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Identification
NameKetotifen
Accession NumberDB00920  (APRD01061)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
Description

A cycloheptathiophene blocker of histamine H1 receptors and release of inflammatory mediators. It has been proposed for the treatment of asthma, rhinitis, skin allergies, and anaphylaxis. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
AlawayNot AvailableNot Available
Ketotifen FumarateNot AvailableNot Available
KetotifeneFrenchINN
Ketotifene fumarateNot AvailableNot Available
KetotifenoSpanishINN
KetotifenumLatinINN
Prescription ProductsNot Available
Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Zaditorsolution.35 mg/mLophthalmicAlcon Laboratories, Inc.2009-09-22Not AvailableUs
Zaditorsolution.35 mg/mLophthalmicAlcon Laboratories, Inc.2012-12-21Not AvailableUs
Zaditor Antihistamine Eye Dropssolution.345 mg/mLophthalmicNovartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation2009-09-22Not AvailableUs
Good Sense Allergy Eyesolution/ drops.25 mg/mLophthalmicL Perrigo Company1997-11-18Not AvailableUs
Good Sense Itchy Eye original prescription strengthsolution.25 mg/mLophthalmicL Perrigo Company1997-10-28Not AvailableUs
Good Sense Eye Itch Reliefsolution.25 mg/mLophthalmicL Perrigo Company2010-09-15Not AvailableUs
Eye Itch Reliefsolution/ drops.25 mg/mLophthalmicWalgreens2012-05-01Not AvailableUs
Wal Zyrsolution.25 mg/mLophthalmicWalgreen Company2010-03-12Not AvailableUs
Eye Itch Reliefsolution.25 mg/mLophthalmicWalgreen Company2010-08-13Not AvailableUs
Ketotifen Fumaratesolution/ drops.25 mg/mLophthalmicWalgreens2013-01-25Not AvailableUs
Itchy Eyesolution.25 mg/mLophthalmicMajor Pharmaceuticals2010-11-16Not AvailableUs
Leader Eye Itch Relief Dropssolution/ drops.345 mg/mLophthalmicHANLIM PHARM. CO., LTD.2010-04-21Not AvailableUs
Eye Itch Reliefsolution.25 mg/mLophthalmicRite Aid Corporation2010-10-06Not AvailableUs
Eye Itch Reliefsolution/ drops.35 mg/mLophthalmicRite Aid Corporation2013-12-06Not AvailableUs
Eye Itch Reliefsolution/ drops.35 mg/mLophthalmicRite Aid Corporation2013-12-06Not AvailableUs
Ketotifen Fumaratesolution/ drops.35 mg/mLophthalmicAkorn, Inc.2007-10-01Not AvailableUs
Eye Itch Reliefsolution.25 mg/mLophthalmicSafeway2014-08-20Not AvailableUs
Alawaysolution/ drops.25 mg/mLophthalmicBausch & Lomb Incorporated2006-12-01Not AvailableUs
AlawaykitBausch & Lomb Incorporated2006-12-01Not AvailableUs
Good Neighbor Pharmacy Eye Itch Reliefsolution.25 mg/mLophthalmicAmerisource Bergen2010-11-13Not AvailableUs
Itchy Eyesolution.25 mg/mLophthalmicKroger Company2011-05-27Not AvailableUs
Eye Itchsolution/ drops.35 mg/mLophthalmicKroger Company2014-01-22Not AvailableUs
Itchy Eyesolution/ drops.35 mg/mLophthalmicKroger Company2014-01-22Not AvailableUs
Eye Itchsolution.25 mg/mLophthalmicKroger Company2010-10-16Not AvailableUs
Topcare Eye Itch Reliefsolution.25 mg/mLophthalmicTopco Associates LLC2013-02-08Not AvailableUs
Leader Allergy Eyesolution.25 mg/mLophthalmicCardinal Health2010-09-22Not AvailableUs
Allergy Eyesolution/ drops.25 mg/mLophthalmicH E B2010-09-15Not AvailableUs
Itchy Eyesolution.25 mg/mLophthalmicH E B2010-09-15Not AvailableUs
Eye Itch Reliefsolution/ drops.35 mg/mLophthalmicH E B2014-02-25Not AvailableUs
Allergy Eye Dropssolution/ drops.35 mg/mLophthalmicH E B2014-02-25Not AvailableUs
Eye Itch Reliefsolution.25 mg/mLophthalmicH E B2010-09-10Not AvailableUs
Equaline Eye Itch Reliefsolution.25 mg/mLophthalmicSupervalu Inc2010-10-15Not AvailableUs
Allergy Eye original prescription strengthsolution/ drops.25 mg/mLophthalmicMeijer Distribution Inc1995-12-12Not AvailableUs
Eye Itchsolution/ drops.35 mg/mLophthalmicMeijer Distribution Inc2014-01-23Not AvailableUs
Itchy Eye original prescription strengthsolution.25 mg/mLophthalmicMeijer Distribution Inc2010-08-23Not AvailableUs
Itchy Eyesolution/ drops.35 mg/mLophthalmicMeijer Distribution Inc2014-01-23Not AvailableUs
Eye Itch Reliefsolution.25 mg/mLophthalmicMeijer Distribution Inc2010-08-23Not AvailableUs
Care One Allergy Eyesolution/ drops.25 mg/mLophthalmicAmerican Sales Company2010-08-30Not AvailableUs
Care One Eye Itch Reliefsolution.25 mg/mLophthalmicAmerican Sales Company2010-08-30Not AvailableUs
Good Neighbor Pharmacy Itchy Eyesolution.25 mg/mLophthalmicAmerisource Bergen2010-10-07Not AvailableUs
Itchy Eye Dropssolution/ drops.35 mg/mLophthalmicAmerisource Bergen2013-12-06Not AvailableUs
Eye Itch Reliefsolution/ drops.35 mg/mLophthalmicAmerisource Bergen2013-12-06Not AvailableUs
Equate Itchy Eyesolution.25 mg/mLophthalmicWal Mart Stores Inc2010-09-09Not AvailableUs
Equate Eye Itch Reliefsolution.25 mg/mLophthalmicWal Mart Stores Inc2010-07-08Not AvailableUs
Eye Itch Reliefsolution/ drops.35 mg/mLophthalmicMc Kesson Corporation Valu Rite2014-02-07Not AvailableUs
Sunmark Eye Itch Reliefsolution.25 mg/mLophthalmicMc Kesson2012-02-21Not AvailableUs
Smart Sense Allergysolution/ drops.25 mg/mLophthalmicKmart Corporation2010-08-27Not AvailableUs
Eye Itch Reliefsolution/ drops.35 mg/mLophthalmicCardinal Health2014-01-13Not AvailableUs
Allergy Eye Dropssolution/ drops.35 mg/mLophthalmicCardinal Health2014-01-13Not AvailableUs
Eye Itch Reliefsolution/ drops.35 mg/mLophthalmicGood Sense2014-06-20Not AvailableUs
Itchy Eye Dropssolution/ drops.35 mg/mLophthalmicGood Sense2014-06-20Not AvailableUs
Allergy Relief Eyesolution/ drops.25 mg/mLophthalmicWestern Family Foods Inc2011-05-25Not AvailableUs
Itchy Eye Reliefsolution.25 mg/mLophthalmicWestern Family Foods Inc2011-05-25Not AvailableUs
Ketotifen Fumaratesolution.35 mg/mLophthalmicAdvanced Vision Research (Subsidiary of Akorn, Inc.)2012-03-15Not AvailableUs
Allergy Eye Dropssolution/ drops.35 mg/mLophthalmicAdvanced Vision Research (Subsidiary of Akorn, Inc.)2013-11-14Not AvailableUs
Allergy Eyesolution/ drops.25 mg/mLophthalmicCVS Pharmacy2011-01-07Not AvailableUs
Ketotifen Fumaratesolution/ drops.35 mg/mLophthalmicCVS Pharmacy2013-02-21Not AvailableUs
Ketotifen Fumaratesolution/ drops.35 mg/mLophthalmicCVS Pharmacy2013-10-11Not AvailableUs
Antihistamine Eyesolution.25 mg/mLophthalmicCVS Pharmacy2010-10-19Not AvailableUs
Ketotifen Fumaratesolution/ drops.35 mg/mLophthalmicCVS Pharmacy2013-11-08Not AvailableUs
Eye Itch Reliefsolution/ drops.35 mg/mLophthalmicCVS Pharmacy2014-02-07Not AvailableUs
Eye Itch Reliefsolution/ drops.35 mg/mLophthalmicCVS Pharmacy2014-02-07Not AvailableUs
Eye Itch Reliefsolution.25 g/mLophthalmicCVS Pharmacy2010-09-14Not AvailableUs
Eye Itch Reliefsolution/ drops.35 mg/mLophthalmicKinray Inc.2014-03-18Not AvailableUs
Allergy Relief Eye Dropssolution/ drops.35 mg/mLophthalmicKinray Inc.2014-03-18Not AvailableUs
Health Mart Eye Itch Reliefsolution.25 mg/mLophthalmicMc Kesson2012-02-03Not AvailableUs
Eye Itch Reliefsolution/ drops.35 mg/mLophthalmicMc Kesson Corp.2014-02-07Not AvailableUs
Eye Itch Reliefsolution/ drops.35 mg/mLophthalmicPremier Value2014-01-10Not AvailableUs
Good Neighbor Pharmacy Eye Itch Reliefsolution.25 mg/mLophthalmicDispensing Solutions, Inc.2010-11-13Not AvailableUs
International Brands
NameCompany
TotifenPatron
ZaditenNovartis
ZastenNovartis
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
CAS number34580-14-8
WeightAverage: 309.425
Monoisotopic: 309.118734925
Chemical FormulaC19H19NOS
InChI KeyZCVMWBYGMWKGHF-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C19H19NOS/c1-20-9-6-13(7-10-20)18-15-5-3-2-4-14(15)12-17(21)19-16(18)8-11-22-19/h2-5,8,11H,6-7,9-10,12H2,1H3
IUPAC Name
2-(1-methylpiperidin-4-ylidene)-6-thiatricyclo[8.4.0.0^{3,7}]tetradeca-1(10),3(7),4,11,13-pentaen-8-one
SMILES
CN1CCC(CC1)=C1C2=C(SC=C2)C(=O)CC2=CC=CC=C12
Mass SpecNot Available
Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
SuperclassHeterocyclic Compounds
ClassCycloheptathiophenes
SubclassNot Available
Direct parentCycloheptathiophenes
Alternative parentsBenzene and Substituted Derivatives; Piperidines; Thiophenes; Tertiary Amines; Ketones; Polyamines
Substituentsbenzene; piperidine; thiophene; ketone; tertiary amine; polyamine; organonitrogen compound; amine; carbonyl group
Classification descriptionThis compound belongs to the cycloheptathiophenes. These are polycyclic compounds containing a thiophene ring fused to a 7 member carbocyclic moiety.
Pharmacology
IndicationIndicated as an add-on or prophylactic oral medication in the chronic treatment of mild atopic asthmatic children. Also used as self-medication for the temporary relief of itching of the eye due to allergic conjunctivitis (ophthalmic).
PharmacodynamicsKetotifen is a fast acting non-competitive histamine antagonist. It inhibits the release of mediators from mast cells. It is a non-bronchodilator antiasthmatic drug (when taken orally).
Mechanism of actionKetotifen is a relatively selective, non-competitive histamine antagonist (H1-receptor) and mast cell stabilizer. Ketotifen inhibits the release of mediators from mast cells involved in hypersensitivity reactions. Decreased chemotaxis and activation of eosinophils have also been demonstrated. Ketotifen also inhibits cAMP phosphodiesterase. Properties of ketotifen which may contribute to its antiallergic activity and its ability to affect the underlying pathology of asthma include inhibition of the development of airway hyper-reactivity associated with activation of platelets by PAF (Platelet Activating Factor), inhibition of PAF-induced accumulation of eosinophils and platelets in the airways, suppression of the priming of eosinophils by human recombinant cytokines and antagonism of bronchoconstriction due to leukotrienes. Ketotifen inhibits of the release of allergic mediators such as histamine, leukotrienes C4 and D4(SRS-A) and PAF.
AbsorptionFollowing oral administration absorption is at least 60%
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein binding75%
Metabolism

Primarily hepatic. The main metabolite found in both plasma and urine is the inactive ketotifen-N-glucuronide. Nor-ketotifen, the N-demethylated metabolite, and the 10-alpha-hydroxyl derivative are the only other metabolites detectable in human urine.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Ketotifen
Not Available
Ketotifen-N-glucuronideDetails
Ketotifen
Not Available
10-alpha-hydroxyl KetotifenDetails
Ketotifen
Not Available
Nor-ketotifenDetails
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half life21 hours (for elimination)
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityAdverse reactions include headaches, conjunctival injection and rhinitis.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
Property Value Probability
Human Intestinal Absorption + 1.0
Blood Brain Barrier + 0.9923
Caco-2 permeable + 0.8867
P-glycoprotein substrate Substrate 0.87
P-glycoprotein inhibitor I Inhibitor 0.8564
P-glycoprotein inhibitor II Non-inhibitor 0.7474
Renal organic cation transporter Inhibitor 0.8198
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-substrate 0.7542
CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-substrate 0.5638
CYP450 3A4 substrate Substrate 0.6984
CYP450 1A2 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9045
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9071
CYP450 2D6 substrate Inhibitor 0.8931
CYP450 2C19 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9026
CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.8607
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuity High CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity 0.6414
Ames test Non AMES toxic 0.7576
Carcinogenicity Non-carcinogens 0.9649
Biodegradation Not ready biodegradable 0.9547
Rat acute toxicity 2.7979 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I) Weak inhibitor 0.6336
hERG inhibition (predictor II) Non-inhibitor 0.5145
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Bausch and lomb inc
  • Akorn inc
  • Alcon inc
  • Apotex inc etobicoke site
  • Novartis pharmaceuticals corp
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Kit
Solutionophthalmic.25 g/mL
Solutionophthalmic.25 mg/mL
Solutionophthalmic.345 mg/mL
Solutionophthalmic.35 mg/mL
Solution/ dropsophthalmic.25 mg/mL
Solution/ dropsophthalmic.345 mg/mL
Solution/ dropsophthalmic.35 mg/mL
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Ketotifen fumarate powder926.63USDg
Zaditor 0.025% Solution 5ml Bottle74.96USDbottle
Ketotifen fum 0.025% eye drops2.44USDml
Refresh 0.025% eye drops2.2USDml
Zaditor 0.025% eye drops2.15USDml
Alaway 0.025% eye drops0.96USDml
Zaditen 1 mg Tablet0.83USDtablet
Novo-Ketotifen 1 mg Tablet0.66USDtablet
Novo-Ketotifen 0.2 mg/ml Syrup0.14USDml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
Statesolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point152-153U.S. Patents 3,682,930; 3,770,728; and 3,960,894
logP2.2Not Available
pKa8.43Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00787ALOGPS
logP3.49ALOGPS
logP3.35ChemAxon
logS-4.6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)12.3ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)7.15ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area20.31 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity101.73 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability34.61 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Roy W. Bryant, Ravi Parihar, Thomas Rowe, Susan Caballa, “Methods of Making and Using Stable Pharmaceutical Compositions Comprising Ketotifen and Naphazoline.” U.S. Patent US20110312998, issued December 22, 2011.

US20110312998
General ReferenceNot Available
External Links
ResourceLink
KEGG DrugD01332
PubChem Compound3827
PubChem Substance46508921
ChemSpider3695
BindingDB50002087
Therapeutic Targets DatabaseDAP000329
PharmGKBPA450152
RxListhttp://www.rxlist.com/cgi/generic/ketotifen.htm
Drugs.comhttp://www.drugs.com/cdi/ketotifen-drops.html
PDRhealthhttp://www.pdrhealth.com/drug_info/rxdrugprofiles/drugs/zad1598.shtml
WikipediaKetotifen
ATC CodesR06AX17S01GX08
AHFS Codes
  • 04:00.00
  • 04:92.00
  • 52:02.00
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelshow(9.05 KB)
MSDSNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
TacrineThe therapeutic effects of the central acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, Tacrine, and/or the anticholinergic, Ketotifen, may be reduced due to antagonism. The interaction may be beneficial when the anticholinergic action is a side effect. Monitor for decreased efficacy of both agents.
TrimethobenzamideTrimethobenzamide and Ketotifen, two anticholinergics, may cause additive anticholinergic effects and enhance their adverse/toxic effects. Monitor for enhanced anticholinergic effects.
TriprolidineTriprolidine and Ketotifen, two anticholinergics, may cause additive anticholinergic effects and enhance their adverse/toxic effects. Additive CNS depressant effects may also occur. Monitor for enhanced anticholinergic and CNS depressant effects.
TrospiumTrospium and Ketotifen, two anticholinergics, may cause additive anticholinergic effects and enhanced adverse/toxic effects. Monitor for enhanced anticholinergic effects.
Food Interactions
  • Take without regard to meals.

Targets

1. Histamine H1 receptor

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Histamine H1 receptor P35367 Details

References:

  1. Mita H, Shida T: Comparison of anti-allergic activities of the histamine H1 receptor antagonists epinastine, ketotifen and oxatomide in human leukocytes. Arzneimittelforschung. 1995 Jan;45(1):36-40. Pubmed
  2. Okabe S, Nakaji S, Tachibana M: Effect of ketotifen on acute gastric lesions and gastric secretion in rats. Jpn J Pharmacol. 1992 Jun;59(2):251-4. Pubmed
  3. Hashimoto T, Ohata H, Honda K: Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) induces plasma exudation and histamine release in mice via LPA receptors. J Pharmacol Sci. 2006 Jan;100(1):82-7. Epub 2006 Jan 11. Pubmed
  4. Ito K, Sakamoto T, Hayashi Y, Morishita M, Shibata E, Sakai K, Takeuchi Y, Torii S: Role of tachykinin and bradykinin receptors and mast cells in gaseous formaldehyde-induced airway microvascular leakage in rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 1996 Jul 4;307(3):291-8. Pubmed
  5. Yokoyama H, Iinuma K, Yanai K, Watanabe T, Sakurai E, Onodera K: Proconvulsant effect of ketotifen, a histamine H1 antagonist, confirmed by the use of d-chlorpheniramine with monitoring electroencephalography. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 1993 Apr;15(3):183-8. Pubmed
  6. Werner-Klein M, Goggel R, Westhof A, Erb KJ: Development and characterisation of a novel and rapid lung eosinophil influx model in the rat. Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2008 Aug;21(4):648-56. Epub 2008 Apr 7. Pubmed
  7. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed

2. cAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4A

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
cAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4A P27815 Details

References:

  1. Castillo JG, Gamboa PM, Garcia BE, Oehling A: Effect of ketotifen on phosphodiesterase activity from asthmatic individuals. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 1990 Jul-Aug;18(4):197-201. Pubmed
  2. Huang Z, Liu S, Zhang L, Salem M, Greig GM, Chan CC, Natsumeda Y, Noguchi K: Preferential inhibition of human phosphodiesterase 4 by ibudilast. Life Sci. 2006 May 1;78(23):2663-8. Epub 2005 Nov 28. Pubmed

3. cAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4B

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
cAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4B Q07343 Details

References:

  1. Castillo JG, Gamboa PM, Garcia BE, Oehling A: Effect of ketotifen on phosphodiesterase activity from asthmatic individuals. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 1990 Jul-Aug;18(4):197-201. Pubmed
  2. Huang Z, Liu S, Zhang L, Salem M, Greig GM, Chan CC, Natsumeda Y, Noguchi K: Preferential inhibition of human phosphodiesterase 4 by ibudilast. Life Sci. 2006 May 1;78(23):2663-8. Epub 2005 Nov 28. Pubmed

4. cAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4D

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
cAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4D Q08499 Details

References:

  1. Castillo JG, Gamboa PM, Garcia BE, Oehling A: Effect of ketotifen on phosphodiesterase activity from asthmatic individuals. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 1990 Jul-Aug;18(4):197-201. Pubmed
  2. Huang Z, Liu S, Zhang L, Salem M, Greig GM, Chan CC, Natsumeda Y, Noguchi K: Preferential inhibition of human phosphodiesterase 4 by ibudilast. Life Sci. 2006 May 1;78(23):2663-8. Epub 2005 Nov 28. Pubmed

5. cAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4C

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
cAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4C Q08493 Details

References:

  1. Castillo JG, Gamboa PM, Garcia BE, Oehling A: Effect of ketotifen on phosphodiesterase activity from asthmatic individuals. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 1990 Jul-Aug;18(4):197-201. Pubmed
  2. Huang Z, Liu S, Zhang L, Salem M, Greig GM, Chan CC, Natsumeda Y, Noguchi K: Preferential inhibition of human phosphodiesterase 4 by ibudilast. Life Sci. 2006 May 1;78(23):2663-8. Epub 2005 Nov 28. Pubmed

6. High affinity cAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 7A

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
High affinity cAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 7A Q13946 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

7. cAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 7B

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
cAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 7B Q9NP56 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

8. High affinity cAMP-specific and IBMX-insensitive 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 8A

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
High affinity cAMP-specific and IBMX-insensitive 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 8A O60658 Details

References:

  1. Castillo JG, Gamboa PM, Garcia BE, Oehling A: Effect of ketotifen on phosphodiesterase activity from asthmatic individuals. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 1990 Jul-Aug;18(4):197-201. Pubmed

9. High affinity cAMP-specific and IBMX-insensitive 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 8B

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
High affinity cAMP-specific and IBMX-insensitive 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 8B O95263 Details

References:

  1. Castillo JG, Gamboa PM, Garcia BE, Oehling A: Effect of ketotifen on phosphodiesterase activity from asthmatic individuals. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 1990 Jul-Aug;18(4):197-201. Pubmed

10. 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, decarboxylating

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, decarboxylating P52209 Details

References:

  1. Akkemik E, Budak H, Ciftci M: Effects of some drugs on human erythrocyte 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase: an in vitro study. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2010 Mar 17. Pubmed
  2. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. Pubmed

Comments
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on May 05, 2014 12:02