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Identification
NameAmlodipine
Accession NumberDB00381  (APRD00520)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
Description

Amlodipine is a long-acting 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. It acts primarily on vascular smooth muscle cells by stabilizing voltage-gated L-type calcium channels in their inactive conformation. By inhibiting the influx of calcium in smooth muscle cells, amlodipine prevents calcium-dependent myocyte contraction and vasoconstriction. A second proposed mechanism for the drug’s vasodilatory effects involves pH-dependent inhibition of calcium influx via inhibition of smooth muscle carbonic anhydrase. Some studies have shown that amlodipine also exerts inhibitory effects on voltage-gated N-type calcium channels. N-type calcium channels located in the central nervous system may be involved in nociceptive signaling and pain sensation. Amlodipine is used to treat hypertension and chronic stable angina.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
(RS)-3-ethyl 5-methyl 2-[(2-aminoethoxy)methyl]-4-(2-chlorophenyl)-6-methyl-1,4-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarboxylate
3-Ethyl 5-methylester, (±)-2-[(2-aminoethoxy)methyl]-4-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,4-dihydro-6-methyl-3,5-pyridinedicarboxylate
3-Ethyl-5-methyl (+-)-2-(2-aminoethoxymethyl)-4-(O-chlorophenyl)-1,4-dihydro-6-methyl-3,5-pyridinedicarboxylate
Amlodipine
Amlodipine free base
Amlodipino
Amlodipinum
External Identifiers
  • UK 48340-11
  • UK 48340-26
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Accel-amlodipinetablet10 mgoralAccel Pharma Inc2010-03-05Not applicableCanada
Accel-amlodipinetablet5 mgoralAccel Pharma Inc2010-03-05Not applicableCanada
Accel-amlodipinetablet2.5 mgoralAccel Pharma IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Act Amlodipinetablet10 mgoralActavis Pharma Company2009-07-10Not applicableCanada
Act Amlodipinetablet5 mgoralActavis Pharma Company2009-07-10Not applicableCanada
Act Amlodipinetablet2.5 mgoralActavis Pharma Company2010-03-02Not applicableCanada
Ag-amlodipinetablet2.5 mgoralAngita Pharma Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
Ag-amlodipinetablet10 mgoralAngita Pharma Inc.2014-09-25Not applicableCanada
Ag-amlodipinetablet5 mgoralAngita Pharma Inc.2014-09-25Not applicableCanada
Amlodipinetablet5 mgoralJamp Pharma Corporation2014-09-04Not applicableCanada
Amlodipinetablet2.5 mgoralSivem Pharmaceuticals Ulc2012-06-11Not applicableCanada
Amlodipinetablet5 mgoralSivem Pharmaceuticals Ulc2012-06-12Not applicableCanada
Amlodipinetablet10 mgoralActavis Pharma CompanyNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Amlodipinetablet10 mgoralJamp Pharma Corporation2014-09-04Not applicableCanada
Amlodipinetablet5 mgoralActavis Pharma CompanyNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Amlodipinetablet10 mgoralSanis Health Inc2009-10-22Not applicableCanada
Amlodipinetablet2.5 mgoralActavis Pharma CompanyNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Amlodipinetablet5 mgoralSanis Health Inc2009-10-22Not applicableCanada
Amlodipinetablet5 mgoralJubilant Generics LimitedNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Amlodipinetablet10.0 mgoralPro Doc Limitee2009-07-22Not applicableCanada
Amlodipinetablet10 mgoralJubilant Generics LimitedNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Amlodipinetablet5.0 mgoralPro Doc Limitee2009-07-22Not applicableCanada
Amlodipinetablet10 mgoralMeliapharm Inc2011-04-082014-06-25Canada
Amlodipinetablet5 mgoralMeliapharm Inc2011-04-082014-06-25Canada
Amlodipinetablet2.5 mgoralPro Doc Limitee2009-07-22Not applicableCanada
Amlodipinetablet2.5 mgoralMeliapharm Inc2011-04-082014-06-25Canada
Amlodipinetablet10 mgoralSivem Pharmaceuticals Ulc2012-06-11Not applicableCanada
Amlodipine Besylatetablet2.5 mg/1oralGreenstone LLC2007-03-23Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralGreenstone LLC2007-03-23Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet2.5 mg/1oralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.1992-07-31Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralLake Erie Medical & Surgical Supply DBA Quality Care Products LLC1992-07-31Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.1992-07-31Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralAvera Mc Kennan Hospital2015-07-21Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralKAISER FOUNDATION HOSPITALS2008-10-21Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralRed Pharm Drug Inc.1992-07-31Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralRed Pharm Drug Inc.1992-07-31Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralKAISER FOUNDATION HOSPITALS2008-10-21Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralContract Pharmacy Services Pa1992-07-31Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet2.5 mg/1oralKAISER FOUNDATION HOSPITALS2008-10-21Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralCardinal Health1992-07-31Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet2.5 mg/1oralSt Marys Medical Park Pharmacy2014-05-01Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralGreenstone LLC2007-03-23Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylate Tablets USPtablet10 mgoralAccord Healthcare IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Amlodipine Besylate Tablets USPtablet5 mgoralAccord Healthcare IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Amlodipine Besylate Tablets USPtablet2.5 mgoralAccord Healthcare IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Amlodipine Besylate Tablets, 10mgtablet10.0 mgoralDr Reddys Laboratories IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Amlodipine Besylate Tablets, 5mgtablet5.0 mgoralDr Reddys Laboratories IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Amlodipine Tabletstablet10 mgoralRanbaxy Pharmaceuticals Canada Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
Amlodipine Tabletstablet5 mgoralRanbaxy Pharmaceuticals Canada Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
Amlodipine-odantablet5.0 mgoralOdan Laboratories Ltd2012-03-082014-11-12Canada
Amlodipine-odantablet2.5 mgoralOdan Laboratories Ltd2012-03-082012-12-31Canada
Amlodipine-odantablet10.0 mgoralOdan Laboratories Ltd2012-03-082014-11-12Canada
Auro-amlodipinetablet10 mgoralAuro Pharma Inc2013-02-12Not applicableCanada
Auro-amlodipinetablet5 mgoralAuro Pharma Inc2013-02-12Not applicableCanada
Bio-amlodipinetablet10.00 mgoralBiomed Pharma2013-01-15Not applicableCanada
Bio-amlodipinetablet5.00 mgoralBiomed Pharma2013-01-15Not applicableCanada
Bio-amlodipinetablet2.5 mgoralBiomed Pharma2013-01-15Not applicableCanada
Dom-amlodipinetablet10.0 mgoralDominion Pharmacal2010-01-13Not applicableCanada
Dom-amlodipinetablet5.0 mgoralDominion Pharmacal2010-01-13Not applicableCanada
Dom-amlodipinetablet2.5 mgoralDominion Pharmacal2010-01-13Not applicableCanada
Gd-amlodipinetablet10 mgoralGenmed A Division Of Pfizer Canada Inc2009-07-22Not applicableCanada
Gd-amlodipinetablet5 mgoralGenmed A Division Of Pfizer Canada Inc2009-07-22Not applicableCanada
Gd-amlodipinetablet2.5 mgoralGenmed A Division Of Pfizer Canada Inc2012-07-23Not applicableCanada
Ipg-amlodipinetablet5 mgoralMarcan Pharmaceuticals IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Ipg-amlodipinetablet2.5 mgoralMarcan Pharmaceuticals IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Ipg-amlodipinetablet10 mgoralMarcan Pharmaceuticals IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Jamp-amlodipinetablet10 mgoralJamp Pharma Corporation2011-01-27Not applicableCanada
Jamp-amlodipinetablet5 mgoralJamp Pharma Corporation2011-01-27Not applicableCanada
Jamp-amlodipinetablet2.5 mgoralJamp Pharma Corporation2011-01-27Not applicableCanada
Jamp-amlodipinetablet10 mgoralJamp Pharma Corporation2010-03-182014-11-07Canada
Jamp-amlodipinetablet5 mgoralJamp Pharma Corporation2010-03-182014-11-07Canada
Manda-amlodipine Tabletstablet10 mgoralManda Pharma Inc2012-06-012013-08-22Canada
Manda-amlodipine Tabletstablet5 mgoralManda Pharma Inc2012-06-012013-08-22Canada
Manda-amlodipine Tabletstablet2.5 mgoralManda Pharma Inc2012-06-012013-08-22Canada
Mar-amlodipine Tabletstablet10 mgoralMarcan Pharmaceuticals Inc2012-10-24Not applicableCanada
Mar-amlodipine Tabletstablet5 mgoralMarcan Pharmaceuticals Inc2012-10-24Not applicableCanada
Mar-amlodipine Tabletstablet2.5 mgoralMarcan Pharmaceuticals Inc2012-10-24Not applicableCanada
Mint-amlodipinetablet10 mgoralMint Pharmaceuticals Inc2011-02-16Not applicableCanada
Mint-amlodipinetablet5 mgoralMint Pharmaceuticals Inc2011-02-16Not applicableCanada
Mylan-amlodipinetablet10.0 mgoralMylan Pharmaceuticals Ulc2009-07-09Not applicableCanada
Mylan-amlodipinetablet5.0 mgoralMylan Pharmaceuticals Ulc2009-07-09Not applicableCanada
Norvasctablet10 mg/1oralLake Erie Medical & Surgical Supplies DBA Quality Care Products LLC2011-11-22Not applicableUs
Norvasctablet2.5 mg/1oralPfizer Laboratories Div Pfizer Inc1992-07-31Not applicableUs
Norvasctablet5 mg/1oralRebel Distributors Corp1992-07-31Not applicableUs
Norvasctablet5 mg/1oralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.1992-07-31Not applicableUs
Norvasctablet10 mg/1oralCardinal Health1992-07-31Not applicableUs
Norvasctablet5 mg/1oralCardinal Health1992-07-31Not applicableUs
Norvasctablet10 mg/1oralPfizer Laboratories Div Pfizer Inc1992-07-31Not applicableUs
Norvasctablet10 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-03-042016-04-05Us
Norvasctablet5 mg/1oralPfizer Laboratories Div Pfizer Inc1992-07-31Not applicableUs
Norvasc Tab 10mgtablet10 mgoralPfizer Canada Inc1992-12-31Not applicableCanada
Norvasc Tab 2.5mgtablet2.5 mgoralPfizer Canada IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Norvasc Tab 5mgtablet5 mgoralPfizer Canada Inc1992-12-31Not applicableCanada
PHL-amlodipinetablet5.0 mgoralPharmel Inc2009-07-16Not applicableCanada
PHL-amlodipinetablet2.5 mgoralPharmel Inc2009-07-21Not applicableCanada
PHL-amlodipinetablet10.0 mgoralPharmel Inc2009-07-16Not applicableCanada
PMS-amlodipinetablet5.0 mgoralPharmascience Inc2009-07-09Not applicableCanada
PMS-amlodipinetablet10.0 mgoralPharmascience Inc2009-07-09Not applicableCanada
PMS-amlodipinetablet2.5 mgoralPharmascience Inc2009-07-15Not applicableCanada
Priva-amlodipinetablet10 mgoralPharmapar IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Priva-amlodipinetablet5 mgoralPharmapar IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Priva-amlodipinetablet2.5 mgoralPharmapar IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Q-amlodipinetablet10 mgoralQd Pharmaceuticals Ulc2011-10-032015-08-21Canada
Q-amlodipinetablet5 mgoralQd Pharmaceuticals Ulc2011-10-032015-08-21Canada
Q-gen Amlodipinetablet10 mgoralQ Gen Pharmaceuticals IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Q-gen Amlodipinetablet5 mgoralQ Gen Pharmaceuticals IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Ran-amlodipinetablet2.5 mgoralRanbaxy Pharmaceuticals Canada Inc.2013-06-07Not applicableCanada
Ran-amlodipinetablet10 mgoralRanbaxy Pharmaceuticals Canada Inc.2009-07-09Not applicableCanada
Ran-amlodipinetablet5 mgoralRanbaxy Pharmaceuticals Canada Inc.2009-07-09Not applicableCanada
Ratio-amlodipine Tablets 10mgtablet10 mgoralRatiopharm Inc Division Of Teva Canada Limited2009-07-092014-09-19Canada
Ratio-amlodipine Tablets 5mgtablet5 mgoralRatiopharm Inc Division Of Teva Canada Limited2009-07-092014-09-19Canada
Riva-amlodipinetablet2.5 mgoralLaboratoire Riva Inc2009-10-13Not applicableCanada
Riva-amlodipinetablet10 mgoralLaboratoire Riva Inc2009-10-06Not applicableCanada
Riva-amlodipinetablet5 mgoralLaboratoire Riva Inc2009-10-07Not applicableCanada
Sandoz Amlodipinetablet2.5 mgoralSandoz Canada Incorporated2009-08-05Not applicableCanada
Sandoz Amlodipinetablet10 mgoralSandoz Canada Incorporated2009-07-09Not applicableCanada
Sandoz Amlodipinetablet10 mgoralSandoz Canada Incorporated2009-07-09Not applicableCanada
Sandoz Amlodipinetablet5 mgoralSandoz Canada Incorporated2009-07-09Not applicableCanada
Sandoz Amlodipinetablet5 mgoralSandoz Canada Incorporated2009-07-09Not applicableCanada
Septa-amlodipinetablet2.5 mgoralSepta Pharmaceuticals Inc2010-11-22Not applicableCanada
Septa-amlodipinetablet10 mgoralSepta Pharmaceuticals Inc2010-11-22Not applicableCanada
Septa-amlodipinetablet5 mgoralSepta Pharmaceuticals Inc2010-11-22Not applicableCanada
Teva-amlodipinetablet10 mgoralTeva Canada Limited2009-07-09Not applicableCanada
Teva-amlodipinetablet5 mgoralTeva Canada Limited2009-07-09Not applicableCanada
Van-amlodipinetablet5 mgoralVanc Pharmaceuticals Inc2015-06-22Not applicableCanada
Van-amlodipinetablet10 mgoralVanc Pharmaceuticals Inc2015-06-22Not applicableCanada
Zym-amlodipinetablet5.0 mgoralZymcan Pharmaceuticals Inc2010-04-292014-06-16Canada
Zym-amlodipinetablet10.0 mgoralZymcan Pharmaceuticals Inc2010-04-292014-06-16Canada
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Amlodipinetablet5 mg/1oralMacleods Pharmaceuticals Limited2012-04-13Not applicableUs
Amlodipinetablet10 mg/1oralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2013-01-01Not applicableUs
Amlodipinetablet10 mg/1oralMacleods Pharmaceuticals Limited2012-04-13Not applicableUs
Amlodipinetablet10 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-04-13Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralCardinal Health2013-01-20Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralDIRECT RX2014-01-01Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralAurobindo Pharma Limited2007-07-17Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralGolden State Medical Supply, Inc.2011-04-25Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralTYA Pharmaceuticals2011-01-01Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralPreferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2014-11-24Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralRanbaxy Pharmaceuticals Inc2007-07-09Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralCarilion Materials Management2011-01-01Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralAurobindo Pharma Limited2007-07-17Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralExelan Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2007-11-02Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralAidarex Pharmaceuticals LLC2011-01-01Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet2.5 mg/1oralCipla USA Inc.2007-09-26Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralProficient Rx LP2014-03-03Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet2.5 mg/1oralAidarex Pharmaceuticals LLC2011-01-01Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2011-03-11Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralWest Ward Pharmaceuticals Corp2011-04-12Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet2.5 mg/1oralRoxane Laboratories, Inc2007-07-09Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralTorrent Pharmaceuticals Limited2009-02-05Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralMajor Pharmaceuticals2013-01-20Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet2.5 mg/1oralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2011-03-11Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2010-10-20Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralAv Pak2014-01-10Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralSTAT Rx USA LLC2007-09-06Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet2.5 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-04-08Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2014-11-01Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2010-06-21Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet2.5 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-06-14Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralCardinal Health2010-01-14Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralAv Pak2014-01-10Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralCardinal Health2007-09-06Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralGolden State Medical Supply, Inc.2011-04-25Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralInternational Labs, Inc.2012-09-14Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralCaraco Pharmaceutical Laboratories, Ltd.2012-10-19Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralRanbaxy Pharmaceuticals Inc2007-07-09Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2014-02-03Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2013-07-232015-12-29Us
Amlodipine Besylatetablet2.5 mg/1oralExelan Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2007-11-02Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralAidarex Pharmaceuticals LLC2011-01-01Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet2.5 mg/1oralUnit Dose Services2011-01-01Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2011-03-11Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralWest Ward Pharmaceuticals Corp2011-04-12Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralTorrent Pharmaceuticals Limited2009-02-05Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet2.5 mg/1oralMajor Pharmaceuticals2013-01-20Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralEpic Pharma, LLC2011-04-25Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralCamber Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2011-01-01Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet2.5 mg/1oralAv Pak2014-01-10Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralSafecor Health, LLC2014-09-30Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-05-132016-04-05Us
Amlodipine Besylatetablet2.5 mg/1oralCardinal Health2010-01-14Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralDr Reddy's Laboratories2007-07-23Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet2.5 mg/1oralGolden State Medical Supply, Inc.2011-04-25Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet2.5 mg/1oralCaraco Pharmaceutical Laboratories, Ltd.2012-10-19Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet2.5 mg/1oralRanbaxy Pharmaceuticals Inc2007-07-09Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2015-06-19Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet2.5 mg/1oralAurobindo Pharma Limited2007-07-17Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralWockhardt USA LLC.2007-09-06Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralPreferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2015-04-06Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralLegacy Pharmaceutical Packaging, Llc2011-01-01Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralBiomes Pharmaceuticals LLC2011-04-15Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralQualitest Pharmaceuticals2010-04-07Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet2.5 mg/1oralWest Ward Pharmaceuticals Corp2011-04-12Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet2.5 mg/1oralTorrent Pharmaceuticals Limited2009-02-05Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet2.5 mg/1oralMajor Pharmaceuticals2010-12-03Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralEpic Pharma, LLC2011-04-25Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralCamber Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2011-01-01Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-04-10Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralMedsource Pharmaceuticals2014-03-03Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet2.5 mg/1oralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2009-07-01Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralNorthwind Pharmaceuticals, LLC2014-09-23Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralCardinal Health2010-01-14Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralDr Reddy's Laboratories2007-07-23Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralHikma Pharmaceutical2011-04-12Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralLake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC2010-04-07Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralProficient Rx LP2014-03-03Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2015-02-26Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralCadila Healthcare Limited2007-09-21Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralWockhardt USA LLC.2007-09-06Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralZydus Pharmaceuticals (USA) Inc.2007-09-21Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2014-02-03Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2013-07-232015-12-29Us
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralMc Kesson Contract Packaging2011-09-14Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralQualitest Pharmaceuticals2010-04-07Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralTeva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc2007-07-10Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralBlenheim Pharmacal, Inc.2011-04-25Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralMajor Pharmaceuticals2010-12-03Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet2.5 mg/1oralEpic Pharma, LLC2011-04-25Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet2.5 mg/1oralCamber Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2011-01-01Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-09-14Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralSecan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2011-04-15Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2009-07-01Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralNorthwind Pharmaceuticals, LLC2014-09-21Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralCardinal Health2014-02-03Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet2.5 mg/1oralDr Reddy's Laboratories2007-07-23Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralHikma Pharmaceutical2011-04-12Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralWockhardt Limited2007-09-06Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralProficient Rx LP2011-01-01Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2015-02-26Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralCadila Healthcare Limited2007-09-21Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet2.5 mg/1oralWockhardt USA LLC.2007-09-06Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralZydus Pharmaceuticals (USA) Inc.2007-09-21Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet2.5 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2014-02-03Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet2.5 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2013-07-232015-12-29Us
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralMc Kesson Contract Packaging2011-09-14Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2014-10-202016-04-05Us
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralBiomes Pharmaceuticals LLC2011-04-15Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralBlenheim Pharmacal, Inc.2013-11-13Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralMajor Pharmaceuticals2010-12-03Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet2.5 mg/1oralLake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC2010-04-07Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralUnichem Pharmaceuticals (USA), Inc.2014-03-03Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-09-14Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralSecan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2011-04-15Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2009-07-01Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralMylan Institutional Inc.2007-04-02Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralCardinal Health2014-01-10Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet2.5 mg/1oralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2007-04-06Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet2.5 mg/1oralHikma Pharmaceutical2011-04-12Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralWockhardt Limited2007-09-06Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralProficient Rx LP2011-01-01Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet2.5 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2015-03-07Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet2.5 mg/1oralCadila Healthcare Limited2007-09-21Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralMc Kesson Packaging Services A Business Unit Of Mc Kesson Corporation2007-09-21Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet2.5 mg/1oralZydus Pharmaceuticals (USA) Inc.2007-09-21Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralAscend Laboratories, LLC2010-10-20Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralAv Pak2011-06-072015-12-29Us
Amlodipine Besylatetablet2.5 mg/1oralMc Kesson Contract Packaging2011-09-14Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralSt Marys Medical Park Pharmacy2011-09-01Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet2.5 mg/1oralBiomes Pharmaceuticals LLC2011-04-15Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet2.5 mg/1oralQualitest Pharmaceuticals2010-04-07Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralTeva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc2007-07-10Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralUpsher Smith Laboratories, Inc.2007-07-09Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralLake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC2010-04-07Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralUnichem Pharmaceuticals (USA), Inc.2014-03-03Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-08-22Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Llc2010-04-07Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2014-04-04Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralMylan Institutional Inc.2007-04-02Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralCardinal Health2011-06-07Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2007-03-28Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralNew Horizon Rx Group, LLC2013-08-25Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet2.5 mg/1oralWockhardt Limited2007-09-06Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralProficient Rx LP2010-04-07Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralApotex Corp.2007-05-24Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralAmneal Pharmaceuticals of New York, LLC2010-06-21Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet2.5 mg/1oralbryant ranch prepack2007-05-24Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralLupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2007-08-03Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralAscend Laboratories, LLC2010-10-20Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralAv Pak2011-06-072015-12-29Us
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralAvera Mc Kennan Hospital2015-03-05Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralSt Marys Medical Park Pharmacy2013-04-25Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralPreferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2010-04-07Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2007-03-23Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet2.5 mg/1oralTeva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc2007-07-10Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralBlenheim Pharmacal, Inc.2012-01-18Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-08-22Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Llc2010-04-07Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet2.5 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-12-31Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet2.5 mg/1oralMylan Institutional Inc.2007-04-02Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralCardinal Health2009-06-10Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2007-03-28Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet2.5 mg/1oralClinical Solutions Wholesale2010-04-07Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2010-06-21Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralDIRECT RX2015-01-01Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralApotex Corp.2007-05-24Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralAmneal Pharmaceuticals of New York, LLC2010-06-21Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralbryant ranch prepack2007-05-24Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralLupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2007-08-03Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet2.5 mg/1oralAscend Laboratories, LLC2010-10-20Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet2.5 mg/1oralMajor Pharmaceuticals2009-06-102015-12-31Us
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralCipla USA Inc.2007-09-26Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralClinical Solutions Wholesale2011-01-01Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralPreferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2010-04-07Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralLake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC2011-01-01Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2007-03-23Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralRoxane Laboratories, Inc2007-07-09Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralBlenheim Pharmacal, Inc.2012-01-18Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralUpsher Smith Laboratories, Inc.2007-07-09Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralLake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC2010-11-04Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet2.5 mg/1oralUnichem Pharmaceuticals (USA), Inc.2014-03-03Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralCardinal Health2011-06-01Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralInternational Labs, Inc.2012-02-20Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralCaraco Pharmaceutical Laboratories, Ltd.2012-10-19Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralCardinal Health2013-01-20Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralDIRECT RX2014-01-01Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet2.5 mg/1oralApotex Corp.2007-05-24Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet2.5 mg/1oralAmneal Pharmaceuticals of New York, LLC2010-06-21Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralbryant ranch prepack2007-05-24Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet2.5 mg/1oralLupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2007-08-03Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralMed Vantx, Inc.2010-03-23Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralExelan Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2007-11-02Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralCipla USA Inc.2007-09-26Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralClinical Solutions Wholesale2011-01-01Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralLake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC2011-01-01Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet2.5 mg/1oralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2007-03-23Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralRoxane Laboratories, Inc2007-07-09Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralMajor Pharmaceuticals2013-01-20Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet2.5 mg/1oralUpsher Smith Laboratories, Inc.2007-07-09Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet10 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-02-272016-04-05Us
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2010-10-20Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-12-05Not applicableUs
Amlodipine Besylatetablet5 mg/1oralUnit Dose Services2010-04-07Not applicableUs
Apo-amlodipinetablet5.0 mgoralApotex Inc2009-07-09Not applicableCanada
Apo-amlodipinetablet10.0 mgoralApotex Inc2009-07-09Not applicableCanada
Apo-amlodipinetablet2.5 mgoralApotex IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
AforbesMerck
AgenZentiva
AkenKendrick Farmaceutica
AmcardApex Pharma Ltd
AmdepinCadila Pharmaceuticals
AmdipinLaboratorios Lafrancol
AmlocardAWD (Germany)
AmlodNot Available
AmlodineSumitomo Pharmaceuticals
AmlodipinNot Available
Amlodipin-Mepha 5/10Mepha Pharma AG
Amlodipine 5PT KALBE FARMA Tbk
AmlodisEczacibasi (Turkey)
AmlongMicro Labs
AmlopinLek
AmlopineBerlin
AmlostinDiscovery Pharmaceuticals
AmlosunSun Pharmaceutical
AmlovasMacleods Pharmaceuticals Ltd
AmlovascDr. Reddy's Laboratories
AmlozekAdamed
AmvazReddy (Malaysia)
AsomexEmcure Pharmaceuticals
Atecard-AMAlembic Ltd
CamlodinSquare
CorovalSandoz (Argentina)
DailyvascXeno Pharmaceuticals
IstinNot Available
LamaStadmed Private Limited
LodipTIME Pharmaceuticals
LodopinMerck Pakistan
LopinEdruc Ltd
NelodThe Kemiko Pharmaceuticals Ltd
NopidinAd-din Pharmaceuticals Ltd
NordipNot Available
PerivascNot Available
Pharex AmlodipinePHAREX HealthCorp
TenoxKrka
Brand mixtures
NameLabellerIngredients
AmlobenzRebel Distributors Corp
Amlodipine and Benazepril HydrochlorideTeva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc
Amlodipine and ValsartanTeva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc
Amlodipine Besylate and Atorvastatin CalciumMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Amlodipine Besylate and Benazepril HClAmerican Health Packaging
Amlodipine Besylate and Benazepril HydrochlorideActavis Pharma, Inc.
Amlodipine Besylate and ValsartanMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Amlodipine Besylate/atorvastatin CalciumMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Amlodipine, Valsartan and HydrochlorothiazideTorrent Pharmaceuticals Limited
Amlodipine, Valsartan, and HydrochlorothiazideTeva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc
Amlodipine, Valsartan, HydrochlorothiazideSandoz Inc
AmturnideNovartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation
Apo-amlodipine-atorvastatinApotex Inc
AzorPhysicians Total Care, Inc.
CaduetPfizer Laboratories Div Pfizer Inc
ExforgeNovartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation
Exforge HctNovartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation
Gd-amlodipine/atorvastatinGenmed A Division Of Pfizer Canada Inc
HypertenipinePhysician Therapeutics Llc
LotrelNovartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation
Mylan-amlodipine/atorvastatinMylan Pharmaceuticals Ulc
Pendo-amlodipine-atorvastatinPendopharm Division Of De Pharmascience Inc
PMS-amlodipine-atorvastatinPharmascience Inc
PrestaliaSymplmed Pharmaceuticals, Llc
TekamloNovartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation
Telmisartan and AmlodipineMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.
TribenzorDaiichi Sankyo, Inc.
TwynstaBoehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
ViacoramServier Canada Inc
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Amlodipine Besilate
ThumbNot applicableDBSALT001054
Amlodipine Besylate
ThumbNot applicableDBSALT001055
Amlodipine Maleate
ThumbNot applicableDBSALT001056
Categories
UNII1J444QC288
CAS number88150-42-9
WeightAverage: 408.876
Monoisotopic: 408.145199627
Chemical FormulaC20H25ClN2O5
InChI KeyHTIQEAQVCYTUBX-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C20H25ClN2O5/c1-4-28-20(25)18-15(11-27-10-9-22)23-12(2)16(19(24)26-3)17(18)13-7-5-6-8-14(13)21/h5-8,17,23H,4,9-11,22H2,1-3H3
IUPAC Name
3-ethyl 5-methyl 2-[(2-aminoethoxy)methyl]-4-(2-chlorophenyl)-6-methyl-1,4-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarboxylate
SMILES
CCOC(=O)C1=C(COCCN)NC(C)=C(C1C1=CC=CC=C1Cl)C(=O)OC
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as dihydropyridinecarboxylic acids and derivatives. These are compounds containing a dihydropyridine moiety bearing a carboxylic acid group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassPyridines and derivatives
Sub ClassHydropyridines
Direct ParentDihydropyridinecarboxylic acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Dihydropyridinecarboxylic acid derivative
  • Halobenzene
  • Chlorobenzene
  • Benzenoid
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Aryl halide
  • Aryl chloride
  • Vinylogous amide
  • Alpha,beta-unsaturated carboxylic ester
  • Enoate ester
  • Methyl ester
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Azacycle
  • Ether
  • Enamine
  • Dialkyl ether
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organochloride
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the treatment of hypertension and chronic stable angina.
PharmacodynamicsAmlodipine belongs to the dihydropyridine (DHP) class of calcium channel blockers (CCBs), the most widely used class of CCBs. There are at least five different types of calcium channels in Homo sapiens: L-, N-, P/Q-, R- and T-type. It was widely accepted that DHP CCBs target L-type calcium channels, the major channel in muscle cells that mediate contraction; however, some studies have indicated that amlodipine also binds to and inhibits N-type calcium channels (see references in Targets section). Similar to other DHP CCBs, amlodipine binds directly to inactive L-type calcium channels stabilizing their inactive conformation. Since arterial smooth muscle depolarizations are longer in duration than cardiac muscle depolarizations, inactive channels are more prevalent in smooth muscle cells. Alternative splicing of the alpha-1 subunit of the channel gives amlodipine additional arterial selectivity. At therapeutic sub-toxic concentrations, amlodipine has little effect on cardiac myocytes and conduction cells.
Mechanism of actionAmlodipine decreases arterial smooth muscle contractility and subsequent vasoconstriction by inhibiting the influx of calcium ions through L-type calcium channels. Calcium ions entering the cell through these channels bind to calmodulin. Calcium-bound calmodulin then binds to and activates myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). Activated MLCK catalyzes the phosphorylation of the regulatory light chain subunit of myosin, a key step in muscle contraction. Signal amplification is achieved by calcium-induced calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum through ryanodine receptors. Inhibition of the initial influx of calcium decreases the contractile activity of arterial smooth muscle cells and results in vasodilation. The vasodilatory effects of amlodipine result in an overall decrease in blood pressure. Amlodipine is a long-acting CCB that may be used to treat mild to moderate essential hypertension and exertion-related angina (chronic stable angina). Another possible mechanism is that amlodipine inhibits vascular smooth muscle carbonic anhydrase I activity causing cellular pH increases which may be involved in regulating intracelluar calcium influx through calcium channels.
Related Articles
AbsorptionAmlodipine is slowly and almost completely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Peak plasma concentrations are reached 6-12 hour following oral administration. Its estimated bioavailability is 64-90%. Absorption is not affected by food.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein binding97.5%
Metabolism

Hepatic. Metabolized extensively (90%) to inactive metabolites via the cytochrome P450 3A4 isozyme.

Route of eliminationAmlodipine is extensively (about 90%) converted to inactive metabolites via hepatic metabolism with 10% of the parent compound and 60% of the metabolites excreted in the urine.
Half life30-50 hours
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityGross overdosage could result in excessive peripheral vasodilatation and possibly reflex tachycardia. Marked and probably prolonged systemic hypotension up to an including shock with fatal outcome have been reported.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Amlodipine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00376
SNP Mediated Effects
Interacting Gene/EnzymeSNP RS IDAllele nameDefining changeEffectReference(s)
Natriuretic peptides A
Gene symbol: NPPA
UniProt: P01160
rs5065 Not AvailableAA alleleThose with the rs5065(AA) allele had more favorable cardiovascular disease outcomes if given amlodipine than if treated with chlorthalidone (diuretic)18212314
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9479
Blood Brain Barrier-0.7744
Caco-2 permeable-0.5468
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.9102
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.8564
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8473
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.803
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8627
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.6967
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.538
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorInhibitor0.514
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7626
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorInhibitor0.5871
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorInhibitor0.8608
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.6642
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7605
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8568
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9791
Rat acute toxicity2.5396 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8302
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.8411
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Synthon pharmaceuticals inc
  • Actavis totowa llc
  • Alkem laboratories ltd
  • Amneal pharmaceuticals ny llc
  • Apotex inc
  • Aurobindo pharma ltd
  • Caraco pharmaceutical laboratories ltd
  • Dr reddys laboratories ltd
  • Gedeon richter usa inc
  • Genpharm inc
  • Glenmark generics ltd
  • Invagen pharmaceuticals inc
  • Lek pharmaceuticals dd
  • Lupin ltd
  • Matrix laboratories ltd
  • Mutual pharmacal co
  • Mylan laboratories inc
  • Orchid healthcare
  • Ranbaxy laboratories ltd
  • Roxane laboratories inc
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Torrent pharmaceuticals ltd
  • Upsher smith laboratories inc
  • Vintage pharmaceuticals llc
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • Wockhardt ltd
  • World gen llc
  • Zydus pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Pfizer inc
  • Dr reddys laboratories inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Tabletoral10 mg/1
Tabletoral2.5 mg/1
Tabletoral5 mg/1
Tabletoral10.00 mg
Tabletoral5.00 mg
Tablet, film coatedoral
Tabletoral2.5 mg
Kit
Capsuleoral
Tabletoral10.0 mg
Tabletoral5.0 mg
Tabletoral10 mg
Tabletoral5 mg
Tabletoral
Tablet, multilayeroral
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Amlodipine besylate powder9.99USD g
Lotrel 10-40 mg capsule5.21USD capsule
Lotrel 10-20 mg capsule4.8USD capsule
Lotrel 5-40 mg capsule4.37USD capsule
Lotrel 5-20 mg capsule4.13USD capsule
Lotrel 5-10 mg capsule3.91USD capsule
Lotrel 2.5-10 mg capsule3.83USD capsule
Norvasc 10 mg tablet3.16USD tablet
Amlodipine besylate 10 mg tablet2.42USD tablet
Norvasc 2.5 mg tablet2.36USD tablet
Norvasc 5 mg tablet2.36USD tablet
Norvasc 10 mg Tablet2.14USD tablet
Amlodipine besylate 2.5 mg tablet1.76USD tablet
Amlodipine besylate 5 mg tablet1.76USD tablet
Norvasc 5 mg Tablet1.44USD tablet
Amlodipine 10 mg Tablet1.03USD tablet
Apo-Amlodipine 10 mg Tablet1.03USD tablet
Co Amlodipine 10 mg Tablet1.03USD tablet
Gd-Amlodipine 10 mg Tablet1.03USD tablet
Jamp-Amlodipine 10 mg Tablet1.03USD tablet
Mylan-Amlodipine 10 mg Tablet1.03USD tablet
Novo-Amlodipine 10 mg Tablet1.03USD tablet
Phl-Amlodipine 10 mg Tablet1.03USD tablet
Pms-Amlodipine 10 mg Tablet1.03USD tablet
Ran-Amlodipine 10 mg Tablet1.03USD tablet
Ratio-Amlodipine 10 mg Tablet1.03USD tablet
Sandoz Amlodipine 10 mg Tablet1.03USD tablet
Amlodipine 5 mg Tablet0.7USD tablet
Apo-Amlodipine 5 mg Tablet0.7USD tablet
Co Amlodipine 5 mg Tablet0.7USD tablet
Gd-Amlodipine 5 mg Tablet0.7USD tablet
Jamp-Amlodipine 5 mg Tablet0.7USD tablet
Mylan-Amlodipine 5 mg Tablet0.7USD tablet
Novo-Amlodipine 5 mg Tablet0.7USD tablet
Phl-Amlodipine 5 mg Tablet0.7USD tablet
Pms-Amlodipine 5 mg Tablet0.7USD tablet
Ran-Amlodipine 5 mg Tablet0.7USD tablet
Ratio-Amlodipine 5 mg Tablet0.7USD tablet
Sandoz Amlodipine 5 mg Tablet0.7USD tablet
Phl-Amlodipine 2.5 mg Tablet0.35USD tablet
Pms-Amlodipine 2.5 mg Tablet0.35USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
CA2170278 No1999-08-032014-08-10Canada
US5559111 No1998-07-212018-07-21Us
US5616599 Yes1996-10-252016-10-25Us
US5969156 Yes1997-01-082017-01-08Us
US6162802 No1997-12-192017-12-19Us
US6294197 Yes1997-12-182017-12-18Us
US6395728 No1999-07-082019-07-08Us
US6455574 No1998-08-112018-08-11Us
US6696481 No2003-04-152023-04-15Us
US6828339 No2002-11-202022-11-20Us
US7846961 No2009-10-052029-10-05Us
US8101599 No2003-05-162023-05-16Us
US8183295 No2003-05-162023-05-16Us
US8475839 Yes2003-11-162023-11-16Us
US8613949 No2009-12-212029-12-21Us
US8618174 No2001-11-152021-11-15Us
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point178-179 °CNot Available
water solubility75.3 mg/LNot Available
logP3.00AUSTIN,RP ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0074 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.22ALOGPS
logP1.64ChemAxon
logS-4.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.45ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area99.88 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count10ChemAxon
Refractivity108.64 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability42.29 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

DrugSyn.org

US4572909
General References
  1. Nayler WG, Gu XH: The unique binding properties of amlodipine: a long-acting calcium antagonist. J Hum Hypertens. 1991 Aug;5 Suppl 1:55-9. [PubMed:1834847 ]
  2. van Zwieten PA: Amlodipine: an overview of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties. Clin Cardiol. 1994 Sep;17(9 Suppl 3):III3-6. [PubMed:9156957 ]
External Links
ATC CodesC08CA01C08GA02C09BB03C09BB04C09BB07C09BX01C09DB01C09DB02C09DB04C09DB05C09DB06C09DB07C09DX01C09DX03C09XA53C09XA54C10BX03C10BX07C10BX09C10BX11
AHFS Codes
  • 24:28.08
PDB Entries
FDA labelDownload (91.4 KB)
MSDSDownload (74.5 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AcetaminophenThe metabolism of Amlodipine can be increased when combined with Acetaminophen.
AldesleukinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Amlodipine.
AlfuzosinAlfuzosin may increase the hypotensive activities of Amlodipine.
AmifostineAmlodipine may increase the hypotensive activities of Amifostine.
AmobarbitalThe metabolism of Amlodipine can be increased when combined with Amobarbital.
AmodiaquineThe serum concentration of Amodiaquine can be increased when it is combined with Amlodipine.
AprepitantThe serum concentration of Amlodipine can be increased when it is combined with Aprepitant.
AripiprazoleThe serum concentration of Aripiprazole can be increased when it is combined with Amlodipine.
AtosibanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amlodipine is combined with Atosiban.
Atracurium besylateAmlodipine may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Atracurium besylate.
BepridilAmlodipine may increase the hypotensive activities of Bepridil.
BexaroteneThe serum concentration of Amlodipine can be decreased when it is combined with Bexarotene.
BosentanThe serum concentration of Amlodipine can be decreased when it is combined with Bosentan.
BrimonidineBrimonidine may increase the antihypertensive activities of Amlodipine.
ButabarbitalThe metabolism of Amlodipine can be increased when combined with Butabarbital.
ButalbitalThe metabolism of Amlodipine can be increased when combined with Butalbital.
ButethalThe metabolism of Amlodipine can be increased when combined with Butethal.
CaffeineThe metabolism of Amlodipine can be increased when combined with Caffeine.
Calcium AcetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Amlodipine can be decreased when used in combination with Calcium Acetate.
Calcium carbonateThe therapeutic efficacy of Amlodipine can be decreased when used in combination with Calcium carbonate.
Calcium ChlorideThe therapeutic efficacy of Amlodipine can be decreased when used in combination with Calcium Chloride.
Calcium citrateThe therapeutic efficacy of Amlodipine can be decreased when used in combination with Calcium citrate.
Calcium gluconateThe therapeutic efficacy of Amlodipine can be decreased when used in combination with Calcium gluconate.
CarbamazepineThe metabolism of Amlodipine can be increased when combined with Carbamazepine.
CimetidineThe serum concentration of Amlodipine can be increased when it is combined with Cimetidine.
Cisatracurium besylateAmlodipine may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Cisatracurium besylate.
ClarithromycinThe metabolism of Amlodipine can be decreased when combined with Clarithromycin.
ClopidogrelThe therapeutic efficacy of Clopidogrel can be decreased when used in combination with Amlodipine.
ConivaptanThe serum concentration of Amlodipine can be increased when it is combined with Conivaptan.
CyclosporineThe metabolism of Amlodipine can be decreased when combined with Cyclosporine.
DabrafenibThe serum concentration of Amlodipine can be decreased when it is combined with Dabrafenib.
DapoxetineDapoxetine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Amlodipine.
DasatinibThe serum concentration of Amlodipine can be increased when it is combined with Dasatinib.
DeferasiroxThe serum concentration of Amlodipine can be decreased when it is combined with Deferasirox.
DiazoxideDiazoxide may increase the hypotensive activities of Amlodipine.
DiltiazemAmlodipine may increase the hypotensive activities of Diltiazem.
DofetilideThe serum concentration of Dofetilide can be increased when it is combined with Amlodipine.
DoxazosinDoxazosin may increase the hypotensive activities of Amlodipine.
DuloxetineAmlodipine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Duloxetine.
EfavirenzThe serum concentration of Amlodipine can be decreased when it is combined with Efavirenz.
ErythromycinThe metabolism of Amlodipine can be decreased when combined with Erythromycin.
FlibanserinThe serum concentration of Flibanserin can be increased when it is combined with Amlodipine.
FluconazoleThe serum concentration of Amlodipine can be increased when it is combined with Fluconazole.
FosaprepitantThe serum concentration of Amlodipine can be increased when it is combined with Fosaprepitant.
FosphenytoinThe serum concentration of Fosphenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Amlodipine.
Fusidic AcidThe serum concentration of Amlodipine can be increased when it is combined with Fusidic Acid.
HeptabarbitalThe metabolism of Amlodipine can be increased when combined with Heptabarbital.
HexobarbitalThe metabolism of Amlodipine can be increased when combined with Hexobarbital.
HydrocodoneThe serum concentration of Hydrocodone can be increased when it is combined with Amlodipine.
IdelalisibThe serum concentration of Amlodipine can be increased when it is combined with Idelalisib.
ItraconazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Itraconazole is combined with Amlodipine.
IvacaftorThe serum concentration of Amlodipine can be increased when it is combined with Ivacaftor.
KetoconazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketoconazole is combined with Amlodipine.
LevodopaAmlodipine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
LomitapideThe serum concentration of Lomitapide can be increased when it is combined with Amlodipine.
LuliconazoleThe serum concentration of Amlodipine can be increased when it is combined with Luliconazole.
Magnesium chlorideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amlodipine is combined with Magnesium chloride.
Magnesium citrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amlodipine is combined with Magnesium citrate.
Magnesium hydroxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amlodipine is combined with Magnesium hydroxide.
Magnesium oxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amlodipine is combined with Magnesium oxide.
Magnesium salicylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amlodipine is combined with Magnesium salicylate.
Magnesium SulfateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amlodipine is combined with Magnesium Sulfate.
MelatoninMelatonin may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Amlodipine.
MethohexitalThe metabolism of Amlodipine can be increased when combined with Methohexital.
MethylphenidateMethylphenidate may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Amlodipine.
MifepristoneThe serum concentration of Amlodipine can be increased when it is combined with Mifepristone.
MitotaneThe serum concentration of Amlodipine can be decreased when it is combined with Mitotane.
MolsidomineMolsidomine may increase the hypotensive activities of Amlodipine.
MoxonidineMoxonidine may increase the hypotensive activities of Amlodipine.
NafcillinThe metabolism of Amlodipine can be increased when combined with Nafcillin.
NelfinavirThe metabolism of Amlodipine can be decreased when combined with Nelfinavir.
NetupitantThe serum concentration of Amlodipine can be increased when it is combined with Netupitant.
NicorandilNicorandil may increase the hypotensive activities of Amlodipine.
NimodipineThe serum concentration of Nimodipine can be increased when it is combined with Amlodipine.
NitroprussideAmlodipine may increase the hypotensive activities of Nitroprusside.
ObinutuzumabAmlodipine may increase the hypotensive activities of Obinutuzumab.
PalbociclibThe serum concentration of Amlodipine can be increased when it is combined with Palbociclib.
PancuroniumAmlodipine may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Pancuronium.
PentobarbitalThe metabolism of Amlodipine can be increased when combined with Pentobarbital.
PentoxifyllinePentoxifylline may increase the hypotensive activities of Amlodipine.
PhenelzinePhenelzine may increase the hypotensive activities of Amlodipine.
PhenobarbitalThe metabolism of Amlodipine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.
PhenoxybenzaminePhenoxybenzamine may increase the hypotensive activities of Amlodipine.
PhentolaminePhentolamine may increase the hypotensive activities of Amlodipine.
PhenytoinThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Amlodipine.
PimozideThe serum concentration of Pimozide can be increased when it is combined with Amlodipine.
PosaconazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Posaconazole is combined with Amlodipine.
PrazosinPrazosin may increase the hypotensive activities of Amlodipine.
PrimidoneThe metabolism of Amlodipine can be increased when combined with Primidone.
QuinidineThe serum concentration of Quinidine can be decreased when it is combined with Amlodipine.
QuinineQuinine may increase the hypotensive activities of Amlodipine.
RifabutinThe serum concentration of Amlodipine can be decreased when it is combined with Rifabutin.
RifampicinThe serum concentration of Amlodipine can be decreased when it is combined with Rifampicin.
RifapentineThe serum concentration of Amlodipine can be decreased when it is combined with Rifapentine.
RisperidoneAmlodipine may increase the hypotensive activities of Risperidone.
RituximabAmlodipine may increase the hypotensive activities of Rituximab.
RocuroniumAmlodipine may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Rocuronium.
SecobarbitalThe metabolism of Amlodipine can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
SilodosinSilodosin may increase the hypotensive activities of Amlodipine.
SiltuximabThe serum concentration of Amlodipine can be decreased when it is combined with Siltuximab.
SimeprevirThe serum concentration of Amlodipine can be increased when it is combined with Simeprevir.
SimvastatinThe serum concentration of Simvastatin can be increased when it is combined with Amlodipine.
St. John's WortThe serum concentration of Amlodipine can be decreased when it is combined with St. John's Wort.
StiripentolThe serum concentration of Amlodipine can be increased when it is combined with Stiripentol.
SulfisoxazoleThe metabolism of Amlodipine can be decreased when combined with Sulfisoxazole.
TacrolimusThe serum concentration of Tacrolimus can be increased when it is combined with Amlodipine.
TadalafilTadalafil may increase the antihypertensive activities of Amlodipine.
TamsulosinTamsulosin may increase the hypotensive activities of Amlodipine.
TelithromycinThe metabolism of Amlodipine can be decreased when combined with Telithromycin.
TerazosinTerazosin may increase the hypotensive activities of Amlodipine.
TizanidineThe serum concentration of Tizanidine can be increased when it is combined with Amlodipine.
TocilizumabThe serum concentration of Amlodipine can be decreased when it is combined with Tocilizumab.
TranylcypromineTranylcypromine may increase the hypotensive activities of Amlodipine.
TreprostinilTreprostinil may increase the hypotensive activities of Amlodipine.
ValsartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valsartan is combined with Amlodipine.
VardenafilVardenafil may increase the antihypertensive activities of Amlodipine.
VecuroniumAmlodipine may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Vecuronium.
VerapamilAmlodipine may increase the hypotensive activities of Verapamil.
VoriconazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Voriconazole is combined with Amlodipine.
YohimbineYohimbine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Amlodipine.
Food Interactions
  • Avoid natural licorice.
  • Grapefruit down regulates post-translational expression of CYP3A4, the major metabolizing enzyme of amlodipine. Grapefruit, in all forms (e.g. whole fruit, juice and rind), can significantly increase serum levels of amlodipine and may cause toxicity. Avoid grapefruit products while on this medication.
  • Take without regard to meals.

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. The isoform alpha-1C gives rise to L-type calcium currents. Long-lasting (L-type) calcium channels belon...
Gene Name:
CACNA1C
Uniprot ID:
Q13936
Molecular Weight:
248974.1 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
  2. Striessnig, J. (2004). Ca 2+ channel blockers. In Encyclopedic reference of molecular pharmacology (pp. 201-207). Berlin: Springer. [ISBN:9783540298328 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
The alpha-2/delta subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels regulates calcium current density and activation/inactivation kinetics of the calcium channel. Plays an important role in excitation-contraction coupling (By similarity).
Gene Name:
CACNA2D1
Uniprot ID:
P54289
Molecular Weight:
124566.93 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
  2. Striessnig, J. (2004). Ca 2+ channel blockers. In Encyclopedic reference of molecular pharmacology (pp. 201-207). Berlin: Springer. [ISBN:9783540298328 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
The beta subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels contributes to the function of the calcium channel by increasing peak calcium current, shifting the voltage dependencies of activation and inactivation, modulating G protein inhibition and controlling the alpha-1 subunit membrane targeting.
Gene Name:
CACNB2
Uniprot ID:
Q08289
Molecular Weight:
73579.925 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
  2. Striessnig, J. (2004). Ca 2+ channel blockers. In Encyclopedic reference of molecular pharmacology (pp. 201-207). Berlin: Springer. [ISBN:9783540298328 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity involved sa node cell action potential
Specific Function:
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. The isoform alpha-1D gives rise to L-type calcium currents. Long-lasting (L-type) calcium channels belon...
Gene Name:
CACNA1D
Uniprot ID:
Q01668
Molecular Weight:
245138.75 Da
References
  1. Sinnegger-Brauns MJ, Huber IG, Koschak A, Wild C, Obermair GJ, Einzinger U, Hoda JC, Sartori SB, Striessnig J: Expression and 1,4-dihydropyridine-binding properties of brain L-type calcium channel isoforms. Mol Pharmacol. 2009 Feb;75(2):407-14. doi: 10.1124/mol.108.049981. Epub 2008 Nov 24. [PubMed:19029287 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. The isoform alpha-1S gives rise to L-type calcium currents. Long-lasting (L-type) calcium channels belon...
Gene Name:
CACNA1S
Uniprot ID:
Q13698
Molecular Weight:
212348.1 Da
References
  1. Peterson BZ, Catterall WA: Allosteric interactions required for high-affinity binding of dihydropyridine antagonists to Ca(V)1.1 Channels are modulated by calcium in the pore. Mol Pharmacol. 2006 Aug;70(2):667-75. Epub 2006 May 4. [PubMed:16675661 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. The isoform alpha-1B gives rise to N-type calcium currents. N-type calcium channels belong to the 'high-...
Gene Name:
CACNA1B
Uniprot ID:
Q00975
Molecular Weight:
262493.84 Da
References
  1. Furukawa T, Nukada T, Suzuki K, Fujita Y, Mori Y, Nishimura M, Yamanaka M: Voltage and pH dependent block of cloned N-type Ca2+ channels by amlodipine. Br J Pharmacol. 1997 Jul;121(6):1136-40. [PubMed:9249249 ]
  2. Furukawa T, Yamakawa T, Midera T, Sagawa T, Mori Y, Nukada T: Selectivities of dihydropyridine derivatives in blocking Ca(2+) channel subtypes expressed in Xenopus oocytes. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Nov;291(2):464-73. [PubMed:10525060 ]
  3. Miyashita Y, Furukawa T, Kamegaya E, Yoshii M, Nukada T: A region of N-type Ca(2+) channel critical for blockade by the dihydropyridine amlodipine. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010 Apr 25;632(1-3):14-22. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2010.01.006. Epub 2010 Jan 22. [PubMed:20097194 ]
  4. Murakami M, Nakagawasai O, Fujii S, Kameyama K, Murakami S, Hozumi S, Esashi A, Taniguchi R, Yanagisawa T, Tan-no K, Tadano T, Kitamura K, Kisara K: Antinociceptive action of amlodipine blocking N-type Ca2+ channels at the primary afferent neurons in mice. Eur J Pharmacol. 2001 May 11;419(2-3):175-81. [PubMed:11426839 ]
  5. Ogihara T, Kano T, Kakinuma C: Evaluation of the inhibitory effect of dihydropyridines on N-type calcium channel by virtual three-dimensional pharmacophore modeling. Arzneimittelforschung. 2009;59(6):283-8. doi: 10.1055/s-0031-1296398. [PubMed:19634509 ]
  6. Qu YL, Sugiyama K, Ohnuki T, Hattori K, Watanabe K, Nagatomo T: Comparison of binding affinities of omega-conotoxin and amlodipine to N-type Ca2+ channels in rat brain. Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao. 1998 Mar;19(2):97-100. [PubMed:10374627 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Voltage-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
The alpha-2/delta subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels regulates calcium current density and activation/inactivation kinetics of the calcium channel. Acts as a regulatory subunit for P/Q-type calcium channel (CACNA1A), N-type (CACNA1B), L-type (CACNA1C OR CACNA1D) but not T-type (CACNA1G) (By similarity).
Gene Name:
CACNA2D3
Uniprot ID:
Q8IZS8
Molecular Weight:
123010.22 Da
References
  1. Furukawa T, Nukada T, Suzuki K, Fujita Y, Mori Y, Nishimura M, Yamanaka M: Voltage and pH dependent block of cloned N-type Ca2+ channels by amlodipine. Br J Pharmacol. 1997 Jul;121(6):1136-40. [PubMed:9249249 ]
  2. Furukawa T, Yamakawa T, Midera T, Sagawa T, Mori Y, Nukada T: Selectivities of dihydropyridine derivatives in blocking Ca(2+) channel subtypes expressed in Xenopus oocytes. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Nov;291(2):464-73. [PubMed:10525060 ]
  3. Miyashita Y, Furukawa T, Kamegaya E, Yoshii M, Nukada T: A region of N-type Ca(2+) channel critical for blockade by the dihydropyridine amlodipine. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010 Apr 25;632(1-3):14-22. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2010.01.006. Epub 2010 Jan 22. [PubMed:20097194 ]
  4. Murakami M, Nakagawasai O, Fujii S, Kameyama K, Murakami S, Hozumi S, Esashi A, Taniguchi R, Yanagisawa T, Tan-no K, Tadano T, Kitamura K, Kisara K: Antinociceptive action of amlodipine blocking N-type Ca2+ channels at the primary afferent neurons in mice. Eur J Pharmacol. 2001 May 11;419(2-3):175-81. [PubMed:11426839 ]
  5. Ogihara T, Kano T, Kakinuma C: Evaluation of the inhibitory effect of dihydropyridines on N-type calcium channel by virtual three-dimensional pharmacophore modeling. Arzneimittelforschung. 2009;59(6):283-8. doi: 10.1055/s-0031-1296398. [PubMed:19634509 ]
  6. Qu YL, Sugiyama K, Ohnuki T, Hattori K, Watanabe K, Nagatomo T: Comparison of binding affinities of omega-conotoxin and amlodipine to N-type Ca2+ channels in rat brain. Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao. 1998 Mar;19(2):97-100. [PubMed:10374627 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
High voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CACNB1
Uniprot ID:
Q6TME4
Molecular Weight:
23836.425 Da
References
  1. Furukawa T, Nukada T, Suzuki K, Fujita Y, Mori Y, Nishimura M, Yamanaka M: Voltage and pH dependent block of cloned N-type Ca2+ channels by amlodipine. Br J Pharmacol. 1997 Jul;121(6):1136-40. [PubMed:9249249 ]
  2. Furukawa T, Yamakawa T, Midera T, Sagawa T, Mori Y, Nukada T: Selectivities of dihydropyridine derivatives in blocking Ca(2+) channel subtypes expressed in Xenopus oocytes. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Nov;291(2):464-73. [PubMed:10525060 ]
  3. Miyashita Y, Furukawa T, Kamegaya E, Yoshii M, Nukada T: A region of N-type Ca(2+) channel critical for blockade by the dihydropyridine amlodipine. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010 Apr 25;632(1-3):14-22. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2010.01.006. Epub 2010 Jan 22. [PubMed:20097194 ]
  4. Murakami M, Nakagawasai O, Fujii S, Kameyama K, Murakami S, Hozumi S, Esashi A, Taniguchi R, Yanagisawa T, Tan-no K, Tadano T, Kitamura K, Kisara K: Antinociceptive action of amlodipine blocking N-type Ca2+ channels at the primary afferent neurons in mice. Eur J Pharmacol. 2001 May 11;419(2-3):175-81. [PubMed:11426839 ]
  5. Ogihara T, Kano T, Kakinuma C: Evaluation of the inhibitory effect of dihydropyridines on N-type calcium channel by virtual three-dimensional pharmacophore modeling. Arzneimittelforschung. 2009;59(6):283-8. doi: 10.1055/s-0031-1296398. [PubMed:19634509 ]
  6. Qu YL, Sugiyama K, Ohnuki T, Hattori K, Watanabe K, Nagatomo T: Comparison of binding affinities of omega-conotoxin and amlodipine to N-type Ca2+ channels in rat brain. Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao. 1998 Mar;19(2):97-100. [PubMed:10374627 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrates cyanamide to urea.
Gene Name:
CA1
Uniprot ID:
P00915
Molecular Weight:
28870.0 Da
References
  1. Puscas I, Gilau L, Coltau M, Pasca R, Domuta G, Baican M, Hecht A: Hypotensive effect of calcium channel blockers is parallel with carbonic anhydrase I inhibition. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2000 Oct;68(4):443-9. [PubMed:11061585 ]
  2. Puscas L, Gilau L, Coltau M, Pasca R, Domuta G, Baican M, Hecht A: Calcium channel blockers reduce blood pressure in part by inhibiting vascular smooth muscle carbonic anhydrase I. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 2000 Oct;14(5):523-8. [PubMed:11101200 ]
  3. Puscas I, Coltau M, Baican M, Pasca R, Domuta G, Hecht A: Vasoconstrictive drugs increase carbonic anhydrase I in vascular smooth muscle while vasodilating drugs reduce the activity of this isozyme by a direct mechanism of action. Drugs Exp Clin Res. 2001;27(2):53-60. [PubMed:11392054 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase activity
Specific Function:
Converts sphingomyelin to ceramide. Also has phospholipase C activities toward 1,2-diacylglycerolphosphocholine and 1,2-diacylglycerolphosphoglycerol. Isoform 2 and isoform 3 have lost catalytic activity.
Gene Name:
SMPD1
Uniprot ID:
P17405
Molecular Weight:
69751.3 Da
References
  1. Kornhuber J, Muehlbacher M, Trapp S, Pechmann S, Friedl A, Reichel M, Muhle C, Terfloth L, Groemer TW, Spitzer GM, Liedl KR, Gulbins E, Tripal P: Identification of novel functional inhibitors of acid sphingomyelinase. PLoS One. 2011;6(8):e23852. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0023852. Epub 2011 Aug 31. [PubMed:21909365 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiot...
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Katoh M, Nakajima M, Shimada N, Yamazaki H, Yokoi T: Inhibition of human cytochrome P450 enzymes by 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium antagonists: prediction of in vivo drug-drug interactions. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2000 Feb-Mar;55(11-12):843-52. [PubMed:10805063 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  3. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Oxygen binding
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID:
P20815
Molecular Weight:
57108.065 Da
References
  1. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Oxygen binding
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A7
Uniprot ID:
P24462
Molecular Weight:
57525.03 Da
References
  1. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N...
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular Weight:
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Katoh M, Nakajima M, Shimada N, Yamazaki H, Yokoi T: Inhibition of human cytochrome P450 enzymes by 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium antagonists: prediction of in vivo drug-drug interactions. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2000 Feb-Mar;55(11-12):843-52. [PubMed:10805063 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Vitamin d 24-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP1A1
Uniprot ID:
P04798
Molecular Weight:
58164.815 Da
References
  1. Katoh M, Nakajima M, Shimada N, Yamazaki H, Yokoi T: Inhibition of human cytochrome P450 enzymes by 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium antagonists: prediction of in vivo drug-drug interactions. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2000 Feb-Mar;55(11-12):843-52. [PubMed:10805063 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase.
Gene Name:
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID:
P20813
Molecular Weight:
56277.81 Da
References
  1. Katoh M, Nakajima M, Shimada N, Yamazaki H, Yokoi T: Inhibition of human cytochrome P450 enzymes by 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium antagonists: prediction of in vivo drug-drug interactions. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2000 Feb-Mar;55(11-12):843-52. [PubMed:10805063 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Exhibits a high coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity. Can act in the hydroxylation of the anti-cancer drugs cyclophosphamide and ifosphamide. Competent in the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1. Constitutes the major nicotine C-oxidase. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. Possesses low phenacetin O-deethylation activity.
Gene Name:
CYP2A6
Uniprot ID:
P11509
Molecular Weight:
56501.005 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. In the epoxidation of arachidonic acid it generates only 14,15- and 11,12-cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. It is the principal enzyme...
Gene Name:
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID:
P10632
Molecular Weight:
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenyto...
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular Weight:
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular Weight:
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular Weight:
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Katoh M, Nakajima M, Yamazaki H, Yokoi T: Inhibitory potencies of 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium antagonists to P-glycoprotein-mediated transport: comparison with the effects on CYP3A4. Pharm Res. 2000 Oct;17(10):1189-97. [PubMed:11145223 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on May 25, 2016 03:19