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Identification
NamePerindopril
Accession NumberDB00790  (APRD01178)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
Description

Perindopril is a nonsulfhydryl prodrug that belongs to the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor class of medications. It is rapidly metabolized in the liver to perindoprilat, its active metabolite, following oral administration. Perindoprilat is a potent, competitive inhibitor of ACE, the enzyme responsible for the conversion of angiotensin I (ATI) to angiotensin II (ATII). ATII regulates blood pressure and is a key component of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Perindopril may be used to treat mild to moderate essential hypertension, mild to moderate congestive heart failure, and to reduce the cardiovascular risk of individuals with hypertension or post-myocardial infarction and stable coronary disease.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
(2S,3AS,7as)-1-[(2S)-2-{[(2S)-1-ethoxy-1-oxopentan-2-yl]amino}propanoyl]octahydro-1H-indole-2-carboxylic acidNot AvailableNot Available
Perindopril ErbumineNot AvailableNot Available
PerindoprilumNot AvailableNot Available
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Perindopril Erbuminetablet4 mgoralLannett Company, Inc.2014-10-01Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Perindopril Erbuminetablet8 mgoralLannett Company, Inc.2014-10-01Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Aceontablet2 mgoralSymplmed, LLC2014-10-10Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Aceontablet4 mgoralSymplmed, LLC2014-10-10Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Aceontablet8 mgoralSymplmed, LLC2014-10-10Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Aceontablet2 mgoralXOMA (US) LLC1993-12-30Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Aceontablet4 mgoralXOMA (US) LLC1993-12-30Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Aceontablet8 mgoralXOMA (US) LLC1993-12-30Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Perindopril Erbuminetablet2 mgoralRoxane Laboratories, Inc.2009-11-10Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Perindopril Erbuminetablet4 mgoralRoxane Laboratories, Inc.2009-11-10Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Perindopril Erbuminetablet8 mgoralRoxane Laboratories, Inc.2009-11-10Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Perindopril Erbuminetablet2 mgoralAurobindo Pharma Limited2009-11-10Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Perindopril Erbuminetablet2 mgoralAurobindo Pharma Limited2009-11-10Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Perindopril Erbuminetablet4 mgoralAurobindo Pharma Limited2009-11-10Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Perindopril Erbuminetablet4 mgoralAurobindo Pharma Limited2009-11-10Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Perindopril Erbuminetablet8 mgoralAurobindo Pharma Limited2009-11-10Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Perindopril Erbuminetablet8 mgoralAurobindo Pharma Limited2009-11-10Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Perindopril Erbuminetablet2 mgoralLupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc2010-03-15Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Perindopril Erbuminetablet4 mgoralLupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc2010-03-15Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Perindopril Erbuminetablet8 mgoralLupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc2010-03-15Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
International Brands
NameCompany
CoversylServier
Brand mixtures
Brand NameIngredients
Coversyl Plusperindopril erbumine + indapamide
Preteraxperindopril erbumine + indapamide
SaltsNot Available
Categories
CAS number107133-36-8
WeightAverage: 368.4678
Monoisotopic: 368.231122144
Chemical FormulaC19H32N2O5
InChI KeyIPVQLZZIHOAWMC-QXKUPLGCSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C19H32N2O5/c1-4-8-14(19(25)26-5-2)20-12(3)17(22)21-15-10-7-6-9-13(15)11-16(21)18(23)24/h12-16,20H,4-11H2,1-3H3,(H,23,24)/t12-,13-,14-,15-,16-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(2S,3aS,7aS)-1-[(2S)-2-{[(2S)-1-ethoxy-1-oxopentan-2-yl]amino}propanoyl]-octahydro-1H-indole-2-carboxylic acid
SMILES
[H][C@]12C[C@H](N(C(=O)[C@H](C)N[C@@H](CCC)C(=O)OCC)[C@@]1([H])CCCC2)C(O)=O
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as peptides. These are compounds containing an amide derived from two or more amino carboxylic acid molecules (the same or different) by formation of a covalent bond from the carbonyl carbon of one to the nitrogen atom of another.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentPeptides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Alpha peptide
  • N-acyl-alpha amino acid or derivatives
  • N-acyl-alpha-amino acid
  • Alpha-amino acid ester
  • Alpha-amino acid amide
  • Alpha-amino acid or derivatives
  • N-substituted-alpha-amino acid
  • Indole or derivatives
  • Pyrrolidine carboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Pyrrolidine carboxylic acid
  • N-acylpyrrolidine
  • Fatty acid ester
  • Fatty acyl
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Tertiary carboxylic acid amide
  • Pyrrolidine
  • Tertiary amine
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Carboxamide group
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Secondary amine
  • Secondary aliphatic amine
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Aliphatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the treatment of mild to moderate essential hypertension, mild to moderate congestive heart failure, and to reduce the cardiovascular risk of individuals with hypertension or post-myocardial infarction and stable coronary disease.
PharmacodynamicsPerindopril is a nonsulfhydryl prodrug that is metabolized via first pass effect (62%) and systemic hydrolysis (38%) to perindoprilat, its active metabolite, following oral administration. Perindoprilat lowers blood pressure by antagonizing the effect of the RAAS. The RAAS is a homeostatic mechanism for regulating hemodynamics, water and electrolyte balance. During sympathetic stimulation or when renal blood pressure or blood flow is reduced, renin is released from the granular cells of the juxtaglomerular apparatus in the kidneys. In the blood stream, renin cleaves circulating angiotensinogen to ATI, which is subsequently cleaved to ATII by ACE. ATII increases blood pressure using a number of mechanisms. First, it stimulates the secretion of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex. Aldosterone travels to the distal convoluted tubule (DCT) and collecting tubule of nephrons where it increases sodium and water reabsorption by increasing the number of sodium channels and sodium-potassium ATPases on cell membranes. Second, ATII stimulates the secretion of vasopressin (also known as antidiuretic hormone or ADH) from the posterior pituitary gland. ADH stimulates further water reabsorption from the kidneys via insertion of aquaporin-2 channels on the apical surface of cells of the DCT and collecting tubules. Third, ATII increases blood pressure through direct arterial vasoconstriction. Stimulation of the Type 1 ATII receptor on vascular smooth muscle cells leads to a cascade of events resulting in myocyte contraction and vasoconstriction. In addition to these major effects, ATII induces the thirst response via stimulation of hypothalamic neurons. ACE inhibitors inhibit the rapid conversion of ATI to ATII and antagonize RAAS-induced increases in blood pressure. ACE (also known as kininase II) is also involved in the enzymatic deactivation of bradykinin, a vasodilator. Inhibiting the deactivation of bradykinin increases bradykinin levels and may sustain the effects of perindoprilat by causing increased vasodilation and decreased blood pressure.
Mechanism of actionThere are two isoforms of ACE: the somatic isoform, which exists as a glycoprotein comprised of a single polypeptide chain of 1277; and the testicular isoform, which has a lower molecular mass and is thought to play a role in sperm maturation and binding of sperm to the oviduct epithelium. Somatic ACE has two functionally active domains, N and C, which arise from tandem gene duplication. Although the two domains have high sequence similarity, they play distinct physiological roles. The C-domain is predominantly involved in blood pressure regulation while the N-domain plays a role in hematopoietic stem cell differentiation and proliferation. ACE inhibitors bind to and inhibit the activity of both domains, but have much greater affinity for and inhibitory activity against the C-domain. Perindoprilat, the active metabolite of perindopril, competes with ATI for binding to ACE and inhibits and enzymatic proteolysis of ATI to ATII. Decreasing ATII levels in the body decreases blood pressure by inhibiting the pressor effects of ATII as described in the Pharmacology section above. Perindopril also causes an increase in plasma renin activity likely due to a loss of feedback inhibition mediated by ATII on the release of renin and/or stimulation of reflex mechanisms via baroreceptors.
AbsorptionRapidly absorbed with peak plasma concentrations occurring approximately 1 hour after oral administration. Bioavailability is 65-75%. Following absorption, perindopril is hydrolyzed to perindoprilat, which has an average bioavailability of 20%. The rate and extent of absorption is unaffected by food. However, food decreases the extent of biotransformation to peridoprilat and reduces its bioavailability by 35%.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingPerindoprilat, 10-20% bound to plasma proteins
Metabolism

Extensively metabolized, with only 4-12% of the dose recovered in urine following oral administration. Six metabolites have been identified: perindoprilat, perindopril glucuronide, perindoprilat glucuronide, a perindopril lactam, and two perindoprilat lactams. Only perindoprilat is pharmacologically active. Peridoprilat and perindoprilat glucuronide are the two main circulating metabolites.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Perindopril
Not Available
Perindopril Acyl-beta-D-glucuronideDetails
Perindopril
Not Available
PerindoprilatDetails
Perindopril
Not Available
Perindoprilat glucuronideDetails
Route of eliminationPerindopril is extensively metabolized following oral administration, with only 4 to 12% of the dose recovered unchanged in the urine.
Half lifePerindopril, 1.2 hours; Peridoprilat, 30-120 hours. The long half life of peridoprilat is due to its slow dissociation from ACE binding sites.
Clearance
  • 219 – 362 mL/min [oral administration]
ToxicityThe most likely symptom of overdose is severe hypotension. The most common adverse effects observed in controlled clinical trials include cough, digestive symptoms, fatigue, headache, and dizziness.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Perindopril Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00152
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9156
Blood Brain Barrier-0.8411
Caco-2 permeable-0.7871
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.6826
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.5
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.8589
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.919
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8638
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8542
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.549
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8796
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8612
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9088
CYP450 2C19 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8375
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-inhibitor0.7142
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.5951
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8814
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9266
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9082
Rat acute toxicity1.9432 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9839
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8678
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Abbott products inc
  • Aurobindo pharma ltd
  • Ivax pharmaceuticals inc
  • Lupin ltd
  • Roxane laboratories inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Tabletoral2 mg
Tabletoral4 mg
Tabletoral8 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Aceon 8 mg tablet3.14USD tablet
Perindopril erbumine 8 mg tablet2.8USD tablet
Aceon 4 mg tablet2.58USD tablet
Perindopril erbumine 4 mg tablet2.3USD tablet
Aceon 2 mg tablet2.22USD tablet
Perindopril erbumine 2 mg tablet1.98USD tablet
Coversyl 8 mg Tablet1.23USD tablet
Coversyl 4 mg Tablet0.88USD tablet
Coversyl 2 mg Tablet0.7USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
CountryPatent NumberApprovedExpires (estimated)
Canada13411962001-03-062018-03-06
Canada24732052010-05-182023-01-22
United States51623621992-11-102009-11-10
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP2.6Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility1.22 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.56ALOGPS
logP0.63ChemAxon
logS-2.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.79ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)5.48ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area95.94 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count9ChemAxon
Refractivity95.69 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability40 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Michel Vincent, Jean Baliarda, Bernard Marchand, Georges Remond, “Process for the industrial synthesis of perindopril.” U.S. Patent US4914214, issued April 03, 1990.

US4914214
General Reference
  1. Hurst M, Jarvis B: Perindopril: an updated review of its use in hypertension. Drugs. 2001;61(6):867-96. Pubmed
  2. Jastrzebskal M, Widecka K, Naruszewicz M, Ciechanowicz A, Janczak-Bazan A, Foltynska A, Goracy I, Chetstowski K, Wesotowska T: Effects of perindopril treatment on hemostatic function in patients with essential hypertension in relation to angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene polymorphisms. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2004 Oct;14(5):259-69. Pubmed
  3. Parker E, Aarons L, Rowland M, Resplandy G: The pharmacokinetics of perindoprilat in normal volunteers and patients: influence of age and disease state. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2005 Sep;26(1):104-13. Pubmed
  4. Simpson D, Noble S, Goa KL: Perindopril: in congestive heart failure. Drugs. 2002;62(9):1367-77; discussion 1378-9. Pubmed
  5. Yasumatsu R, Nakashima T, Masuda M, Ito A, Kuratomi Y, Nakagawa T, Komune S: Effects of the angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitor perindopril on tumor growth and angiogenesis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2004 Oct;130(10):567-73. Epub 2004 Jul 27. Pubmed
  6. Yoshiji H, Kuriyama S, Kawata M, Yoshii J, Ikenaka Y, Noguchi R, Nakatani T, Tsujinoue H, Fukui H: The angiotensin-I-converting enzyme inhibitor perindopril suppresses tumor growth and angiogenesis: possible role of the vascular endothelial growth factor. Clin Cancer Res. 2001 Apr;7(4):1073-8. Pubmed
External Links
ATC CodesC09AA04
AHFS Codes
  • 24:32.04
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (149 KB)
MSDSNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
Acetylsalicylic acidMay diminish the antihypertensive effect of ACE Inhibitors. They may also diminish other beneficial pharmacodynamic effects desired for the treatment of CHF. The effects are likely dose-related. 100 mg doses aspirin appear to cause no problems, whereas 300 mg doses appear to significantly affect ACE Inhibitor efficacy.
AlfuzosinMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Antihypertensives.
AliskirenMay enhance the hyperkalemic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Aliskiren may enhance the hypotensive effect of ACE Inhibitors. Aliskiren may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of ACE Inhibitors.
AllopurinolACE Inhibitors may enhance the potential for allergic or hypersensitivity reactions to Allopurinol.
AmifostineAntihypertensives may enhance the hypotensive effect of Amifostine.
AprotininMay diminish the antihypertensive effect of ACE Inhibitors.
AzathioprineACE Inhibitors may enhance the myelosuppressive effect of AzaTHIOprine.
ButabarbitalMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
ButethalMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
CanagliflozinMay enhance the hyperkalemic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Canagliflozin may enhance the hypotensive effect of ACE Inhibitors.
DapoxetineMay enhance the orthostatic hypotensive effect of ACE Inhibitors.
DiazoxideMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Antihypertensives.
DuloxetineHypotensive Agents may enhance the orthostatic hypotensive effect of DULoxetine.
EplerenoneMay enhance the hyperkalemic effect of ACE Inhibitors.
EverolimusMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of ACE Inhibitors. Specifically, the risk of angioedema may be increased.
HeparinMay enhance the hyperkalemic effect of ACE Inhibitors.
HeptabarbitalMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
HexobarbitalMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
IcatibantMay diminish the antihypertensive effect of ACE Inhibitors.
LithiumACE Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Lithium.
MethohexitalMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
MethylphenidateMay diminish the antihypertensive effect of Antihypertensives.
ObinutuzumabAntihypertensives may enhance the hypotensive effect of Obinutuzumab.
PentobarbitalMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
PentoxifyllineMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Antihypertensives.
PrimidoneMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
RisperidoneHypotensive Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of RisperiDONE.
RituximabAntihypertensives may enhance the hypotensive effect of RiTUXimab.
Salicylate-sodiumMay diminish the antihypertensive effect of ACE Inhibitors. They may also diminish other beneficial pharmacodynamic effects desired for the treatment of CHF. The effects are likely dose-related. 100 mg doses aspirin appear to cause no problems, whereas 300 mg doses appear to significantly affect ACE Inhibitor efficacy.
SecobarbitalMay enhance the hypotensive effect of Hypotensive Agents.
SirolimusMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of ACE Inhibitors.
TadalafilMay enhance the antihypertensive effect of Antihypertensives.
TemsirolimusMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of ACE Inhibitors.
TizanidineMay enhance the hypotensive effect of ACE Inhibitors.
TolvaptanMay enhance the hyperkalemic effect of ACE Inhibitors.
TrimethoprimMay enhance the hyperkalemic effect of ACE Inhibitors.
VardenafilMay enhance the antihypertensive effect of Antihypertensives.
YohimbineMay diminish the antihypertensive effect of Antihypertensives.
Food Interactions
  • Herbs that may attenuate the antihypertensive effect of perindopril include: bayberry, blue cohash, cayenne, ephedra, ginger, ginseng (American), kola and licorice.
  • High salt intake may attenuate the antihypertensive effect of perindopril.
  • Perindopril may decrease the excretion of potassium. Salt substitutes containing potassium may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
  • Take without regard to meals.

Targets

1. Angiotensin-converting enzyme

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Angiotensin-converting enzyme P12821 Details

References:

  1. Alfakih K, Hall AS: Perindopril. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2006 Jan;7(1):63-71. Pubmed
  2. Brugts JJ, Ferrari R, Simoons ML: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition by perindopril in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2009 Apr;7(4):345-60. Pubmed
  3. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed
  4. Song JC, White CM: Clinical pharmacokinetics and selective pharmacodynamics of new angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors: an update. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2002;41(3):207-24. Pubmed

Enzymes

1. Cholinesterase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cholinesterase P06276 Details

References:

  1. Mehta A, Iyer L, Parmar S, Shah G, Goyal R: Oculohypotensive effect of perindopril in acute and chronic models of glaucoma in rabbits. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2010 May;88(5):595-600. Pubmed

Transporters

1. Multidrug resistance protein 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Multidrug resistance protein 1 P08183 Details

References:

  1. Takara K, Kakumoto M, Tanigawara Y, Funakoshi J, Sakaeda T, Okumura K: Interaction of digoxin with antihypertensive drugs via MDR1. Life Sci. 2002 Feb 15;70(13):1491-500. Pubmed

2. Solute carrier family 15 member 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier family 15 member 1 P46059 Details

References:

  1. Knutter I, Wollesky C, Kottra G, Hahn MG, Fischer W, Zebisch K, Neubert RH, Daniel H, Brandsch M: Transport of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors by H+/peptide transporters revisited. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2008 Nov;327(2):432-41. Epub 2008 Aug 19. Pubmed

3. Solute carrier family 15 member 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier family 15 member 2 Q16348 Details

References:

  1. Knutter I, Wollesky C, Kottra G, Hahn MG, Fischer W, Zebisch K, Neubert RH, Daniel H, Brandsch M: Transport of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors by H+/peptide transporters revisited. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2008 Nov;327(2):432-41. Epub 2008 Aug 19. Pubmed

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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:12