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Identification
NameIpratropium bromide
Accession NumberDB00332  (APRD00537)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
Description

A muscarinic antagonist structurally related to atropine but often considered safer and more effective for inhalation use. It is used for various bronchial disorders, in rhinitis, and as an antiarrhythmic. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
(endo,syn)-(±)-3-(3-hydroxy-1-oxo-2-phenylpropoxy)-8-methyl-8-(1-methylethyl)-8-azoniabicyclo[3.2.1]octane bromide
3α-hydroxy-8-isopropyl-1αH,5αH-tropanium bromide (±)-tropate
8-Isopropylnoratropine methobromide
Bromure d'ipratropium
Bromuro de ipratropio
Ipratropii bromidum
Ipratropium bromide (anhydrous)
Ipratropium bromide anhydrous
Ipratropiumbromid
N-Isopropylnoratropinium bromomethylate
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Atroventspray, metered21 ug/1nasalBoehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc.1996-01-01Not applicableUs
Atroventsolution250 mcginhalationBoehringer Ingelheim (Canada) Ltd Ltee1988-12-312007-10-11Canada
Atroventspray, metered21 ug/1nasalPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2006-03-31Not applicableUs
Atroventspray, metered42 ug/1nasalBoehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc.1996-01-01Not applicableUs
Atrovent HFAmetered-dose aerosol20 mcginhalationBoehringer Ingelheim (Canada) Ltd Ltee2004-03-24Not applicableCanada
Atrovent HFAaerosol, metered17 ug/1respiratory (inhalation)Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals Inc.2005-05-01Not applicableUs
Atrovent Nasal Aerosol 20mcg/aemaerosol20 mcginhalation; nasalBoehringer Ingelheim (Canada) Ltd Ltee1989-12-311999-08-09Canada
Atrovent Nasal Spray - 21mcg/aemmetered-dose aerosol; liquid21 mcgnasalBoehringer Ingelheim (Canada) Ltd Ltee1995-12-31Not applicableCanada
Atrovent Nasal Spray - 42mcg/aemmetered-dose aerosol; liquid42 mcgnasalBoehringer Ingelheim (Canada) Ltd Ltee1996-02-02Not applicableCanada
Atrovent Udv 125mcg/mlsolution125 mcginhalation; oralBoehringer Ingelheim (Canada) Ltd Ltee1993-12-312008-09-18Canada
Atrovent Udv Sol Inh 250mcg/mlsolution250 mcginhalationBoehringer Ingelheim (Canada) Ltd Ltee1992-12-312008-04-16Canada
Atroventhfaaerosol, metered17 ug/1respiratory (inhalation)Physicians Total Care, Inc.2006-01-20Not applicableUs
Dom-ipratropiumliquid0.3 mginhalation; nasalDominion Pharmacal1999-09-15Not applicableCanada
Dom-ipratropium 125 Mcg/mlliquid125 mcginhalationDominion PharmacalNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Dom-ipratropium 250 Mcg/ml (1 Ml)liquid250 mcginhalationDominion PharmacalNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Dom-ipratropium 250 Mcg/ml (2 Ml)liquid250 mcginhalationDominion PharmacalNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Dom-ipratropium 250 Mcg/ml (20 Ml)liquid250 mcginhalationDominion PharmacalNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Ipratropiumliquid0.30 mginhalationPharmel IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Ipraventsolution0.06 %nasalAa Pharma Inc2002-12-03Not applicableCanada
Ipraventsolution0.03 %nasalAa Pharma Inc2002-12-03Not applicableCanada
Mylan-ipratropium Solutionsolution0.25 mginhalationMylan Pharmaceuticals Ulc1998-12-04Not applicableCanada
Novo-ipramide - Liq 0.25mg/mlsolution.25 mginhalationNovopharm Limited1996-12-312015-10-26Canada
Nu-ipratropium Plastic Ampules 250 Mcg/mlsolution250 mcginhalationNu Pharm Inc1997-12-032012-09-04Canada
Penta-ipratropium Bromideliquid0.25 mginhalationPentapharm Ltd.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
PHL-ipratropiumsolution125 mcginhalationPharmel Inc1998-02-17Not applicableCanada
PHL-ipratropium - 20mlsolution250 mcginhalationPharmel Inc1998-02-172009-10-26Canada
PHL-ipratropium - 1ml Polynebsolution250 mcginhalationPharmel Inc1998-02-17Not applicableCanada
PHL-ipratropium - 2ml Polynebsolution250 mcginhalationPharmel Inc1998-02-17Not applicableCanada
PMS-ipratropiumsolution250 mcginhalationPharmascience Inc1997-07-15Not applicableCanada
PMS-ipratropiumsolution125 mcginhalationPharmascience Inc1997-10-29Not applicableCanada
PMS-ipratropiumliquid0.30 mginhalationPharmascience Inc1999-04-15Not applicableCanada
PMS-ipratropium (2ml Unit Dose)solution250 mcginhalationPharmascience Inc1997-10-29Not applicableCanada
PMS-ipratropium (1ml Unit Dose)solution250 mcginhalationPharmascience Inc1997-10-29Not applicableCanada
Ratio-ipratropiummetered-dose pump21 mcgnasalRatiopharm Inc Division Of Teva Canada Limited1999-09-282008-08-01Canada
Ratio-ipratropium Inhalation Solutionsolution250 mcginhalation; nasalRatiopharm Inc Division Of Teva Canada Limited1994-12-312009-07-17Canada
Ratio-ipratropium Udvsolution250 mcginhalationTeva Canada Limited1995-12-31Not applicableCanada
Ratio-ipratropium Udvsolution125 mcginhalationTeva Canada Limited1997-12-04Not applicableCanada
Teva-ipratropium Sterinebssolution0.025 %inhalationTeva Canada Limited1998-03-04Not applicableCanada
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-ipravent Solution - Inh 250mcg/mlsolution250 mcginhalationApotex Inc1994-12-31Not applicableCanada
Apo-ipravent Sterulessolution125 mcginhalationApotex Inc2001-08-28Not applicableCanada
Apo-ipravent Sterulessolution0.025 %inhalationApotex Inc1998-07-09Not applicableCanada
Ipratropium Bromidespray, metered21 ug/1nasalPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2007-01-24Not applicableUs
Ipratropium Bromidespray, metered42 ug/1nasalPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2004-04-12Not applicableUs
Ipratropium Bromidespray, metered42 ug/1nasalBausch & Lomb Incorporated2003-03-31Not applicableUs
Ipratropium Bromidespray21 ug/1nasalRoxane Laboratories, Inc2003-11-05Not applicableUs
Ipratropium Bromidesolution.5 mg/2.5mLrespiratory (inhalation)Ritedose Pharmaceuticals, LLC2011-02-01Not applicableUs
Ipratropium Bromidesolution.5 mg/2.5mLrespiratory (inhalation)Physicians Total Care, Inc.1998-12-03Not applicableUs
Ipratropium Bromidespray, metered21 ug/1nasalBausch & Lomb Incorporated2003-03-31Not applicableUs
Ipratropium Bromidesolution.5 mg/2.5mLrespiratory (inhalation)Aidarex Pharmaceuticals LLC2011-02-01Not applicableUs
Ipratropium Bromidesolution.5 mg/2.5mLrespiratory (inhalation)Rebel Distributors Corp2005-05-09Not applicableUs
Ipratropium Bromidesolution.5 mg/2.5mLrespiratory (inhalation)Preferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2012-07-25Not applicableUs
Ipratropium Bromidesolution.5 mg/2.5mLrespiratory (inhalation)Preferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc2013-02-22Not applicableUs
Ipratropium Bromidespray42 ug/1nasalREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-07-16Not applicableUs
Ipratropium Bromidesolution.5 mg/2.5mLrespiratory (inhalation)Sandoz Inc.2011-09-01Not applicableUs
Ipratropium Bromidesolution.5 mg/2.5mLrespiratory (inhalation)Proficient Rx LP2011-03-01Not applicableUs
Ipratropium Bromidesolution.5 mg/2.5mLrespiratory (inhalation)REMEDYREPACK INC.2013-06-04Not applicableUs
Ipratropium Bromidesolution.5 mg/2.5mLrespiratory (inhalation)Watson Laboratories, Inc.2011-03-01Not applicableUs
Ipratropium Bromidesolution.5 mg/2.5mLrespiratory (inhalation)A S Medication Solutions2011-02-01Not applicableUs
Ipratropium Bromidesolution.5 mg/2.5mLrespiratory (inhalation)St Marys Medical Park Pharmacy2014-01-30Not applicableUs
Ipratropium Bromidespray, metered42 ug/1nasalREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-06-12Not applicableUs
Ipratropium Bromidesolution.5 mg/2.5mLrespiratory (inhalation)Nephron Pharmaceuticals Corporation2001-09-27Not applicableUs
Ipratropium Bromidesolution.5 mg/2.5mLrespiratory (inhalation)Cardinal Health1997-01-10Not applicableUs
Ipratropium Bromidespray, metered42 ug/1nasalRebel Distributors Corp2003-03-31Not applicableUs
Ipratropium Bromidesolution.5 mg/2.5mLrespiratory (inhalation)Mylan Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2010-11-09Not applicableUs
Ipratropium Bromidesolution.5 mg/2.5mLrespiratory (inhalation)Cardinal Health2001-09-27Not applicableUs
Ipratropium Bromidesolution.5 mg/2.5mLrespiratory (inhalation)Rebel Distributors Corp2011-03-01Not applicableUs
Ipratropium Bromidespray42 ug/1nasalRoxane Laboratories, Inc2003-11-15Not applicableUs
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
AeroventTeva
ApoventApotex Inc.
AtronaseBoehringer Ingelheim
IpraxaIvax
IpventCipla Medpro
RhinoventBoehringer Ingelheim
RinatecBoehringer Ingelheim
RinovagosValeas
Brand mixtures
NameLabellerIngredients
Apo-salvent-ipravent SterulesApotex Inc
Combivent Inhalation AerosolBoehringer Ingelheim (Canada) Ltd Ltee
Combivent RespimatBoehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Combivent UdvBoehringer Ingelheim (Canada) Ltd Ltee
DuonebMylan Specialty
Duovent UdvBoehringer Ingelheim (Canada) Ltd Ltee
IpramolIvax Pharmaceuticals Incorporated
Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol SulfateTeva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc
Ratio-ipra Sal UdvTeva Canada Limited
Teva-combo SterinebsTeva Canada Limited
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Ipratropium bromide hydrate
66985-17-9
Thumb
  • InChI Key: KEWHKYJURDBRMN-ZEODDXGYSA-M
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 429.151472
  • Average Mass: 430.383
DBSALT000208
Categories
UNIIVJV4X1P2Z1
CAS number22254-24-6
WeightAverage: 412.361
Monoisotopic: 411.140906478
Chemical FormulaC20H30BrNO3
InChI KeyInChIKey=LHLMOSXCXGLMMN-VVQPYUEFSA-M
InChI
InChI=1S/C20H30NO3.BrH/c1-14(2)21(3)16-9-10-17(21)12-18(11-16)24-20(23)19(13-22)15-7-5-4-6-8-15;/h4-8,14,16-19,22H,9-13H2,1-3H3;1H/q+1;/p-1/t16-,17+,18+,19?,21+;
IUPAC Name
(1R,3R,5S,8R)-3-[(3-hydroxy-2-phenylpropanoyl)oxy]-8-methyl-8-(propan-2-yl)-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-8-ium bromide
SMILES
[Br-].[H][C@]12CC[C@]([H])(C[C@@H](C1)OC(=O)C(CO)C1=CC=CC=C1)[N@+]2(C)C(C)C
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenylacetic acid derivatives. These are compounds containing a phenylacetic acid moiety, which consists of a phenyl group substituted at the second position by an acetic acid.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassPhenylacetic acid derivatives
Direct ParentPhenylacetic acid derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Phenylacetate
  • Tropane alkaloid
  • Beta-hydroxy acid
  • N-alkylpyrrolidine
  • Piperidine
  • Hydroxy acid
  • Quaternary ammonium salt
  • Pyrrolidine
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic bromide salt
  • Organic salt
  • Primary alcohol
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Alcohol
  • Organic cation
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor maintenance treatment of bronchospasm associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, including chronic bronchitis and emphysema.
PharmacodynamicsIpratropium bromide, a synthetic ammonium compound structurally similar to atropine, is used as a bronchodilator in the management of cholinergic-mediated bronchospasm associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and in the treatment of rhinorrhea associated with the common cold or with allergic or nonallergic seasonal rhinitis.
Mechanism of actionIpratropium bromide is an anticholinergic agent. It blocks muscarinic cholinergic receptors, without specificity for subtypes, resulting in a decrease in the formation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). Most likely due to actions of cGMP on intracellular calcium, this results in decreased contractility of smooth muscle.
Related Articles
AbsorptionInhalation (local)-minimal; Nasal-rapid and minimal
Volume of distribution
  • 4.6 L/kg
Protein bindingMinimally (0 to 9% in vitro) bound to plasma albumin and α1-acid glycoproteins
Metabolism

Partially metabolized to at least 8 metabolites formed primarily via hydrolysis and conjugation. The main metabolites are N-isopropylnortropium methobromide, which is formed by enzymatic hydrolysis of the ester; α-phenylacrylic acid-N-isopropylnortropine-ester methobromide, which is formed by enzymatic loss of a water; and phenylacetic acid-N-isopropylnortropine-ester methobromide, which is formed by enzymatic loss of a CH3OH-group. These metabolites appear to be inactive.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Ipratropium bromide
Not Available
N-isopropylnortropium methobromideDetails
Ipratropium bromide
Not Available
Phenylacetic acid-N-isopropylnortropine-ester methobromideDetails
Route of eliminationPrimarily eliminated renally via active secretion.
Half life2-4 hours after administration orally, IV or by oral inhalation (radiolabeled ipratropium bromide assay measures parent drug and its metabolites). Using a radioreceptor assay that measures only unchanged ipratropium bromide, the initial distribution-phase half-life (t1/2 α) and terminal elimination-phase half-life (t1/2 β) were 0.07 and 1.6 hours, respectively, following a single 2 mg IV dose of the drug in healthy adults.
Clearance
  • 2.3 L/min (total clearance of active ingredient)
ToxicityLD50=1001mg/kg (orally in mice)
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption-0.9425
Blood Brain Barrier+0.8883
Caco-2 permeable+0.6619
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.5085
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8489
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.5964
Renal organic cation transporterInhibitor0.6651
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7214
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.7637
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.6657
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8412
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9118
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8915
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8783
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9396
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9528
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7112
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8979
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.5154
Rat acute toxicity2.7983 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9596
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.5879
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Boehringer ingelheim pharmaceuticals inc
  • Actavis mid atlantic llc
  • Bausch and lomb pharmaceuticals inc
  • Cobalt laboratories inc
  • Dey lp
  • Holopack international corp
  • Landela pharmaceutical
  • Nephron corp
  • Novex pharma
  • Pharmascience inc
  • Roxane laboratories inc
  • Teva parenteral medicines inc
  • Bausch and lomb inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Solutioninhalation250 mcg
Spray, meterednasal21 ug/1
Spray, meterednasal42 ug/1
Aerosol, meteredrespiratory (inhalation)17 ug/1
Metered-dose aerosolinhalation20 mcg
Aerosolinhalation; nasal20 mcg
Metered-dose aerosol; liquidnasal21 mcg
Metered-dose aerosol; liquidnasal42 mcg
Solutioninhalation; oral125 mcg
Metered-dose aerosolinhalation; oral
Spray, meteredrespiratory (inhalation)
Solutioninhalation
Liquidinhalation; nasal0.3 mg
Liquidinhalation125 mcg
Liquidinhalation250 mcg
Solutioninhalation; oral
Solutionrespiratory (inhalation).5 mg/2.5mL
Spraynasal21 ug/1
Spraynasal42 ug/1
Solutionrespiratory (inhalation)
Solutionnasal0.03 %
Solutionnasal0.06 %
Solutioninhalation0.25 mg
Solutioninhalation.25 mg
Liquidinhalation0.25 mg
Liquidinhalation0.30 mg
Metered-dose pumpnasal21 mcg
Solutioninhalation; nasal250 mcg
Solutioninhalation125 mcg
Solutioninhalation0.025 %
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Atrovent HFA 17 mcg/act Aerosol 12.9 gm Inhaler143.59USD inhaler
Ipratropium bromide powder100.06USD g
Atrovent 0.03% Solution 30ml Nasal Spray96.95USD bottle
Atrovent 0.06% Solution 15ml Nasal Spray84.68USD bottle
Ipratropium Bromide 0.03% Solution 30ml Bottle53.82USD bottle
Ipratropium Bromide 0.06% Solution 15ml Bottle46.14USD bottle
Ipratropium Bromide 0.02% Solution Each Box Contains Twenty-Five 2.5ml Vials45.86USD box
Atrovent hfa inhaler11.89USD g
Atrovent 0.06% spray5.33USD ml
Atrovent 0.03% spray3.11USD ml
Ipratropium 0.06% spray2.96USD ml
Ipratropium 0.03% spray1.73USD ml
Atrovent 0.03 % Spray1.04USD ml
Apo-Ipravent 250 mcg/ml Solution0.58USD ml
Mylan-Ipratropium 250 mcg/ml Solution0.58USD ml
Novo-Ipramide 250 mcg/ml Solution0.58USD ml
Pms-Ipratropium 0.03 % Spray0.58USD ml
Pms-Ipratropium 250 mcg/ml Solution0.58USD ml
Atrovent Hfa 20 mcg/dose Metered Dose Aerosol0.1USD metered dose aerosol
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
CA2151383 No2005-02-082013-12-06Canada
US5766573 No1992-11-282009-11-28Us
US5964416 No1996-10-042016-10-04Us
US6149054 No1996-12-192016-12-19Us
US6176442 No1996-10-042016-10-04Us
US6453795 No1996-12-052016-12-05Us
US6632842 No2001-12-282021-12-28Us
US6726124 No1996-10-042016-10-04Us
US6739333 No2000-05-262020-05-26Us
US6846413 No1998-08-282018-08-28Us
US6977042 No1998-08-282018-08-28Us
US6983743 No2000-05-262020-05-26Us
US6988496 No2000-02-232020-02-23Us
US7104470 No1996-10-042016-10-04Us
US7246615 No1996-05-312016-05-31Us
US7284474 No2004-08-262024-08-26Us
US7396341 No2006-10-102026-10-10Us
US7802568 No1999-02-262019-02-26Us
US7837235 No2008-03-132028-03-13Us
US7896264 No2005-05-262025-05-26Us
US7988001 No2001-08-042021-08-04Us
US8474447 No2010-01-172030-01-17Us
US8733341 No2009-12-162029-12-16Us
US9027967 No2007-03-312027-03-31Us
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point230-231.5U.S. Patent 3,505,337
water solubilityFreely solubleNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.000701 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.21ALOGPS
logP-1.8ChemAxon
logS-5.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)15.15ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-2.7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area46.53 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count6ChemAxon
Refractivity105.9 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability37.43 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference
  1. Abdine HH, Belala F, and Al-Badra AA. (2003). Ipratropium bromide: Methods of chemical and biochemical synthesis. In H.G. Brittain (Ed.). Profiles of drug substances, excipients and related methodology (pp. 85-99). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Academic Press.
General References
  1. Yamatake Y, Sasagawa S, Yanaura S, Okamiya Y: [Antiallergic asthma effect of ipatropium bromide (Sch 1000) in dogs (author's transl)]. Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. 1977 Oct;73(7):785-91. [PubMed:145994 ]
External Links
ATC CodesR01AX03R03AL01R03AL02R03BB01
AHFS Codes
  • 12:08.08
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (88.1 KB)
MSDSDownload (72.7 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AcebutololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acebutolol is combined with Ipratropium bromide.
AclidiniumAclidinium may increase the anticholinergic activities of Ipratropium bromide.
AmitriptylineIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Amitriptyline.
AmoxapineIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Amoxapine.
AmphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amphetamine is combined with Ipratropium bromide.
AtropineIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Atropine.
AzelastineIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Azelastine.
BenzatropineIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Benzatropine.
BenzphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benzphetamine is combined with Ipratropium bromide.
Botulinum Toxin Type AIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.
Botulinum Toxin Type BIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Botulinum Toxin Type B.
BrompheniramineIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Brompheniramine.
CarbinoxamineIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Carbinoxamine.
CetirizineIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Cetirizine.
ChlordiazepoxideIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Chlordiazepoxide.
ChlorphenamineIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Chlorphenamine.
ChlorphentermineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorphentermine is combined with Ipratropium bromide.
ChlorpromazineIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Chlorpromazine.
Cimetropium BromideIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Cimetropium Bromide.
ClemastineIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Clemastine.
ClenbuterolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clenbuterol is combined with Ipratropium bromide.
ClidiniumIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Clidinium.
ClofedanolIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Clofedanol.
ClomipramineIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Clomipramine.
ClozapineIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Clozapine.
CodeineIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Codeine.
CyclizineIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Cyclizine.
CyclobenzaprineIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Cyclobenzaprine.
CyclopentolateIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Cyclopentolate.
CyproheptadineIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Cyproheptadine.
DarifenacinIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Darifenacin.
DesipramineIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Desipramine.
DesloratadineIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Desloratadine.
DexbrompheniramineIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Dexbrompheniramine.
Dexchlorpheniramine maleateIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Dexchlorpheniramine maleate.
DicyclomineIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Dicyclomine.
DifenoxinIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Difenoxin.
DimenhydrinateIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Dimenhydrinate.
DiphenhydramineIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Diphenhydramine.
DiphenoxylateIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Diphenoxylate.
DisopyramideIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Disopyramide.
DobutamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dobutamine is combined with Ipratropium bromide.
DopamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dopamine is combined with Ipratropium bromide.
DoxepinIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Doxepin.
DoxofyllineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ipratropium bromide is combined with Doxofylline.
DoxylamineIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Doxylamine.
DronabinolIpratropium bromide may increase the tachycardic activities of Dronabinol.
DroperidolIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Droperidol.
EluxadolineIpratropium bromide may increase the activities of Eluxadoline.
EpinephrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Epinephrine is combined with Ipratropium bromide.
EsmololEsmolol may decrease the activities of Ipratropium bromide.
FenoterolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fenoterol is combined with Ipratropium bromide.
FesoterodineIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Fesoterodine.
FexofenadineIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Fexofenadine.
FlavoxateIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Flavoxate.
FlupentixolIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Flupentixol.
FluphenazineIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Fluphenazine.
Fluticasone PropionateIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Fluticasone Propionate.
FormoterolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Formoterol is combined with Ipratropium bromide.
Glucagon recombinantThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ipratropium bromide is combined with Glucagon recombinant.
GlycopyrroniumIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Glycopyrrolate.
HaloperidolIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Haloperidol.
HomatropineIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Homatropine.
HydroxyzineIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Hydroxyzine.
HyoscyamineIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Hyoscyamine.
ImipramineIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Imipramine.
IobenguaneThe therapeutic efficacy of Iobenguane can be decreased when used in combination with Ipratropium bromide.
IsocarboxazidIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Isocarboxazid.
IsoprenalineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoprenaline is combined with Ipratropium bromide.
ItoprideThe therapeutic efficacy of Itopride can be decreased when used in combination with Ipratropium bromide.
LabetalolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Labetalol is combined with Ipratropium bromide.
LevocabastineIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Levocabastine.
LevocetirizineIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Levocetirizine.
LoratadineIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Loratadine.
LoxapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ipratropium bromide is combined with Loxapine.
MaprotilineIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Maprotiline.
MeclizineIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Meclizine.
MepenzolateIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Mepenzolate.
MephentermineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mephentermine is combined with Ipratropium bromide.
MetaraminolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metaraminol is combined with Ipratropium bromide.
MethamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methamphetamine is combined with Ipratropium bromide.
MethotrimeprazineIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Methotrimeprazine.
MethoxamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methoxamine is combined with Ipratropium bromide.
MethscopolamineIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Methscopolamine.
MianserinMianserin may increase the anticholinergic activities of Ipratropium bromide.
MidodrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Midodrine is combined with Ipratropium bromide.
MirabegronThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ipratropium bromide is combined with Mirabegron.
MoclobemideIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Moclobemide.
MorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ipratropium bromide is combined with Morphine.
NadololNadolol may decrease the activities of Ipratropium bromide.
NaphazolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Naphazoline is combined with Ipratropium bromide.
NorepinephrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Norepinephrine is combined with Ipratropium bromide.
NortriptylineIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Nortriptyline.
OlanzapineIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Olanzapine.
OlopatadineIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Olopatadine.
OrciprenalineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Orciprenaline is combined with Ipratropium bromide.
OrphenadrineIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Orphenadrine.
OxybutyninIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Oxybutynin.
OxymetazolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxymetazoline is combined with Ipratropium bromide.
PerphenazineIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Perphenazine.
PhenelzineIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Phenelzine.
PhenmetrazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenmetrazine is combined with Ipratropium bromide.
PhentermineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phentermine is combined with Ipratropium bromide.
PhenylephrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenylephrine is combined with Ipratropium bromide.
PhenylpropanolamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenylpropanolamine is combined with Ipratropium bromide.
PimozideIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Pimozide.
PizotifenIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Pizotifen.
Potassium ChlorideIpratropium bromide may increase the ulcerogenic activities of Potassium Chloride.
PramlintidePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Ipratropium bromide.
ProchlorperazineIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Prochlorperazine.
ProcyclidineIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Procyclidine.
PromazineIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Promazine.
PromethazineIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Promethazine.
PropanthelineIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Propantheline.
ProtriptylineIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Protriptyline.
QuetiapineIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Quetiapine.
RamosetronIpratropium bromide may increase the activities of Ramosetron.
RisperidoneIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Risperidone.
RitodrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ritodrine is combined with Ipratropium bromide.
SalmeterolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Salmeterol is combined with Ipratropium bromide.
ScopolamineIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Scopolamine.
Scopolamine butylbromideIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Scopolamine butylbromide.
SecretinThe therapeutic efficacy of Secretin can be decreased when used in combination with Ipratropium bromide.
SolifenacinIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Solifenacin.
SulpirideThe therapeutic efficacy of Sulpiride can be decreased when used in combination with Ipratropium bromide.
TacrineThe therapeutic efficacy of Ipratropium bromide can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.
TerbutalineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Terbutaline is combined with Ipratropium bromide.
ThioridazineIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Thioridazine.
ThiothixeneIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Thiothixene.
TiotropiumIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Tiotropium.
TolterodineIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Tolterodine.
TopiramateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ipratropium bromide is combined with Topiramate.
TorasemideIpratropium bromide may increase the hypokalemic activities of Torasemide.
TranylcypromineIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Tranylcypromine.
TrichlormethiazideThe serum concentration of Trichlormethiazide can be increased when it is combined with Ipratropium bromide.
TrifluoperazineIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Trifluoperazine.
TrihexyphenidylIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Trihexyphenidyl.
TrimethobenzamideIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Trimethobenzamide.
TrimipramineIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Trimipramine.
TriprolidineIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Triprolidine.
TrospiumIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Trospium.
UmeclidiniumUmeclidinium may increase the anticholinergic activities of Ipratropium bromide.
ZuclopenthixolIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Zuclopenthixol.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Phosphatidylinositol phospholipase c activity
Specific Function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is Pi turnover.
Gene Name:
CHRM1
Uniprot ID:
P11229
Molecular Weight:
51420.375 Da
References
  1. Wellington K: Ipratropium bromide HFA. Treat Respir Med. 2005;4(3):215-20; discussion 221-2. [PubMed:15987237 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
G-protein coupled acetylcholine receptor activity
Specific Function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is adenylate cyclase inhibition. Signaling promotes phospholipase C activity, leading to the release of inositol trisphosphate (IP3); this then trigge...
Gene Name:
CHRM2
Uniprot ID:
P08172
Molecular Weight:
51714.605 Da
References
  1. Wellington K: Ipratropium bromide HFA. Treat Respir Med. 2005;4(3):215-20; discussion 221-2. [PubMed:15987237 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Receptor activity
Specific Function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is Pi turnover.
Gene Name:
CHRM3
Uniprot ID:
P20309
Molecular Weight:
66127.445 Da
References
  1. Wellington K: Ipratropium bromide HFA. Treat Respir Med. 2005;4(3):215-20; discussion 221-2. [PubMed:15987237 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular Weight:
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Keam SJ, Keating GM: Tiotropium bromide. A review of its use as maintenance therapy in patients with COPD. Treat Respir Med. 2004;3(4):247-68. [PubMed:15350163 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiot...
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Keam SJ, Keating GM: Tiotropium bromide. A review of its use as maintenance therapy in patients with COPD. Treat Respir Med. 2004;3(4):247-68. [PubMed:15350163 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Symporter activity
Specific Function:
Sodium-ion dependent, high affinity carnitine transporter. Involved in the active cellular uptake of carnitine. Transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cations such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) without the involvement of sodium. Also relative uptake activity ratio of carnitine to TEA is 11.3.
Gene Name:
SLC22A5
Uniprot ID:
O76082
Molecular Weight:
62751.08 Da
References
  1. Nakamura T, Nakanishi T, Haruta T, Shirasaka Y, Keogh JP, Tamai I: Transport of ipratropium, an anti-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease drug, is mediated by organic cation/carnitine transporters in human bronchial epithelial cells: implications for carrier-mediated pulmonary absorption. Mol Pharm. 2010 Feb 1;7(1):187-95. doi: 10.1021/mp900206j. [PubMed:20020740 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Symporter activity
Specific Function:
Sodium-ion dependent, low affinity carnitine transporter. Probably transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cations such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) without the involvement of sodium. Relative uptake activity ratio of carnitine to TEA is 1.78. A key substrate of this transporter seems to be ergothioneine (ET).
Gene Name:
SLC22A4
Uniprot ID:
Q9H015
Molecular Weight:
62154.48 Da
References
  1. Nakamura T, Nakanishi T, Haruta T, Shirasaka Y, Keogh JP, Tamai I: Transport of ipratropium, an anti-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease drug, is mediated by organic cation/carnitine transporters in human bronchial epithelial cells: implications for carrier-mediated pulmonary absorption. Mol Pharm. 2010 Feb 1;7(1):187-95. doi: 10.1021/mp900206j. [PubMed:20020740 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on June 26, 2016 01:52