Identification

Name
Selenium
Accession Number
DB11135
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational, Vet approved
Description

Selenium is a trace metal in the human body particularly important as a component of glutathione peroxidase, an important enzyme in the prevention of cellular damage by free radicals and reactive oxygen species [Label]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • Selen
  • Selenio
  • Sélénium
  • Selenium elemental
  • Selenium metallicum
  • Selenium, elemental
External IDs
231-957-4 / C.I. 77805 / CI 77805
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Selenium 100Capsule100 mcgOralAnabolic Laboratories Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
SeleniumCapsule200 mcgOralWampole Brands, A Division Of Pangeo Pharma (Canada) Inc.2000-01-212002-07-29Canada
Selenium 100 - CapletTablet100 mcgOralHealth Wise Nutrition Inc.1995-12-312002-07-18Canada
Selenium 200 McgTablet200 mcgOralPreferred Nutrition Inc.2004-05-122005-08-04Canada
Selenium 200 Mcg TabletsTablet200 mcgOralPharmetics (2011) Inc.1999-08-082009-07-30Canada
Selenium Ctr Srt 50mgTablet, extended release50 mcgOralBioenergy Inc.1979-12-311998-06-03Canada
Selenium Oxide Tab 50mcgTablet50 mcgOralGahler Enterprises Ltd.1988-12-312005-08-15Canada
Selenium Tab 200mcgTablet200 mcgOralAnabolic Laboratories Inc.1981-12-311996-10-02Canada
Selenium Tab 50mcgTablet50 mcgOralHall Laboratories, Ltd.1981-12-312003-09-11Canada
Selenium Tab 50mcgTablet50 mcgOralNutristar Health Products (1987) Inc.1986-12-311996-09-09Canada
Selenium Tablets 100mcgTablet100 mcgOralRoyal Bodycare Canada Inc.1992-12-312005-08-02Canada
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
24 Multivitamins + MineralsSelenium (20 mcg) + Ascorbic acid (150 mg) + Beta carotene (10000 unit) + Biotin (25 mcg) + Calcium (130 mg) + Cholecalciferol (400 unit) + Choline bitartrate (25 mg) + Chromium (20 mcg) + Copper (1 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (25 mcg) + Ferrous fumarate (15 mg) + Folic Acid (.8 mg) + Inositol (25 mg) + Magnesium (65 mg) + Manganese (2 mg) + Molybdenum (20 mcg) + Niacin (25 mg) + Calcium pantothenate (25 mg) + Potassium (15 mg) + Potassium Iodide (.1 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (25 mg) + Racemethionine (25 mg) + Riboflavin (25 mg) + Thiamine hydrochloride (25 mg) + Vanadium (20 mcg) + Vitamin A palmitate (5000 unit) + Vitamin E (50 unit) + Zinc (10 mg)TabletOralStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.1997-04-302002-07-31Canada
50 Plus Multiple Vitamins & MineralsSelenium (25 mcg) + Ascorbic acid (90 mg) + Biotin (45 mcg) + Calcium (200 mg) + Cholecalciferol (400 unit) + Chromium (10 mcg) + Copper (2 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (25 mcg) + Folic Acid (0.4 mg) + Magnesium (100 mg) + Manganese (5 mg) + Molybdenum (25 mcg) + Nicotinamide (40 mg) + Pantothenic acid (10 mg) + Potassium Iodide (0.15 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (3 mg) + Riboflavin (3.2 mg) + Thiamine mononitrate (2.25 mg) + Vanadium (10 mcg) + Vitamin A palmitate (6000 unit) + Zinc (15 mg)TabletOralGfr Pharma Ltd.2002-10-202004-06-15Canada
A.R.T.H. Away FormulaSelenium (1.54 mcg) + Calcium (24 mg) + Cholecalciferol (45 unit) + Copper (0.232 mg) + Folic Acid (0.025 mg) + Manganese (0.58 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (0.5 mg) + Zinc (0.63 mg)CapsuleOralAbundance Marketing Ltd.1999-02-012006-06-16Canada
A/o-26 - CapletSelenium (100 mcg) + Beta carotene (7500 unit) + Calcium (75 mg) + Calcium ascorbate (250 mg) + Copper (1 mg) + DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate (100 unit) + Folic Acid (.4 mg) + Manganese (2.5 mg) + Racemethionine (50 mg) + Zinc (7.5 mg)TabletOralEnviro Tech International Canada1996-12-191999-07-26Canada
Aces Formula/formule A A SSelenium (25 mcg) + Ascorbic acid (250 mg) + Beta carotene (3333 unit) + Vitamin E (400 unit)CapsuleOralQuantofill Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
Aces TabSelenium (100 mcg) + Calcium ascorbate (350 mg) + Cholecalciferol (200 unit) + Chromium (25 mcg) + Vitamin A (5000 unit) + Vitamin E (200 unit) + Zinc (25 mg)TabletOralNu Life Nutrition Ltd.1987-12-312005-03-15Canada
Advanced B & T FormulaSelenium (33.33 mcg) + Ascorbic acid (33.3 mg) + Calcium (200 mg) + Chromium (33.33 mcg) + Copper (0.5 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (6.67 mcg) + Folic Acid (0.133 mg) + Iron (1.67 mg) + Magnesium (83.3 mg) + Manganese (3.33 mg) + Nicotinamide (6.67 mg) + Calcium pantothenate (5 mg) + Phosphorus (100 mg) + Potassium (16.67 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (6.67 mg) + Riboflavin (2.67 mg) + Silicon (0.333 mg) + Sodium molybdate (16.67 mcg) + Thiamine (2.67 mg) + Vanadium (8.33 mg) + Vitamin D (66.67 unit) + Zinc (5 mg)CapsuleOralNutraceutical CorporationNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Am CapsSelenium (50 mcg) + Beta carotene (2500 unit) + Biotin (150 mcg) + Calcium ascorbate (30 mg) + Cholecalciferol (200 unit) + Cyanocobalamin (5 mcg) + Folic Acid (0.20 mg) + Nicotinamide (10 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (1 mg) + Riboflavin (0.85 mg) + Thiamine (0.75 mg) + Vitamin E (15 unit)CapsuleOralNew Vision Nutritionals CompanyNot applicableNot applicableCanada
AmdSelenium (25 mcg) + Ascorbic acid (250 mg) + Chromium (25 mcg) + Manganese (15 mg) + Zinc (5 mg)CapsuleOralSeroyal International Inc.1997-06-272009-07-06Canada
Avon Nutrivance Vitamin E PlusSelenium (35 mcg) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (100 mcg) + Folic Acid (0.2 mg) + Magnesium (120 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (5 mg) + Vitamin E (200 unit)TabletOralAvon Products, Inc.2001-09-252007-07-26Canada
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Folet DHASelenium (65 ug/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Beta carotene (2700 [iU]/1) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1) + Cyanocobalamin (12 ug/1) + D-alpha-Tocopherol acetate (18 [iU]/1) + Doconexent (350 mg/1) + Docusate sodium (50 mg/1) + Ferrous bisglycinate (38 mg/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Magnesium oxide (30 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (40 mg/1) + Riboflavin (3.4 mg/1) + Thiamine hydrochloride (3 mg/1) + Zinc glycinate (10 mg/1)KitPronova Corporation2014-08-28Not applicableUs
Nata KompleteSelenium (50 ug/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Biotin (30 ug/1) + Calcium (100 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1) + Choline bitartrate (55 mg/1) + Copper (2 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (12 ug/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Iron (25 mg/1) + Magnesium (50 mg/1) + Niacin (20 mg/1) + Pantothenic acid (8 mg/1) + Pyridoxine (30 mg/1) + Riboflavin (3.5 mg/1) + Thiamine chloride (3 mg/1) + Vitamin A (2700 [iU]/1) + Vitamin E (20 [iU]/1) + Zinc (15 mg/1)TabletOralWh Nutritionals, Llc2011-06-252014-05-31Us
Prefera OB plus DHASelenium (65 ug/1) + Biotin (30 ug/1) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1) + Cupric sulfate pentahydrate (0.8 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (12 ug/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Heme iron polypeptide (6 mg/1) + Iron Dextran (22 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (17 mg/1) + Calcium pantothenate (10 mg/1) + Potassium Iodide (175 ug/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (50 mg/1) + Riboflavin (1.6 mg/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (1.5 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (15 mg/1) + alpha-Tocopherol succinate (10 [iU]/1)TabletOralAlaven Pharmaceutical2009-04-01Not applicableUs
PreferaOBSelenium (65 ug/1) + Biotin (30 ug/1) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1) + Cupric sulfate pentahydrate (0.8 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (12 ug/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Heme iron polypeptide (6 mg/1) + Iron Dextran (28 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (17 mg/1) + Calcium pantothenate (10 mg/1) + Potassium Iodide (250 ug/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (50 mg/1) + Riboflavin (1.6 mg/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (1.5 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (4.5 ug/1) + alpha-Tocopherol succinate (10 [iU]/1)TabletOralAlaven Pharmaceutical2010-09-27Not applicableUs
PreferaOB plus DHASelenium (65 ug/1) + Biotin (30 ug/1) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1) + Cupric sulfate pentahydrate (0.8 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (12 ug/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Heme iron polypeptide (6 mg/1) + Iron Dextran (28 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (17 mg/1) + Calcium pantothenate (10 mg/1) + Potassium Iodide (250 ug/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (50 mg/1) + Riboflavin (1.6 mg/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (1.5 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (4.5 ug/1) + alpha-Tocopherol succinate (10 [iU]/1)TabletOralAlaven Pharmaceutical2010-11-15Not applicableUs
PreQue 10Selenium (7.5 ug/1) + Ascorbic acid (30 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (120 [iU]/1) + Cupric oxide (1 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (1 ug/1) + Doconexent (50 mg/1) + Docusate sodium (25 mg/1) + Folic Acid (0.5 mg/1) + Iron (15 mg/1) + Lycopene (5 mg/1) + Magnesium oxide (10 mg/1) + Riboflavin (1.7 mg/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (1 mg/1) + Ubidecarenone (50 mg/1) + Vitamin A (1250 [iU]/1) + Zinc oxide (12.5 mg/1) + alpha-Tocopherol succinate (15 [iU]/1)TabletOralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2011-11-012013-02-11Us
PreQue 10Selenium (7.5 ug/1) + Ascorbic acid (30 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (120 [iU]/1) + Cupric oxide (1 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (1 ug/1) + Doconexent (50 mg/1) + Docusate sodium (25 mg/1) + Folic Acid (0.5 mg/1) + Iron (15 mg/1) + Lycopene (5 mg/1) + Magnesium oxide (10 mg/1) + Riboflavin (1.7 mg/1) + Thiamine chloride (1 mg/1) + Ubidecarenone (50 mg/1) + Vitamin A (1250 [iU]/1) + Vitamin E (15 [iU]/1) + Zinc oxide (12.5 mg/1)TabletOralActavis Pharma Company2011-11-012018-06-05Us
Strovite Forte CapletSelenium (50 ug/1) + Ascorbic acid (500 mg/1) + Biotin (0.15 mg/1) + Chromium (50 ug/1) + Copper (3 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (50 ug/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Iron (10 mg/1) + Magnesium (50 mg/1) + Molybdenum (20 ug/1) + Niacin (100 mg/1) + Pantothenic acid (25 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (25 mg/1) + Riboflavin (20 mg/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (20 mg/1) + Vitamin A (4000 [iU]/1) + Vitamin D (400 [iU]/1) + Vitamin E (60 [iU]/1) + Zinc (15 mg/1)Tablet, coatedOralEverett Laboratories, Inc.1996-10-01Not applicableUs
Strovite One CapletsSelenium (100 ug/1) + Ascorbic acid (300 mg/1) + Biotin (100 ug/1) + Cholecalciferol (1000 [iU]/1) + Chromium (50 ug/1) + Cupric sulfate pentahydrate (1.5 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (50 ug/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Lipoic Acid (15 mg/1) + Lutein (5 mg/1) + Magnesium oxide (50 mg/1) + Manganese (1.5 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (25 mg/1) + Calcium pantothenate (7.5 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (25 mg/1) + Riboflavin (5 mg/1) + Thiamine chloride (20 mg/1) + Vitamin A (3000 [iU]/1) + Zinc oxide (25 mg/1) + alpha-Tocopherol succinate (100 [iU]/1)TabletOralExeltis Usa, Inc.2001-05-04Not applicableUs
Vitaphil 90 DHASelenium (50 ug/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Beta carotene (2600 [iU]/1) + Biotin (30 ug/1) + Calcium Carbonate (100 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (420 [iU]/1) + Choline bitartrate (60 mg/1) + Cupric oxide (2 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (12 ug/1) + Doconexent (200 mg/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Iron (26 mg/1) + Magnesium oxide (50 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Calcium pantothenate (8 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (30 mg/1) + Riboflavin (3.5 mg/1) + Thiamine hydrochloride (3 mg/1) + Vitamin E (20 [iU]/1) + Zinc oxide (15 mg/1)KitRiver's Edge Pharmaceuticals, LLC2008-11-142010-10-30Us
International/Other Brands
B-Traxim Se / Selsaf 2000
Categories
UNII
Not Available
CAS number
7782-49-2
Weight
Average: 78.96
Monoisotopic: 79.916521828
Chemical Formula
Se
InChI Key
BUGBHKTXTAQXES-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/Se
IUPAC Name
selanylidene
SMILES
[Se]

Pharmacology

Indication

For the supplementation of total parenteral nutrition to prevent hyposelenemia [Label].

Associated Therapies
Pharmacodynamics

Selenium is incorporated into many different selenoproteins which serve various functions throughout the body [1].

Mechanism of action

Selenium is first metabolized to selenophosphate and selenocysteine. Selenium incorporation is genetically encoded through the RNA sequence UGA [1]. This sequence is recognized by RNA ste loop structures called selenocysteine inserting sequences (SECIS). These structures require the binding of SECIS binding proteins (SBP-2) to recognize selenocystiene. The specialized tRNA is first bound to a serine residue which is then enzymatically processed to a selylcysteyl-tRNA by selenocystiene sythase using selenophosphate as a selenium donor. Other unidentified proteins are required as part of the binding of this tRNA to the ribosome. Selenoproteins appear to be necessary for life as mice with the specialized tRNA gene knocked out exhibited early embryonic lethality [2].

The most important selenoproteins seem to be the glutathione peroxidases and thioredoxin reductases which are part of the body's defenses againts reactive oxygen species (ROS) [1]. The importance of selenium in these anti-oxidant proteins has been implicated in the reduction of atherosclerosis by preventing the oxidation of low density lipoprotein [7] [3]. Selenium supplementation is also being investigated in the prevention of cancer and has been suggested to be beneficial to immune function [7] [4] [5].

Absorption

Oral bioavailability of 90% when given as L-selenomethionine [8]. Tmax of 9.17h.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism

Selenium supplements are typically available in the form of sodium selenite which is metabolized to selenide through either glutathione conjugation and subsequent reduction by glutathione reductase enzymes or reduction by thioredoxin reductases [1]. Selenide is further metabolized to selenocystein by cysteine synthases and to selenophosphate by selenophosphate synthases. Selenide is also metabolized progressively to methyl-selenol, dimethyl selenide, then trimethylselenonium. Selenocysteine is degraded to methyl-selenol, pyruvate and ammonia by cysteine beta lyase. Selenocystein reacts with oxygen to form selenocysteine selenoxide which spontaneously degrades to methylselenic acid, pyruvate and ammonia. Methylselenic acid can be converted to methylselenol via conjugation with thiol groups on proteins like glutathione.

Route of elimination

Mainly excreted in urine as 1beta-methylseleno-N-acetyl-d-galactosamine and trimethylselenonium [6]. The amount excreted as 1beta-methylseleno-N-acetyl-d-galactosamine plateaus at doses around 2microg after which the amount excreted as trimethylselenonium increases. Some selenium is also excreted in feces when given orally [8].

Half life

Half life was observed to increase with chronic dosing time [8]. For day 1-2 half life was 1.7 days. For day 2-3 half life was 3 days. For day 3-14 half life was 11.1 days.

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Oral LD50 of 6700mg/kg in rats [MSDS]. Selenium exposure is teratogenic and can result in fetal death as tested in mice. Chronic toxicity is characterized by hair loss, white horizontal streaking on fingernails, paronchyia, fatigue, irritability, hyperreflexia, nausea, vomiting, garlic odor on breath, and metallic taste [Label]. Serum selenium correlates weakly with symtoms. Blood chemistry as well as liver and kidney function are normally unnaffected. Acute toxicity presents as stupor, respiratory depression, and hypotension. ST elevations and t-wave changes characteristic of myocardial infarction may be observed.

Affected organisms
Not Available
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
AbacavirAbacavir may decrease the excretion rate of Selenium which could result in a higher serum level.
AcarboseAcarbose may decrease the excretion rate of Selenium which could result in a higher serum level.
AceclofenacAceclofenac may decrease the excretion rate of Selenium which could result in a higher serum level.
AcemetacinAcemetacin may decrease the excretion rate of Selenium which could result in a higher serum level.
AcetaminophenAcetaminophen may decrease the excretion rate of Selenium which could result in a higher serum level.
Acetylsalicylic acidAcetylsalicylic acid may decrease the excretion rate of Selenium which could result in a higher serum level.
AclidiniumAclidinium may decrease the excretion rate of Selenium which could result in a higher serum level.
AcrivastineAcrivastine may decrease the excretion rate of Selenium which could result in a higher serum level.
AcyclovirAcyclovir may decrease the excretion rate of Selenium which could result in a higher serum level.
AdefovirAdefovir may decrease the excretion rate of Selenium which could result in a higher serum level.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
  1. Ganther HE: Selenium metabolism, selenoproteins and mechanisms of cancer prevention: complexities with thioredoxin reductase. Carcinogenesis. 1999 Sep;20(9):1657-66. [PubMed:10469608]
  2. Brenneisen P, Steinbrenner H, Sies H: Selenium, oxidative stress, and health aspects. Mol Aspects Med. 2005 Aug-Oct;26(4-5):256-67. [PubMed:16105679]
  3. Zhang H, Luo Y, Zhang W, He Y, Dai S, Zhang R, Huang Y, Bernatchez P, Giordano FJ, Shadel G, Sessa WC, Min W: Endothelial-specific expression of mitochondrial thioredoxin improves endothelial cell function and reduces atherosclerotic lesions. Am J Pathol. 2007 Mar;170(3):1108-20. [PubMed:17322393]
  4. Broome CS, McArdle F, Kyle JA, Andrews F, Lowe NM, Hart CA, Arthur JR, Jackson MJ: An increase in selenium intake improves immune function and poliovirus handling in adults with marginal selenium status. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Jul;80(1):154-62. [PubMed:15213043]
  5. Lippman SM, Goodman PJ, Klein EA, Parnes HL, Thompson IM Jr, Kristal AR, Santella RM, Probstfield JL, Moinpour CM, Albanes D, Taylor PR, Minasian LM, Hoque A, Thomas SM, Crowley JJ, Gaziano JM, Stanford JL, Cook ED, Fleshner NE, Lieber MM, Walther PJ, Khuri FR, Karp DD, Schwartz GG, Ford LG, Coltman CA Jr: Designing the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT). J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005 Jan 19;97(2):94-102. [PubMed:15657339]
  6. Suzuki KT, Kurasaki K, Okazaki N, Ogra Y: Selenosugar and trimethylselenonium among urinary Se metabolites: dose- and age-related changes. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2005 Aug 1;206(1):1-8. Epub 2004 Dec 8. [PubMed:15963339]
  7. Tinggi U: Selenium: its role as antioxidant in human health. Environ Health Prev Med. 2008 Mar;13(2):102-8. doi: 10.1007/s12199-007-0019-4. Epub 2008 Feb 28. [PubMed:19568888]
  8. Bugel S, Larsen EH, Sloth JJ, Flytlie K, Overvad K, Steenberg LC, Moesgaard S: Absorption, excretion, and retention of selenium from a high selenium yeast in men with a high intake of selenium. Food Nutr Res. 2008;52. doi: 10.3402/fnr.v52i0.1642. Epub 2008 Feb 12. [PubMed:19109661]
External Links
KEGG Compound
C01529
PubChem Compound
6326970
PubChem Substance
347827913
ChemSpider
4885617
ChEBI
27568
Wikipedia
Selenium
AHFS Codes
  • 88:29.00* — Minerals
FDA label
Download (150 KB)
MSDS
Download (110 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentStroke, Ischemic1
0Unknown StatusPreventionPrevention of Colorectal Cancer1
1CompletedTreatmentAge Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD) / Neovascular Maculopathy1
1CompletedTreatmentProstate Cancer1
1RecruitingTreatmentAdenocarcinoma of the Prostate / Hormone-Resistant Prostate Cancer / Multiple Myeloma (MM) / Plasmacytoma / Recurrent Prostate Cancer / Stage IV Prostate Cancer1
1TerminatedTreatmentLymphatic Malformations1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentNeoplasm progression / Neoplasms Malignant / Treatment Resistant Disorders1
1, 2Unknown StatusTreatmentHematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) / Mucositis1
2CompletedSupportive CareEndometriosis1
2CompletedTreatmentCentral Serous Chorioretinopathy (CSC)1
2CompletedTreatmentLymphedema of the extremities / Neoplasms, Breast1
2CompletedTreatmentProstate Cancer1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentFollicular Lymphoma (FL)1
2, 3Active Not RecruitingPreventionPostoperative Myalgia1
3Active Not RecruitingPreventionAdenomatous Colorectal Polyps / Colorectal Cancers / Precancerous Conditions1
3CompletedPreventionCataracts / Macular Degeneration1
3CompletedPreventionColorectal Cancers / Precancerous Conditions1
3CompletedPreventionPrecancerous/Nonmalignant Condition / Prostate Cancer1
3CompletedPreventionProstate Cancer1
3CompletedTreatmentArsenic Exposure / Arsenic Poisoning / Arsenic Toxicity / Arsenical Cancers / Arsenical Keratosis / Arsenical Melanosis / Arsenicosis1
3CompletedTreatmentMycobacterium Tuberculosis1
3CompletedTreatmentVentricular Dysfunction, Left1
3RecruitingTreatmentChagas Disease1
3RecruitingTreatmentHeart Diseases1
3TerminatedPreventionLung Cancers1
3TerminatedPreventionSepsis1
3Unknown StatusPreventionBladder Cancers2
4CompletedPreventionCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)1
4CompletedTreatmentStatin Therapy1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAge Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD) / Diabetic Macular Edema (DME) / Macular Edema (ME) / Retinal Vein Occlusions(RVO)2
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAlzheimer's Disease (AD)1
Not AvailableCompletedScreeningGlaucoma1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
CapsuleOral
Tablet, extended releaseOral
TabletOral
PowderOral
LiquidOral
CapsuleOral200 mcg
CapsuleOral100 mcg
Tablet, extended releaseOral50 mcg
TabletOral200 mcg
TabletOral50 mcg
TabletOral100 mcg
Tablet, coatedOral
Kit
TabletOral60 mcg
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)217MSDS
boiling point (°C)684.9MSDS
water solubilityInsolubleMSDS
logP5MSDS
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP0.15ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity13.11 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability1.78 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
Not Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as homogeneous other non-metal compounds. These are inorganic non-metallic compounds in which the largest atom belongs to the class of 'other non-metals'.
Kingdom
Inorganic compounds
Super Class
Homogeneous non-metal compounds
Class
Homogeneous other non-metal compounds
Sub Class
Not Available
Direct Parent
Homogeneous other non-metal compounds
Alternative Parents
Not Available
Substituents
Homogeneous other non metal
Molecular Framework
Not Available
External Descriptors
nonmetal atom, chalcogen (CHEBI:27568)

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Transferase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the decomposition of L-selenocysteine to L-alanine and elemental selenium.
Gene Name
SCLY
Uniprot ID
Q96I15
Uniprot Name
Selenocysteine lyase
Molecular Weight
48148.45 Da
References
  1. Ganther HE: Selenium metabolism, selenoproteins and mechanisms of cancer prevention: complexities with thioredoxin reductase. Carcinogenesis. 1999 Sep;20(9):1657-66. [PubMed:10469608]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Nadp binding
Specific Function
Maintains high levels of reduced glutathione in the cytosol.
Gene Name
GSR
Uniprot ID
P00390
Uniprot Name
Glutathione reductase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
56256.565 Da
References
  1. Ganther HE: Selenium metabolism, selenoproteins and mechanisms of cancer prevention: complexities with thioredoxin reductase. Carcinogenesis. 1999 Sep;20(9):1657-66. [PubMed:10469608]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Thioredoxin-disulfide reductase activity
Specific Function
Isoform 1 may possess glutaredoxin activity as well as thioredoxin reductase activity and induces actin and tubulin polymerization, leading to formation of cell membrane protrusions. Isoform 4 enha...
Gene Name
TXNRD1
Uniprot ID
Q16881
Uniprot Name
Thioredoxin reductase 1, cytoplasmic
Molecular Weight
70905.58 Da
References
  1. Ganther HE: Selenium metabolism, selenoproteins and mechanisms of cancer prevention: complexities with thioredoxin reductase. Carcinogenesis. 1999 Sep;20(9):1657-66. [PubMed:10469608]

Drug created on December 03, 2015 09:51 / Updated on November 16, 2018 11:28