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Identification
NameAminohippuric acid
Accession NumberDB00345  (APRD00792)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
Description

The glycine amide of 4-aminobenzoic acid. Its sodium salt is used as a diagnostic aid to measure effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and excretory capacity. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
4-aminohippuric acid
Aminohippurate
N-(p-Aminobenzoyl)aminoacetic acid
N-(p-Aminobenzoyl)glycine
N-(para-aminobenzoyl)glycine
p-aminohippurate
p-aminohippuric acid
PAH
PAHA
para-aminohippurate
para-aminohippuric acid
paraaminohippuric acid
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Aminohippurate Sodium Inj Liq 20%liquid20 %intravenousMerck Frosst Canada & Cie, Merck Frosst Canada & Co.1991-12-311999-11-12Canada
Aminohippurate Sodium Pahinjection, solution2 g/10mLintravenousMerck Sharp & Dohme Corp.1944-12-30Not applicableUs
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International BrandsNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Aminohippurate sodium
94-16-6
Thumb
  • InChI Key: UNZMYCAEMNVPHX-UHFFFAOYSA-M
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 216.051086839
  • Average Mass: 216.1691
DBSALT000352
Categories
UNIIY79XT83BJ9
CAS number61-78-9
WeightAverage: 194.1873
Monoisotopic: 194.069142196
Chemical FormulaC9H10N2O3
InChI KeyInChIKey=HSMNQINEKMPTIC-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C9H10N2O3/c10-7-3-1-6(2-4-7)9(14)11-5-8(12)13/h1-4H,5,10H2,(H,11,14)(H,12,13)
IUPAC Name
2-[(4-aminophenyl)formamido]acetic acid
SMILES
NC1=CC=C(C=C1)C(=O)NCC(O)=O
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as hippuric acids. These are compounds containing hippuric acid, which consists of a of a benzoyl group linked to the N-terminal of a glycine.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassBenzamides
Direct ParentHippuric acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • N-acyl-alpha amino acid or derivatives
  • N-acyl-alpha-amino acid
  • Hippuric acid
  • Aminobenzoic acid or derivatives
  • Alpha-amino acid or derivatives
  • N-substituted-alpha-amino acid
  • Benzoic acid or derivatives
  • Aminobenzamide
  • Substituted aniline
  • Benzoyl
  • Aniline
  • Primary aromatic amine
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Carboxamide group
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationUsed to measure effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and to determine the functional capacity of the tubular excretory mechanism.
PharmacodynamicsAminohippurate (p-aminohippuric acid, PAH, PAHA) is the glycine amide of p-aminobenzoic acid. It is filtered by the glomeruli and is actively secreted by the proximal tubules. At low plasma concentrations (1.0 to 2.0 mg/100 mL), an average of 90 percent of aminohippurate is cleared by the kidneys from the renal blood stream in a single circulation. It is ideally suited for measurement of ERPF since it has a high clearance, is essentially nontoxic at the plasma concentrations reached with recommended doses, and its analytical determination is relatively simple and accurate. Aminohippurate is also used to measure the functional capacity of the renal tubular secretory mechanism or transport maximum (TmPAH). This is accomplished by elevating the plasma concentration to levels (40-60 mg/100 mL) sufficient to saturate the maximal capacity of the tubular cells to secrete aminohippurate. Inulin clearance is generally measured during TmPAH determinations since glomerular filtration rate (GFR) must be known before calculations of secretory Tm measurements can be done.
Mechanism of actionAminohippurate is filtered by the renal glomeruli and secreted into the urine by the proximal tubules. By measuring the amount of drug in the urine it is possible to determine functional capacity and effective renal plasma flow.
Related Articles
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityThe intravenous LD50 in female mice is 7.22 g/kg.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.7719
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9304
Caco-2 permeable-0.6601
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.7295
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9782
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9841
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9668
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8528
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8577
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.801
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9046
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9381
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9552
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9338
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9055
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9913
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.662
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.7482
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.6101
Rat acute toxicity1.5850 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9944
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9731
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Merck and co inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Liquidintravenous20 %
Injection, solutionintravenous2 g/10mL
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Aminohippurate 20% vial0.67USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point199-200 °CNot Available
water solubilitySlightly solubleNot Available
logP-2.2Not Available
pKa3.83Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility3.13 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0ALOGPS
logP-1ChemAxon
logS-1.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.7ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)4.24ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area92.42 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity50.82 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability19.13 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)splash10-0006-0910000000-d6e2bf0631a469ca607bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0f77-2900000000-a8b8a25d88057ce84dd4View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-00di-2900000000-010a61221aacb1a4cd70View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-02fx-9200000000-507831f6ef0e0b10b17aView in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesV04CH30
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (66.1 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
TeriflunomideThe serum concentration of Aminohippurate can be increased when it is combined with Teriflunomide.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Quaternary ammonium group transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates tubular uptake of organic compounds from circulation. Mediates the influx of agmatine, dopamine, noradrenaline (norepinephrine), serotonin, choline, famotidine, ranitidine, histamin, creatinine, amantadine, memantine, acriflavine, 4-[4-(dimethylamino)-styryl]-N-methylpyridinium ASP, amiloride, metformin, N-1-methylnicotinamide (NMN), tetraethylammonium (TEA), 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridiniu...
Gene Name:
SLC22A2
Uniprot ID:
O15244
Molecular Weight:
62579.99 Da
References
  1. Arndt P, Volk C, Gorboulev V, Budiman T, Popp C, Ulzheimer-Teuber I, Akhoundova A, Koppatz S, Bamberg E, Nagel G, Koepsell H: Interaction of cations, anions, and weak base quinine with rat renal cation transporter rOCT2 compared with rOCT1. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2001 Sep;281(3):F454-68. [PubMed:11502595 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Secondary active organic cation transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Translocates a broad array of organic cations with various structures and molecular weights including the model compounds 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), tetraethylammonium (TEA), N-1-methylnicotinamide (NMN), 4-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)-N-methylpyridinium (ASP), the endogenous compounds choline, guanidine, histamine, epinephrine, adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine, and the drugs quinine...
Gene Name:
SLC22A1
Uniprot ID:
O15245
Molecular Weight:
61153.345 Da
References
  1. Zhang L, Dresser MJ, Chun JK, Babbitt PC, Giacomini KM: Cloning and functional characterization of a rat renal organic cation transporter isoform (rOCT1A). J Biol Chem. 1997 Jun 27;272(26):16548-54. [PubMed:9195965 ]
  2. Arndt P, Volk C, Gorboulev V, Budiman T, Popp C, Ulzheimer-Teuber I, Akhoundova A, Koppatz S, Bamberg E, Nagel G, Koepsell H: Interaction of cations, anions, and weak base quinine with rat renal cation transporter rOCT2 compared with rOCT1. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2001 Sep;281(3):F454-68. [PubMed:11502595 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Symporter activity
Specific Function:
Sodium-ion dependent, high affinity carnitine transporter. Involved in the active cellular uptake of carnitine. Transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cations such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) without the involvement of sodium. Also relative uptake activity ratio of carnitine to TEA is 11.3.
Gene Name:
SLC22A5
Uniprot ID:
O76082
Molecular Weight:
62751.08 Da
References
  1. Ohashi R, Tamai I, Yabuuchi H, Nezu JI, Oku A, Sai Y, Shimane M, Tsuji A: Na(+)-dependent carnitine transport by organic cation transporter (OCTN2): its pharmacological and toxicological relevance. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Nov;291(2):778-84. [PubMed:10525100 ]
  2. Ohashi R, Tamai I, Nezu Ji J, Nikaido H, Hashimoto N, Oku A, Sai Y, Shimane M, Tsuji A: Molecular and physiological evidence for multifunctionality of carnitine/organic cation transporter OCTN2. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 Feb;59(2):358-66. [PubMed:11160873 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular Weight:
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Ito T, Yano I, Tanaka K, Inui KI: Transport of quinolone antibacterial drugs by human P-glycoprotein expressed in a kidney epithelial cell line, LLC-PK1. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1997 Aug;282(2):955-60. [PubMed:9262363 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Involved in the renal elimination of endogenous and exogenous organic anions. Functions as organic anion exchanger when the uptake of one molecule of organic anion is coupled with an efflux of one molecule of endogenous dicarboxylic acid (glutarate, ketoglutarate, etc). Mediates the sodium-independent uptake of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (DMPS) (By similarity). Mediates the sodium-in...
Gene Name:
SLC22A6
Uniprot ID:
Q4U2R8
Molecular Weight:
61815.78 Da
References
  1. Cihlar T, Ho ES: Fluorescence-based assay for the interaction of small molecules with the human renal organic anion transporter 1. Anal Biochem. 2000 Jul 15;283(1):49-55. [PubMed:10929807 ]
  2. Jung KY, Takeda M, Kim DK, Tojo A, Narikawa S, Yoo BS, Hosoyamada M, Cha SH, Sekine T, Endou H: Characterization of ochratoxin A transport by human organic anion transporters. Life Sci. 2001 Sep 21;69(18):2123-35. [PubMed:11669456 ]
  3. Ichida K, Hosoyamada M, Kimura H, Takeda M, Utsunomiya Y, Hosoya T, Endou H: Urate transport via human PAH transporter hOAT1 and its gene structure. Kidney Int. 2003 Jan;63(1):143-55. [PubMed:12472777 ]
  4. Pombrio JM, Giangreco A, Li L, Wempe MF, Anders MW, Sweet DH, Pritchard JB, Ballatori N: Mercapturic acids (N-acetylcysteine S-conjugates) as endogenous substrates for the renal organic anion transporter-1. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 Nov;60(5):1091-9. [PubMed:11641438 ]
  5. Tsuda M, Sekine T, Takeda M, Cha SH, Kanai Y, Kimura M, Endou H: Transport of ochratoxin A by renal multispecific organic anion transporter 1. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Jun;289(3):1301-5. [PubMed:10336520 ]
  6. Islinger F, Gekle M, Wright SH: Interaction of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propane sulfonate with the human organic anion transporter hOAT1. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Nov;299(2):741-7. [PubMed:11602689 ]
  7. Motojima M, Hosokawa A, Yamato H, Muraki T, Yoshioka T: Uraemic toxins induce proximal tubular injury via organic anion transporter 1-mediated uptake. Br J Pharmacol. 2002 Jan;135(2):555-63. [PubMed:11815391 ]
  8. Groves CE, Munoz L, Bahn A, Burckhardt G, Wright SH: Interaction of cysteine conjugates with human and rabbit organic anion transporter 1. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Feb;304(2):560-6. [PubMed:12538807 ]
  9. Aslamkhan A, Han YH, Walden R, Sweet DH, Pritchard JB: Stoichiometry of organic anion/dicarboxylate exchange in membrane vesicles from rat renal cortex and hOAT1-expressing cells. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2003 Oct;285(4):F775-83. Epub 2003 Jul 1. [PubMed:12837685 ]
  10. Hosoyamada M, Sekine T, Kanai Y, Endou H: Molecular cloning and functional expression of a multispecific organic anion transporter from human kidney. Am J Physiol. 1999 Jan;276(1 Pt 2):F122-8. [PubMed:9887087 ]
  11. Lu R, Chan BS, Schuster VL: Cloning of the human kidney PAH transporter: narrow substrate specificity and regulation by protein kinase C. Am J Physiol. 1999 Feb;276(2 Pt 2):F295-303. [PubMed:9950961 ]
  12. Cihlar T, Lin DC, Pritchard JB, Fuller MD, Mendel DB, Sweet DH: The antiviral nucleotide analogs cidofovir and adefovir are novel substrates for human and rat renal organic anion transporter 1. Mol Pharmacol. 1999 Sep;56(3):570-80. [PubMed:10462545 ]
  13. Ho ES, Lin DC, Mendel DB, Cihlar T: Cytotoxicity of antiviral nucleotides adefovir and cidofovir is induced by the expression of human renal organic anion transporter 1. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2000 Mar;11(3):383-93. [PubMed:10703662 ]
  14. Kuze K, Graves P, Leahy A, Wilson P, Stuhlmann H, You G: Heterologous expression and functional characterization of a mouse renal organic anion transporter in mammalian cells. J Biol Chem. 1999 Jan 15;274(3):1519-24. [PubMed:9880528 ]
  15. Sekine T, Watanabe N, Hosoyamada M, Kanai Y, Endou H: Expression cloning and characterization of a novel multispecific organic anion transporter. J Biol Chem. 1997 Jul 25;272(30):18526-9. [PubMed:9228014 ]
  16. Sweet DH, Wolff NA, Pritchard JB: Expression cloning and characterization of ROAT1. The basolateral organic anion transporter in rat kidney. J Biol Chem. 1997 Nov 28;272(48):30088-95. [PubMed:9374486 ]
  17. Uwai Y, Saito H, Hashimoto Y, Inui KI: Interaction and transport of thiazide diuretics, loop diuretics, and acetazolamide via rat renal organic anion transporter rOAT1. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2000 Oct;295(1):261-5. [PubMed:10991988 ]
  18. Takeda M, Tojo A, Sekine T, Hosoyamada M, Kanai Y, Endou H: Role of organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1) in cephaloridine (CER)-induced nephrotoxicity. Kidney Int. 1999 Dec;56(6):2128-36. [PubMed:10594788 ]
  19. Sugiyama D, Kusuhara H, Shitara Y, Abe T, Meier PJ, Sekine T, Endou H, Suzuki H, Sugiyama Y: Characterization of the efflux transport of 17beta-estradiol-D-17beta-glucuronide from the brain across the blood-brain barrier. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Jul;298(1):316-22. [PubMed:11408557 ]
  20. Li M, Anderson GD, Phillips BR, Kong W, Shen DD, Wang J: Interactions of amoxicillin and cefaclor with human renal organic anion and peptide transporters. Drug Metab Dispos. 2006 Apr;34(4):547-55. Epub 2006 Jan 24. [PubMed:16434549 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Plays an important role in the excretion/detoxification of endogenous and exogenous organic anions, especially from the brain and kidney. Involved in the transport basolateral of steviol, fexofenadine. Transports benzylpenicillin (PCG), estrone-3-sulfate (E1S), cimetidine (CMD), 2,4-dichloro-phenoxyacetate (2,4-D), p-amino-hippurate (PAH), acyclovir (ACV) and ochratoxin (OTA).
Gene Name:
SLC22A8
Uniprot ID:
Q8TCC7
Molecular Weight:
59855.585 Da
References
  1. Jung KY, Takeda M, Kim DK, Tojo A, Narikawa S, Yoo BS, Hosoyamada M, Cha SH, Sekine T, Endou H: Characterization of ochratoxin A transport by human organic anion transporters. Life Sci. 2001 Sep 21;69(18):2123-35. [PubMed:11669456 ]
  2. Ohtsuki S, Kikkawa T, Mori S, Hori S, Takanaga H, Otagiri M, Terasaki T: Mouse reduced in osteosclerosis transporter functions as an organic anion transporter 3 and is localized at abluminal membrane of blood-brain barrier. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Jun;309(3):1273-81. Epub 2004 Feb 4. [PubMed:14762099 ]
  3. Kobayashi Y, Ohshiro N, Tsuchiya A, Kohyama N, Ohbayashi M, Yamamoto T: Renal transport of organic compounds mediated by mouse organic anion transporter 3 (mOat3): further substrate specificity of mOat3. Drug Metab Dispos. 2004 May;32(5):479-83. [PubMed:15100168 ]
  4. Mori S, Takanaga H, Ohtsuki S, Deguchi T, Kang YS, Hosoya K, Terasaki T: Rat organic anion transporter 3 (rOAT3) is responsible for brain-to-blood efflux of homovanillic acid at the abluminal membrane of brain capillary endothelial cells. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2003 Apr;23(4):432-40. [PubMed:12679720 ]
  5. Hasegawa M, Kusuhara H, Sugiyama D, Ito K, Ueda S, Endou H, Sugiyama Y: Functional involvement of rat organic anion transporter 3 (rOat3; Slc22a8) in the renal uptake of organic anions. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Mar;300(3):746-53. [PubMed:11861777 ]
  6. Sugiyama D, Kusuhara H, Shitara Y, Abe T, Meier PJ, Sekine T, Endou H, Suzuki H, Sugiyama Y: Characterization of the efflux transport of 17beta-estradiol-D-17beta-glucuronide from the brain across the blood-brain barrier. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Jul;298(1):316-22. [PubMed:11408557 ]
  7. Nagata Y, Kusuhara H, Endou H, Sugiyama Y: Expression and functional characterization of rat organic anion transporter 3 (rOat3) in the choroid plexus. Mol Pharmacol. 2002 May;61(5):982-8. [PubMed:11961115 ]
  8. Cha SH, Sekine T, Fukushima JI, Kanai Y, Kobayashi Y, Goya T, Endou H: Identification and characterization of human organic anion transporter 3 expressing predominantly in the kidney. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 May;59(5):1277-86. [PubMed:11306713 ]
  9. Bakhiya A, Bahn A, Burckhardt G, Wolff N: Human organic anion transporter 3 (hOAT3) can operate as an exchanger and mediate secretory urate flux. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2003;13(5):249-56. [PubMed:14586168 ]
  10. Race JE, Grassl SM, Williams WJ, Holtzman EJ: Molecular cloning and characterization of two novel human renal organic anion transporters (hOAT1 and hOAT3). Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999 Feb 16;255(2):508-14. [PubMed:10049739 ]
  11. Sweet DH, Miller DS, Pritchard JB, Fujiwara Y, Beier DR, Nigam SK: Impaired organic anion transport in kidney and choroid plexus of organic anion transporter 3 (Oat3 (Slc22a8)) knockout mice. J Biol Chem. 2002 Jul 26;277(30):26934-43. Epub 2002 May 13. [PubMed:12011098 ]
  12. Kusuhara H, Sekine T, Utsunomiya-Tate N, Tsuda M, Kojima R, Cha SH, Sugiyama Y, Kanai Y, Endou H: Molecular cloning and characterization of a new multispecific organic anion transporter from rat brain. J Biol Chem. 1999 May 7;274(19):13675-80. [PubMed:10224140 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates hepatobiliary excretion of numerous organic anions. May function as a cellular cisplatin transporter.
Gene Name:
ABCC2
Uniprot ID:
Q92887
Molecular Weight:
174205.64 Da
References
  1. Dahan A, Sabit H, Amidon GL: The H2 receptor antagonist nizatidine is a P-glycoprotein substrate: characterization of its intestinal epithelial cell efflux transport. AAPS J. 2009 Jun;11(2):205-13. doi: 10.1208/s12248-009-9092-5. Epub 2009 Mar 25. [PubMed:19319690 ]
  2. Leier I, Hummel-Eisenbeiss J, Cui Y, Keppler D: ATP-dependent para-aminohippurate transport by apical multidrug resistance protein MRP2. Kidney Int. 2000 Apr;57(4):1636-42. [PubMed:10760098 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Symporter activity
Specific Function:
Sodium-ion dependent, low affinity carnitine transporter. Probably transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cations such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) without the involvement of sodium. Relative uptake activity ratio of carnitine to TEA is 1.78. A key substrate of this transporter seems to be ergothioneine (ET).
Gene Name:
SLC22A4
Uniprot ID:
Q9H015
Molecular Weight:
62154.48 Da
References
  1. Yabuuchi H, Tamai I, Nezu J, Sakamoto K, Oku A, Shimane M, Sai Y, Tsuji A: Novel membrane transporter OCTN1 mediates multispecific, bidirectional, and pH-dependent transport of organic cations. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 May;289(2):768-73. [PubMed:10215651 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates saturable uptake of estrone sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and related compounds.
Gene Name:
SLC22A11
Uniprot ID:
Q9NSA0
Molecular Weight:
59970.945 Da
References
  1. Babu E, Takeda M, Narikawa S, Kobayashi Y, Enomoto A, Tojo A, Cha SH, Sekine T, Sakthisekaran D, Endou H: Role of human organic anion transporter 4 in the transport of ochratoxin A. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002 Jun 12;1590(1-3):64-75. [PubMed:12063169 ]
  2. Cha SH, Sekine T, Kusuhara H, Yu E, Kim JY, Kim DK, Sugiyama Y, Kanai Y, Endou H: Molecular cloning and characterization of multispecific organic anion transporter 4 expressed in the placenta. J Biol Chem. 2000 Feb 11;275(6):4507-12. [PubMed:10660625 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as estrone-3-sulfate (PubMed:10873595). Mediates transport of prostaglandins (PG) E1 and E2, thyroxine (T4), deltorphin II, BQ-123 and vasopressin, but not DPDPE (a derivative of enkephalin lacking an N-terminal tyrosine residue), estrone-3-sulfate, taurocholate, digoxin nor DHEAS (PubMed:16971491).
Gene Name:
SLCO3A1
Uniprot ID:
Q9UIG8
Molecular Weight:
76552.135 Da
References
  1. Adachi H, Suzuki T, Abe M, Asano N, Mizutamari H, Tanemoto M, Nishio T, Onogawa T, Toyohara T, Kasai S, Satoh F, Suzuki M, Tokui T, Unno M, Shimosegawa T, Matsuno S, Ito S, Abe T: Molecular characterization of human and rat organic anion transporter OATP-D. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2003 Dec;285(6):F1188-97. [PubMed:14631946 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent uptake of organic anions such as pravastatin, taurocholate, methotrexate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, 17-beta-glucuronosyl estradiol, estrone sulfate, prostaglandin E2, thromboxane B2, leukotriene C3, leukotriene E4, thyroxine and triiodothyronine. Involved in the clearance of bile acids and organic anions from the liver.
Gene Name:
SLCO1B1
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y6L6
Molecular Weight:
76447.99 Da
References
  1. Nozawa T, Tamai I, Sai Y, Nezu J, Tsuji A: Contribution of organic anion transporting polypeptide OATP-C to hepatic elimination of the opioid pentapeptide analogue [D-Ala2, D-Leu5]-enkephalin. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2003 Jul;55(7):1013-20. [PubMed:12906759 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates export of organic anions and drugs from the cytoplasm. Mediates ATP-dependent transport of glutathione and glutathione conjugates, leukotriene C4, estradiol-17-beta-o-glucuronide, methotrexate, antiviral drugs and other xenobiotics. Confers resistance to anticancer drugs. Hydrolyzes ATP with low efficiency.
Gene Name:
ABCC1
Uniprot ID:
P33527
Molecular Weight:
171589.5 Da
References
  1. Leier I, Hummel-Eisenbeiss J, Cui Y, Keppler D: ATP-dependent para-aminohippurate transport by apical multidrug resistance protein MRP2. Kidney Int. 2000 Apr;57(4):1636-42. [PubMed:10760098 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as sulfobromophthalein (BSP) and conjugated (taurocholate) and unconjugated (cholate) bile acids (By similarity). Selectively inhibited by the grapefruit juice component naringin.
Gene Name:
SLCO1A2
Uniprot ID:
P46721
Molecular Weight:
74144.105 Da
References
  1. Kanai N, Lu R, Bao Y, Wolkoff AW, Schuster VL: Transient expression of oatp organic anion transporter in mammalian cells: identification of candidate substrates. Am J Physiol. 1996 Feb;270(2 Pt 2):F319-25. [PubMed:8779893 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Symporter activity
Specific Function:
Proton-coupled monocarboxylate transporter. Catalyzes the rapid transport across the plasma membrane of many monocarboxylates such as lactate, pyruvate, branched-chain oxo acids derived from leucine, valine and isoleucine, and the ketone bodies acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetate. Depending on the tissue and on cicumstances, mediates the import or export of lactic acid and ketone bod...
Gene Name:
SLC16A1
Uniprot ID:
P53985
Molecular Weight:
53943.685 Da
References
  1. Tamai I, Sai Y, Ono A, Kido Y, Yabuuchi H, Takanaga H, Satoh E, Ogihara T, Amano O, Izeki S, Tsuji A: Immunohistochemical and functional characterization of pH-dependent intestinal absorption of weak organic acids by the monocarboxylic acid transporter MCT1. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1999 Oct;51(10):1113-21. [PubMed:10579682 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates sodium-independent multispecific organic anion transport. Transport of prostaglandin E2, prostaglandin F2, tetracycline, bumetanide, estrone sulfate, glutarate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, allopurinol, 5-fluorouracil, paclitaxel, L-ascorbic acid, salicylate, ethotrexate, and alpha-ketoglutarate.
Gene Name:
SLC22A7
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y694
Molecular Weight:
60025.025 Da
References
  1. Sun W, Wu RR, van Poelje PD, Erion MD: Isolation of a family of organic anion transporters from human liver and kidney. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001 May 4;283(2):417-22. [PubMed:11327718 ]
  2. Kobayashi Y, Ohshiro N, Shibusawa A, Sasaki T, Tokuyama S, Sekine T, Endou H, Yamamoto T: Isolation, characterization and differential gene expression of multispecific organic anion transporter 2 in mice. Mol Pharmacol. 2002 Jul;62(1):7-14. [PubMed:12065749 ]
  3. Sekine T, Cha SH, Tsuda M, Apiwattanakul N, Nakajima N, Kanai Y, Endou H: Identification of multispecific organic anion transporter 2 expressed predominantly in the liver. FEBS Lett. 1998 Jun 12;429(2):179-82. [PubMed:9650585 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on May 12, 2016 14:13