Identification

Name
Cannabidiol
Accession Number
DB09061
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Description

Cannabidiol, or CBD, is one of at least 85 active cannabinoids identified within the Cannabis plant. It is a major phytocannabinoid, accounting for up to 40% of the Cannabis plant's extract, that binds to a wide variety of physiological targets of the endocannabinoid system within the body. Although the exact medical implications are currently being investigated, CBD has shown promise as a therapeutic and pharmaceutical drug target. In particular, CBD has shown promise as an analgesic, anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant, anxiolytic, antipsychotic and has shown neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activity, among other currently investigated uses [6, 5]. CBD's exact place within medical practice is still currently hotly debated, however as the body of evidence grows and legislation changes to reflect its wide-spread use, public and medical opinion have changed significantly with regards to its usefulness in a number of medical conditions ranging from anxiety to epilepsy.

From a pharmacological perspective, Cannabis' (and CBD's) diverse receptor profile explains its potential application for such a wide variety of medical conditions. Cannabis contains more than 400 different chemical compounds, of which 61 are considered cannabinoids, a class of compounds that act upon endogenous cannabinoid receptors of the body [11]. Cannabinoid receptors are utilized endogenously by the body through the endocannabinoid system, which includes a group of lipid proteins, enzymes, and receptors that are involved in many physiological processes. Through its modulation of neurotransmitter release, the endocannabinoid system regulates cognition, pain sensation, appetite, memory, sleep, immune function, and mood among many other bodily systems. These effects are largely mediated through two members of the G-protein coupled receptor family, cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2 (CB1 and CB2)[12, 8]. CB1 receptors are found in both the central and peripheral nervous systems, with the majority of receptors localized to the hippocampus and amygdala of the brain. Physiological effects of using cannabis make sense in the context of its receptor activity as the hippocampus and amygdala are primarily involved with regulation of memory, fear, and emotion. In contrast, CB2 receptors are mainly found peripherally in immune cells, lymphoid tissue, and peripheral nerve terminals [9].

Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) are two types of cannabinoids found naturally in the resin of the marijuana plant, both of which interact with the cannabinoid receptors that are found throughout the body. Although THC and CBD have been the most studied cannabinoids, there are many others identified to date including cannabinol (CBN), cannabigerol (CBG), Cannabidivarin (CBDV), and Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) that can be found within the medical cannabis [10]. While both CBD and THC are used for medicinal purposes, they have different receptor activity, function, and physiological effects. If not provided in their activated form (such as through synthetic forms of THC like Dronabinol or Nabilone), THC and CBD are obtained through conversion from their precursors, tetrahydrocannabinolic acid-A (THCA-A) and cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), through decarboxylation reactions. This can be achieved through heating, smoking, vaporization, or baking of dried unfertilized female cannabis flowers.

The primary psychoactive component of Cannabis, delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), demonstrates its effects through weak partial agonist activity at Cannabinoid-1 (CB1R) and Cannabinoid-2 (CB2R) receptors. This activity results in the well-known effects of smoking cannabis such as increased appetite, reduced pain, and changes in emotional and cognitive processes. In contrast to THC's weak agonist activity, CBD has been shown to act as a negative allosteric modulator of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor, the most abundant G-Protein Coupled Receptor (GPCR) in the body [5]. Allosteric regulation is achieved through the modulation of receptor activity on a functionally distinct site from the agonist or antagonist binding site which is clinically significant as direct agonists (such as THC) are limited by their psychomimetic effects such as changes to mood, memory, and anxiety[5].

In addition to the well-known activity on CB1 and CB2 receptors, there is further evidence that CBD also activates 5-HT1A/2A/3A serotonergic and TRPV1–2 vanilloid receptors, antagonizes alpha-1 adrenergic and µ-opioid receptors, inhibits synaptosomal uptake of noradrenaline, dopamine, serotonin and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and cellular uptake of anandamide, acts on mitochondria Ca2+ stores, blocks low-voltage-activated (T-type) Ca2+ channels, stimulates activity of the inhibitory glycine-receptor, and inhibits activity of fatty amide hydrolase (FAAH) [1, 2].

CBD is currently available in Canada within a 1:1 formulation with tetrahydrocannbinol (THC) (as the formulation known as "nabiximols") as the brand name product Sativex. It is approved for use as adjunctive treatment for symptomatic relief of spasticity in adult patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Sativex was also given a conditional Notice of Compliance (NOC/c) for use as adjunctive treatment for the symptomatic relief of neuropathic pain in adult patients with multiple sclerosis and as adjunctive analgesic treatment for moderate to severe pain in adult patients with advanced cancer [15].

In April 2018, a Food and Drug Administration advisory panel unanimously recommended approval of Epidiolex (cannabidiol oral solution) for the treatment of two rare forms of epilepsy - Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Dravet syndrome, which are among the two most difficult types of epilepsy to treat [18, 16]. Epidiolex was granted Orphan Drug designation as well as Fast Track Approval from the FDA for further study in these hard to treat conditions. Notably, phase 3 clinical trials of Epidiolex have demonstrated clinically significant improvement in Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Dravet syndrome [17]. On June 25th, 2018, Epidiolex was approved by the FDA to be the first CBD-based product available on the US market.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • (−)-trans-2-p-mentha-1,8-dien-3-yl-5-pentylresorcinol
  • (−)-trans-cannabidiol
  • (1'R,2'R)-5'-methyl-4-pentyl-2'-(prop-1-en-2-yl)-1',2',3',4'-tetrahydrobiphenyl-2,6-diol
  • CBD
  • Δ1(2)-trans-cannabidiol
External IDs
GWP-42003 / GWP-42003-P / GWP42003 / GWP42003-P
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
SativexCannabidiol (25 mg) + Dronabinol (27 mg)SprayBuccalGw Pharma Limited2005-06-22Not applicableCanada
Categories
UNII
19GBJ60SN5
CAS number
13956-29-1
Weight
Average: 314.469
Monoisotopic: 314.224580206
Chemical Formula
C21H30O2
InChI Key
QHMBSVQNZZTUGM-ZWKOTPCHSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C21H30O2/c1-5-6-7-8-16-12-19(22)21(20(23)13-16)18-11-15(4)9-10-17(18)14(2)3/h11-13,17-18,22-23H,2,5-10H2,1,3-4H3/t17-,18+/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
2-[(1R,6R)-3-methyl-6-(prop-1-en-2-yl)cyclohex-2-en-1-yl]-5-pentylbenzene-1,3-diol
SMILES
CCCCCC1=CC(O)=C([C@@H]2C=C(C)CC[C@H]2C(C)=C)C(O)=C1

Pharmacology

Indication

When used in combination with delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as the product Sativex, cannabidiol was given a standard marketing authorization (ie. a Notice of Compliance (NOC)) by Health Canada for the following indications: 1) as adjunctive treatment for symptomatic relief of spasticity in adult patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) who have not responded adequately to other therapy and who demonstrate meaningful improvement during an initial trial of therapy [15];

Due to the need for confirmatory studies to verify the clinical benefit coupled with the promising nature of the clinical evidence, Sativex was also given a Notice of Compliance with Conditions (NOC/c) by Health Canada for the following indications: 1) as adjunctive treatment for the symptomatic relief of neuropathic pain in adult patients with multiple sclerosis; 2) as adjunctive analgesic treatment in adult patients with advanced cancer who experience moderate to severe pain during the highest tolerated dose of strong opioid therapy for persistent background pain [15].

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Although the exact mechanism and magnitude of effects of THC and CBD are not fully understood, CBD has been shown to have analgesic, anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant, anxiolytic, neuroprotective, anti-oxidant, and anti-psychotic activity. This wide variety of effects is likely due to it's complex pharmacological mechanisms. In addition to binding to CB1 and CB2 receptors of the endocannabinoid system, there is evidence that CBD activates 5-HT1A serotonergic and TRPV1–2 vanilloid receptors, antagonizes alpha-1 adrenergic and µ-opioid receptors, inhibits synaptosomal uptake of noradrenaline, dopamine, serotonin and gaminobutyric acid and cellular uptake of anandamide, acts on mitochondria Ca2 stores, blocks low-voltage-activated (T-type) Ca2 channels, stimulates activity of the inhibitory glycine-receptor, and inhibits activity of fatty amide hydrolase (FAAH) [1, 2].

Mechanism of action

The exact mechanism of action of CBD and THC is not currently fully understood. However, it is known that CBD acts on cannabinoid (CB) receptors of the endocannabinoid system, which are found in numerous areas of the body, including the peripheral and central nervous systems, including the brain. The endocannabinoid system regulates many physiological responses of the body including pain, memory, appetite, and mood. More specifically, CB1 receptors can be found within the pain pathways of the brain and spinal cord where they may affect CBD-induced analgesia and anxiolysis, and CB2 receptors have an effect on immune cells, where they may affect CBD-induced anti-inflammatory processes.

CBD has been shown to act as a negative allosteric modulator of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor, the most abundant G-Protein Coupled Receptor (GPCR) in the body [5]. Allosteric regulation of a receptor is achieved through the modulation of the activity of a receptor on a functionally distinct site from the agonist or antagonist binding site. The negative allosteric modulatory effects of CBD are therapeutically important as direct agonists are limited by their psychomimetic effects while direct antagonists are limited by their depressant effects [5].

TargetActionsOrganism
ACannabinoid receptor 1
antagonist
modulator
Human
UCannabinoid receptor 2
antagonist
Human
UG-protein coupled receptor 12
inverse agonist
Human
UGlycine receptor subunit alpha-1Not AvailableHuman
UGlycine receptor (alpha-1/beta)
allosteric modulator
Human
UGlycine receptor subunit alpha-3
potentiator
Human
UN-arachidonyl glycine receptorNot AvailableHuman
UG-protein coupled receptor 55
antagonist
Human
U5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1A
agonist
Human
U5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A
agonist
Human
UNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-7Not AvailableHuman
UDelta-type opioid receptorNot AvailableHuman
UMu-type opioid receptorNot AvailableHuman
UPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma
activator
Human
UTransient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1
activator
Human
UVoltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1GNot AvailableHuman
UVoltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1HNot AvailableHuman
UVoltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1INot AvailableHuman
UTransient receptor potential cation channel subfamily A member 1
agonist
Human
UTransient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 8Not AvailableHuman
UTransient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 2
activator
Human
UTransient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 3
activator
Human
UTransient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 4
activator
Human
UVoltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein 1Not AvailableHuman
U5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3A
antagonist
Human
UAdenosine receptor A1
activator
Human
Absorption

Following a single buccal administration, maximum plasma concentrations of both CBD and THC typically occur within two to four hours. When administered buccally, blood levels of THC and other cannabinoids are lower compared with inhalation of smoked cannabis. The resultant concentrations in the blood are lower than those obtained by inhaling the same dose because absorption is slower, redistribution into fatty tissues is rapid and additionally some of the THC undergoes hepatic first pass metabolism to 11-OH-THC, a psycho-active metabolite.

The CBD component of sublingual Sativex was found to have a Tmax of 1.63hr and a Cmax of 2.50ng/mL, while buccal Sativex was found to have a Tmax of 2.80hr and a Cmax of 3.02ng/mL.

Volume of distribution

Cannabinoids are distributed throughout the body; they are highly lipid soluble and accumulate in fatty tissue. The release of cannabinoids from fatty tissue is responsible for the prolonged terminal elimination half-life.

Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism

THC and CBD are metabolized in the liver by a number of cytochrome P450 isoenzymes, including CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4. They may be stored for as long as four weeks in the fatty tissues from which they are slowly released at sub-therapeutic levels back into the blood stream and metabolized via the renal and biliary systems. The main primary metabolite of CBD is 7-hydroxy-cannabidiol.

Route of elimination

Elimination from plasma is bi-exponential with an initial half-life of one to two hours. The terminal elimination half-lives are of the order of 24 to 36 hours or longer. Sativex is excreted in the urine and faeces.

Half life

The CBD component of sublingual Sativex was found to have a half life (t1/2) of 1.44hr, while buccal Sativex was found to have a half life (t1/2) of 1.81hr.

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity
Not Available
Affected organisms
Not Available
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
AbirateroneThe metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Abiraterone.
AcebutololThe risk or severity of Tachycardia can be increased when Cannabidiol is combined with Acebutolol.
Acetyl sulfisoxazoleThe metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Acetyl sulfisoxazole.
AlclometasoneThe metabolism of Alclometasone can be decreased when combined with Cannabidiol.
AlfuzosinThe metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Alfuzosin.
AlimemazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alimemazine is combined with Cannabidiol.
AlprazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alprazolam is combined with Cannabidiol.
AmcinonideThe metabolism of Amcinonide can be decreased when combined with Cannabidiol.
AmikacinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amikacin is combined with Cannabidiol.
AmiodaroneThe metabolism of Cannabidiol can be decreased when combined with Amiodarone.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
  1. Ibeas Bih C, Chen T, Nunn AV, Bazelot M, Dallas M, Whalley BJ: Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders. Neurotherapeutics. 2015 Oct;12(4):699-730. doi: 10.1007/s13311-015-0377-3. [PubMed:26264914]
  2. Zhornitsky S, Potvin S: Cannabidiol in humans-the quest for therapeutic targets. Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2012 May 21;5(5):529-52. doi: 10.3390/ph5050529. [PubMed:24281562]
  3. Ujvary I, Hanus L: Human Metabolites of Cannabidiol: A Review on Their Formation, Biological Activity, and Relevance in Therapy. Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2016 Mar 1;1(1):90-101. doi: 10.1089/can.2015.0012. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:28861484]
  4. Ruggiero RN, Rossignoli MT, De Ross JB, Hallak JEC, Leite JP, Bueno-Junior LS: Cannabinoids and Vanilloids in Schizophrenia: Neurophysiological Evidence and Directions for Basic Research. Front Pharmacol. 2017 Jun 21;8:399. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2017.00399. eCollection 2017. [PubMed:28680405]
  5. Laprairie RB, Bagher AM, Kelly ME, Denovan-Wright EM: Cannabidiol is a negative allosteric modulator of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor. Br J Pharmacol. 2015 Oct;172(20):4790-805. doi: 10.1111/bph.13250. Epub 2015 Oct 13. [PubMed:26218440]
  6. Pertwee RG: The diverse CB1 and CB2 receptor pharmacology of three plant cannabinoids: delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and delta9-tetrahydrocannabivarin. Br J Pharmacol. 2008 Jan;153(2):199-215. doi: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0707442. Epub 2007 Sep 10. [PubMed:17828291]
  7. MacCallum CA, Russo EB: Practical considerations in medical cannabis administration and dosing. Eur J Intern Med. 2018 Mar;49:12-19. doi: 10.1016/j.ejim.2018.01.004. Epub 2018 Jan 4. [PubMed:29307505]
  8. Baron EP: Comprehensive Review of Medicinal Marijuana, Cannabinoids, and Therapeutic Implications in Medicine and Headache: What a Long Strange Trip It's Been .... Headache. 2015 Jun;55(6):885-916. doi: 10.1111/head.12570. Epub 2015 May 25. [PubMed:26015168]
  9. Kaur R, Ambwani SR, Singh S: Endocannabinoid System: A Multi-Facet Therapeutic Target. Curr Clin Pharmacol. 2016;11(2):110-7. [PubMed:27086601]
  10. Elsohly MA, Slade D: Chemical constituents of marijuana: the complex mixture of natural cannabinoids. Life Sci. 2005 Dec 22;78(5):539-48. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2005.09.011. Epub 2005 Sep 30. [PubMed:16199061]
  11. Sharma P, Murthy P, Bharath MM: Chemistry, metabolism, and toxicology of cannabis: clinical implications. Iran J Psychiatry. 2012 Fall;7(4):149-56. [PubMed:23408483]
  12. Zou S, Kumar U: Cannabinoid Receptors and the Endocannabinoid System: Signaling and Function in the Central Nervous System. Int J Mol Sci. 2018 Mar 13;19(3). pii: ijms19030833. doi: 10.3390/ijms19030833. [PubMed:29533978]
  13. Yang KH, Galadari S, Isaev D, Petroianu G, Shippenberg TS, Oz M: The nonpsychoactive cannabinoid cannabidiol inhibits 5-hydroxytryptamine3A receptor-mediated currents in Xenopus laevis oocytes. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2010 May;333(2):547-54. doi: 10.1124/jpet.109.162594. Epub 2010 Feb 16. [PubMed:20160007]
  14. Yamaori S, Okushima Y, Masuda K, Kushihara M, Katsu T, Narimatsu S, Yamamoto I, Watanabe K: Structural requirements for potent direct inhibition of human cytochrome P450 1A1 by cannabidiol: role of pentylresorcinol moiety. Biol Pharm Bull. 2013;36(7):1197-203. [PubMed:23811569]
  15. Health Canada Product Label [Link]
  16. New York Times: F.D.A. Panel Recommends Approval of Cannabis-Based Drug for Epilepsy (April 2018) [Link]
  17. GW Pharmaceuticals Announces Positive Phase 3 Pivotal Study Results for Epidiolex (cannabidiol) [Link]
  18. FDA Briefing Document - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee Meeting (April 19, 2018) [Link]
External Links
KEGG Compound
C07578
PubChem Compound
644019
PubChem Substance
347827820
ChemSpider
559095
BindingDB
50121429
ChEBI
69478
ChEMBL
CHEMBL190461
Wikipedia
Cannabidiol

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0RecruitingBasic ScienceCannabis / Retinal Degenerations / Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP)1
0RecruitingTreatmentChronic Pain, Widespread1
1Active Not RecruitingBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentEpilepsies1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentEpilepsies / Seizures1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentFumarate Hydratase (FH)-Deficient Tumors / Lung Cancer Non-Small Cell Cancer (NSCLC) / Mesothelioma / Renal Cell Adenocarcinoma / Succinate Dehydrogenase (SDH)-Deficient Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (GIST) / Succinate Dehydrogenase (SDH)-Deficient Non-gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) / Tumors Harboring Amplifications in the cMyc Gene / Tumors Harboring Isocitrate Dehydrogenase-1 (IDH1) and IDH2 Mutations / Tumors, Solid1
1CompletedBasic ScienceEffects of Sativex on ECG1
1CompletedBasic ScienceEvaluation of Abuse Potential of Sativex1
1CompletedBasic ScienceEvaluation of Pharmacokinetics of Sativex in the Absence and Presence of a CYP2C19 Inhibitor / Evaluation of Pharmacokinetics of Sativex in the Absence and Presence of a Known Inducer of CYP3A4 / Evaluation of Pharmacokinetics of Sativex in the Absence and Presence of a Potent Inhibitor of CYP3A41
1CompletedBasic ScienceFood Effect1
1CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers / Modeling Psychosis1
1CompletedBasic SciencePain1
1CompletedDiagnosticCannabis Use Disorders1
1CompletedOtherCannabis / Cannabis Abuse / Dependence / FMRI / Pharmacokinetics1
1CompletedOtherHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedTreatmentHepatic Impairment1
1CompletedTreatmentLymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse (DLBCL) / Multiple Myeloma (MM) / Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL) / Other B-cell NHL Subtypes, Including WM / T-cell NHL / Waldenström's Macroglobulinemia (WM)1
1CompletedTreatmentOpiate Addiction1
1CompletedTreatmentSchizophrenic Disorders1
1Enrolling by InvitationSupportive CarePain Management in Terminally Ill Patients Receiving Scheduled Opioid Therapy1
1Not Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers / Modeling Psychosis1
1Not Yet RecruitingBasic SciencePharmacokinetics, Bioavailability1
1Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentHeart Failure, Unspecified1
1RecruitingTreatmentCannabis Use Disorders1
1TerminatedBasic ScienceTo Provide Further Information About the Potential Need for Sativex Dose Adjustments in Patient Populations1
1TerminatedTreatmentHead and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC)1
1WithdrawnBasic ScienceImpaired Renal Function / Kidney Diseases1
1WithdrawnTreatmentCancer, Advanced1
1, 2Active Not RecruitingBasic SciencePain1
1, 2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentSturge-Weber Syndrome1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentCancers2
1, 2CompletedTreatmentCrohn's Disease (CD) / Ulcerative Colitis (UC)1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentSeizures1
1, 2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAlcohol Use Disorder (AUD)1
1, 2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAlcohol Use Disorder (AUD) / Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)1
1, 2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCancer of Colon / Cancer of Liver / Cancer of Pancreas / Cancer of Rectum / Cancer, Gall Bladder / Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) / Myeloma Multiple1
1, 2Unknown StatusPreventionGraft Versus Host Disease (GVHD)1
1, 2Unknown StatusTreatmentGraft Versus Host Disease (GVHD)1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCannabis Use Disorders1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentSchizoaffective Disorders / Schizophrenic Disorders1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentSchizophrenic Disorders1
2CompletedOtherEpilepsies1
2CompletedSupportive CareCancers / Pain / Palliative Care1
2CompletedTreatmentCannabis Dependence1
2CompletedTreatmentDravet Syndrome / Epilepsies1
2CompletedTreatmentDyslipidemias / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2CompletedTreatmentEpilepsies1
2CompletedTreatmentFatty Liver1
2CompletedTreatmentHuntington's Disease (HD)1
2CompletedTreatmentOpiate Addiction2
2CompletedTreatmentPsychotic Disorder NOS / Schizophrenic Disorders1
2CompletedTreatmentSchizoaffective Disorders / Schizophrenic Disorders1
2CompletedTreatmentSchizophrenia-related Psychotic Disorder / Schizophrenic Disorders1
2CompletedTreatmentSchizophrenic Disorders1
2CompletedTreatmentUlcerative Colitis (UC)1
2Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentEpilepsies1
2Not Yet RecruitingPreventionGraft Versus Host Disease (GVHD)1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAcute-graft-versus-host Disease1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentNon-Cancer Chronic Pain1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPTSD1
2RecruitingBasic ScienceFeeling Anxious1
2RecruitingTreatmentChildhood Absence Epilepsy2
2RecruitingTreatmentDependence, Cocaine / Substance Use Disorder (SUD) / Withdrawal From Addictive Substance; Detoxification1
2RecruitingTreatmentEpilepsies1
2RecruitingTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)1
2RecruitingTreatmentPosttraumatic Stress Disorders1
2RecruitingTreatmentPrader-Willi Syndrome2
2RecruitingTreatmentSchizophrenic Disorders1
2TerminatedTreatmentInfantile Spasms (IS)1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentCannabis Use Disorders1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentDisseminated Sclerosis1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentTumors, Solid1
2, 3CompletedSupportive CareAmyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) / Motor Neurone Disease1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCannabis / Crohn's Disease (CD) / Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD)1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentBipolar Affective Disorders / Bipolar Disorder (BD) / Depression, Bipolar1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentFeeling Anxious / Postoperative pain / Prophylaxis against postoperative nausea and vomiting1
2, 3WithdrawnBasic ScienceDisseminated Sclerosis1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentInfantile Spasms (IS)2
3CompletedSupportive CareCancers / Pain1
3CompletedSupportive CareCancers / Pain / Palliative Care1
3CompletedSupportive CareDetrusor Overactivity / Disseminated Sclerosis1
3CompletedSupportive CareDiabetic Neuropathies / Pain1
3CompletedSupportive CareDisseminated Sclerosis / Spasticity3
3CompletedSupportive CarePain / Peripheral Neuropathy4
3CompletedTreatmentCancer, Advanced / Pain4
3CompletedTreatmentCerebral Palsy (CP)1
3CompletedTreatmentDisseminated Sclerosis5
3CompletedTreatmentDisseminated Sclerosis / Pain1
3CompletedTreatmentDisseminated Sclerosis / Pain, Neuropathic1
3CompletedTreatmentDisseminated Sclerosis / Pain / Spasticity1
3CompletedTreatmentDisseminated Sclerosis / Spasticity1
3CompletedTreatmentDravet Syndrome / Epilepsies1
3CompletedTreatmentEpilepsies / Lennox Gastaut Syndrome / Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome (LGS)1
3CompletedTreatmentEpilepsies / Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome (LGS)1
3CompletedTreatmentPain2
3CompletedTreatmentPain, Neuropathic1
3CompletedTreatmentSeizures1
3Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentDravet Syndrome / Epilepsies / Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome (LGS)1
3Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentSeizures / Seizures, Focal / Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC)1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentEpilepsies1
3RecruitingTreatmentDravet Syndrome / Epilepsies1
3RecruitingTreatmentInfantile Spasm1
3RecruitingTreatmentPain1
3RecruitingTreatmentSeizures / Seizures, Focal / Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC)1
3WithdrawnSupportive CareDisseminated Sclerosis / Spasticity1
3WithdrawnTreatmentDravet Syndrome1
3WithdrawnTreatmentLennox-Gastaut Syndrome (LGS)1
4CompletedTreatmentDisseminated Sclerosis / Spasticity1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingBasic ScienceAutism Spectrum Conditions/Disorders1
Not AvailableAvailableNot AvailableDrug Resistant Epilepsy1
Not AvailableAvailableNot AvailableEpilepsies2
Not AvailableAvailableNot AvailableRefractory Epilepsy1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableCancers / Diabetes Mellitus (DM) / Disseminated Sclerosis / Pain, Neuropathic1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableFailed Back Surgery Syndrome1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceDrug Dependence1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Humans1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceSensory Science1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCannabis Dependence1
Not AvailableNo Longer AvailableNot AvailableEpilepsies1
Not AvailableNo Longer AvailableNot AvailableRefractory Childhood Epilepsy1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceSchizophrenic Disorders1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentRehabilitation1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusBasic ScienceAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusBasic ScienceSmoking, Marijuana1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
SprayBuccal
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0126 mg/mLALOGPS
logP6.1ALOGPS
logP6.33ChemAxon
logS-4.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)9.13ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-5.7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area40.46 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count6ChemAxon
Refractivity98.53 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability38.35 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as aromatic monoterpenoids. These are monoterpenoids containing at least one aromatic ring.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Lipids and lipid-like molecules
Class
Prenol lipids
Sub Class
Monoterpenoids
Direct Parent
Aromatic monoterpenoids
Alternative Parents
Monocyclic monoterpenoids / Menthane monoterpenoids / Resorcinols / 1-hydroxy-4-unsubstituted benzenoids / 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoids / Benzene and substituted derivatives / Organooxygen compounds / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
P-menthane monoterpenoid / Monocyclic monoterpenoid / Aromatic monoterpenoid / Resorcinol / 1-hydroxy-4-unsubstituted benzenoid / 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid / Phenol / Benzenoid / Monocyclic benzene moiety / Organic oxygen compound
Molecular Framework
Aromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
organic molecular entity (CHEBI:69478)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
Modulator
Curator comments
Cannabidiol is a negative allosteric modulator of the CB1 receptor.
General Function
Drug binding
Specific Function
Involved in cannabinoid-induced CNS effects. Acts by inhibiting adenylate cyclase. Could be a receptor for anandamide. Inhibits L-type Ca(2+) channel current. Isoform 2 and isoform 3 have altered l...
Gene Name
CNR1
Uniprot ID
P21554
Uniprot Name
Cannabinoid receptor 1
Molecular Weight
52857.365 Da
References
  1. Laprairie RB, Bagher AM, Kelly ME, Denovan-Wright EM: Cannabidiol is a negative allosteric modulator of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor. Br J Pharmacol. 2015 Oct;172(20):4790-805. doi: 10.1111/bph.13250. Epub 2015 Oct 13. [PubMed:26218440]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Cannabinoid receptor activity
Specific Function
Heterotrimeric G protein-coupled receptor for endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol mediating inhibition of adenylate cyclase. May function in inflammatory response, nociceptive transmission and b...
Gene Name
CNR2
Uniprot ID
P34972
Uniprot Name
Cannabinoid receptor 2
Molecular Weight
39680.275 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inverse agonist
General Function
Promotes neurite outgrowth and blocks myelin inhibition in neurons (By similarity). Receptor with constitutive G(s) signaling activity that stimulates cyclic AMP production.
Specific Function
G-protein coupled receptor activity
Gene Name
GPR12
Uniprot ID
P47775
Uniprot Name
G-protein coupled receptor 12
Molecular Weight
36729.785 Da
References
  1. Brown KJ, Laun AS, Song ZH: Cannabidiol, a novel inverse agonist for GPR12. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017 Nov 4;493(1):451-454. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2017.09.001. Epub 2017 Sep 6. [PubMed:28888984]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Transmitter-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
The glycine receptor is a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel. Binding of glycine to its receptor increases the chloride conductance and thus produces hyperpolarization (inhibition of neuronal firing).
Gene Name
GLRA1
Uniprot ID
P23415
Uniprot Name
Glycine receptor subunit alpha-1
Molecular Weight
52623.35 Da
References
  1. Ibeas Bih C, Chen T, Nunn AV, Bazelot M, Dallas M, Whalley BJ: Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders. Neurotherapeutics. 2015 Oct;12(4):699-730. doi: 10.1007/s13311-015-0377-3. [PubMed:26264914]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Allosteric modulator
General Function
Transmitter-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
The glycine receptor is a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel. Binding of glycine to its receptor increases the chloride conductance and thus produces hyperpolarization (inhibition of neuronal firing).

Components:
References
  1. Ibeas Bih C, Chen T, Nunn AV, Bazelot M, Dallas M, Whalley BJ: Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders. Neurotherapeutics. 2015 Oct;12(4):699-730. doi: 10.1007/s13311-015-0377-3. [PubMed:26264914]
  2. Ahrens J, Demir R, Leuwer M, de la Roche J, Krampfl K, Foadi N, Karst M, Haeseler G: The nonpsychotropic cannabinoid cannabidiol modulates and directly activates alpha-1 and alpha-1-Beta glycine receptor function. Pharmacology. 2009;83(4):217-22. doi: 10.1159/000201556. Epub 2009 Feb 10. [PubMed:19204413]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Transmitter-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
The glycine receptor is a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel. Binding of glycine to its receptor increases the chloride conductance and thus produces hyperpolarization (inhibition of neuronal firing).
Gene Name
GLRA3
Uniprot ID
O75311
Uniprot Name
Glycine receptor subunit alpha-3
Molecular Weight
53799.775 Da
References
  1. Ibeas Bih C, Chen T, Nunn AV, Bazelot M, Dallas M, Whalley BJ: Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders. Neurotherapeutics. 2015 Oct;12(4):699-730. doi: 10.1007/s13311-015-0377-3. [PubMed:26264914]
  2. Xiong W, Cui T, Cheng K, Yang F, Chen SR, Willenbring D, Guan Y, Pan HL, Ren K, Xu Y, Zhang L: Cannabinoids suppress inflammatory and neuropathic pain by targeting alpha3 glycine receptors. J Exp Med. 2012 Jun 4;209(6):1121-34. doi: 10.1084/jem.20120242. Epub 2012 May 14. [PubMed:22585736]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
G-protein coupled receptor activity
Specific Function
Receptor for N-arachidonyl glycine. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase. May contribute to regulation of the immune system.
Gene Name
GPR18
Uniprot ID
Q14330
Uniprot Name
N-arachidonyl glycine receptor
Molecular Weight
38133.27 Da
References
  1. Ibeas Bih C, Chen T, Nunn AV, Bazelot M, Dallas M, Whalley BJ: Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders. Neurotherapeutics. 2015 Oct;12(4):699-730. doi: 10.1007/s13311-015-0377-3. [PubMed:26264914]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
G-protein coupled receptor activity
Specific Function
May be involved in hyperalgesia associated with inflammatory and neuropathic pain (By similarity). Receptor for L-alpha-lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI). LPI induces Ca(2+) release from intracellular...
Gene Name
GPR55
Uniprot ID
Q9Y2T6
Uniprot Name
G-protein coupled receptor 55
Molecular Weight
36637.12 Da
References
  1. Ibeas Bih C, Chen T, Nunn AV, Bazelot M, Dallas M, Whalley BJ: Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders. Neurotherapeutics. 2015 Oct;12(4):699-730. doi: 10.1007/s13311-015-0377-3. [PubMed:26264914]
  2. Ryberg E, Larsson N, Sjogren S, Hjorth S, Hermansson NO, Leonova J, Elebring T, Nilsson K, Drmota T, Greasley PJ: The orphan receptor GPR55 is a novel cannabinoid receptor. Br J Pharmacol. 2007 Dec;152(7):1092-101. doi: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0707460. Epub 2007 Sep 17. [PubMed:17876302]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers...
Gene Name
HTR1A
Uniprot ID
P08908
Uniprot Name
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1A
Molecular Weight
46106.335 Da
References
  1. Ibeas Bih C, Chen T, Nunn AV, Bazelot M, Dallas M, Whalley BJ: Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders. Neurotherapeutics. 2015 Oct;12(4):699-730. doi: 10.1007/s13311-015-0377-3. [PubMed:26264914]
  2. Russo EB, Burnett A, Hall B, Parker KK: Agonistic properties of cannabidiol at 5-HT1a receptors. Neurochem Res. 2005 Aug;30(8):1037-43. doi: 10.1007/s11064-005-6978-1. [PubMed:16258853]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Virus receptor activity
Specific Function
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances, including mescaline, psilocybin, 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodop...
Gene Name
HTR2A
Uniprot ID
P28223
Uniprot Name
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A
Molecular Weight
52602.58 Da
References
  1. Ibeas Bih C, Chen T, Nunn AV, Bazelot M, Dallas M, Whalley BJ: Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders. Neurotherapeutics. 2015 Oct;12(4):699-730. doi: 10.1007/s13311-015-0377-3. [PubMed:26264914]
  2. Morales P, Reggio PH, Jagerovic N: An Overview on Medicinal Chemistry of Synthetic and Natural Derivatives of Cannabidiol. Front Pharmacol. 2017 Jun 28;8:422. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2017.00422. eCollection 2017. [PubMed:28701957]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane. The cha...
Gene Name
CHRNA7
Uniprot ID
P36544
Uniprot Name
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-7
Molecular Weight
56448.925 Da
References
  1. Ibeas Bih C, Chen T, Nunn AV, Bazelot M, Dallas M, Whalley BJ: Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders. Neurotherapeutics. 2015 Oct;12(4):699-730. doi: 10.1007/s13311-015-0377-3. [PubMed:26264914]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Opioid receptor activity
Specific Function
G-protein coupled receptor that functions as receptor for endogenous enkephalins and for a subset of other opioids. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine n...
Gene Name
OPRD1
Uniprot ID
P41143
Uniprot Name
Delta-type opioid receptor
Molecular Weight
40368.235 Da
References
  1. Ibeas Bih C, Chen T, Nunn AV, Bazelot M, Dallas M, Whalley BJ: Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders. Neurotherapeutics. 2015 Oct;12(4):699-730. doi: 10.1007/s13311-015-0377-3. [PubMed:26264914]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function
Receptor for endogenous opioids such as beta-endorphin and endomorphin. Receptor for natural and synthetic opioids including morphine, heroin, DAMGO, fentanyl, etorphine, buprenorphin and methadone...
Gene Name
OPRM1
Uniprot ID
P35372
Uniprot Name
Mu-type opioid receptor
Molecular Weight
44778.855 Da
References
  1. Ibeas Bih C, Chen T, Nunn AV, Bazelot M, Dallas M, Whalley BJ: Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders. Neurotherapeutics. 2015 Oct;12(4):699-730. doi: 10.1007/s13311-015-0377-3. [PubMed:26264914]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Activator
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Nuclear receptor that binds peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Once activated by a ligand, the nuclear receptor binds to DNA specific PPAR response elements (PPRE...
Gene Name
PPARG
Uniprot ID
P37231
Uniprot Name
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma
Molecular Weight
57619.58 Da
References
  1. Ibeas Bih C, Chen T, Nunn AV, Bazelot M, Dallas M, Whalley BJ: Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders. Neurotherapeutics. 2015 Oct;12(4):699-730. doi: 10.1007/s13311-015-0377-3. [PubMed:26264914]
  2. Scuderi C, Steardo L, Esposito G: Cannabidiol promotes amyloid precursor protein ubiquitination and reduction of beta amyloid expression in SHSY5YAPP+ cells through PPARgamma involvement. Phytother Res. 2014 Jul;28(7):1007-13. doi: 10.1002/ptr.5095. Epub 2013 Nov 28. [PubMed:24288245]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Activator
General Function
Transmembrane signaling receptor activity
Specific Function
Ligand-activated non-selective calcium permeant cation channel involved in detection of noxious chemical and thermal stimuli. Seems to mediate proton influx and may be involved in intracellular aci...
Gene Name
TRPV1
Uniprot ID
Q8NER1
Uniprot Name
Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1
Molecular Weight
94955.33 Da
References
  1. Ibeas Bih C, Chen T, Nunn AV, Bazelot M, Dallas M, Whalley BJ: Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders. Neurotherapeutics. 2015 Oct;12(4):699-730. doi: 10.1007/s13311-015-0377-3. [PubMed:26264914]
  2. Bisogno T, Hanus L, De Petrocellis L, Tchilibon S, Ponde DE, Brandi I, Moriello AS, Davis JB, Mechoulam R, Di Marzo V: Molecular targets for cannabidiol and its synthetic analogues: effect on vanilloid VR1 receptors and on the cellular uptake and enzymatic hydrolysis of anandamide. Br J Pharmacol. 2001 Oct;134(4):845-52. doi: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0704327. [PubMed:11606325]
  3. Iannotti FA, Hill CL, Leo A, Alhusaini A, Soubrane C, Mazzarella E, Russo E, Whalley BJ, Di Marzo V, Stephens GJ: Nonpsychotropic plant cannabinoids, cannabidivarin (CBDV) and cannabidiol (CBD), activate and desensitize transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels in vitro: potential for the treatment of neuronal hyperexcitability. ACS Chem Neurosci. 2014 Nov 19;5(11):1131-41. doi: 10.1021/cn5000524. Epub 2014 Jul 29. [PubMed:25029033]
  4. De Petrocellis L, Ligresti A, Moriello AS, Allara M, Bisogno T, Petrosino S, Stott CG, Di Marzo V: Effects of cannabinoids and cannabinoid-enriched Cannabis extracts on TRP channels and endocannabinoid metabolic enzymes. Br J Pharmacol. 2011 Aug;163(7):1479-94. doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.01166.x. [PubMed:21175579]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Scaffold protein binding
Specific Function
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hor...
Gene Name
CACNA1G
Uniprot ID
O43497
Uniprot Name
Voltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1G
Molecular Weight
262468.62 Da
References
  1. Ibeas Bih C, Chen T, Nunn AV, Bazelot M, Dallas M, Whalley BJ: Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders. Neurotherapeutics. 2015 Oct;12(4):699-730. doi: 10.1007/s13311-015-0377-3. [PubMed:26264914]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Scaffold protein binding
Specific Function
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hor...
Gene Name
CACNA1H
Uniprot ID
O95180
Uniprot Name
Voltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1H
Molecular Weight
259160.2 Da
References
  1. Ibeas Bih C, Chen T, Nunn AV, Bazelot M, Dallas M, Whalley BJ: Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders. Neurotherapeutics. 2015 Oct;12(4):699-730. doi: 10.1007/s13311-015-0377-3. [PubMed:26264914]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hor...
Gene Name
CACNA1I
Uniprot ID
Q9P0X4
Uniprot Name
Voltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1I
Molecular Weight
245100.8 Da
References
  1. Ibeas Bih C, Chen T, Nunn AV, Bazelot M, Dallas M, Whalley BJ: Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders. Neurotherapeutics. 2015 Oct;12(4):699-730. doi: 10.1007/s13311-015-0377-3. [PubMed:26264914]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Temperature-gated cation channel activity
Specific Function
Receptor-activated non-selective cation channel involved in detection of pain and possibly also in cold perception and inner ear function (PubMed:25389312, PubMed:25855297). Has a central role in t...
Gene Name
TRPA1
Uniprot ID
O75762
Uniprot Name
Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily A member 1
Molecular Weight
127499.88 Da
References
  1. Ibeas Bih C, Chen T, Nunn AV, Bazelot M, Dallas M, Whalley BJ: Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders. Neurotherapeutics. 2015 Oct;12(4):699-730. doi: 10.1007/s13311-015-0377-3. [PubMed:26264914]
  2. De Petrocellis L, Ligresti A, Moriello AS, Allara M, Bisogno T, Petrosino S, Stott CG, Di Marzo V: Effects of cannabinoids and cannabinoid-enriched Cannabis extracts on TRP channels and endocannabinoid metabolic enzymes. Br J Pharmacol. 2011 Aug;163(7):1479-94. doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.01166.x. [PubMed:21175579]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Calcium channel activity
Specific Function
Receptor-activated non-selective cation channel involved in detection of sensations such as coolness, by being activated by cold temperature below 25 degrees Celsius. Activated by icilin, eucalypto...
Gene Name
TRPM8
Uniprot ID
Q7Z2W7
Uniprot Name
Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 8
Molecular Weight
127684.035 Da
References
  1. Ibeas Bih C, Chen T, Nunn AV, Bazelot M, Dallas M, Whalley BJ: Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders. Neurotherapeutics. 2015 Oct;12(4):699-730. doi: 10.1007/s13311-015-0377-3. [PubMed:26264914]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Activator
General Function
Calcium-permeable, non-selective cation channel with an outward rectification. Seems to be regulated, at least in part, by IGF-I, PDGF and neuropeptide head activator. May transduce physical stimuli in mast cells. Activated by temperatures higher than 52 degrees Celsius; is not activated by vanilloids and acidic pH.
Specific Function
Calcium channel activity
Gene Name
TRPV2
Uniprot ID
Q9Y5S1
Uniprot Name
Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 2
Molecular Weight
85980.335 Da
References
  1. Ibeas Bih C, Chen T, Nunn AV, Bazelot M, Dallas M, Whalley BJ: Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders. Neurotherapeutics. 2015 Oct;12(4):699-730. doi: 10.1007/s13311-015-0377-3. [PubMed:26264914]
  2. De Petrocellis L, Ligresti A, Moriello AS, Allara M, Bisogno T, Petrosino S, Stott CG, Di Marzo V: Effects of cannabinoids and cannabinoid-enriched Cannabis extracts on TRP channels and endocannabinoid metabolic enzymes. Br J Pharmacol. 2011 Aug;163(7):1479-94. doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.01166.x. [PubMed:21175579]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Activator
General Function
Calcium channel activity
Specific Function
Putative receptor-activated non-selective calcium permeant cation channel. It is activated by innocuous (warm) temperatures and shows an increased response at noxious temperatures greater than 39 d...
Gene Name
TRPV3
Uniprot ID
Q8NET8
Uniprot Name
Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 3
Molecular Weight
90635.115 Da
References
  1. Ibeas Bih C, Chen T, Nunn AV, Bazelot M, Dallas M, Whalley BJ: Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders. Neurotherapeutics. 2015 Oct;12(4):699-730. doi: 10.1007/s13311-015-0377-3. [PubMed:26264914]
  2. De Petrocellis L, Orlando P, Moriello AS, Aviello G, Stott C, Izzo AA, Di Marzo V: Cannabinoid actions at TRPV channels: effects on TRPV3 and TRPV4 and their potential relevance to gastrointestinal inflammation. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2012 Feb;204(2):255-66. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-1716.2011.02338.x. Epub 2011 Aug 12. [PubMed:21726418]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Activator
General Function
Non-selective calcium permeant cation channel involved in osmotic sensitivity and mechanosensitivity. Activation by exposure to hypotonicity within the physiological range exhibits an outward rectification (PubMed:18826956, PubMed:18695040). Also activated by heat, low pH, citrate and phorbol esters (PubMed:18826956, PubMed:18695040). Increase of intracellular Ca(2+) potentiates currents. Channel activity seems to be regulated by a calmodulin-dependent mechanism with a negative feedback mechanism (PubMed:12724311, PubMed:18826956). Promotes cell-cell junction formation in skin keratinocytes and plays an important role in the formation and/or maintenance of functional intercellular barriers (By similarity). Acts as a regulator of intracellular Ca(2+) in synoviocytes (PubMed:19759329). Plays an obligatory role as a molecular component in the nonselective cation channel activation induced by 4-alpha-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate and hypotonic stimulation in synoviocytes and also regulates production of IL-8 (PubMed:19759329). Together with PKD2, forms mechano- and thermosensitive channels in cilium (PubMed:18695040). Negatively regulates expression of PPARGC1A, UCP1, oxidative metabolism and respiration in adipocytes (By similarity). Regulates expression of chemokines and cytokines related to proinflammatory pathway in adipocytes (By similarity). Together with AQP5, controls regulatory volume decrease in salivary epithelial cells (By similarity). Required for normal development and maintenance of bone and cartilage (PubMed:26249260).
Specific Function
Actin binding
Gene Name
TRPV4
Uniprot ID
Q9HBA0
Uniprot Name
Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 4
Molecular Weight
98280.2 Da
References
  1. De Petrocellis L, Orlando P, Moriello AS, Aviello G, Stott C, Izzo AA, Di Marzo V: Cannabinoid actions at TRPV channels: effects on TRPV3 and TRPV4 and their potential relevance to gastrointestinal inflammation. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2012 Feb;204(2):255-66. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-1716.2011.02338.x. Epub 2011 Aug 12. [PubMed:21726418]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Voltage-gated anion channel activity
Specific Function
Forms a channel through the mitochondrial outer membrane and also the plasma membrane. The channel at the outer mitochondrial membrane allows diffusion of small hydrophilic molecules; in the plasma...
Gene Name
VDAC1
Uniprot ID
P21796
Uniprot Name
Voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein 1
Molecular Weight
30772.39 Da
References
  1. Ibeas Bih C, Chen T, Nunn AV, Bazelot M, Dallas M, Whalley BJ: Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders. Neurotherapeutics. 2015 Oct;12(4):699-730. doi: 10.1007/s13311-015-0377-3. [PubMed:26264914]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Voltage-gated potassium channel activity
Specific Function
This is one of the several different receptors for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. This receptor is a ligand-gate...
Gene Name
HTR3A
Uniprot ID
P46098
Uniprot Name
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3A
Molecular Weight
55279.835 Da
References
  1. Yang KH, Galadari S, Isaev D, Petroianu G, Shippenberg TS, Oz M: The nonpsychoactive cannabinoid cannabidiol inhibits 5-hydroxytryptamine3A receptor-mediated currents in Xenopus laevis oocytes. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2010 May;333(2):547-54. doi: 10.1124/jpet.109.162594. Epub 2010 Feb 16. [PubMed:20160007]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Activator
General Function
Purine nucleoside binding
Specific Function
Receptor for adenosine. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name
ADORA1
Uniprot ID
P30542
Uniprot Name
Adenosine receptor A1
Molecular Weight
36511.325 Da
References
  1. Gonca E, Darici F: The effect of cannabidiol on ischemia/reperfusion-induced ventricular arrhythmias: the role of adenosine A1 receptors. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 2015 Jan;20(1):76-83. doi: 10.1177/1074248414532013. Epub 2014 May 22. [PubMed:24853683]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID
P11712
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C9
Molecular Weight
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Ibeas Bih C, Chen T, Nunn AV, Bazelot M, Dallas M, Whalley BJ: Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders. Neurotherapeutics. 2015 Oct;12(4):699-730. doi: 10.1007/s13311-015-0377-3. [PubMed:26264914]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and im...
Gene Name
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID
P33261
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C19
Molecular Weight
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Ibeas Bih C, Chen T, Nunn AV, Bazelot M, Dallas M, Whalley BJ: Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders. Neurotherapeutics. 2015 Oct;12(4):699-730. doi: 10.1007/s13311-015-0377-3. [PubMed:26264914]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic...
Gene Name
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID
P10635
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2D6
Molecular Weight
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Ibeas Bih C, Chen T, Nunn AV, Bazelot M, Dallas M, Whalley BJ: Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders. Neurotherapeutics. 2015 Oct;12(4):699-730. doi: 10.1007/s13311-015-0377-3. [PubMed:26264914]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Ibeas Bih C, Chen T, Nunn AV, Bazelot M, Dallas M, Whalley BJ: Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders. Neurotherapeutics. 2015 Oct;12(4):699-730. doi: 10.1007/s13311-015-0377-3. [PubMed:26264914]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID
P20815
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A5
Molecular Weight
57108.065 Da
References
  1. Ibeas Bih C, Chen T, Nunn AV, Bazelot M, Dallas M, Whalley BJ: Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders. Neurotherapeutics. 2015 Oct;12(4):699-730. doi: 10.1007/s13311-015-0377-3. [PubMed:26264914]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Metal ion binding
Specific Function
Plays a major role in ketone body metabolism.
Gene Name
ACAT1
Uniprot ID
P24752
Uniprot Name
Acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
45199.2 Da
References
  1. Ibeas Bih C, Chen T, Nunn AV, Bazelot M, Dallas M, Whalley BJ: Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders. Neurotherapeutics. 2015 Oct;12(4):699-730. doi: 10.1007/s13311-015-0377-3. [PubMed:26264914]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
N-acetyltransferase activity
Gene Name
AANAT
Uniprot ID
F1T0I5
Uniprot Name
Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase
Molecular Weight
23343.8 Da
References
  1. Ibeas Bih C, Chen T, Nunn AV, Bazelot M, Dallas M, Whalley BJ: Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders. Neurotherapeutics. 2015 Oct;12(4):699-730. doi: 10.1007/s13311-015-0377-3. [PubMed:26264914]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Receptor binding
Specific Function
Occurs in almost all aerobically respiring organisms and serves to protect cells from the toxic effects of hydrogen peroxide. Promotes growth of cells including T-cells, B-cells, myeloid leukemia c...
Gene Name
CAT
Uniprot ID
P04040
Uniprot Name
Catalase
Molecular Weight
59755.82 Da
References
  1. Ibeas Bih C, Chen T, Nunn AV, Bazelot M, Dallas M, Whalley BJ: Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders. Neurotherapeutics. 2015 Oct;12(4):699-730. doi: 10.1007/s13311-015-0377-3. [PubMed:26264914]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Involved in the constitutive production of prostanoids in particular in the stomach and platelets. In gas...
Gene Name
PTGS1
Uniprot ID
P23219
Uniprot Name
Prostaglandin G/H synthase 1
Molecular Weight
68685.82 Da
References
  1. Campone M, Rademaker-Lakhai JM, Bennouna J, Howell SB, Nowotnik DP, Beijnen JH, Schellens JH: Phase I and pharmacokinetic trial of AP5346, a DACH-platinum-polymer conjugate, administered weekly for three out of every 4 weeks to advanced solid tumor patients. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2007 Sep;60(4):523-33. Epub 2007 Feb 17. [PubMed:17308894]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Constitutively expressed in some tissues in physiological conditions, such as the endothelium, kidney and...
Gene Name
PTGS2
Uniprot ID
P35354
Uniprot Name
Prostaglandin G/H synthase 2
Molecular Weight
68995.625 Da
References
  1. Ibeas Bih C, Chen T, Nunn AV, Bazelot M, Dallas M, Whalley BJ: Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders. Neurotherapeutics. 2015 Oct;12(4):699-730. doi: 10.1007/s13311-015-0377-3. [PubMed:26264914]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP3A7
Uniprot ID
P24462
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A7
Molecular Weight
57525.03 Da
References
  1. Ibeas Bih C, Chen T, Nunn AV, Bazelot M, Dallas M, Whalley BJ: Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders. Neurotherapeutics. 2015 Oct;12(4):699-730. doi: 10.1007/s13311-015-0377-3. [PubMed:26264914]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Vitamin d 24-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A1
Uniprot ID
P04798
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A1
Molecular Weight
58164.815 Da
References
  1. Ibeas Bih C, Chen T, Nunn AV, Bazelot M, Dallas M, Whalley BJ: Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders. Neurotherapeutics. 2015 Oct;12(4):699-730. doi: 10.1007/s13311-015-0377-3. [PubMed:26264914]
  2. Yamaori S, Okushima Y, Masuda K, Kushihara M, Katsu T, Narimatsu S, Yamamoto I, Watanabe K: Structural requirements for potent direct inhibition of human cytochrome P450 1A1 by cannabidiol: role of pentylresorcinol moiety. Biol Pharm Bull. 2013;36(7):1197-203. [PubMed:23811569]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID
P05177
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Ibeas Bih C, Chen T, Nunn AV, Bazelot M, Dallas M, Whalley BJ: Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders. Neurotherapeutics. 2015 Oct;12(4):699-730. doi: 10.1007/s13311-015-0377-3. [PubMed:26264914]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1B1
Uniprot ID
Q16678
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1B1
Molecular Weight
60845.33 Da
References
  1. Ibeas Bih C, Chen T, Nunn AV, Bazelot M, Dallas M, Whalley BJ: Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders. Neurotherapeutics. 2015 Oct;12(4):699-730. doi: 10.1007/s13311-015-0377-3. [PubMed:26264914]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
DAGLA
Uniprot ID
F5GY58
Uniprot Name
Sn1-specific diacylglycerol lipase alpha
Molecular Weight
19005.05 Da
References
  1. Ibeas Bih C, Chen T, Nunn AV, Bazelot M, Dallas M, Whalley BJ: Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders. Neurotherapeutics. 2015 Oct;12(4):699-730. doi: 10.1007/s13311-015-0377-3. [PubMed:26264914]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Fatty acid amide hydrolase activity
Specific Function
Degrades bioactive fatty acid amides like oleamide, the endogenous cannabinoid, anandamide and myristic amide to their corresponding acids, thereby serving to terminate the signaling functions of t...
Gene Name
FAAH
Uniprot ID
O00519
Uniprot Name
Fatty-acid amide hydrolase 1
Molecular Weight
63065.28 Da
References
  1. Ibeas Bih C, Chen T, Nunn AV, Bazelot M, Dallas M, Whalley BJ: Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders. Neurotherapeutics. 2015 Oct;12(4):699-730. doi: 10.1007/s13311-015-0377-3. [PubMed:26264914]
  2. De Petrocellis L, Ligresti A, Moriello AS, Allara M, Bisogno T, Petrosino S, Stott CG, Di Marzo V: Effects of cannabinoids and cannabinoid-enriched Cannabis extracts on TRP channels and endocannabinoid metabolic enzymes. Br J Pharmacol. 2011 Aug;163(7):1479-94. doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.01166.x. [PubMed:21175579]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nadp binding
Specific Function
Maintains high levels of reduced glutathione in the cytosol.
Gene Name
GSR
Uniprot ID
P00390
Uniprot Name
Glutathione reductase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
56256.565 Da
References
  1. Ibeas Bih C, Chen T, Nunn AV, Bazelot M, Dallas M, Whalley BJ: Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders. Neurotherapeutics. 2015 Oct;12(4):699-730. doi: 10.1007/s13311-015-0377-3. [PubMed:26264914]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Sh3 domain binding
Specific Function
Protects the hemoglobin in erythrocytes from oxidative breakdown.
Gene Name
GPX1
Uniprot ID
P07203
Uniprot Name
Glutathione peroxidase 1
Molecular Weight
22087.94 Da
References
  1. Ibeas Bih C, Chen T, Nunn AV, Bazelot M, Dallas M, Whalley BJ: Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders. Neurotherapeutics. 2015 Oct;12(4):699-730. doi: 10.1007/s13311-015-0377-3. [PubMed:26264914]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nadph binding
Specific Function
Transmembrane glycoprotein that is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis as well as in the biosynthesis of nonsterol isoprenoids that are essential for normal cell function including...
Gene Name
HMGCR
Uniprot ID
P04035
Uniprot Name
3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase
Molecular Weight
97475.155 Da
References
  1. Ibeas Bih C, Chen T, Nunn AV, Bazelot M, Dallas M, Whalley BJ: Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders. Neurotherapeutics. 2015 Oct;12(4):699-730. doi: 10.1007/s13311-015-0377-3. [PubMed:26264914]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the first and rate limiting step of the catabolism of the essential amino acid tryptophan along the kynurenine pathway (PubMed:17671174). Involved in the peripheral immune tolerance, cont...
Gene Name
IDO1
Uniprot ID
P14902
Uniprot Name
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1
Molecular Weight
45325.89 Da
References
  1. Ibeas Bih C, Chen T, Nunn AV, Bazelot M, Dallas M, Whalley BJ: Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders. Neurotherapeutics. 2015 Oct;12(4):699-730. doi: 10.1007/s13311-015-0377-3. [PubMed:26264914]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Iron ion binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the first step in leukotriene biosynthesis, and thereby plays a role in inflammatory processes.
Gene Name
ALOX5
Uniprot ID
P09917
Uniprot Name
Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase
Molecular Weight
77982.595 Da
References
  1. Ibeas Bih C, Chen T, Nunn AV, Bazelot M, Dallas M, Whalley BJ: Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders. Neurotherapeutics. 2015 Oct;12(4):699-730. doi: 10.1007/s13311-015-0377-3. [PubMed:26264914]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate binding
Specific Function
Non-heme iron-containing dioxygenase that catalyzes the stereo-specific peroxidation of free and esterified polyunsaturated fatty acids generating a spectrum of bioactive lipid mediators. Converts ...
Gene Name
ALOX15
Uniprot ID
P16050
Uniprot Name
Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase
Molecular Weight
74803.795 Da
References
  1. Ibeas Bih C, Chen T, Nunn AV, Bazelot M, Dallas M, Whalley BJ: Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders. Neurotherapeutics. 2015 Oct;12(4):699-730. doi: 10.1007/s13311-015-0377-3. [PubMed:26264914]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Degrades bioactive fatty acid amides to their corresponding acids, with the following preference: N-palmitoylethanolamine > N-myristoylethanolamine > N-lauroylethanolamine = N-stearoylethanolamine > N-arachidonoylethanolamine > N-oleoylethanolamine. Also exhibits weak hydrolytic activity against the ceramides N-lauroylsphingosine and N-palmitoylsphingosine.
Specific Function
Hydrolase activity, acting on carbon-nitrogen (but not peptide) bonds
Gene Name
NAAA
Uniprot ID
Q02083
Uniprot Name
N-acylethanolamine-hydrolyzing acid amidase
Molecular Weight
40065.65 Da
References
  1. Ibeas Bih C, Chen T, Nunn AV, Bazelot M, Dallas M, Whalley BJ: Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders. Neurotherapeutics. 2015 Oct;12(4):699-730. doi: 10.1007/s13311-015-0377-3. [PubMed:26264914]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Does not have alcohol dehydrogenase activity. Binds NADP and acts through a one-electron transfer process. Orthoquinones, such as 1,2-naphthoquinone or 9,10-phenanthrenequinone, are the best substr...
Gene Name
CRYZ
Uniprot ID
Q08257
Uniprot Name
Quinone oxidoreductase
Molecular Weight
35206.36 Da
References
  1. Ibeas Bih C, Chen T, Nunn AV, Bazelot M, Dallas M, Whalley BJ: Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders. Neurotherapeutics. 2015 Oct;12(4):699-730. doi: 10.1007/s13311-015-0377-3. [PubMed:26264914]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Hydrolyzes N-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamines (NAPEs) to produce N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) and phosphatidic acid. Responsible for the generation of anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamine), the ligand of cannabinoid and vanilloid receptors (By similarity).
Specific Function
Identical protein binding
Gene Name
NAPEPLD
Uniprot ID
Q6IQ20
Uniprot Name
N-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamine-hydrolyzing phospholipase D
Molecular Weight
45595.15 Da
References
  1. Ibeas Bih C, Chen T, Nunn AV, Bazelot M, Dallas M, Whalley BJ: Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders. Neurotherapeutics. 2015 Oct;12(4):699-730. doi: 10.1007/s13311-015-0377-3. [PubMed:26264914]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Receptor binding
Specific Function
PA2 catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the 2-acyl groups in 3-sn-phosphoglycerides, this releases glycerophospholipids and arachidonic acid that serve as the precursors of signal molecules.
Gene Name
PLA2G1B
Uniprot ID
P04054
Uniprot Name
Phospholipase A2
Molecular Weight
16359.535 Da
References
  1. Ibeas Bih C, Chen T, Nunn AV, Bazelot M, Dallas M, Whalley BJ: Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders. Neurotherapeutics. 2015 Oct;12(4):699-730. doi: 10.1007/s13311-015-0377-3. [PubMed:26264914]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Steroid 17-alpha-monooxygenase activity
Specific Function
Conversion of pregnenolone and progesterone to their 17-alpha-hydroxylated products and subsequently to dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione. Catalyzes both the 17-alpha-hydroxylation ...
Gene Name
CYP17A1
Uniprot ID
P05093
Uniprot Name
Steroid 17-alpha-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase
Molecular Weight
57369.995 Da
References
  1. Ibeas Bih C, Chen T, Nunn AV, Bazelot M, Dallas M, Whalley BJ: Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders. Neurotherapeutics. 2015 Oct;12(4):699-730. doi: 10.1007/s13311-015-0377-3. [PubMed:26264914]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Destroys radicals which are normally produced within the cells and which are toxic to biological systems.
Gene Name
SOD1
Uniprot ID
P00441
Uniprot Name
Superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn]
Molecular Weight
15935.685 Da
References
  1. Ibeas Bih C, Chen T, Nunn AV, Bazelot M, Dallas M, Whalley BJ: Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders. Neurotherapeutics. 2015 Oct;12(4):699-730. doi: 10.1007/s13311-015-0377-3. [PubMed:26264914]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase activity
Specific Function
Converts sphingomyelin to ceramide. Also has phospholipase C activities toward 1,2-diacylglycerolphosphocholine and 1,2-diacylglycerolphosphoglycerol. Isoform 2 and isoform 3 have lost catalytic ac...
Gene Name
SMPD1
Uniprot ID
P17405
Uniprot Name
Sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase
Molecular Weight
69751.3 Da
References
  1. Ibeas Bih C, Chen T, Nunn AV, Bazelot M, Dallas M, Whalley BJ: Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders. Neurotherapeutics. 2015 Oct;12(4):699-730. doi: 10.1007/s13311-015-0377-3. [PubMed:26264914]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates export of organic anions and drugs from the cytoplasm. Mediates ATP-dependent transport of glutathione and glutathione conjugates, leukotriene C4, estradiol-17-beta-o-glucuronide, methotre...
Gene Name
ABCC1
Uniprot ID
P33527
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance-associated protein 1
Molecular Weight
171589.5 Da
References
  1. Ibeas Bih C, Chen T, Nunn AV, Bazelot M, Dallas M, Whalley BJ: Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders. Neurotherapeutics. 2015 Oct;12(4):699-730. doi: 10.1007/s13311-015-0377-3. [PubMed:26264914]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
High-capacity urate exporter functioning in both renal and extrarenal urate excretion. Plays a role in porphyrin homeostasis as it is able to mediates the export of protoporhyrin IX (PPIX) both fro...
Gene Name
ABCG2
Uniprot ID
Q9UNQ0
Uniprot Name
ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2
Molecular Weight
72313.47 Da
References
  1. Ibeas Bih C, Chen T, Nunn AV, Bazelot M, Dallas M, Whalley BJ: Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders. Neurotherapeutics. 2015 Oct;12(4):699-730. doi: 10.1007/s13311-015-0377-3. [PubMed:26264914]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Nucleoside transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates both influx and efflux of nucleosides across the membrane (equilibrative transporter). It is sensitive (ES) to low concentrations of the inhibitor nitrobenzylmercaptopurine riboside (NBMPR...
Gene Name
SLC29A1
Uniprot ID
Q99808
Uniprot Name
Equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1
Molecular Weight
50218.805 Da
References
  1. Ibeas Bih C, Chen T, Nunn AV, Bazelot M, Dallas M, Whalley BJ: Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders. Neurotherapeutics. 2015 Oct;12(4):699-730. doi: 10.1007/s13311-015-0377-3. [PubMed:26264914]
  2. Carrier EJ, Auchampach JA, Hillard CJ: Inhibition of an equilibrative nucleoside transporter by cannabidiol: a mechanism of cannabinoid immunosuppression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 May 16;103(20):7895-900. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0511232103. Epub 2006 May 3. [PubMed:16672367]

Drug created on May 11, 2015 15:59 / Updated on September 07, 2018 03:24