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Identification
NameProgesterone
Accession NumberDB00396  (APRD00700)
Typesmall molecule
Groupsapproved
Description

The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the corpus luteum and the placenta. Progesterone acts on the uterus, the mammary glands, and the brain. It is required in embryo implantation, pregnancy maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for milk production. Progesterone, converted from pregnenolone, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of gonadal steroid hormones and adrenal corticosteroids. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
(S)-4-Pregnene-3,20-dioneNot AvailableNot Available
(S)-ProgesteroneNot AvailableNot Available
17α-progesteroneNot AvailableNot Available
Corpus Luteum HormoneNot AvailableNot Available
LutogynonNot AvailableIS
Pregn-4-ene-3,20-dioneNot AvailableIUPAC
ProgesteronGermanINN
ProgesteronaSpanishINN
ProgestéroneFrenchDCF
ProgesteroneNot AvailableBAN, DCIT, JAN
ProgesteronumLatinINN
SaltsNot Available
Brand names
NameCompany
AgolutinBiotika
CrinoneMerck
CyclogestActavis
EndometrinFerring
GesterolNot Available
GestoneNordic Pharma
ProchieveNot Available
ProgestasertNot Available
ProgestogelBesins
PrometriumSchering-Plough
Qi NingAisheng Pharmaceutical
RelantanAversi
SustenSun Pharma
UtrogestanBesins
UtrogestranFaran Laboratories
UtrovinBestochem
VasclorVerisfield
Brand mixtures
Brand NameIngredients
VermagestProgesterone and Estradiol
Categories
CAS number57-83-0
WeightAverage: 314.4617
Monoisotopic: 314.224580204
Chemical FormulaC21H30O2
InChI KeyInChIKey=RJKFOVLPORLFTN-LEKSSAKUSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C21H30O2/c1-13(22)17-6-7-18-16-5-4-14-12-15(23)8-10-20(14,2)19(16)9-11-21(17,18)3/h12,16-19H,4-11H2,1-3H3/t16-,17+,18-,19-,20-,21+/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(1S,2R,10S,11S,14S,15S)-14-acetyl-2,15-dimethyltetracyclo[8.7.0.0^{2,7}.0^{11,15}]heptadec-6-en-5-one
SMILES
[H][C@@]12CC[C@H](C(C)=O)[C@@]1(C)CC[C@@]1([H])[C@@]2([H])CCC2=CC(=O)CC[C@]12C
Mass Specshow(11.5 KB)
Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
SuperclassLipids
ClassSteroids and Steroid Derivatives
SubclassGluco/mineralocorticoids, Progestogins and Derivatives
Direct parentGluco/mineralocorticoids, Progestogins and Derivatives
Alternative parentsKetosteroids; Ketones; Polyamines; Enolates
Substituents3-keto-steroid; 20-keto-steroid; ketone; enolate; polyamine; carbonyl group
Classification descriptionThis compound belongs to the gluco/mineralocorticoids, progestogins and derivatives. These are steroids whose structure is based on an hydroxylated prostane moiety.
Pharmacology
IndicationFor progesterone supplementation or replacement as part of an Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) treatment for infertile women with progesterone deficiency and for the treatment of secondary amenorrhea. Also used for the reduction of the incidence of endometrial hyperplasia and the attendant risk of endometrial carcinoma in postmenopausal women receiving estrogen replacement therapy, as well as treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding due to hormonal imbalance in the absence of organic pathology such as fibroids or uterine cancer.
PharmacodynamicsProgesterone is a naturally occuring progestin or a synthetic form of the naturally occurring female sex hormone, progesterone. In a woman's normal menstrual cycle, an egg matures and is released from the ovaries (ovulation). The ovary then produces progesterone, preventing the release of further eggs and priming the lining of the womb for a possible pregnancy. If pregnancy occurs, progesterone levels in the body remain high, maintaining the womb lining. If pregnancy does not occur, progesterone levels in the body fall, resulting in a menstrual period. Progesterone tricks the body processes into thinking that ovulation has already occurred by maintaining high levels of the synthetic progesterone. This prevents the release of eggs from the ovaries.
Mechanism of actionProgesterone shares the pharmacological actions of the progestins. Progesterone binds to the progesterone and estrogen receptors. Target cells include the female reproductive tract, the mammary gland, the hypothalamus, and the pituitary. Once bound to the receptor, progestins like Progesterone will slow the frequency of release of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus and blunt the pre-ovulatory LH (luteinizing hormone) surge. In women who have adequate endogenous estrogen, progesterone transforms a proliferative endometrium into a secretory one. Progesterone is essential for the development of decidual tissue and is necessary to increase endometrial receptivity for implantation of an embryo. Once an embryo has been implanted, progesterone acts to maintain the pregnancy. Progesterone also stimulates the growth of mammary alveolar tissue and relaxes uterine smooth muscle. It has little estrogenic and androgenic activity.
AbsorptionProgesterone absorption is prolonged with an absorption half-life of approximately 25-50 hours.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein binding96%-99%
Metabolism

Progesterone is metabolized primarily by the liver largely to pregnanediols and pregnanolones.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Progesterone
6β-HydroxyprogesteroneDetails
Progesterone
2β-HydroxyprogesteroneDetails
Progesterone
21-HydroxyprogesteroneDetails
Progesterone
17β-HydroxyprogesteroneDetails
17β-Hydroxyprogesterone
17β,21-HydroxyprogesteroneDetails
Progesterone
16β-HydroxyprogesteroneDetails
Progesterone
16β-HydroxyprogesteroneDetails
Progesterone
    15β-HydroxyprogesteroneDetails
    Progesterone
      7β-HydroxyprogesteroneDetails
      Route of eliminationThe glucuronide and sulfate conjugates of pregnanediol and pregnanolone are excreted in the urine and bile. Progesterone metabolites which are excreted in the bile may undergo enterohepatic recycling or may be excreted in the feces. Progesterone metabolites are excreted mainly by the kidneys.
      Half life34.8-55.13 hours
      Clearance
      • 2510 +/- 135 L/day [cycling women]
      ToxicityNot Available
      Affected organisms
      • Humans and other mammals
      Pathways
      PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
      11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency (CYP11B1)DiseaseSMP00575
      Adrenal Hyperplasia Type 5 or Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 17 Alpha-hydroxylase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00372
      17-alpha-hydroxylase deficiency (CYP17)DiseaseSMP00566
      Adrenal Hyperplasia Type 3 or Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00373
      21-hydroxylase deficiency (CYP21)DiseaseSMP00576
      Congenital Lipoid Adrenal Hyperplasia (CLAH) or Lipoid CAHDiseaseSMP00371
      Corticosterone methyl oxidase I deficiency (CMO I)DiseaseSMP00577
      Corticosterone methyl oxidase II deficiency - CMO IIDiseaseSMP00578
      SteroidogenesisMetabolicSMP00130
      SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
      SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
      ADMET
      Predicted ADMET features
      Property Value Probability
      Human Intestinal Absorption + 1.0
      Blood Brain Barrier + 0.982
      Caco-2 permeable + 0.7724
      P-glycoprotein substrate Substrate 0.5449
      P-glycoprotein inhibitor I Inhibitor 0.8841
      P-glycoprotein inhibitor II Inhibitor 0.6043
      Renal organic cation transporter Non-inhibitor 0.6931
      CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-substrate 0.847
      CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-substrate 0.8795
      CYP450 3A4 substrate Substrate 0.7408
      CYP450 1A2 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9045
      CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9071
      CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9533
      CYP450 2C19 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.6514
      CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.8309
      CYP450 inhibitory promiscuity Low CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity 0.8203
      Ames test Non AMES toxic 0.9626
      Carcinogenicity Non-carcinogens 0.9151
      Biodegradation Not ready biodegradable 0.9575
      Rat acute toxicity 1.8041 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
      hERG inhibition (predictor I) Weak inhibitor 0.7451
      hERG inhibition (predictor II) Non-inhibitor 0.7454
      Pharmacoeconomics
      Manufacturers
      • Bristol myers squibb
      • Amarin pharmaceuticals inc
      • Solvay pharmaceuticals
      • Esi pharmacal
      • Unimed pharmaceuticals llc
      • Watson laboratories inc
      • App pharmaceuticals llc
      • Eli lilly and co
      • Pharmaforce inc
      • Alza corp
      • Ferring pharmaceuticals inc
      Packagers
      Dosage forms
      FormRouteStrength
      CapsuleOral
      GelIntravaginal
      LiquidIntramuscular
      Prices
      Unit descriptionCostUnit
      Prochieve 4% Gel (18 Applicators Per Box)160.18USDtube
      Crinone 8% Gel (1 Box = 6 Applications)84.26USDbox
      Prochieve 8% Gel 1.45 gm Tube14.83USDtube
      Crinone 8% gel13.61USDg
      Prochieve 8% gel12.0USDg
      Prochieve 4% gel8.56USDg
      Progesterone 50 mg/ml6.6USDml
      Progesterone oil 50 mg/ml vial3.88USDml
      Prometrium 200 mg capsule3.84USDcapsule
      First-progesterone vgs 400 susuppositoryp3.33USDeach
      First-progesterone vgs 200 suppository3.15USDeach
      First-progesterone vgs 100 suppository3.0USDeach
      First-progesterone vgs 50 suppository2.93USDeach
      First-progesterone vgs 25 suppository2.88USDeach
      Prometrium 100 mg capsule1.69USDcapsule
      Progesterone powder micronized0.74USDg
      Progesterone powder milled0.73USDg
      DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
      Patents
      CountryPatent NumberApprovedExpires (estimated)
      United States73006641999-11-172019-11-17
      United States55431501993-09-152013-09-15
      Properties
      Statesolid
      Experimental Properties
      PropertyValueSource
      melting point121 °CPhysProp
      water solubility8.81 mg/L (at 25 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
      logP3.87HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
      logS-4.43ADME Research, USCD
      Caco2 permeability-4.37ADME Research, USCD
      Predicted Properties
      PropertyValueSource
      water solubility5.46e-03 g/lALOGPS
      logP3.58ALOGPS
      logP4.15ChemAxon
      logS-4.8ALOGPS
      pKa (strongest acidic)18.92ChemAxon
      pKa (strongest basic)-4.8ChemAxon
      physiological charge0ChemAxon
      hydrogen acceptor count2ChemAxon
      hydrogen donor count0ChemAxon
      polar surface area34.14ChemAxon
      rotatable bond count1ChemAxon
      refractivity92.71ChemAxon
      polarizability37.15ChemAxon
      number of rings4ChemAxon
      bioavailability1ChemAxon
      rule of fiveYesChemAxon
      Ghose filterYesChemAxon
      Veber's ruleYesChemAxon
      MDDR-like ruleNoChemAxon
      Spectra
      Spectra
      References
      Synthesis Reference

      Nejib M. Nasraoui, Alain Piasco, “Derivatives of 19-nor progesterone; process for producing them and the pharmaceutical compositions incorporating them.” U.S. Patent US5223492, issued May, 1971.

      US5223492
      General Reference
      1. Allen WM: THE ISOLATION OF CRYSTALLINE PROGESTIN. Science. 1935 Aug 2;82(2118):89-93. Pubmed
      2. Allen WM: Progesterone: how did the name originate? South Med J. 1970 Oct;63(10):1151-5. Pubmed
      3. Schumacher M, Guennoun R, Robert F, Carelli C, Gago N, Ghoumari A, Gonzalez Deniselle MC, Gonzalez SL, Ibanez C, Labombarda F, Coirini H, Baulieu EE, De Nicola AF: Local synthesis and dual actions of progesterone in the nervous system: neuroprotection and myelination. Growth Horm IGF Res. 2004 Jun;14 Suppl A:S18-33. Pubmed
      4. Hould FS, Fried GM, Fazekas AG, Tremblay S, Mersereau WA: Progesterone receptors regulate gallbladder motility. J Surg Res. 1988 Dec;45(6):505-12. Pubmed
      External Links
      ResourceLink
      KEGG DrugD00066
      KEGG CompoundC00410
      PubChem Compound5994
      PubChem Substance46508968
      ChemSpider5773
      ChEBI17026
      ChEMBLCHEMBL103
      Therapeutic Targets DatabaseDAP000549
      PharmGKBPA451123
      HET1CA
      Drug Product Database2240605
      RxListhttp://www.rxlist.com/cgi/generic/progesterone.htm
      Drugs.comhttp://www.drugs.com/progesterone.html
      PDRhealthhttp://www.pdrhealth.com/drug_info/rxdrugprofiles/drugs/pro1670.shtml
      WikipediaProgesterone
      ATC CodesG03AC06G03DA02G03DA03G03DA04L02AB02
      AHFS Codes
      • 68:32.00
      PDB EntriesNot Available
      FDA labelshow(86.6 KB)
      MSDSshow(74.2 KB)
      Interactions
      Drug Interactions
      Drug
      TopotecanThe p-glycoprotein inhibitor, Progesterone, may increase the bioavailability of oral Topotecan. A clinically significant effect is also expected with IV Topotecan. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
      Food Interactions
      • Avoid alcohol.
      • Avoid excessive quantities of coffee or tea (Caffeine).
      • Increase dietary intake of magnesium, folate, vitamin B6, B12, and/or consider taking a multivitamin.
      • Take at the same time everyday.
      • Take with food.

      1. Progesterone receptor

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: yes

      Actions: agonist

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Progesterone receptor P06401 Details

      References:

      1. Madauss KP, Stewart EL, Williams SP: The evolution of progesterone receptor ligands. Med Res Rev. 2007 May;27(3):374-400. Pubmed
      2. Gizard F, Robillard R, Gross B, Barbier O, Revillion F, Peyrat JP, Torpier G, Hum DW, Staels B: TReP-132 is a novel progesterone receptor coactivator required for the inhibition of breast cancer cell growth and enhancement of differentiation by progesterone. Mol Cell Biol. 2006 Oct;26(20):7632-44. Pubmed
      3. Wu HB, Fabian S, Jenab S, Quinones-Jenab V: Progesterone receptors activation after acute cocaine administration. Brain Res. 2006 Dec 18;1126(1):188-92. Epub 2006 Nov 15. Pubmed
      4. Boonyaratanakornkit V, McGowan E, Sherman L, Mancini MA, Cheskis BJ, Edwards DP: The role of extranuclear signaling actions of progesterone receptor in mediating progesterone regulation of gene expression and the cell cycle. Mol Endocrinol. 2007 Feb;21(2):359-75. Epub 2006 Nov 30. Pubmed
      5. Tranguch S, Smith DF, Dey SK: Progesterone receptor requires a co-chaperone for signalling in uterine biology and implantation. Reprod Biomed Online. 2006 Nov;13(5):651-60. Pubmed
      6. Luconi M, Bonaccorsi L, Maggi M, Pecchioli P, Krausz C, Forti G, Baldi E: Identification and characterization of functional nongenomic progesterone receptors on human sperm membrane. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998 Mar;83(3):877-85. Pubmed

      2. Estrogen receptor

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: yes

      Actions: agonist

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Estrogen receptor P03372 Details

      References:

      1. Kumar AS, Cureton E, Shim V, Sakata T, Moore DH, Benz CC, Esserman LJ, Hwang ES: Type and duration of exogenous hormone use affects breast cancer histology. Ann Surg Oncol. 2007 Feb;14(2):695-703. Epub 2006 Nov 14. Pubmed
      2. Lessey BA, Palomino WA, Apparao K, Young SL, Lininger RA: Estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-alpha) and defects in uterine receptivity in women. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2006 Oct 9;4 Suppl 1:S9. Pubmed
      3. Yuri T, Tsukamoto R, Uehara N, Matsuoka Y, Tsubura A: Effects of different durations of estrogen and progesterone treatment on development of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced mammary carcinomas in female Lewis rats. In Vivo. 2006 Nov-Dec;20(6B):829-36. Pubmed
      4. Montero Girard G, Vanzulli SI, Cerliani JP, Bottino MC, Bolado J, Vela J, Becu-Villalobos D, Benavides F, Gutkind S, Patel V, Molinolo A, Lanari C: Association of estrogen receptor-alpha and progesterone receptor A expression with hormonal mammary carcinogenesis: role of the host microenvironment. Breast Cancer Res. 2007;9(2):R22. Pubmed
      5. Ghebeh H, Tulbah A, Mohammed S, Elkum N, Bin Amer SM, Al-Tweigeri T, Dermime S: Expression of B7-H1 in breast cancer patients is strongly associated with high proliferative Ki-67-expressing tumor cells. Int J Cancer. 2007 Aug 15;121(4):751-8. Pubmed

      3. Mineralocorticoid receptor

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: yes

      Actions: antagonist

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Mineralocorticoid receptor P08235 Details

      References:

      1. Rupprecht R, Reul JM, van Steensel B, Spengler D, Soder M, Berning B, Holsboer F, Damm K: Pharmacological and functional characterization of human mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptor ligands. Eur J Pharmacol. 1993 Oct 15;247(2):145-54. Pubmed

      4. Steroid 17-alpha-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Actions: inhibitor

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Steroid 17-alpha-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase P05093 Details

      References:

      1. Haidar S, Hartmann RW: C16 and C17 substituted derivatives of pregnenolone and progesterone as inhibitors of 17alpha-hydroxylase-C17, 20-lyase: synthesis and biological evaluation. Arch Pharm (Weinheim). 2002;335(11-12):526-34. Pubmed

      1. Cytochrome P450 3A5

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Actions: substrate

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Cytochrome P450 3A5 P20815 Details

      References:

      1. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.
      2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

      2. Cytochrome P450 2C9

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Actions: substrate inhibitor

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Cytochrome P450 2C9 P11712 Details

      References:

      1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. Pubmed
      2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

      3. Cytochrome P450 3A7

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Actions: substrate inhibitor

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Cytochrome P450 3A7 P24462 Details

      References:

      1. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.
      2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

      4. Cytochrome P450 2C19

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Actions: substrate inhibitor

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Cytochrome P450 2C19 P33261 Details

      References:

      1. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.
      2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed
      3. Lin Y, Lu P, Tang C, Mei Q, Sandig G, Rodrigues AD, Rushmore TH, Shou M: Substrate inhibition kinetics for cytochrome P450-catalyzed reactions. Drug Metab Dispos. 2001 Apr;29(4 Pt 1):368-74. Pubmed

      5. Cytochrome P450 3A4

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Actions: substrate inhibitor inducer

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Cytochrome P450 3A4 P08684 Details

      References:

      1. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.
      2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

      6. Steroid 17-alpha-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Actions: inhibitor

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Steroid 17-alpha-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase P05093 Details

      References:

      1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

      7. Cytochrome P450 1A1

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Actions: substrate

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Cytochrome P450 1A1 P04798 Details

      References:

      1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

      8. Cytochrome P450 1A2

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Actions: substrate

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Cytochrome P450 1A2 P05177 Details

      References:

      1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

      9. Cytochrome P450 1B1

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Actions: substrate

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Cytochrome P450 1B1 Q16678 Details

      References:

      1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

      10. Cytochrome P450 2A6

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Actions: substrate

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Cytochrome P450 2A6 P11509 Details

      References:

      1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

      11. Cytochrome P450 2C8

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Actions: substrate

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Cytochrome P450 2C8 P10632 Details

      References:

      1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

      12. Cytochrome P450 2D6

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Actions: substrate

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Cytochrome P450 2D6 P10635 Details

      References:

      1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

      1. Multidrug resistance protein 1

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Actions: substrate inhibitor inducer

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Multidrug resistance protein 1 P08183 Details

      References:

      1. Romiti N, Tramonti G, Chieli E: Influence of different chemicals on MDR-1 P-glycoprotein expression and activity in the HK-2 proximal tubular cell line. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2002 Sep 1;183(2):83-91. Pubmed
      2. Wang EJ, Casciano CN, Clement RP, Johnson WW: Active transport of fluorescent P-glycoprotein substrates: evaluation as markers and interaction with inhibitors. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001 Nov 30;289(2):580-5. Pubmed
      3. Leonessa F, Kim JH, Ghiorghis A, Kulawiec RJ, Hammer C, Talebian A, Clarke R: C-7 analogues of progesterone as potent inhibitors of the P-glycoprotein efflux pump. J Med Chem. 2002 Jan 17;45(2):390-8. Pubmed
      4. Ueda K, Okamura N, Hirai M, Tanigawara Y, Saeki T, Kioka N, Komano T, Hori R: Human P-glycoprotein transports cortisol, aldosterone, and dexamethasone, but not progesterone. J Biol Chem. 1992 Dec 5;267(34):24248-52. Pubmed
      5. Nagy H, Goda K, Fenyvesi F, Bacso Z, Szilasi M, Kappelmayer J, Lustyik G, Cianfriglia M, Szabo G Jr: Distinct groups of multidrug resistance modulating agents are distinguished by competition of P-glycoprotein-specific antibodies. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 Mar 19;315(4):942-9. Pubmed
      6. Yamazaki M, Neway WE, Ohe T, Chen I, Rowe JF, Hochman JH, Chiba M, Lin JH: In vitro substrate identification studies for p-glycoprotein-mediated transport: species difference and predictability of in vivo results. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Mar;296(3):723-35. Pubmed
      7. Adachi Y, Suzuki H, Sugiyama Y: Comparative studies on in vitro methods for evaluating in vivo function of MDR1 P-glycoprotein. Pharm Res. 2001 Dec;18(12):1660-8. Pubmed
      8. Borgnia MJ, Eytan GD, Assaraf YG: Competition of hydrophobic peptides, cytotoxic drugs, and chemosensitizers on a common P-glycoprotein pharmacophore as revealed by its ATPase activity. J Biol Chem. 1996 Feb 9;271(6):3163-71. Pubmed
      9. Kim WY, Benet LZ: P-glycoprotein (P-gp/MDR1)-mediated efflux of sex-steroid hormones and modulation of P-gp expression in vitro. Pharm Res. 2004 Jul;21(7):1284-93. Pubmed

      2. Solute carrier family 22 member 2

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Actions: inhibitor

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Solute carrier family 22 member 2 O15244 Details

      References:

      1. Hayer-Zillgen M, Bruss M, Bonisch H: Expression and pharmacological profile of the human organic cation transporters hOCT1, hOCT2 and hOCT3. Br J Pharmacol. 2002 Jul;136(6):829-36. Pubmed
      2. Wu X, Kekuda R, Huang W, Fei YJ, Leibach FH, Chen J, Conway SJ, Ganapathy V: Identity of the organic cation transporter OCT3 as the extraneuronal monoamine transporter (uptake2) and evidence for the expression of the transporter in the brain. J Biol Chem. 1998 Dec 4;273(49):32776-86. Pubmed

      3. Solute carrier family 22 member 1

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Actions: inhibitor

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Solute carrier family 22 member 1 O15245 Details

      References:

      1. Hayer-Zillgen M, Bruss M, Bonisch H: Expression and pharmacological profile of the human organic cation transporters hOCT1, hOCT2 and hOCT3. Br J Pharmacol. 2002 Jul;136(6):829-36. Pubmed
      2. Wu X, Kekuda R, Huang W, Fei YJ, Leibach FH, Chen J, Conway SJ, Ganapathy V: Identity of the organic cation transporter OCT3 as the extraneuronal monoamine transporter (uptake2) and evidence for the expression of the transporter in the brain. J Biol Chem. 1998 Dec 4;273(49):32776-86. Pubmed

      4. Solute carrier family 22 member 3

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Actions: inhibitor

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Solute carrier family 22 member 3 O75751 Details

      References:

      1. Hayer-Zillgen M, Bruss M, Bonisch H: Expression and pharmacological profile of the human organic cation transporters hOCT1, hOCT2 and hOCT3. Br J Pharmacol. 2002 Jul;136(6):829-36. Pubmed
      2. Wu X, Kekuda R, Huang W, Fei YJ, Leibach FH, Chen J, Conway SJ, Ganapathy V: Identity of the organic cation transporter OCT3 as the extraneuronal monoamine transporter (uptake2) and evidence for the expression of the transporter in the brain. J Biol Chem. 1998 Dec 4;273(49):32776-86. Pubmed

      5. Bile salt export pump

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Actions: inhibitor

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Bile salt export pump O95342 Details

      References:

      1. Wang EJ, Casciano CN, Clement RP, Johnson WW: Fluorescent substrates of sister-P-glycoprotein (BSEP) evaluated as markers of active transport and inhibition: evidence for contingent unequal binding sites. Pharm Res. 2003 Apr;20(4):537-44. Pubmed

      6. Multidrug resistance-associated protein 1

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Actions: inhibitor

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 P33527 Details

      References:

      1. Payen L, Delugin L, Courtois A, Trinquart Y, Guillouzo A, Fardel O: Reversal of MRP-mediated multidrug resistance in human lung cancer cells by the antiprogestatin drug RU486. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999 May 19;258(3):513-8. Pubmed

      7. Sodium/bile acid cotransporter

      Kind: protein

      Organism: Human

      Pharmacological action: unknown

      Actions: inhibitor

      Components

      Name UniProt ID Details
      Sodium/bile acid cotransporter Q14973 Details

      References:

      1. Schroeder A, Eckhardt U, Stieger B, Tynes R, Schteingart CD, Hofmann AF, Meier PJ, Hagenbuch B: Substrate specificity of the rat liver Na(+)-bile salt cotransporter in Xenopus laevis oocytes and in CHO cells. Am J Physiol. 1998 Feb;274(2 Pt 1):G370-5. Pubmed

      Comments
      Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:10