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Identification
NameChloramphenicol
Accession NumberDB00446  (APRD00862, EXPT00942)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
Description

An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
ChloramexNot AvailableNot Available
ChloramphenicolNot AvailableNot Available
ChloramphenicolumNot AvailableNot Available
ChlornitromycinNot AvailableNot Available
ChlorocidNot AvailableNot Available
ChlorocolNot AvailableNot Available
ChloromycetinNot AvailableNot Available
CloramfenicolNot AvailableNot Available
D-(-)-2,2-Dichloro-N-(beta-hydroxy-alpha-(hydroxymethyl)-P-nitrophenylethyl)acetamideNot AvailableNot Available
D-(-)-threo-1-P-Nitrophenyl-2-dichloroacetylamino-1,3-propanediolNot AvailableNot Available
FenicolNot AvailableNot Available
GlobenicolNot AvailableNot Available
HalomycetinNot AvailableNot Available
LaevomycetinumLatinNot Available
LevomicetinaSpanishNot Available
LevomycetinNot AvailableNot Available
OleomycetinNot AvailableNot Available
SificetinaNot AvailableNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Brand names
NameCompany
BrochlorSanofi-Aventis
ChloramexActavis
ChlorocidEgyt
ChlorocolNot Available
ChloromycetinPfizer
ChlorsigSigma
FenicolAlcon
GlobenicolNot Available
HalomycetinWabosan
OleomycetinNot Available
SificetinaSIFI
Brand mixtures
Brand NameIngredients
Actinac LotionAllantoin + Butoxyethyl Nicotinate + Chloramphenicol + Hydrocortisone Acetate + Sulfur
ChlorasoneChloramphenicol + Prednisolone Acetate
Elase ChloromycetinChloramphenicol + Deoxyribonuclease Pancreatic + Fibrinolysin
LiquichlorChloramphenicol + Prednisolone + Squalane + Tetracaine
OphthocortChloramphenicol + Hydrocortisone Acetate + Polymyxin B
SopamycetinChloramphenicol + Hydrocortisone Acetate
Categories
CAS number56-75-7
WeightAverage: 323.129
Monoisotopic: 322.012326918
Chemical FormulaC11H12Cl2N2O5
InChI KeyWIIZWVCIJKGZOK-RKDXNWHRSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C11H12Cl2N2O5/c12-10(13)11(18)14-8(5-16)9(17)6-1-3-7(4-2-6)15(19)20/h1-4,8-10,16-17H,5H2,(H,14,18)/t8-,9-/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
2,2-dichloro-N-[(1R,2R)-1,3-dihydroxy-1-(4-nitrophenyl)propan-2-yl]acetamide
SMILES
OC[C@@H](NC(=O)C(Cl)Cl)[C@H](O)C1=CC=C(C=C1)[N+]([O-])=O
Mass Specshow(10.9 KB)
Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
SuperclassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and Substituted Derivatives
SubclassPhenethylamines
Direct parentAmphetamines and Derivatives
Alternative parentsNitrobenzenes; Nitro Compounds; Secondary Alcohols; Secondary Carboxylic Acid Amides; Nitronic Acids; Organic Oxoazanium Compounds; Primary Alcohols; Polyamines; Carboxylic Acids; Enolates; Organochlorides; Alkyl Chlorides
Substituentsnitronic acid; nitro compound; secondary carboxylic acid amide; carboxamide group; secondary alcohol; carboxylic acid derivative; enolate; carboxylic acid; organic oxoazanium; primary alcohol; polyamine; organochloride; organonitrogen compound; organohalogen; alcohol; amine; alkyl halide; alkyl chloride
Classification descriptionThis compound belongs to the amphetamines and derivatives. These are organic compounds containing or derived from 1-phenylpropan-2-amine.
Pharmacology
IndicationUsed in treatment of cholera, as it destroys the vibrios and decreases the diarrhea. It is effective against tetracycline-resistant vibrios. It is also used in eye drops or ointment to treat bacterial conjunctivitis.
PharmacodynamicsChloramphenicol is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that was derived from the bacterium Streptomyces venezuelae and is now produced synthetically. Chloramphenicol is effective against a wide variety of microorganisms, but due to serious side-effects (e.g., damage to the bone marrow, including aplastic anemia) in humans, it is usually reserved for the treatment of serious and life-threatening infections (e.g., typhoid fever). Chloramphenicol is bacteriostatic but may be bactericidal in high concentrations or when used against highly susceptible organisms. Chloramphenicol stops bacterial growth by binding to the bacterial ribosome (blocking peptidyl transferase) and inhibiting protein synthesis.
Mechanism of actionChloramphenicol is lipid-soluble, allowing it to diffuse through the bacterial cell membrane. It then reversibly binds to the L16 protein of the 50S subunit of bacterial ribosomes, where transfer of amino acids to growing peptide chains is prevented (perhaps by suppression of peptidyl transferase activity), thus inhibiting peptide bond formation and subsequent protein synthesis.
AbsorptionRapidly and completely absorbed from gastrointestinal tract following oral administration (bioavailability 80%). Well absorbed following intramuscular administration (bioavailability 70%). Intraocular and some systemic absorption also occurs after topical application to the eye.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingPlasma protein binding is 50-60% in adults and 32% is premature neonates.
Metabolism

Hepatic, with 90% conjugated to inactive glucuronide.

Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeHalf-life in adults with normal hepatic and renal function is 1.5 - 3.5 hours. In patients with impaired renal function half-life is 3 - 4 hours. In patients with severely impaired hepatic function half-life is 4.6 - 11.6 hours. Half-life in children 1 month to 16 years old is 3 - 6.5 hours, while half-life in infants 1 to 2 days old is 24 hours or longer and is highly variable, especially in low birth-weight infants.
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityOral, mouse: LD50 = 1500 mg/kg; Oral, rat: LD50 = 2500 mg/kg. Toxic reactions including fatalities have occurred in the premature and newborn; the signs and symptoms associated with these reactions have been referred to as the gray syndrome. Symptoms include (in order of appearance) abdominal distension with or without emesis, progressive pallid cyanosis, vasomotor collapse frequently accompanied by irregular respiration, and death within a few hours of onset of these symptoms.
Affected organisms
  • Enteric bacteria and other eubacteria
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Chloramphenicol Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00729
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
Property Value Probability
Human Intestinal Absorption + 0.9157
Blood Brain Barrier + 0.9366
Caco-2 permeable + 0.7367
P-glycoprotein substrate Non-substrate 0.7305
P-glycoprotein inhibitor I Non-inhibitor 0.9216
P-glycoprotein inhibitor II Non-inhibitor 0.8822
Renal organic cation transporter Non-inhibitor 0.9477
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-substrate 0.7775
CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-substrate 0.8934
CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-substrate 0.5936
CYP450 1A2 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9046
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9071
CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9231
CYP450 2C19 substrate Inhibitor 0.8994
CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.8309
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuity Low CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity 0.8682
Ames test Non AMES toxic 0.9133
Carcinogenicity Non-carcinogens 0.5483
Biodegradation Ready biodegradable 0.5053
Rat acute toxicity 2.2247 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I) Weak inhibitor 0.9658
hERG inhibition (predictor II) Non-inhibitor 0.8764
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • John j ferrante
  • Ivax pharmaceuticals inc sub teva pharmaceuticals usa
  • Parkedale pharmaceuticals inc
  • Armenpharm ltd
  • Parke davis pharmaceutical research div warner lambert co
  • Altana inc
  • Pharmafair inc
  • Allergan pharmaceutical
  • Alcon laboratories inc
  • Akorn inc
  • Optopics laboratories corp
  • Elkins sinn div ah robins co inc
  • App pharmaceuticals llc
  • Gruppo lepetit spa sub merrell dow pharmaceuticals inc
  • Angus chemical co
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
LiquidOphthalmic
OintmentOphthalmic
Powder, for solutionIntramuscular
SolutionOphthalmic
Solution / dropsOphthalmic
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Chloramphen na succ 1 gm vial28.74USDvial
Chloramphenicol palm powder2.52USDg
Chloramphenicol crystals1.32USDg
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
Statesolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point171Bartz, Q.R.; U.S. Patent 2,483,871; October 4, 1949; assigned to Parke, Davis & Company Crooks, H.M., Jr., Rebstock, M.C., Controulis, J. and Bartz, Q.R.; U.S. Patent 2,483,884; October 4, 1949; assigned to Parke, Davis & Company. Ehrlich, J., Smith, R.M. and Penner, M.A.; U.S. Patent 2,483,892; October 4, 1949; assigned to Parke, Davis & Company. Carrara, G.; U.S. Patent 2,776,312; January 1, 1957 Slack, R.; U.S. Patent 2,786,870; March 26, 1957; assigned to Parke, Davis & Company.
water solubility2500 mg/L (at 25 °C)MERCK INDEX (2001)
logP1.14HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
logS-2.11ADME Research, USCD
Caco2 permeability-4.69ADME Research, USCD
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.461ALOGPS
logP1.15ALOGPS
logP0.88ChemAxon
logS-2.9ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)7.49ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-2.8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area115.38 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count6ChemAxon
Refractivity73.2 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability28.08 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Guang-Zhong Wu, Wanda I. Tormos, “Asymmetric process for preparing florfenicol, thiamphenicol chloramphenicol and oxazoline intermediates.” U.S. Patent US5352832, issued May, 1992.

US5352832
General Reference
  1. Bhutta ZA, Niazi SK, Suria A: Chloramphenicol clearance in typhoid fever: implications for therapy. Indian J Pediatr. 1992 Mar-Apr;59(2):213-9. Pubmed
  2. Wali SS, Macfarlane JT, Weir WR, Cleland PG, Ball PA, Hassan-King M, Whittle HC, Greenwood BM: Single injection treatment of meningococcal meningitis. 2. Long-acting chloramphenicol. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1979;73(6):698-702. Pubmed
  3. Puddicombe JB, Wali SS, Greenwood BM: A field trial of a single intramuscular injection of long-acting chloramphenicol in the treatment of meningococcal meningitis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1984;78(3):399-403. Pubmed
  4. Pecoul B, Varaine F, Keita M, Soga G, Djibo A, Soula G, Abdou A, Etienne J, Rey M: Long-acting chloramphenicol versus intravenous ampicillin for treatment of bacterial meningitis. Lancet. 1991 Oct 5;338(8771):862-6. Pubmed
  5. Nathan N, Borel T, Djibo A, Evans D, Djibo S, Corty JF, Guillerm M, Alberti KP, Pinoges L, Guerin PJ, Legros D: Ceftriaxone as effective as long-acting chloramphenicol in short-course treatment of meningococcal meningitis during epidemics: a randomised non-inferiority study. Lancet. 2005 Jul 23-29;366(9482):308-13. Pubmed
External Links
ResourceLink
KEGG DrugD00104
KEGG CompoundC00918
BindingDB50028502
ChEBI17698
ChEMBLCHEMBL130
Therapeutic Targets DatabaseDAP001356
PharmGKBPA448927
HETCLM
Drug Product Database798398
RxListhttp://www.rxlist.com/cgi/generic3/chloramphenicol.htm
Drugs.comhttp://www.drugs.com/mtm/chloramphenicol-ophthalmic.html
WikipediaChloramphenicol
ATC CodesD06AX02D10AF03G01AA05J01BA01S01AA01S02AA01S03AA08
AHFS Codes
  • 08:12.08
  • 52:04.04
PDB Entries
FDA labelshow(191 KB)
MSDSshow(74.1 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AcetohexamideChloramphenicol may increase the effect of sulfonylurea, acetohexamide.
ButalbitalBarbiturates such as butalbital may increase the metabolism of Chloramphenicol. Chloramphenicol may decrease the metabolism of Barbiturates. Monitor for decreased serum concentrations/therapeutic effects of chloramphenicol if a barbiturate is initiated/dose increased, or increased effects if a barbiturate is discontinued/dose decreased. In addition, monitor for increased effects of barbiturates if chloramphenicol is initiated/dose increased, or decreased effects if chloramphenicol is discontinued/dose decreased.
ChlorpropamideChloramphenicol may increase the effect of sulfonylurea, chlorpropamide.
CyclosporineChloramphenicol may increase the effect of cyclosporine.
EthotoinIncreases phenytoin, modifies chloramphenicol
FosphenytoinIncreases phenytoin, modifies chloramphenicol
GliclazideChloramphenicol may increase the effect of sulfonylurea, gliclazide.
GlipizideChloramphenicol may increase the effect of sulfonylurea, glipizide.
GlisoxepideChloramphenicol may increase the effect of sulfonylurea, glisoxepide.
GlyburideChloramphenicol may increase the effect of sulfonylurea, glibenclamide.
GlycodiazineChloramphenicol may increase the effect of sulfonylurea, glycodiazine.
LurasidoneConcomitant therapy with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor will increase level or effect of lurasidone. Coadministration with lurasidone is contraindicated.
MephenytoinIncreases phenytoin, modifies chloramphenicol
PhenytoinIncreases phenytoin, modifies chloramphenicol
RifampicinRifampin decreases the effect of chloramphenicol
SilodosinChloramphenicol is a strong inhibitor of CYP3A4 may increase the serum concentration of silodosin by decreasing its metabolism thus increases the potential for adverse side effects. Combination therapy is contraindicated.
TacrolimusChloramphenicol may increase the blood concentration of Tacrolimus. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic/toxic effects of Tacrolimus if Chloramphenicol therapy is initiated, discontinued or altered.
ThiopentalChloramphenicol may increase the serum concentration of Thiopental by decreasing Thiopental metabolism. Thiopental may decrease the serum concentration of Chloramphenicol by increasing Chloramphenicol metabolism. Monitor for changes in therapeutic effects of both agents if concomitant therapy is initiated, discontinued or doses are adjusted.
TolazamideChloramphenicol may increase the effect of sulfonylurea, tolazamide.
TolbutamideChloramphenicol may increase the effect of sulfonylurea, tolbutamide.
Food Interactions
  • Take on an empty stomach.

Targets

1. 50S ribosomal protein L16

Kind: protein

Organism: Escherichia coli (strain K12)

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
50S ribosomal protein L16 P0ADY7 Details

References:

  1. Murray IA, Cann PA, Day PJ, Derrick JP, Sutcliffe MJ, Shaw WV, Leslie AG: Steroid recognition by chloramphenicol acetyltransferase: engineering and structural analysis of a high affinity fusidic acid binding site. J Mol Biol. 1995 Dec 15;254(5):993-1005. Pubmed
  2. Nierhaus D, Nierhaus KH: Identification of the chloramphenicol-binding protein in Escherichia coli ribosomes by partial reconstitution. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1973 Aug;70(8):2224-8. Pubmed
  3. Baxter RM, Ganoza MC, Zahid N, Chung DG: Reconstruction of peptidyltransferase activity on 50S and 70S ribosomal particles by peptide fragments of protein L16. Eur J Biochem. 1987 Mar 16;163(3):473-9. Pubmed

2. Dr hemagglutinin structural subunit

Kind: protein

Organism: Escherichia coli

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Dr hemagglutinin structural subunit P24093 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Swanson TN, Bilge SS, Nowicki B, Moseley SL: Molecular structure of the Dr adhesin: nucleotide sequence and mapping of receptor-binding domain by use of fusion constructs. Infect Immun. 1991 Jan;59(1):261-8. Pubmed

3. Complement decay-accelerating factor

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: other

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Complement decay-accelerating factor P08174 Details

References:

  1. Pettigrew D, Anderson KL, Billington J, Cota E, Simpson P, Urvil P, Rabuzin F, Roversi P, Nowicki B, du Merle L, Le Bouguenec C, Matthews S, Lea SM: High resolution studies of the Afa/Dr adhesin DraE and its interaction with chloramphenicol. J Biol Chem. 2004 Nov 5;279(45):46851-7. Epub 2004 Aug 24. Pubmed
  2. Korotkova N, Chattopadhyay S, Tabata TA, Beskhlebnaya V, Vigdorovich V, Kaiser BK, Strong RK, Dykhuizen DE, Sokurenko EV, Moseley SL: Selection for functional diversity drives accumulation of point mutations in Dr adhesins of Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2007 Apr;64(1):180-94. Pubmed

Enzymes

1. Cytochrome P450 3A4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A4 P08684 Details

References:

  1. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

2. Cytochrome P450 3A5

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A5 P20815 Details

References:

  1. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.

3. Cytochrome P450 3A7

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A7 P24462 Details

References:

  1. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.

4. Cytochrome P450 2C19

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2C19 P33261 Details

References:

  1. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

5. Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase 3

Kind: protein

Organism: Escherichia coli

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase 3 P00484 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Murray IA, Cann PA, Day PJ, Derrick JP, Sutcliffe MJ, Shaw WV, Leslie AG: Steroid recognition by chloramphenicol acetyltransferase: engineering and structural analysis of a high affinity fusidic acid binding site. J Mol Biol. 1995 Dec 15;254(5):993-1005. Pubmed
  4. Derrick JP, Lian LY, Roberts GC, Shaw WV: Analysis of the binding of 1,3-diacetylchloramphenicol to chloramphenicol acetyltransferase by isotope-edited 1H NMR and site-directed mutagenesis. Biochemistry. 1992 Sep 8;31(35):8191-5. Pubmed
  5. Murray IA, Lewendon A, Shaw WV: Stabilization of the imidazole ring of His-195 at the active site of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase. J Biol Chem. 1991 Jun 25;266(18):11695-8. Pubmed

6. Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase

Kind: protein

Organism: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (strain ATCC 15692 / PAO1 / 1C / PRS 101 / LMG 12228)

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase P26841 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Potrykus J, Baranska S, Wegrzyn G: Inactivation of the acrA gene is partially responsible for chloramphenicol sensitivity of Escherichia coli CM2555 strain expressing the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene. Microb Drug Resist. 2002 Fall;8(3):179-85. Pubmed
  4. Potrykus J, Wegrzyn G: Chloramphenicol-sensitive Escherichia coli strain expressing the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) gene. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2001 Dec;45(12):3610-2. Pubmed
  5. Navia MM, Capitano L, Ruiz J, Vargas M, Urassa H, Schellemberg D, Gascon J, Vila J: Typing and characterization of mechanisms of resistance of Shigella spp. isolated from feces of children under 5 years of age from Ifakara, Tanzania. J Clin Microbiol. 1999 Oct;37(10):3113-7. Pubmed

7. Chloramphenicol 3-O phosphotransferase

Kind: protein

Organism: Streptomyces venezuelae (strain ATCC 10712 / CBS 650.69 / DSM 40230 / JCM 4526 / NBRC 13096 / PD 04745)

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Chloramphenicol 3-O phosphotransferase Q56148 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Ellis J, Campopiano DJ, Izard T: Cubic crystals of chloramphenicol phosphotransferase from Streptomyces venezuelae in complex with chloramphenicol. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 1999 May;55(Pt 5):1086-8. Pubmed
  4. Izard T, Ellis J: The crystal structures of chloramphenicol phosphotransferase reveal a novel inactivation mechanism. EMBO J. 2000 Jun 1;19(11):2690-700. Pubmed
  5. Mosher RH, Camp DJ, Yang K, Brown MP, Shaw WV, Vining LC: Inactivation of chloramphenicol by O-phosphorylation. A novel resistance mechanism in Streptomyces venezuelae ISP5230, a chloramphenicol producer. J Biol Chem. 1995 Nov 10;270(45):27000-6. Pubmed

8. Cytochrome P450 2C8

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2C8 P10632 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

9. Cytochrome P450 2C9

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2C9 P11712 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

Transporters

1. Solute carrier family 22 member 6

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier family 22 member 6 Q4U2R8 Details

References:

  1. Jariyawat S, Sekine T, Takeda M, Apiwattanakul N, Kanai Y, Sophasan S, Endou H: The interaction and transport of beta-lactam antibiotics with the cloned rat renal organic anion transporter 1. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Aug;290(2):672-7. Pubmed

Comments
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:10