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Identification
NameAmphetamine
Accession NumberDB00182  (APRD00480)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Illicit
Description

Amphetamine is a chiral compound. The racemic mixture can be divided into its optical antipodes: levo- and dextro-amphetamine. Amphetamine is the parent compound of its own structural class, comprising a broad range of psychoactive derivatives, e.g., MDMA (Ecstasy) and the N-methylated form, methamphetamine. Amphetamine is a homologue of phenethylamine.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
1-phenyl-2-aminopropaneNot AvailableNot Available
1-Phenylpropan-2-aminNot AvailableNot Available
alpha-MethylbenzeneethaneamineNot AvailableNot Available
alpha-MethylphenylethylamineNot AvailableNot Available
AmfetamineNot AvailableINN
AmfetaminumNot AvailableNot Available
AmphetaminNot AvailableNot Available
AmphetamineNot AvailableNot Available
beta-AminopropylbenzeneNot AvailableNot Available
beta-PhenylisopropylaminNot AvailableNot Available
beta-PhenylisopropylamineNot AvailableNot Available
DesoxynorephedrineNot AvailableNot Available
α-methylbenzeneethaneamineNot AvailableNot Available
α-methylphenethylamineNot AvailableNot Available
β-aminopropylbenzeneNot AvailableNot Available
β-phenylisopropylamineNot AvailableNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Brand namesNot Available
Brand mixtures
Brand NameIngredients
Adderallamphetamine + dextroamphetamine
Categories
CAS number300-62-9
WeightAverage: 135.2062
Monoisotopic: 135.104799421
Chemical FormulaC9H13N
InChI KeyKWTSXDURSIMDCE-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C9H13N/c1-8(10)7-9-5-3-2-4-6-9/h2-6,8H,7,10H2,1H3
IUPAC Name
1-phenylpropan-2-amine
SMILES
CC(N)CC1=CC=CC=C1
Mass Specshow(7.59 KB)
Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
SuperclassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and Substituted Derivatives
SubclassPhenethylamines
Direct parentAmphetamines and Derivatives
Alternative parentsPolyamines; Monoalkylamines
Substituentspolyamine; primary amine; primary aliphatic amine; amine; organonitrogen compound
Classification descriptionThis compound belongs to the amphetamines and derivatives. These are organic compounds containing or derived from 1-phenylpropan-2-amine.
Pharmacology
IndicationFor treatment of Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity (ADDH) and narcolepsy in children.
PharmacodynamicsAmphetamine and dextroamphetamine, non-catechloamine sypathomimetic agents, are used in combination to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or narcolepsy. Adderall consists of equivalent amounts of amphetamine aspartate, amphetamine sulfate, dextroamphetamine saccharate, and dextroamphetamine sulfate.
Mechanism of actionAmphetamines stimulate the release of norepinephrine from central adrenergic receptors. At higher dosages, they cause release of dopamine from the mesocorticolimbic system and the nigrostriatal dopamine systems. Amphetamine may also act as a direct agonist on central 5-HT receptors and may inhibit monoamine oxidase (MAO). In the periphery, amphetamines are believed to cause the release of noradrenaline by acting on the adrenergic nerve terminals and alpha- and beta-receptors. Modulation of serotonergic pathways may contribute to the calming affect. The drug interacts with VMAT enzymes to enhance release of DA and 5-HT from vesicles. It may also directly cause the reversal of DAT and SERT.
AbsorptionAmphetamine forms easily absorbed molecules that are highly lipid soluble
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein binding15-40%
Metabolism

Hepatic

Route of eliminationNot Available
Half life10 hours
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityLD50=180 mg/kg(subcutaneous injection in rat). The most common presenting symptoms seen are agitation, hallucinations, suicidal behaviour, and chest pain.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
Property Value Probability
Human Intestinal Absorption + 0.9972
Blood Brain Barrier + 0.9565
Caco-2 permeable + 0.8395
P-glycoprotein substrate Non-substrate 0.7379
P-glycoprotein inhibitor I Non-inhibitor 0.9519
P-glycoprotein inhibitor II Non-inhibitor 0.9859
Renal organic cation transporter Non-inhibitor 0.8002
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-substrate 0.8114
CYP450 2D6 substrate Substrate 0.8919
CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-substrate 0.795
CYP450 1A2 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.5697
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9313
CYP450 2D6 substrate Inhibitor 0.657
CYP450 2C19 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.8445
CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.8709
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuity Low CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity 0.8732
Ames test Non AMES toxic 0.93
Carcinogenicity Non-carcinogens 0.6869
Biodegradation Not ready biodegradable 0.6575
Rat acute toxicity 3.2491 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I) Weak inhibitor 0.9452
hERG inhibition (predictor II) Non-inhibitor 0.9231
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Lannett co inc
  • Akorn inc
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Capsule, extended releaseOral
TabletOral
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Desoxyn 5 mg tablet5.1USDtablet
Dexedrine 15 mg 24 Hour Capsule4.22USDcapsule
Dexedrine 10 mg 24 Hour Capsule3.23USDcapsule
Dexedrine 5 mg 24 Hour Capsule3.0USDcapsule
Dexedrine spansule 15 mg2.45USDeach
Dexedrine spansule 10 mg1.91USDeach
Dexedrine spansule 5 mg1.91USDeach
Amphetamine salts 12.5 mg tablet1.43USDtablet
Amphetamine salts 15 mg tablet1.43USDtablet
Amphetamine salts 7.5 mg tablet1.43USDtablet
Amphetamine salts 10 mg tablet1.37USDtablet
Amphetamine salts 20 mg tablet1.37USDtablet
Amphetamine salts 30 mg tablet1.37USDtablet
Amphetamine salts 5 mg tablet1.37USDtablet
Amphetamine Salt Combo 7.5 mg tablet1.3USDtablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
Statesolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting pointVolatizes slowly at room temperatureNot Available
water solubilitySlightlyNot Available
logP1.76HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
pKa10.1 (at 20 °C)PERRIN,DD (1965)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility1.74ALOGPS
logP1.85ALOGPS
logP1.8ChemAxon
logS-1.9ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)10.01ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area26.02 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity43.71 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability16.17 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
References
Synthesis Reference

Guohong Wang, “Composition and methods for synthesis of novel tracers for detecting amphetamine and methamphetamine in samples.” U.S. Patent US20020090661, issued July 11, 2002.

US20020090661
General Reference
  1. Leith NJ, Kuczenski R: Chronic amphetamine: tolerance and reverse tolerance reflect different behavioral actions of the drug. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1981 Sep;15(3):399-404. Pubmed
  2. Chaudhry IA, Turkanis SA, Karler R: Characteristics of “reverse tolerance” to amphetamine-induced locomotor stimulation in mice. Neuropharmacology. 1988 Aug;27(8):777-81. Pubmed
  3. Sax KW, Strakowski SM: Behavioral sensitization in humans. J Addict Dis. 2001;20(3):55-65. Pubmed
  4. Sulzer D, Sonders MS, Poulsen NW, Galli A: Mechanisms of neurotransmitter release by amphetamines: a review. Prog Neurobiol. 2005 Apr;75(6):406-33. Pubmed
External Links
ResourceLink
KEGG DrugD07445
KEGG CompoundC07514
ChEBI2679
ChEMBLCHEMBL405
Therapeutic Targets DatabaseDAP001146
PharmGKBPA448408
IUPHAR2147
Guide to Pharmacology2147
Drug Product Database2248813
RxListhttp://www.rxlist.com/cgi/generic/adderallxr.htm
Drugs.comhttp://www.drugs.com/amphetamine.html
PDRhealthhttp://www.pdrhealth.com/drug_info/rxdrugprofiles/drugs/add1008.shtml
WikipediaAmphetamine
ATC CodesN06BA01
AHFS Codes
  • 28:20.04
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
ChlorpromazineDecreased anorexic effect, may increase psychotic symptoms
DihydrocodeineAmphetamines may enhance analgesic effects of dihydrocodeine. Monitor for enhanced analgesia. Dose reductions of dihydrocodeine may be appropriate.
FluoxetineRisk of serotoninergic syndrome
FluphenazineDecreased anorexic effect, may increase psychotic symptoms
FluvoxamineRisk of serotoninergic syndrome
GuanethidineAmphetamine may decrease the effect of guanethidine.
IsocarboxazidPossible hypertensive crisis
MesoridazineDecreased anorexic effect, may increase psychotic symptoms
MethotrimeprazineDecreased anorexic effect, may increase psychotic symptoms
ParoxetineRisk of serotoninergic syndrome
PerphenazineDecreased anorexic effect, may increase psychotic symptoms
PhenelzinePossible hypertensive crisis
ProchlorperazineDecreased anorexic effect, may increase pyschotic symptoms
PromethazineDecreased anorexic effect, may increase pyschotic symptoms
PropericiazineDecreased anorexic effect, may increase pyschotic symptoms
RasagilinePossible hypertensive crisis
ThioridazineDecreased anorexic effect, may increase psychotic symptoms
TrifluoperazineDecreased anorexic effect, may increase psychotic symptoms
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

1. Synaptic vesicular amine transporter

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Synaptic vesicular amine transporter Q05940 Details

References:

  1. Sulzer D, Sonders MS, Poulsen NW, Galli A: Mechanisms of neurotransmitter release by amphetamines: a review. Prog Neurobiol. 2005 Apr;75(6):406-33. Pubmed
  2. Sulzer D, Chen TK, Lau YY, Kristensen H, Rayport S, Ewing A: Amphetamine redistributes dopamine from synaptic vesicles to the cytosol and promotes reverse transport. J Neurosci. 1995 May;15(5 Pt 2):4102-8. Pubmed
  3. Teng L, Crooks PA, Dwoskin LP: Lobeline displaces [3H]dihydrotetrabenazine binding and releases [3H]dopamine from rat striatal synaptic vesicles: comparison with d-amphetamine. J Neurochem. 1998 Jul;71(1):258-65. Pubmed
  4. Eiden LE, Weihe E: VMAT2: a dynamic regulator of brain monoaminergic neuronal function interacting with drugs of abuse. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2011 Jan;1216:86-98. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05906.×. Pubmed

2. Sodium-dependent dopamine transporter

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: negative modulator

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Sodium-dependent dopamine transporter Q01959 Details

References:

  1. Lott DC, Kim SJ, Cook EH Jr, de Wit H: Dopamine transporter gene associated with diminished subjective response to amphetamine. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2005 Mar;30(3):602-9. Pubmed
  2. Fone KC, Nutt DJ: Stimulants: use and abuse in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2005 Feb;5(1):87-93. Pubmed
  3. Miller GM, Verrico CD, Jassen A, Konar M, Yang H, Panas H, Bahn M, Johnson R, Madras BK: Primate trace amine receptor 1 modulation by the dopamine transporter. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005 Jun;313(3):983-94. Epub 2005 Mar 11. Pubmed
  4. Garcia BG, Wei Y, Moron JA, Lin RZ, Javitch JA, Galli A: Akt is essential for insulin modulation of amphetamine-induced human dopamine transporter cell-surface redistribution. Mol Pharmacol. 2005 Jul;68(1):102-9. Epub 2005 Mar 28. Pubmed
  5. Madras BK, Miller GM, Fischman AJ: The dopamine transporter and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2005 Jun 1;57(11):1397-409. Epub 2005 Jan 5. Pubmed
  6. Kahlig KM, Binda F, Khoshbouei H, Blakely RD, McMahon DG, Javitch JA, Galli A: Amphetamine induces dopamine efflux through a dopamine transporter channel. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Mar 1;102(9):3495-500. Epub 2005 Feb 22. Pubmed

3. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript protein

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: agonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript protein Q16568 Details

References:

  1. Loos RJ, Rankinen T, Tremblay A, Perusse L, Chagnon Y, Bouchard C: Melanocortin-4 receptor gene and physical activity in the Quebec Family Study. Int J Obes (Lond). 2005 Apr;29(4):420-8. Pubmed
  2. McAlister ED, Van Vugt DA: Effect of leptin administration versus re-feeding on hypothalamic neuropeptide gene expression in fasted male rats. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2004 Dec;82(12):1128-34. Pubmed
  3. Muhlhausler BS, Adam CL, Marrocco EM, Findlay PA, Roberts CT, McFarlane JR, Kauter KG, McMillen IC: Impact of glucose infusion on the structural and functional characteristics of adipose tissue and on hypothalamic gene expression for appetite regulatory neuropeptides in the sheep fetus during late gestation. J Physiol. 2005 May 15;565(Pt 1):185-95. Epub 2005 Jan 20. Pubmed
  4. Scruggs P, Lai CC, Scruggs JE, Dun NJ: Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide potentiates spinal glutamatergic sympathoexcitation in anesthetized rats. Regul Pept. 2005 Apr 15;127(1-3):79-85. Pubmed
  5. Oliveira VX Jr, Fazio MA, Miranda MT, da Silva JM, Bittencourt JC, Elias CF, Miranda A: Leptin fragments induce Fos immunoreactivity in rat hypothalamus. Regul Pept. 2005 Apr 15;127(1-3):123-32. Pubmed
  6. Vicentic A, Lakatos A, Jones D: The CART receptors: background and recent advances. Peptides. 2006 Aug;27(8):1934-7. Epub 2006 May 19. Pubmed

4. Trace amine-associated receptor 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: agonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Trace amine-associated receptor 1 Q96RJ0 Details

References:

  1. Reese EA, Bunzow JR, Arttamangkul S, Sonders MS, Grandy DK: Trace amine-associated receptor 1 displays species-dependent stereoselectivity for isomers of methamphetamine, amphetamine, and para-hydroxyamphetamine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Apr;321(1):178-86. Epub 2007 Jan 11. Pubmed
  2. Xie Z, Westmoreland SV, Bahn ME, Chen GL, Yang H, Vallender EJ, Yao WD, Madras BK, Miller GM: Rhesus monkey trace amine-associated receptor 1 signaling: enhancement by monoamine transporters and attenuation by the D2 autoreceptor in vitro. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Apr;321(1):116-27. Epub 2007 Jan 18. Pubmed
  3. Wolinsky TD, Swanson CJ, Smith KE, Zhong H, Borowsky B, Seeman P, Branchek T, Gerald CP: The Trace Amine 1 receptor knockout mouse: an animal model with relevance to schizophrenia. Genes Brain Behav. 2007 Oct;6(7):628-39. Epub 2006 Dec 21. Pubmed
  4. Xie Z, Miller GM: Trace amine-associated receptor 1 is a modulator of the dopamine transporter. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Apr;321(1):128-36. Epub 2007 Jan 18. Pubmed
  5. Miller GM, Verrico CD, Jassen A, Konar M, Yang H, Panas H, Bahn M, Johnson R, Madras BK: Primate trace amine receptor 1 modulation by the dopamine transporter. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005 Jun;313(3):983-94. Epub 2005 Mar 11. Pubmed

5. Sodium-dependent noradrenaline transporter

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: stimulator

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Sodium-dependent noradrenaline transporter P23975 Details

References:

  1. Rothman RB, Vu N, Partilla JS, Roth BL, Hufeisen SJ, Compton-Toth BA, Birkes J, Young R, Glennon RA: In vitro characterization of ephedrine-related stereoisomers at biogenic amine transporters and the receptorome reveals selective actions as norepinephrine transporter substrates. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Oct;307(1):138-45. Epub 2003 Sep 3. Pubmed
  2. Wall SC, Gu H, Rudnick G: Biogenic amine flux mediated by cloned transporters stably expressed in cultured cell lines: amphetamine specificity for inhibition and efflux. Mol Pharmacol. 1995 Mar;47(3):544-50. Pubmed

6. Alpha adrenergic receptor

Kind: protein group

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: agonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Alpha-1A adrenergic receptor P35348 Details
Alpha-1B adrenergic receptor P35368 Details
Alpha-1D adrenergic receptor P25100 Details
Alpha-2A adrenergic receptor P08913 Details
Alpha-2B adrenergic receptor P18089 Details
Alpha-2C adrenergic receptor P18825 Details

References:

  1. Leibowitz SF: Reciprocal hunger-regulating circuits involving alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors located, respectively, in the ventromedial and lateral hypothalamus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1970 Oct;67(2):1063-70. Pubmed
  2. Reisine TD, U’Prichard DC, Wiech NL, Ursillo RC, Yamamura HI: Effects of combined administration of amphetamine and iprindole on brain adrenergic receptors. Brain Res. 1980 Apr 28;188(2):587-92. Pubmed

7. Beta adrenergic receptor

Kind: protein group

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: agonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Beta-1 adrenergic receptor P08588 Details
Beta-2 adrenergic receptor P07550 Details
Beta-3 adrenergic receptor P13945 Details

References:

  1. Leibowitz SF: Reciprocal hunger-regulating circuits involving alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors located, respectively, in the ventromedial and lateral hypothalamus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1970 Oct;67(2):1063-70. Pubmed
  2. Reisine TD, U’Prichard DC, Wiech NL, Ursillo RC, Yamamura HI: Effects of combined administration of amphetamine and iprindole on brain adrenergic receptors. Brain Res. 1980 Apr 28;188(2):587-92. Pubmed

8. D(2) dopamine receptor

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: binder

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
D(2) dopamine receptor P14416 Details

References:

  1. Innis RB, Malison RT, al-Tikriti M, Hoffer PB, Sybirska EH, Seibyl JP, Zoghbi SS, Baldwin RM, Laruelle M, Smith EO, et al.: Amphetamine-stimulated dopamine release competes in vivo for [123I]IBZM binding to the D2 receptor in nonhuman primates. Synapse. 1992 Mar;10(3):177-84. Pubmed

9. Amine oxidase [flavin-containing] B

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Amine oxidase [flavin-containing] B P27338 Details

References:

  1. Clarke DE, Lyles GA, Callingham BA: A comparison of cardiac and vascular clorgyline-resistant amine oxidase and monoamine oxidase. Inhibition by amphetamine, mexiletine and other drugs. Biochem Pharmacol. 1982 Jan 1;31(1):27-35. Pubmed

10. Sodium-dependent serotonin transporter

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: binder

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Sodium-dependent serotonin transporter P31645 Details

References:

  1. Fleckenstein AE, Volz TJ, Riddle EL, Gibb JW, Hanson GR: New insights into the mechanism of action of amphetamines. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2007;47:681-98. Pubmed

Enzymes

1. Cytochrome P450 2D6

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6 P10635 Details

References:

  1. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed
  3. Wu D, Otton SV, Inaba T, Kalow W, Sellers EM: Interactions of amphetamine analogs with human liver CYP2D6. Biochem Pharmacol. 1997 Jun 1;53(11):1605-12. Pubmed

2. Cytochrome P450 2A6

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2A6 P11509 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed
  2. Siu EC, Tyndale RF: Selegiline is a mechanism-based inactivator of CYP2A6 inhibiting nicotine metabolism in humans and mice. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2008 Mar;324(3):992-9. Epub 2007 Dec 7. Pubmed

Transporters

1. Solute carrier family 22 member 3

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier family 22 member 3 O75751 Details

References:

  1. Wu X, Kekuda R, Huang W, Fei YJ, Leibach FH, Chen J, Conway SJ, Ganapathy V: Identity of the organic cation transporter OCT3 as the extraneuronal monoamine transporter (uptake2) and evidence for the expression of the transporter in the brain. J Biol Chem. 1998 Dec 4;273(49):32776-86. Pubmed
  2. Zhu HJ, Appel DI, Grundemann D, Markowitz JS: Interaction of organic cation transporter 3 (SLC22A3) and amphetamine. J Neurochem. 2010 Jul;114(1):142-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2010.06738.×. Epub 2010 Apr 6. Pubmed

2. Solute carrier family 22 member 5

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier family 22 member 5 O76082 Details

References:

  1. Wu X, Prasad PD, Leibach FH, Ganapathy V: cDNA sequence, transport function, and genomic organization of human OCTN2, a new member of the organic cation transporter family. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998 May 29;246(3):589-95. Pubmed
  2. Wu X, Huang W, Prasad PD, Seth P, Rajan DP, Leibach FH, Chen J, Conway SJ, Ganapathy V: Functional characteristics and tissue distribution pattern of organic cation transporter 2 (OCTN2), an organic cation/carnitine transporter. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Sep;290(3):1482-92. Pubmed
  3. Rytting E, Audus KL: Novel organic cation transporter 2-mediated carnitine uptake in placental choriocarcinoma (BeWo) cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005 Jan;312(1):192-8. Epub 2004 Aug 17. Pubmed

Comments
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:08