE1
Uniprot Name
Translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1-like 14
Molecular Weight
43024.325 Da
References
  1. Smith SD, She YM, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Using immobilized metal affinity chromatography, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify hepatocellular proteins with copper-binding ability. J Proteome Res. 2004 Jul-Aug;3(4):834-40. [PubMed:15359738]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Binds to the 60S ribosomal subunit and prevents its association with the 40S ribosomal subunit to form the 80S initiation complex in the cytoplasm. Behaves as a stimulatory translation initiation factor downstream insulin/growth factors. Is also involved in ribosome biogenesis. Associates with pre-60S subunits in the nucleus and is involved in its nuclear export. Cytoplasmic release of TIF6 from 60S subunits and nuclear relocalization is promoted by a RACK1 (RACK1)-dependent protein kinase C activity (PubMed:10085284, PubMed:14654845, PubMed:21536732). In tissues responsive to insulin, controls fatty acid synthesis and glycolysis by exerting translational control of adipogenic transcription factors such as CEBPB, CEBPD and ATF4 that have G/C rich or uORF in their 5'UTR. Required for ROS-dependent megakaryocyte maturation and platelets formation, controls the expression of mitochondrial respiratory chain genes involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS) synthesis (By similarity). Involved in miRNA-mediated gene silencing by the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). Required for both miRNA-mediated translational repression and miRNA-mediated cleavage of complementary mRNAs by RISC (PubMed:17507929). Modulates cell cycle progression and global translation of pre-B cells, its activation seems to be rate-limiting in tumorigenesis and tumor growth (By similarity).
Specific Function
Ribosomal large subunit binding
Gene Name
EIF6
Uniprot ID
P56537
Uniprot Name
Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 6
Molecular Weight
26598.84 Da
References
  1. Smith SD, She YM, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Using immobilized metal affinity chromatography, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify hepatocellular proteins with copper-binding ability. J Proteome Res. 2004 Jul-Aug;3(4):834-40. [PubMed:15359738]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
ATP-dependent RNA helicase which is a subunit of the eIF4F complex involved in cap recognition and is required for mRNA binding to ribosome. In the current model of translation initiation, eIF4A unwinds RNA secondary structures in the 5'-UTR of mRNAs which is necessary to allow efficient binding of the small ribosomal subunit, and subsequent scanning for the initiator codon.
Specific Function
Atp binding
Gene Name
EIF4A1
Uniprot ID
P60842
Uniprot Name
Eukaryotic initiation factor 4A-I
Molecular Weight
46153.525 Da
References
  1. Smith SD, She YM, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Using immobilized metal affinity chromatography, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify hepatocellular proteins with copper-binding ability. J Proteome Res. 2004 Jul-Aug;3(4):834-40. [PubMed:15359738]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Specific Function
Besides it's role as a glycolytic enzyme, mammalian GPI can function as a tumor-secreted cytokine and an angiogenic factor (AMF) that stimulates endothelial cell motility. GPI is also a neurotrophi...
Gene Name
GPI
Uniprot ID
P06744
Uniprot Name
Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase
Molecular Weight
63146.745 Da
References
  1. Smith SD, She YM, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Using immobilized metal affinity chromatography, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify hepatocellular proteins with copper-binding ability. J Proteome Res. 2004 Jul-Aug;3(4):834-40. [PubMed:15359738]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nad binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
LDHA
Uniprot ID
P00338
Uniprot Name
L-lactate dehydrogenase A chain
Molecular Weight
36688.465 Da
References
  1. Smith SD, She YM, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Using immobilized metal affinity chromatography, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify hepatocellular proteins with copper-binding ability. J Proteome Res. 2004 Jul-Aug;3(4):834-40. [PubMed:15359738]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Phosphoglycerate kinase activity
Specific Function
In addition to its role as a glycolytic enzyme, it seems that PGK-1 acts as a polymerase alpha cofactor protein (primer recognition protein).
Gene Name
PGK1
Uniprot ID
P00558
Uniprot Name
Phosphoglycerate kinase 1
Molecular Weight
44614.36 Da
References
  1. Smith SD, She YM, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Using immobilized metal affinity chromatography, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify hepatocellular proteins with copper-binding ability. J Proteome Res. 2004 Jul-Aug;3(4):834-40. [PubMed:15359738]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Structural constituent of cytoskeleton
Specific Function
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain.
Gene Name
TUBA3C
Uniprot ID
Q13748
Uniprot Name
Tubulin alpha-3C/D chain
Molecular Weight
49959.145 Da
References
  1. Smith SD, She YM, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Using immobilized metal affinity chromatography, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify hepatocellular proteins with copper-binding ability. J Proteome Res. 2004 Jul-Aug;3(4):834-40. [PubMed:15359738]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Specific Function
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain.
Gene Name
TUBB
Uniprot ID
P07437
Uniprot Name
Tubulin beta chain
Molecular Weight
49670.515 Da
References
  1. Smith SD, She YM, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Using immobilized metal affinity chromatography, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify hepatocellular proteins with copper-binding ability. J Proteome Res. 2004 Jul-Aug;3(4):834-40. [PubMed:15359738]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Binds to F-actin and exhibits pH-sensitive F-actin depolymerizing activity. Regulates actin cytoskeleton dynamics. Important for normal progress through mitosis and normal cytokinesis. Plays a role...
Gene Name
CFL1
Uniprot ID
P23528
Uniprot Name
Cofilin-1
Molecular Weight
18502.315 Da
References
  1. Smith SD, She YM, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Using immobilized metal affinity chromatography, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify hepatocellular proteins with copper-binding ability. J Proteome Res. 2004 Jul-Aug;3(4):834-40. [PubMed:15359738]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Adapter protein implicated in the regulation of a large spectrum of both general and specialized signaling pathways. Binds to a large number of partners, usually by recognition of a phosphoserine or phosphothreonine motif. Binding generally results in the modulation of the activity of the binding partner. Negative regulator of osteogenesis. Blocks the nuclear translocation of the phosphorylated form (by AKT1) of SRPK2 and antagonizes its stimulatory effect on cyclin D1 expression resulting in blockage of neuronal apoptosis elicited by SRPK2. Negative regulator of signaling cascades that mediate activation of MAP kinases via AKAP13.
Specific Function
Cadherin binding
Gene Name
YWHAB
Uniprot ID
P31946
Uniprot Name
14-3-3 protein beta/alpha
Molecular Weight
28082.165 Da
References
  1. Smith SD, She YM, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Using immobilized metal affinity chromatography, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify hepatocellular proteins with copper-binding ability. J Proteome Res. 2004 Jul-Aug;3(4):834-40. [PubMed:15359738]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function
Biosynthesis of L-glutamate from L-aspartate or L-cysteine. Important regulator of levels of glutamate, the major excitatory neurotransmitter of the vertebrate central nervous system. Acts as a sca...
Gene Name
GOT1
Uniprot ID
P17174
Uniprot Name
Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic
Molecular Weight
46247.14 Da
References
  1. Smith SD, She YM, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Using immobilized metal affinity chromatography, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify hepatocellular proteins with copper-binding ability. J Proteome Res. 2004 Jul-Aug;3(4):834-40. [PubMed:15359738]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
GSS
Uniprot ID
P48637
Uniprot Name
Glutathione synthetase
Molecular Weight
52384.325 Da
References
  1. Smith SD, She YM, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Using immobilized metal affinity chromatography, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify hepatocellular proteins with copper-binding ability. J Proteome Res. 2004 Jul-Aug;3(4):834-40. [PubMed:15359738]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Heparin-binding protein, with mitogenic activity for fibroblasts. Acts as a transcriptional repressor.
Specific Function
Dna binding
Gene Name
HDGF
Uniprot ID
P51858
Uniprot Name
Hepatoma-derived growth factor
Molecular Weight
26788.105 Da
References
  1. Smith SD, She YM, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Using immobilized metal affinity chromatography, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify hepatocellular proteins with copper-binding ability. J Proteome Res. 2004 Jul-Aug;3(4):834-40. [PubMed:15359738]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nad binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
IDH3A
Uniprot ID
P50213
Uniprot Name
Isocitrate dehydrogenase [NAD] subunit alpha, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
39591.365 Da
References
  1. Smith SD, She YM, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Using immobilized metal affinity chromatography, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify hepatocellular proteins with copper-binding ability. J Proteome Res. 2004 Jul-Aug;3(4):834-40. [PubMed:15359738]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Voltage-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
Can insert into membranes and form chloride ion channels. Channel activity depends on the pH. Membrane insertion seems to be redox-regulated and may occur only under oxydizing conditions. Involved ...
Gene Name
CLIC1
Uniprot ID
O00299
Uniprot Name
Chloride intracellular channel protein 1
Molecular Weight
26922.47 Da
References
  1. Smith SD, She YM, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Using immobilized metal affinity chromatography, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify hepatocellular proteins with copper-binding ability. J Proteome Res. 2004 Jul-Aug;3(4):834-40. [PubMed:15359738]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Implicated in immunoproteasome assembly and required for efficient antigen processing. The PA28 activator complex enhances the generation of class I binding peptides by altering the cleavage pattern of the proteasome.
Specific Function
Endopeptidase activator activity
Gene Name
PSME1
Uniprot ID
Q06323
Uniprot Name
Proteasome activator complex subunit 1
Molecular Weight
28722.9 Da
References
  1. Smith SD, She YM, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Using immobilized metal affinity chromatography, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify hepatocellular proteins with copper-binding ability. J Proteome Res. 2004 Jul-Aug;3(4):834-40. [PubMed:15359738]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Serine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity
Specific Function
Binds ATP, opioids and phosphatidylethanolamine. Has lower affinity for phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylcholine. Serine protease inhibitor which inhibits thrombin, neuropsin and chymotrypsin b...
Gene Name
PEBP1
Uniprot ID
P30086
Uniprot Name
Phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein 1
Molecular Weight
21056.65 Da
References
  1. Smith SD, She YM, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Using immobilized metal affinity chromatography, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify hepatocellular proteins with copper-binding ability. J Proteome Res. 2004 Jul-Aug;3(4):834-40. [PubMed:15359738]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Interconversion of 3- and 2-phosphoglycerate with 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate as the primer of the reaction. Can also catalyze the reaction of EC 5.4.2.4 (synthase), but with a reduced activity.
Specific Function
2,3-bisphosphoglycerate-dependent phosphoglycerate mutase activity
Gene Name
PGAM1
Uniprot ID
P18669
Uniprot Name
Phosphoglycerate mutase 1
Molecular Weight
28803.675 Da
References
  1. Smith SD, She YM, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Using immobilized metal affinity chromatography, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify hepatocellular proteins with copper-binding ability. J Proteome Res. 2004 Jul-Aug;3(4):834-40. [PubMed:15359738]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Inhibits GTP exchange on Ran. Forms a Ran-GTP-RANBP1 trimeric complex. Increase GTP hydrolysis induced by the Ran GTPase activating protein RANGAP1. May act in an intracellular signaling pathway which may control the progression through the cell cycle by regulating the transport of protein and nucleic acids across the nuclear membrane.
Specific Function
Cadherin binding
Gene Name
RANBP1
Uniprot ID
P43487
Uniprot Name
Ran-specific GTPase-activating protein
Molecular Weight
23309.92 Da
References
  1. Smith SD, She YM, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Using immobilized metal affinity chromatography, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify hepatocellular proteins with copper-binding ability. J Proteome Res. 2004 Jul-Aug;3(4):834-40. [PubMed:15359738]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Udp-glucose 6-dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function
Involved in the biosynthesis of glycosaminoglycans; hyaluronan, chondroitin sulfate, and heparan sulfate.
Gene Name
UGDH
Uniprot ID
O60701
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase
Molecular Weight
55023.545 Da
References
  1. Smith SD, She YM, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Using immobilized metal affinity chromatography, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify hepatocellular proteins with copper-binding ability. J Proteome Res. 2004 Jul-Aug;3(4):834-40. [PubMed:15359738]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Identical protein binding
Specific Function
Component of the class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Involved in the presentation of peptide antigens to the immune system.
Gene Name
B2M
Uniprot ID
P61769
Uniprot Name
Beta-2-microglobulin
Molecular Weight
13714.43 Da
References
  1. Deng NJ, Yan L, Singh D, Cieplak P: Molecular basis for the Cu2+ binding-induced destabilization of beta2-microglobulin revealed by molecular dynamics simulation. Biophys J. 2006 Jun 1;90(11):3865-79. Epub 2006 Mar 2. [PubMed:16513784]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Copper ion binding
Specific Function
Thought to play a role in cellular copper homeostasis, mitochondrial redox signaling or insertion of copper into the active site of COX.
Gene Name
SCO1
Uniprot ID
O75880
Uniprot Name
Protein SCO1 homolog, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
33813.69 Da
References
  1. Banci L, Bertini I, Calderone V, Ciofi-Baffoni S, Mangani S, Martinelli M, Palumaa P, Wang S: A hint for the function of human Sco1 from different structures. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Jun 6;103(23):8595-600. Epub 2006 May 30. [PubMed:16735468]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
PRNP
Uniprot ID
F7VJQ1
Uniprot Name
Alternative prion protein
Molecular Weight
8690.77 Da
References
  1. Wells MA, Jackson GS, Jones S, Hosszu LL, Craven CJ, Clarke AR, Collinge J, Waltho JP: A reassessment of copper(II) binding in the full-length prion protein. Biochem J. 2006 Nov 1;399(3):435-44. [PubMed:16824036]
  2. Merle U, Stremmel W, Gessner R: Influence of homozygosity for methionine at codon 129 of the human prion gene on the onset of neurological and hepatic symptoms in Wilson disease. Arch Neurol. 2006 Jul;63(7):982-5. [PubMed:16831968]
  3. Shiraishi N, Utsunomiya H, Nishikimi M: Combination of NADPH and copper ions generates proteinase K-resistant aggregates from recombinant prion protein. J Biol Chem. 2006 Nov 17;281(46):34880-7. Epub 2006 Sep 21. [PubMed:16990274]
  4. Shearer J, Soh P: The copper(II) adduct of the unstructured region of the amyloidogenic fragment derived from the human prion protein is redox-active at physiological pH. Inorg Chem. 2007 Feb 5;46(3):710-9. [PubMed:17257012]
  5. Valensin G, Molteni E, Valensin D, Taraszkiewicz M, Kozlowski H: Molecular dynamics study of the Cu2+ binding-induced "structuring" of the N-terminal domain of human prion protein. J Phys Chem B. 2009 Mar 19;113(11):3277-9. doi: 10.1021/jp901030a. [PubMed:19236027]
  6. Pushie MJ, Vogel HJ: A potential mechanism for Cu2+ reduction, beta-cleavage, and beta-sheet initiation within the N-terminal domain of the prion protein: insights from density functional theory and molecular dynamics calculations. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2009;72(17-18):1040-59. doi: 10.1080/15287390903084389. [PubMed:19697239]
  7. Remelli M, Valensin D, Toso L, Gralka E, Guerrini R, Marzola E, Kozlowski H: Thermodynamic and spectroscopic investigation on the role of Met residues in Cu(II) binding to the non-octarepeat site of the human prion protein. Metallomics. 2012 Aug;4(8):794-806. doi: 10.1039/c2mt20060k. Epub 2012 Jul 13. [PubMed:22791135]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Transmitter-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
The glycine receptor is a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel. Binding of glycine to its receptor increases the chloride conductance and thus produces hyperpolarization (inhibition of neuronal firing).
Gene Name
GLRA1
Uniprot ID
P23415
Uniprot Name
Glycine receptor subunit alpha-1
Molecular Weight
52623.35 Da
References
  1. Chen Z, Dillon GH, Huang R: Identification of residues critical for Cu2+-mediated inhibition of glycine alpha1 receptors. Neuropharmacology. 2006 Sep;51(4):701-8. Epub 2006 Jul 12. [PubMed:16842826]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
May play a role in microtubule-mediated transport or vesicle function.
Specific Function
Beta-tubulin binding
Gene Name
HTT
Uniprot ID
P42858
Uniprot Name
Huntingtin
Molecular Weight
347599.665 Da
References
  1. Fox JH, Kama JA, Lieberman G, Chopra R, Dorsey K, Chopra V, Volitakis I, Cherny RA, Bush AI, Hersch S: Mechanisms of copper ion mediated Huntington's disease progression. PLoS One. 2007 Mar 28;2(3):e334. [PubMed:17396163]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
NEIL1
Uniprot ID
Q96FI4
Uniprot Name
Endonuclease 8-like 1
Molecular Weight
43683.625 Da
References
  1. Hegde ML, Hegde PM, Holthauzen LM, Hazra TK, Rao KS, Mitra S: Specific Inhibition of NEIL-initiated repair of oxidized base damage in human genome by copper and iron: potential etiological linkage to neurodegenerative diseases. J Biol Chem. 2010 Sep 10;285(37):28812-25. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M110.126664. Epub 2010 Jul 9. [PubMed:20622253]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Involved in base excision repair of DNA damaged by oxidation or by mutagenic agents. Has DNA glycosylase activity towards 5-hydroxyuracil and other oxidized derivatives of cytosine with a preferenc...
Gene Name
NEIL2
Uniprot ID
Q969S2
Uniprot Name
Endonuclease 8-like 2
Molecular Weight
36826.285 Da
References
  1. Hegde ML, Hegde PM, Holthauzen LM, Hazra TK, Rao KS, Mitra S: Specific Inhibition of NEIL-initiated repair of oxidized base damage in human genome by copper and iron: potential etiological linkage to neurodegenerative diseases. J Biol Chem. 2010 Sep 10;285(37):28812-25. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M110.126664. Epub 2010 Jul 9. [PubMed:20622253]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Ferroxidase activity
Specific Function
May function as a ferroxidase and may be involved in copper transport and homeostasis.
Gene Name
HEPHL1
Uniprot ID
Q6MZM0
Uniprot Name
Hephaestin-like protein 1
Molecular Weight
131601.67 Da
References
  1. Petrak J, Vyoral D: Hephaestin--a ferroxidase of cellular iron export. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2005 Jun;37(6):1173-8. Epub 2005 Jan 26. [PubMed:15778082]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Serine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity
Specific Function
Serine protease inhibitor. This inhibitor acts as 'bait' for tissue plasminogen activator, urokinase, protein C and matriptase-3/TMPRSS7. Its rapid interaction with PLAT may function as a major con...
Gene Name
SERPINE1
Uniprot ID
P05121
Uniprot Name
Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1
Molecular Weight
45059.695 Da
References
  1. Thompson LC, Goswami S, Peterson CB: Metals affect the structure and activity of human plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. II. Binding affinity and conformational changes. Protein Sci. 2011 Feb;20(2):366-78. doi: 10.1002/pro.567. [PubMed:21280128]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Identical protein binding
Specific Function
May function as calcium sensor and modulator, contributing to cellular calcium signaling. May function by interacting with other proteins, such as TPR-containing proteins, and indirectly play a rol...
Gene Name
S100A2
Uniprot ID
P29034
Uniprot Name
Protein S100-A2
Molecular Weight
11116.695 Da
References
  1. Haase-Kohn C, Wolf S, Lenk J, Pietzsch J: Copper-mediated cross-linking of S100A4, but not of S100A2, results in proinflammatory effects in melanoma cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011 Sep 30;413(3):494-8. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2011.08.132. Epub 2011 Sep 6. [PubMed:21924240]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Rage receptor binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
S100A4
Uniprot ID
P26447
Uniprot Name
Protein S100-A4
Molecular Weight
11728.41 Da
References
  1. Haase-Kohn C, Wolf S, Lenk J, Pietzsch J: Copper-mediated cross-linking of S100A4, but not of S100A2, results in proinflammatory effects in melanoma cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011 Sep 30;413(3):494-8. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2011.08.132. Epub 2011 Sep 6. [PubMed:21924240]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
SNCA
Uniprot ID
P37840
Uniprot Name
Alpha-synuclein
Molecular Weight
14460.155 Da
References
  1. Rose F, Hodak M, Bernholc J: Mechanism of copper(II)-induced misfolding of Parkinson's disease protein. Sci Rep. 2011;1:11. doi: 10.1038/srep00011. Epub 2011 Jun 14. [PubMed:22355530]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Neurotrophin trkb receptor binding
Specific Function
During development, promotes the survival and differentiation of selected neuronal populations of the peripheral and central nervous systems. Participates in axonal growth, pathfinding and in the m...
Gene Name
BDNF
Uniprot ID
P23560
Uniprot Name
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor
Molecular Weight
27817.72 Da
References
  1. Travaglia A, La Mendola D, Magri A, Nicoletti VG, Pietropaolo A, Rizzarelli E: Copper, BDNF and Its N-terminal domain: inorganic features and biological perspectives. Chemistry. 2012 Dec 3;18(49):15618-31. doi: 10.1002/chem.201202775. Epub 2012 Nov 7. [PubMed:23135810]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Ubiquitin-specific protease binding
Specific Function
Protein deglycase that repairs methylglyoxal- and glyoxal-glycated amino acids and proteins, and releases repaired proteins and lactate or glycolate, respectively. Deglycates cysteines, arginines a...
Gene Name
PARK7
Uniprot ID
Q99497
Uniprot Name
Protein deglycase DJ-1
Molecular Weight
19890.88 Da
References
  1. Bjorkblom B, Adilbayeva A, Maple-Grodem J, Piston D, Okvist M, Xu XM, Brede C, Larsen JP, Moller SG: Parkinson disease protein DJ-1 binds metals and protects against metal-induced cytotoxicity. J Biol Chem. 2013 Aug 2;288(31):22809-20. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M113.482091. Epub 2013 Jun 21. [PubMed:23792957]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Curator comments
Copper-protein complex induces anti-aggregative and anti-apoptotic effects
General Function
Receptor binding
Specific Function
Selectively inhibits insulin-stimulated glucose utilization and glycogen deposition in muscle, while not affecting adipocyte glucose metabolism.
Gene Name
IAPP
Uniprot ID
P10997
Uniprot Name
Islet amyloid polypeptide
Molecular Weight
9806.35 Da
References
  1. Lee EC, Ha E, Singh S, Legesse L, Ahmad S, Karnaukhova E, Donaldson RP, Jeremic AM: Copper(II)-human amylin complex protects pancreatic cells from amylin toxicity. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2013 Aug 14;15(30):12558-71. doi: 10.1039/c3cp44542a. [PubMed:23793354]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Tachykinins are active peptides which excite neurons, evoke behavioral responses, are potent vasodilators and secretagogues, and contract (directly or indirectly) many smooth muscles (By similarity). Is a critical central regulator of gonadal function.
Specific Function
Receptor binding
Gene Name
TAC3
Uniprot ID
Q9UHF0
Uniprot Name
Tachykinin-3
Molecular Weight
13438.25 Da
References
  1. Russino D, McDonald E, Hejazi L, Hanson GR, Jones CE: The tachykinin peptide neurokinin B binds copper forming an unusual [CuII(NKB)2] complex and inhibits copper uptake into 1321N1 astrocytoma cells. ACS Chem Neurosci. 2013 Oct 16;4(10):1371-81. doi: 10.1021/cn4000988. Epub 2013 Aug 7. [PubMed:23875773]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
A1BG
Uniprot ID
P04217
Uniprot Name
Alpha-1B-glycoprotein
Molecular Weight
54253.0 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Vitamin E binding protein. May transport vitamin E in body fluids under conditions where the lipoprotein system is not sufficient. May be involved in the regulation and transport of vitamin E at the blood-brain barrier.
Specific Function
Vitamin e binding
Gene Name
AFM
Uniprot ID
P43652
Uniprot Name
Afamin
Molecular Weight
69068.47 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Type 2 angiotensin receptor binding
Specific Function
Essential component of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), a potent regulator of blood pressure, body fluid and electrolyte homeostasis.Angiotensin-2: acts directly on vascular smooth muscle as a p...
Gene Name
AGT
Uniprot ID
P01019
Uniprot Name
Angiotensinogen
Molecular Weight
53153.73 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Promotes endocytosis, possesses opsonic properties and influences the mineral phase of bone. Shows affinity for calcium and barium ions.
Specific Function
Cysteine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity
Gene Name
AHSG
Uniprot ID
P02765
Uniprot Name
Alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein
Molecular Weight
39324.35 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Virion binding
Specific Function
Can interact with DNA and histones and may scavenge nuclear material released from damaged circulating cells. May also function as a calcium-dependent lectin.
Gene Name
APCS
Uniprot ID
P02743
Uniprot Name
Serum amyloid P-component
Molecular Weight
25386.92 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Phospholipid transporter activity
Specific Function
Participates in the reverse transport of cholesterol from tissues to the liver for excretion by promoting cholesterol efflux from tissues and by acting as a cofactor for the lecithin cholesterol ac...
Gene Name
APOA1
Uniprot ID
P02647
Uniprot Name
Apolipoprotein A-I
Molecular Weight
30777.58 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
May stabilize HDL (high density lipoprotein) structure by its association with lipids, and affect the HDL metabolism.
Gene Name
APOA2
Uniprot ID
P02652
Uniprot Name
Apolipoprotein A-II
Molecular Weight
11174.925 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
May have a role in chylomicrons and VLDL secretion and catabolism. Required for efficient activation of lipoprotein lipase by ApoC-II; potent activator of LCAT. Apoa-IV is a major component of HDL and chylomicrons.
Specific Function
Antioxidant activity
Gene Name
APOA4
Uniprot ID
P06727
Uniprot Name
Apolipoprotein A-IV
Molecular Weight
45398.775 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Very-low-density lipoprotein particle receptor activity
Specific Function
Macrophage receptor that binds to the apolipoprotein B48 (APOB) of dietary triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins (TRL) or to a like domain of APOB in hypertriglyceridemic very low density lipoprotein...
Gene Name
APOBR
Uniprot ID
Q0VD83
Uniprot Name
Apolipoprotein B receptor
Molecular Weight
114873.425 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
Component of chylomicrons, very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL), and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) in plasma. Plays an important role in lipoprotein metabolism as ...
Gene Name
APOC2
Uniprot ID
P02655
Uniprot Name
Apolipoprotein C-II
Molecular Weight
11283.78 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Phospholipid binding
Specific Function
Component of triglyceride-rich very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) and high density lipoproteins (HDL) in plasma. Plays a multifaceted role in triglyceride homeostasis. Intracellularly, promotes h...
Gene Name
APOC3
Uniprot ID
P02656
Uniprot Name
Apolipoprotein C-III
Molecular Weight
10852.19 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Lipid transporter activity
Specific Function
APOD occurs in the macromolecular complex with lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase. It is probably involved in the transport and binding of bilin. Appears to be able to transport a variety of liga...
Gene Name
APOD
Uniprot ID
P05090
Uniprot Name
Apolipoprotein D
Molecular Weight
21275.37 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Very-low-density lipoprotein particle receptor binding
Specific Function
Mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles. It can serve as a ligand for the LDL (apo B/E) receptor and for the specific apo-E receptor (chylomicron remnant) of ...
Gene Name
APOE
Uniprot ID
P02649
Uniprot Name
Apolipoprotein E
Molecular Weight
36153.83 Da
References
  1. Xu H, Finkelstein DI, Adlard PA: Interactions of metals and Apolipoprotein E in Alzheimer's disease. Front Aging Neurosci. 2014 Jun 12;6:121. doi: 10.3389/fnagi.2014.00121. eCollection 2014. [PubMed:24971061]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Phospholipid binding
Specific Function
Binds to various kinds of negatively charged substances such as heparin, phospholipids, and dextran sulfate. May prevent activation of the intrinsic blood coagulation cascade by binding to phosphol...
Gene Name
APOH
Uniprot ID
P02749
Uniprot Name
Beta-2-glycoprotein 1
Molecular Weight
38297.8 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Ribonuclease activity
Specific Function
Stimulates lipid degradation in adipocytes and causes the extensive fat losses associated with some advanced cancers. May bind polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Gene Name
AZGP1
Uniprot ID
P25311
Uniprot Name
Zinc-alpha-2-glycoprotein
Molecular Weight
34258.525 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
C1q associates with the proenzymes C1r and C1s to yield C1, the first component of the serum complement system. The collagen-like regions of C1q interact with the Ca(2+)-dependent C1r(2)C1s(2) proe...
Gene Name
C1QC
Uniprot ID
P02747
Uniprot Name
Complement C1q subcomponent subunit C
Molecular Weight
25773.56 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Serine-type endopeptidase activity
Specific Function
C1s B chain is a serine protease that combines with C1q and C1r to form C1, the first component of the classical pathway of the complement system. C1r activates C1s so that it can, in turn, activat...
Gene Name
C1S
Uniprot ID
P09871
Uniprot Name
Complement C1s subcomponent
Molecular Weight
76683.905 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Receptor binding
Specific Function
C3 plays a central role in the activation of the complement system. Its processing by C3 convertase is the central reaction in both classical and alternative complement pathways. After activation C...
Gene Name
C3
Uniprot ID
P01024
Uniprot Name
Complement C3
Molecular Weight
187146.73 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Non-enzymatic component of the C3 and C5 convertases and thus essential for the propagation of the classical complement pathway. Covalently binds to immunoglobulins and immune complexes and enhances the solubilization of immune aggregates and the clearance of IC through CR1 on erythrocytes. C4A isotype is responsible for effective binding to form amide bonds with immune aggregates or protein antigens, while C4B isotype catalyzes the transacylation of the thioester carbonyl group to form ester bonds with carbohydrate antigens.
Specific Function
Carbohydrate binding
Gene Name
C4B
Uniprot ID
P0C0L5
Uniprot Name
Complement C4-B
Molecular Weight
192749.785 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Controls the classical pathway of complement activation. It binds as a cofactor to C3b/C4b inactivator (C3bINA), which then hydrolyzes the complement fragment C4b. It also accelerates the degradation of the C4bC2a complex (C3 convertase) by dissociating the complement fragment C2a. Alpha chain binds C4b. It interacts also with anticoagulant protein S and with serum amyloid P component.
Specific Function
Rna binding
Gene Name
C4BPA
Uniprot ID
P04003
Uniprot Name
C4b-binding protein alpha chain
Molecular Weight
67032.63 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Receptor binding
Specific Function
Activation of C5 by a C5 convertase initiates the spontaneous assembly of the late complement components, C5-C9, into the membrane attack complex. C5b has a transient binding site for C6. The C5b-C...
Gene Name
C5
Uniprot ID
P01031
Uniprot Name
Complement C5
Molecular Weight
188303.705 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Constituent of the membrane attack complex (MAC) that plays a key role in the innate and adaptive immune response by forming pores in the plasma membrane of target cells.
Specific Function
Protein complex binding
Gene Name
C8B
Uniprot ID
P07358
Uniprot Name
Complement component C8 beta chain
Molecular Weight
67046.35 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Constituent of the membrane attack complex (MAC) that plays a key role in the innate and adaptive immune response by forming pores in the plasma membrane of target cells (PubMed:9634479, PubMed:9212048, PubMed:26841934). C9 is the pore-forming subunit of the MAC (PubMed:4055801, PubMed:26841934).
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
C9
Uniprot ID
P02748
Uniprot Name
Complement component C9
Molecular Weight
63172.72 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Factor H functions as a cofactor in the inactivation of C3b by factor I and also increases the rate of dissociation of the C3bBb complex (C3 convertase) and the (C3b)NBB complex (C5 convertase) in the alternative complement pathway.
Specific Function
Heparan sulfate proteoglycan binding
Gene Name
CFH
Uniprot ID
P08603
Uniprot Name
Complement factor H
Molecular Weight
139095.31 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Responsible for cleaving the alpha-chains of C4b and C3b in the presence of the cofactors C4-binding protein and factor H respectively.
Specific Function
Metal ion binding
Gene Name
CFI
Uniprot ID
P05156
Uniprot Name
Complement factor I
Molecular Weight
65749.78 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Kringle domain binding
Specific Function
Tetranectin binds to plasminogen and to isolated kringle 4. May be involved in the packaging of molecules destined for exocytosis.
Gene Name
CLEC3B
Uniprot ID
P05452
Uniprot Name
Tetranectin
Molecular Weight
22536.665 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Isoform 1 functions as extracellular chaperone that prevents aggregation of nonnative proteins. Prevents stress-induced aggregation of blood plasma proteins. Inhibits formation of amyloid fibrils by APP, APOC2, B2M, CALCA, CSN3, SNCA and aggregation-prone LYZ variants (in vitro). Does not require ATP. Maintains partially unfolded proteins in a state appropriate for subsequent refolding by other chaperones, such as HSPA8/HSC70. Does not refold proteins by itself. Binding to cell surface receptors triggers internalization of the chaperone-client complex and subsequent lysosomal or proteasomal degradation. Secreted isoform 1 protects cells against apoptosis and against cytolysis by complement. Intracellular isoforms interact with ubiquitin and SCF (SKP1-CUL1-F-box protein) E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes and promote the ubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation of target proteins. Promotes proteasomal degradation of COMMD1 and IKBKB. Modulates NF-kappa-B transcriptional activity. Nuclear isoforms promote apoptosis. Mitochondrial isoforms suppress BAX-dependent release of cytochrome c into the cytoplasm and inhibit apoptosis. Plays a role in the regulation of cell proliferation.
Specific Function
Chaperone binding
Gene Name
CLU
Uniprot ID
P10909
Uniprot Name
Clusterin
Molecular Weight
52494.22 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Thrombospondin receptor activity
Specific Function
Thrombin, which cleaves bonds after Arg and Lys, converts fibrinogen to fibrin and activates factors V, VII, VIII, XIII, and, in complex with thrombomodulin, protein C. Functions in blood homeostas...
Gene Name
F2
Uniprot ID
P00734
Uniprot Name
Prothrombin
Molecular Weight
70036.295 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Transcription factor binding
Specific Function
Is believed to be a multifunctional and multicompartmental protein involved in inflammation and infection processes, ribosome biogenesis, regulation of apoptosis, transcriptional regulation and pre...
Gene Name
C1QBP
Uniprot ID
Q07021
Uniprot Name
Complement component 1 Q subcomponent-binding protein, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
31361.935 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Protein domain specific binding
Specific Function
Calcium-regulated, actin-modulating protein that binds to the plus (or barbed) ends of actin monomers or filaments, preventing monomer exchange (end-blocking or capping). It can promote the assembl...
Gene Name
GSN
Uniprot ID
P06396
Uniprot Name
Gelsolin
Molecular Weight
85696.935 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function
Involved in oxygen transport from the lung to the various peripheral tissues.
Gene Name
HBA1
Uniprot ID
P69905
Uniprot Name
Hemoglobin subunit alpha
Molecular Weight
15257.405 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function
Involved in oxygen transport from the lung to the various peripheral tissues.LVV-hemorphin-7 potentiates the activity of bradykinin, causing a decrease in blood pressure.Spinorphin: functions as an...
Gene Name
HBB
Uniprot ID
P68871
Uniprot Name
Hemoglobin subunit beta
Molecular Weight
15998.34 Da
References
  1. Winterbourn CC, Carrell RW: Oxidation of human haemoglobin by copper. Mechanism and suggested role of the thiol group of residue beta-93. Biochem J. 1977 Jul 1;165(1):141-8. [PubMed:889569]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Component of heterochromatin that recognizes and binds histone H3 tails methylated at 'Lys-9' (H3K9me), leading to epigenetic repression. In contrast, it is excluded from chromatin when 'Tyr-41' of histone H3 is phosphorylated (H3Y41ph). Can interact with lamin-B receptor (LBR). This interaction can contribute to the association of the heterochromatin with the inner nuclear membrane. Involved in the formation of functional kinetochore through interaction with MIS12 complex proteins.
Specific Function
Chromatin binding
Gene Name
CBX5
Uniprot ID
P45973
Uniprot Name
Chromobox protein homolog 5
Molecular Weight
22224.81 Da
References
  1. Bryan SE, Simons SJ, Vizard DL, Hardy KJ: Interactions of mercury and copper with constitutive heterochromatin and euchromatin in vivo and in vitro. Biochemistry. 1976 Apr 20;15(8):1667-76. [PubMed:1268189]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Primate-specific plasma protein associated with apolipoprotein L-I (apoL-I)-containing high-density lipoprotein (HDL). This HDL particle, termed trypanosome lytic factor-1 (TLF-1), mediates human innate immune protection against many species of African trypanosomes. Binds hemoglobin with high affinity and may contribute to the clearance of cell-free hemoglobin to allow hepatic recycling of heme iron.
Specific Function
Hemoglobin binding
Gene Name
HPR
Uniprot ID
P00739
Uniprot Name
Haptoglobin-related protein
Molecular Weight
39029.345 Da
References
  1. Muranjan M, Nussenzweig V, Tomlinson S: Characterization of the human serum trypanosome toxin, haptoglobin-related protein. J Biol Chem. 1998 Feb 13;273(7):3884-7. [PubMed:9461571]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Involved in protein-protein interactions that result in protein complexes, receptor-ligand binding or cell adhesion.
Specific Function
Insulin-like growth factor binding
Gene Name
IGFALS
Uniprot ID
P35858
Uniprot Name
Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein complex acid labile subunit
Molecular Weight
66034.13 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Immunoglobulin receptor binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
IGHG1
Uniprot ID
P01857
Uniprot Name
Ig gamma-1 chain C region
Molecular Weight
36105.695 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Immunoglobulin receptor binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
IGHG4
Uniprot ID
P01861
Uniprot Name
Ig gamma-4 chain C region
Molecular Weight
35940.34 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Antigen binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
Not Available
Uniprot ID
P01619
Uniprot Name
Ig kappa chain V-III region GOL
Molecular Weight
11830.17 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Critical for B-cell development.
Specific Function
Antigen binding
Gene Name
IGLL1
Uniprot ID
P15814
Uniprot Name
Immunoglobulin lambda-like polypeptide 1
Molecular Weight
22962.89 Da
References
  1. Baker BL, Hultquist DE: A copper-binding immunoglobulin from a myeloma patient. Purification, identification, and physical characterization. J Biol Chem. 1978 Feb 25;253(4):1195-200. [PubMed:203585]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
May act as a carrier of hyaluronan in serum or as a binding protein between hyaluronan and other matrix protein, including those on cell surfaces in tissues to regulate the localization, synthesis and degradation of hyaluronan which are essential to cells undergoing biological processes.
Specific Function
Endopeptidase inhibitor activity
Gene Name
ITIH2
Uniprot ID
P19823
Uniprot Name
Inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H2
Molecular Weight
106462.725 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
(1) Kininogens are inhibitors of thiol proteases; (2) HMW-kininogen plays an important role in blood coagulation by helping to position optimally prekallikrein and factor XI next to factor XII; (3)...
Gene Name
KNG1
Uniprot ID
P01042
Uniprot Name
Kininogen-1
Molecular Weight
71956.965 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
May regulate the activity of kinases such as PKC and SRC via binding to integrin beta-1 (ITB1) and the receptor of activated protein C kinase 1 (RACK1). In complex with C1QBP is a high affinity receptor for kininogen-1/HMWK.
Specific Function
Carbohydrate binding
Gene Name
KRT1
Uniprot ID
P04264
Uniprot Name
Keratin, type II cytoskeletal 1
Molecular Weight
66038.505 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Structural constituent of epidermis
Gene Name
KRT10
Uniprot ID
P13645
Uniprot Name
Keratin, type I cytoskeletal 10
Molecular Weight
58826.915 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Probably contributes to terminal cornification. Associated with keratinocyte activation, proliferation and keratinization.
Specific Function
Cytoskeletal protein binding
Gene Name
KRT2
Uniprot ID
P35908
Uniprot Name
Keratin, type II cytoskeletal 2 epidermal
Molecular Weight
65432.65 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
May serve an important special function either in the mature palmar and plantar skin tissue or in the morphogenetic program of the formation of these tissues. Plays a role in keratin filament assembly.
Specific Function
Structural constituent of cytoskeleton
Gene Name
KRT9
Uniprot ID
P35527
Uniprot Name
Keratin, type I cytoskeletal 9
Molecular Weight
62064.29 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Transforming growth factor beta receptor binding
Gene Name
LRG1
Uniprot ID
P02750
Uniprot Name
Leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein
Molecular Weight
38177.49 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Collagen binding
Gene Name
LUM
Uniprot ID
P51884
Uniprot Name
Lumican
Molecular Weight
38428.585 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
May play a scavenger role by digesting biologically active peptidoglycan (PGN) into biologically inactive fragments. Has no direct bacteriolytic activity.
Gene Name
PGLYRP2
Uniprot ID
Q96PD5
Uniprot Name
N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase
Molecular Weight
62216.365 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Serine-type peptidase activity
Specific Function
Plasmin dissolves the fibrin of blood clots and acts as a proteolytic factor in a variety of other processes including embryonic development, tissue remodeling, tumor invasion, and inflammation. In...
Gene Name
PLG
Uniprot ID
P00747
Uniprot Name
Plasminogen
Molecular Weight
90568.415 Da
References
  1. Lind SE, McDonagh JR, Smith CJ: Oxidative inactivation of plasmin and other serine proteases by copper and ascorbate. Blood. 1993 Sep 1;82(5):1522-31. [PubMed:8364203]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
Hydrolyzes the toxic metabolites of a variety of organophosphorus insecticides. Capable of hydrolyzing a broad spectrum of organophosphate substrates and lactones, and a number of aromatic carboxyl...
Gene Name
PON1
Uniprot ID
P27169
Uniprot Name
Serum paraoxonase/arylesterase 1
Molecular Weight
39730.99 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Glucose transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
LA-PF4 stimulates DNA synthesis, mitosis, glycolysis, intracellular cAMP accumulation, prostaglandin E2 secretion, and synthesis of hyaluronic acid and sulfated glycosaminoglycan. It also stimulate...
Gene Name
PPBP
Uniprot ID
P02775
Uniprot Name
Platelet basic protein
Molecular Weight
13894.035 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Serine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity
Specific Function
Inhibitor of serine proteases. Its primary target is elastase, but it also has a moderate affinity for plasmin and thrombin. Irreversibly inhibits trypsin, chymotrypsin and plasminogen activator. T...
Gene Name
SERPINA1
Uniprot ID
P01009
Uniprot Name
Alpha-1-antitrypsin
Molecular Weight
46736.195 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Inhibits human amidolytic and kininogenase activities of tissue kallikrein. Inhibition is achieved by formation of an equimolar, heat- and SDS-stable complex between the inhibitor and the enzyme, and generation of a small C-terminal fragment of the inhibitor due to cleavage at the reactive site by tissue kallikrein.
Specific Function
Serine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity
Gene Name
SERPINA4
Uniprot ID
P29622
Uniprot Name
Kallistatin
Molecular Weight
48541.51 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Steroid binding
Specific Function
Major transport protein for glucocorticoids and progestins in the blood of almost all vertebrate species.
Gene Name
SERPINA6
Uniprot ID
P08185
Uniprot Name
Corticosteroid-binding globulin
Molecular Weight
45140.49 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Serine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity
Specific Function
Major thyroid hormone transport protein in serum.
Gene Name
SERPINA7
Uniprot ID
P05543
Uniprot Name
Thyroxine-binding globulin
Molecular Weight
46324.12 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Serine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity
Specific Function
Most important serine protease inhibitor in plasma that regulates the blood coagulation cascade. AT-III inhibits thrombin, matriptase-3/TMPRSS7, as well as factors IXa, Xa and XIa. Its inhibitory a...
Gene Name
SERPINC1
Uniprot ID
P01008
Uniprot Name
Antithrombin-III
Molecular Weight
52601.935 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Serine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity
Specific Function
Thrombin inhibitor activated by the glycosaminoglycans, heparin or dermatan sulfate. In the presence of the latter, HC-II becomes the predominant thrombin inhibitor in place of antithrombin III (AT...
Gene Name
SERPIND1
Uniprot ID
P05546
Uniprot Name
Heparin cofactor 2
Molecular Weight
57070.16 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Neurotrophic protein; induces extensive neuronal differentiation in retinoblastoma cells. Potent inhibitor of angiogenesis. As it does not undergo the S (stressed) to R (relaxed) conformational transition characteristic of active serpins, it exhibits no serine protease inhibitory activity.
Specific Function
Serine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity
Gene Name
SERPINF1
Uniprot ID
P36955
Uniprot Name
Pigment epithelium-derived factor
Molecular Weight
46311.685 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Serine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity
Specific Function
Serine protease inhibitor. The major targets of this inhibitor are plasmin and trypsin, but it also inactivates matriptase-3/TMPRSS7 and chymotrypsin.
Gene Name
SERPINF2
Uniprot ID
P08697
Uniprot Name
Alpha-2-antiplasmin
Molecular Weight
54565.32 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Serine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity
Specific Function
Activation of the C1 complex is under control of the C1-inhibitor. It forms a proteolytically inactive stoichiometric complex with the C1r or C1s proteases. May play a potentially crucial role in r...
Gene Name
SERPING1
Uniprot ID
P05155
Uniprot Name
Plasma protease C1 inhibitor
Molecular Weight
55153.645 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Identical protein binding
Specific Function
Thyroid hormone-binding protein. Probably transports thyroxine from the bloodstream to the brain.
Gene Name
TTR
Uniprot ID
P02766
Uniprot Name
Transthyretin
Molecular Weight
15886.88 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Scavenger receptor activity
Specific Function
Vitronectin is a cell adhesion and spreading factor found in serum and tissues. Vitronectin interact with glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans. Is recognized by certain members of the integrin fami...
Gene Name
VTN
Uniprot ID
P04004
Uniprot Name
Vitronectin
Molecular Weight
54305.135 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
May play a role in postsynaptic function. The C-terminal gamma-secretase processed fragment, ALID1, activates transcription activation through APBB1 (Fe65) binding (By similarity). Couples to JIP signal transduction through C-terminal binding. May interact with cellular G-protein signaling pathways. Can regulate neurite outgrowth through binding to components of the extracellular matrix such as heparin and collagen I.
Specific Function
Alpha-2a adrenergic receptor binding
Gene Name
APLP1
Uniprot ID
P51693
Uniprot Name
Amyloid-like protein 1
Molecular Weight
72175.825 Da
References
  1. Mayer MC, Kaden D, Schauenburg L, Hancock MA, Voigt P, Roeser D, Barucker C, Than ME, Schaefer M, Multhaup G: Novel zinc-binding site in the E2 domain regulates amyloid precursor-like protein 1 (APLP1) oligomerization. J Biol Chem. 2014 Jul 4;289(27):19019-30. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M114.570382. Epub 2014 May 22. [PubMed:24855651]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Destroys radicals which are normally produced within the cells and which are toxic to biological systems.
Gene Name
SOD1
Uniprot ID
P00441
Uniprot Name
Superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn]
Molecular Weight
15935.685 Da
References
  1. Bost M, Houdart S, Oberli M, Kalonji E, Huneau JF, Margaritis I: Dietary copper and human health: Current evidence and unresolved issues. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2016 May;35:107-15. doi: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2016.02.006. Epub 2016 Mar 5. [PubMed:27049134]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the degradation of compounds such as putrescine, histamine, spermine, and spermidine, substances involved in allergic and immune responses, cell proliferation, tissue differentiation, tum...
Gene Name
AOC1
Uniprot ID
P19801
Uniprot Name
Amiloride-sensitive amine oxidase [copper-containing]
Molecular Weight
85377.1 Da
References
  1. Bost M, Houdart S, Oberli M, Kalonji E, Huneau JF, Margaritis I: Dietary copper and human health: Current evidence and unresolved issues. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2016 May;35:107-15. doi: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2016.02.006. Epub 2016 Mar 5. [PubMed:27049134]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Homo sapiens
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Protein-lysine 6-oxidase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the post-translational oxidative deamination of peptidyl lysine residues in precursors to fibrous collagen and elastin (PubMed:26838787). Regulator of Ras expression. May play a rol...
Gene Name
LOX
Uniprot ID
P28300
Uniprot Name
Protein-lysine 6-oxidase
Molecular Weight
46943.67 Da
References
  1. Bost M, Houdart S, Oberli M, Kalonji E, Huneau JF, Margaritis I: Dietary copper and human health: Current evidence and unresolved issues. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2016 May;35:107-15. doi: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2016.02.006. Epub 2016 Mar 5. [PubMed:27049134]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Iron ion binding
Specific Function
Cytochrome c oxidase is the component of the respiratory chain that catalyzes the reduction of oxygen to water. Subunits 1-3 form the functional core of the enzyme complex. CO I is the catalytic su...
Gene Name
MT-CO1
Uniprot ID
P00395
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1
Molecular Weight
57040.91 Da
References
  1. Tapiero H, Townsend DM, Tew KD: Trace elements in human physiology and pathology. Copper. Biomed Pharmacother. 2003 Nov;57(9):386-98. [PubMed:14652164]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
This is a copper-containing oxidase that functions in the formation of pigments such as melanins and other polyphenolic compounds. Catalyzes the rate-limiting conversions of tyrosine to DOPA, DOPA ...
Gene Name
TYR
Uniprot ID
P14679
Uniprot Name
Tyrosinase
Molecular Weight
60392.69 Da
References
  1. Tapiero H, Townsend DM, Tew KD: Trace elements in human physiology and pathology. Copper. Biomed Pharmacother. 2003 Nov;57(9):386-98. [PubMed:14652164]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
L-ascorbic acid binding
Specific Function
Conversion of dopamine to noradrenaline.
Gene Name
DBH
Uniprot ID
P09172
Uniprot Name
Dopamine beta-hydroxylase
Molecular Weight
69064.45 Da
References
  1. Tapiero H, Townsend DM, Tew KD: Trace elements in human physiology and pathology. Copper. Biomed Pharmacother. 2003 Nov;57(9):386-98. [PubMed:14652164]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes 2 sequential steps in C-terminal alpha-amidation of peptides. The monooxygenase part produces an unstable peptidyl(2-hydroxyglycine) intermediate that is dismutat...
Gene Name
PAM
Uniprot ID
P19021
Uniprot Name
Peptidyl-glycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase
Molecular Weight
108331.35 Da
References
  1. Tapiero H, Townsend DM, Tew KD: Trace elements in human physiology and pathology. Copper. Biomed Pharmacother. 2003 Nov;57(9):386-98. [PubMed:14652164]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Serotonin binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral...

Components:
References
  1. Tapiero H, Townsend DM, Tew KD: Trace elements in human physiology and pathology. Copper. Biomed Pharmacother. 2003 Nov;57(9):386-98. [PubMed:14652164]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Rrna binding
Specific Function
Binds to actin on the surface of endothelial cells; once bound, angiogenin is endocytosed and translocated to the nucleus. Stimulates ribosomal RNA synthesis including that containing the initiatio...
Gene Name
ANG
Uniprot ID
P03950
Uniprot Name
Angiogenin
Molecular Weight
16549.95 Da
References
  1. Tapiero H, Townsend DM, Tew KD: Trace elements in human physiology and pathology. Copper. Biomed Pharmacother. 2003 Nov;57(9):386-98. [PubMed:14652164]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Tubulin binding
Specific Function
Its primary physiological function is unclear. Has cytoprotective activity against internal or environmental stresses. May play a role in neuronal development and synaptic plasticity. May be requir...
Gene Name
PRNP
Uniprot ID
P04156
Uniprot Name
Major prion protein
Molecular Weight
27661.21 Da
References
  1. Tapiero H, Townsend DM, Tew KD: Trace elements in human physiology and pathology. Copper. Biomed Pharmacother. 2003 Nov;57(9):386-98. [PubMed:14652164]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Binder
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloid...
Gene Name
ALB
Uniprot ID
P02768
Uniprot Name
Serum albumin
Molecular Weight
69365.94 Da
References
  1. Tapiero H, Townsend DM, Tew KD: Trace elements in human physiology and pathology. Copper. Biomed Pharmacother. 2003 Nov;57(9):386-98. [PubMed:14652164]
  2. Bar-Or D, Rael LT, Lau EP, Rao NK, Thomas GW, Winkler JV, Yukl RL, Kingston RG, Curtis CG: An analog of the human albumin N-terminus (Asp-Ala-His-Lys) prevents formation of copper-induced reactive oxygen species. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001 Jun 15;284(3):856-62. [PubMed:11396981]
  3. Sakata N, Moh A, Takebayashi S: Contribution of superoxide to reduced antioxidant activity of glycoxidative serum albumin. Heart Vessels. 2002 Nov;17(1):22-9. [PubMed:12434198]
  4. She YM, Narindrasorasak S, Yang S, Spitale N, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Identification of metal-binding proteins in human hepatoma lines by immobilized metal affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2003 Dec;2(12):1306-18. Epub 2003 Oct 7. [PubMed:14534351]
  5. Smith SD, She YM, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Using immobilized metal affinity chromatography, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify hepatocellular proteins with copper-binding ability. J Proteome Res. 2004 Jul-Aug;3(4):834-40. [PubMed:15359738]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Binder
General Function
Tumor necrosis factor binding
Specific Function
Is able to inhibit all four classes of proteinases by a unique 'trapping' mechanism. This protein has a peptide stretch, called the 'bait region' which contains specific cleavage sites for differen...
Gene Name
A2M
Uniprot ID
P01023
Uniprot Name
Alpha-2-macroglobulin
Molecular Weight
163289.945 Da
References
  1. Liu N, Lo LS, Askary SH, Jones L, Kidane TZ, Trang T, Nguyen M, Goforth J, Chu YH, Vivas E, Tsai M, Westbrook T, Linder MC: Transcuprein is a macroglobulin regulated by copper and iron availability. J Nutr Biochem. 2007 Sep;18(9):597-608. Epub 2007 Mar 23. [PubMed:17363239]
  2. Tapiero H, Townsend DM, Tew KD: Trace elements in human physiology and pathology. Copper. Biomed Pharmacother. 2003 Nov;57(9):386-98. [PubMed:14652164]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Binder
General Function
Ferroxidase activity
Specific Function
Ceruloplasmin is a blue, copper-binding (6-7 atoms per molecule) glycoprotein. It has ferroxidase activity oxidizing Fe(2+) to Fe(3+) without releasing radical oxygen species. It is involved in iro...
Gene Name
CP
Uniprot ID
P00450
Uniprot Name
Ceruloplasmin
Molecular Weight
122204.45 Da
References
  1. Tapiero H, Townsend DM, Tew KD: Trace elements in human physiology and pathology. Copper. Biomed Pharmacother. 2003 Nov;57(9):386-98. [PubMed:14652164]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Binder
General Function
Metallochaperone activity
Specific Function
Binds and deliver cytosolic copper to the copper ATPase proteins. May be important in cellular antioxidant defense.
Gene Name
ATOX1
Uniprot ID
O00244
Uniprot Name
Copper transport protein ATOX1
Molecular Weight
7401.575 Da
References
  1. Tapiero H, Townsend DM, Tew KD: Trace elements in human physiology and pathology. Copper. Biomed Pharmacother. 2003 Nov;57(9):386-98. [PubMed:14652164]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Binder
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Delivers copper to copper zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1).
Gene Name
CCS
Uniprot ID
O14618
Uniprot Name
Copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase
Molecular Weight
29040.445 Da
References
  1. Tapiero H, Townsend DM, Tew KD: Trace elements in human physiology and pathology. Copper. Biomed Pharmacother. 2003 Nov;57(9):386-98. [PubMed:14652164]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Homo sapiens
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Binder
General Function
Cuprous ion binding
Specific Function
Copper chaperone for cytochrome c oxidase (COX). Binds two copper ions and deliver them to the Cu(A) site of COX (By similarity).
Gene Name
COX17
Uniprot ID
Q14061
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome c oxidase copper chaperone
Molecular Weight
6915.03 Da
References
  1. Tapiero H, Townsend DM, Tew KD: Trace elements in human physiology and pathology. Copper. Biomed Pharmacother. 2003 Nov;57(9):386-98. [PubMed:14652164]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Homo sapiens
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Binder
General Function
Ferroxidase activity
Specific Function
May function as a ferroxidase for ferrous (II) to ferric ion (III) conversion and may be involved in copper transport and homeostasis. Implicated in iron homeostasis and may mediate iron efflux ass...
Gene Name
HEPH
Uniprot ID
Q9BQS7
Uniprot Name
Hephaestin
Molecular Weight
130447.755 Da
References
  1. Tapiero H, Townsend DM, Tew KD: Trace elements in human physiology and pathology. Copper. Biomed Pharmacother. 2003 Nov;57(9):386-98. [PubMed:14652164]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Binder
General Function
Copper ion binding
Specific Function
Central regulator of hemostasis. It serves as a critical cofactor for the prothrombinase activity of factor Xa that results in the activation of prothrombin to thrombin.
Gene Name
F5
Uniprot ID
P12259
Uniprot Name
Coagulation factor V
Molecular Weight
251701.245 Da
References
  1. Tapiero H, Townsend DM, Tew KD: Trace elements in human physiology and pathology. Copper. Biomed Pharmacother. 2003 Nov;57(9):386-98. [PubMed:14652164]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Binder
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity
Specific Function
Factor VIII, along with calcium and phospholipid, acts as a cofactor for factor IXa when it converts factor X to the activated form, factor Xa.
Gene Name
F8
Uniprot ID
P00451
Uniprot Name
Coagulation factor VIII
Molecular Weight
267007.42 Da
References
  1. Tapiero H, Townsend DM, Tew KD: Trace elements in human physiology and pathology. Copper. Biomed Pharmacother. 2003 Nov;57(9):386-98. [PubMed:14652164]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Binder
General Function
Transcriptional activator activity, rna polymerase ii core promoter proximal region sequence-specific binding
Specific Function
Activates the metallothionein I promoter. Binds to the metal responsive element (MRE).

Components:
References
  1. Tapiero H, Townsend DM, Tew KD: Trace elements in human physiology and pathology. Copper. Biomed Pharmacother. 2003 Nov;57(9):386-98. [PubMed:14652164]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Copper uptake transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
High-affinity, saturable copper transporter involved in dietary copper uptake.
Gene Name
SLC31A1
Uniprot ID
O15431
Uniprot Name
High affinity copper uptake protein 1
Molecular Weight
21090.545 Da
References
  1. Tapiero H, Townsend DM, Tew KD: Trace elements in human physiology and pathology. Copper. Biomed Pharmacother. 2003 Nov;57(9):386-98. [PubMed:14652164]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Homo sapiens
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Zinc ion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Important in metal transport, in particular iron. Can also transport manganese, cobalt, cadmium, nickel, vanadium and lead. Involved in apical iron uptake into duodenal enterocytes. Involved in iro...
Gene Name
SLC11A2
Uniprot ID
P49281
Uniprot Name
Natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 2
Molecular Weight
62265.195 Da
References
  1. Tapiero H, Townsend DM, Tew KD: Trace elements in human physiology and pathology. Copper. Biomed Pharmacother. 2003 Nov;57(9):386-98. [PubMed:14652164]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Superoxide dismutase copper chaperone activity
Specific Function
May supply copper to copper-requiring proteins within the secretory pathway, when localized in the trans-Golgi network. Under conditions of elevated extracellular copper, it relocalized to the plas...
Gene Name
ATP7A
Uniprot ID
Q04656
Uniprot Name
Copper-transporting ATPase 1
Molecular Weight
163372.275 Da
References
  1. Tapiero H, Townsend DM, Tew KD: Trace elements in human physiology and pathology. Copper. Biomed Pharmacother. 2003 Nov;57(9):386-98. [PubMed:14652164]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Copper-exporting atpase activity
Specific Function
Involved in the export of copper out of the cells, such as the efflux of hepatic copper into the bile.
Gene Name
ATP7B
Uniprot ID
P35670
Uniprot Name
Copper-transporting ATPase 2
Molecular Weight
157261.34 Da
References
  1. Tapiero H, Townsend DM, Tew KD: Trace elements in human physiology and pathology. Copper. Biomed Pharmacother. 2003 Nov;57(9):386-98. [PubMed:14652164]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Copper ion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Involved in low-affinity copper uptake.
Gene Name
SLC31A2
Uniprot ID
O15432
Uniprot Name
Probable low affinity copper uptake protein 2
Molecular Weight
15681.29 Da
References
  1. van den Berghe PV, Klomp LW: New developments in the regulation of intestinal copper absorption. Nutr Rev. 2009 Nov;67(11):658-72. doi: 10.1111/j.1753-4887.2009.00250.x. [PubMed:19906252]

Drug created on September 29, 2015 11:21 / Updated on November 14, 2018 12:57