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Identification
NameDoxorubicin
Accession NumberDB00997  (APRD00185)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Investigational
DescriptionDoxorubicin is a cytotoxic anthracycline antibiotic isolated from cultures of Streptomyces peucetius var. caesius. Doxorubicin binds to nucleic acids, presumably by specific intercalation of the planar anthracycline nucleus with the DNA double helix.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
(1S,3S)-3-Glycoloyl-3,5,12-trihydroxy-10-methoxy-6,11-dioxo-1,2,3,4,6,11-hexahydrotetracen-1-yl 3-amino-2,3,6-trideoxy-alpha-L-lyxo-hexopyranoside
(8S-cis)-10-((3-amino-2,3,6-Trideoxy-alpha-L-lyxo-hexopyranosyl)oxy)-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-6,8,11-trihydroxy-8-(hydroxyacetyl)-1-methoxy-5,12-naphthacenedione
14-hydroxydaunomycin
14-hydroxydaunorubicine
Adriamycin
Doxorubicin
Doxorubicine
Doxorubicinum
Hydroxydaunorubicin
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Adriamycin PFSsolution2 mgintravenous; intravesicalPfizer Canada Inc1995-12-31Not applicableCanada
Adriamycin Rdfpowder for solution10 mgintravenousPfizer Canada Inc1996-12-312006-08-02Canada
Adriamycin Rdfpowder for solution50 mgintravenousPfizer Canada Inc1995-12-312006-08-02Canada
Adriamycin Rdfpowder for solution150 mgintravenousPfizer Canada Inc1996-12-312006-08-02Canada
Adriamycin Rdf Inj 10mg/vialpowder for solution10 mgintravenousCarlo Erba Farmitalia Spa1976-12-311996-09-10Canada
Adriamycin Rdf Inj 150mg/vialpowder for solution150 mgintravenousAdria Laboratories Of Canada Ltd.1988-12-311996-09-10Canada
Adriamycin Rdf Inj 50mg/vialpowder for solution50 mgintravenousCarlo Erba Farmitalia Spa1976-12-311996-09-10Canada
CaelyxConcentrate for solution for infusion2 mg/mlIntravenous useJanssen Cilag International N.V.1996-06-21Not applicableEu
Caelyxsuspension2 mgintravenousJanssen Inc1998-08-19Not applicableCanada
CaelyxConcentrate for solution for infusion2 mg/mlIntravenous useJanssen Cilag International N.V.1996-06-21Not applicableEu
CaelyxConcentrate for solution for infusion2 mg/mlIntravenous useJanssen Cilag International N.V.1996-06-21Not applicableEu
CaelyxConcentrate for solution for infusion2 mg/mlIntravenous useJanssen Cilag International N.V.1996-06-21Not applicableEu
Doxilinjection, suspension, liposomal2 mg/mLintravenousJanssen Products, LP1995-11-17Not applicableUs
Doxorubicinsolution2 mgintravenous; intravesicalPfizer Canada Inc2014-05-21Not applicableCanada
Doxorubicin HCl for Inj. U.S.P. 10mg/vialpowder for solution10 mgintravenousDavid Bull Laboratories (Pty) Ltd.1995-12-311998-08-13Canada
Doxorubicin HCl for Inj. U.S.P. 150mg/vialpowder for solution150 mgintravenousDavid Bull Laboratories (Pty) Ltd.1995-12-311997-08-14Canada
Doxorubicin HCl for Inj. U.S.P. 50mg/vialpowder for solution50 mgintravenousDavid Bull Laboratories (Pty) Ltd.1995-12-311997-08-14Canada
Doxorubicin Hydrochlorideinjection, solution2 mg/mLintravenousPfizer Laboratories Div Pfizer Inc2014-03-17Not applicableUs
Doxorubicin Hydrochlorideinjection, solution2 mg/mLintravenousPfizer Laboratories Div Pfizer Inc1987-12-23Not applicableUs
Doxorubicin Hydrochlorideinjection, solution2 mg/mLintravenousPfizer Laboratories Div Pfizer Inc2013-03-05Not applicableUs
Doxorubicin Hydrochlorideinjection, solution2 mg/mLintravenousPfizer Laboratories Div Pfizer Inc1987-12-23Not applicableUs
Doxorubicin Hydrochlorideinjection, solution2 mg/mLintravenousPfizer Laboratories Div Pfizer Inc2013-03-05Not applicableUs
Doxorubicin Hydrochlorideinjection, solution2 mg/mLintravenousPfizer Laboratories Div Pfizer Inc1987-12-23Not applicableUs
Doxorubicin Hydrochlorideinjection, solution2 mg/mLintravenousPfizer Laboratories Div Pfizer Inc2013-03-05Not applicableUs
Doxorubicin Hydrochlorideinjection, solution2 mg/mLintravenousPfizer Laboratories Div Pfizer Inc2013-03-17Not applicableUs
Doxorubicin Hydrochlorideinjection, solution2 mg/mLintravenousPfizer Laboratories Div Pfizer Inc2013-03-05Not applicableUs
Doxorubicin Hydrochlorideinjection, solution2 mg/mLintravenousPfizer Laboratories Div Pfizer Inc1987-12-23Not applicableUs
Doxorubicin Hydrochlorideinjection, solution2 mg/mLintravenousPfizer Laboratories Div Pfizer Inc2014-03-17Not applicableUs
Doxorubicin Hydrochlorideinjection, solution2 mg/mLintravenousPfizer Laboratories Div Pfizer Inc2014-03-17Not applicableUs
Doxorubicin Hydrochlorideinjection, solution2 mg/mLintravenousPfizer Laboratories Div Pfizer Inc2013-03-05Not applicableUs
Doxorubicin Hydrochlorideinjection, solution2 mg/mLintravenousPfizer Laboratories Div Pfizer Inc1987-12-23Not applicableUs
Doxorubicin Hydrochloride for Injection USPpowder for solution10 mgintravenousHospira Healthcare Corporation1998-03-12Not applicableCanada
Doxorubicin Hydrochloride for Injection USPpowder for solution50 mgintravenousHospira Healthcare Corporation1997-07-30Not applicableCanada
Doxorubicin Hydrochloride for Injection USPpowder for solution150 mgintravenousHospira Healthcare Corporation1997-05-08Not applicableCanada
Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Injectionsolution2 mgintravenous; intravesicalTeva Canada Limited2014-02-27Not applicableCanada
Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Injectionsolution2 mgintravenous; intravesicalOmega Laboratories LtdNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Injectionsolution2 mgintravenous; intravesicalSandoz Canada Incorporated2015-04-10Not applicableCanada
Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Injectionsolution2 mgintravenousNovopharm Limited1997-09-12Not applicableCanada
Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Injection, USPsolution2 mgintravenous; intravesicalMylan Pharmaceuticals Ulc2015-01-08Not applicableCanada
Doxorubicin Injectionsolution2 mgintravenous; intravesicalAccord Healthcare Inc2014-12-16Not applicableCanada
MyocetPowder, dispersion and solvent for concentrate for dispersion for infusion50 mgIntravenous useTeva B.V.2000-07-13Not applicableEu
MyocetPowder, dispersion and solvent for concentrate for dispersion for infusion50 mgIntravenous useTeva B.V.2000-07-13Not applicableEu
Myocetliposomes2 mgintravenousSopherion Therapeutics Llc2001-12-21Not applicableCanada
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Doxorubicin Hydrochlorideinjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution2 mg/mLintravenousMylan Institutional LLC2011-10-29Not applicableUs
Doxorubicin Hydrochlorideinjectable, liposomal2 mg/mLintravenousSun Pharma Global FZE2013-02-05Not applicableUs
Doxorubicin Hydrochlorideinjection, solution2 mg/mLintravenousFresenius Kabi USA, LLC2000-06-14Not applicableUs
Doxorubicin Hydrochlorideinjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution2 mg/mLintravenousPfizer Laboratories Div Pfizer Inc.2011-10-29Not applicableUs
Doxorubicin Hydrochlorideinjection200 mg/100mLintravenousAmneal Agila, Llc2013-04-30Not applicableUs
Doxorubicin Hydrochlorideinjection, solution2 mg/mLintravenousTeva Parenteral Medicines, Inc.1995-09-01Not applicableUs
Doxorubicin Hydrochlorideinjection50 mg/25mLintravenousMylan Institutional LLC2012-02-14Not applicableUs
Doxorubicin Hydrochlorideinjectable, liposomal2 mg/mLintravenousSun Pharma Global FZE2013-02-05Not applicableUs
Doxorubicin Hydrochlorideinjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution2 mg/mLintravenousPfizer Laboratories Div Pfizer Inc.2011-10-29Not applicableUs
Doxorubicin Hydrochlorideinjection, solution2 mg/mLintravenousFresenius Kabi USA, LLC2000-04-14Not applicableUs
Doxorubicin Hydrochlorideinjection10 mg/5mLintravenousAmneal Agila, Llc2013-04-30Not applicableUs
Doxorubicin Hydrochlorideinjection, solution2 mg/mLintravenousSagent Pharmaceuticals2013-10-31Not applicableUs
Doxorubicin Hydrochlorideinjection200 mg/100mLintravenousMylan Institutional LLC2012-02-14Not applicableUs
Doxorubicin Hydrochlorideinjection20 mg/10mLintravenousAmneal Agila, Llc2013-04-30Not applicableUs
Doxorubicin Hydrochlorideinjection, solution2 mg/mLintravenousTeva Parenteral Medicines, Inc.1996-09-01Not applicableUs
Doxorubicin Hydrochlorideinjection10 mg/5mLintravenousMylan Institutional LLC2012-02-14Not applicableUs
Doxorubicin Hydrochlorideinjection, solution2 mg/mLintravenousSun Pharmaceutical Industries Limited2012-02-20Not applicableUs
Doxorubicin Hydrochlorideinjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution2 mg/mLintravenousMylan Institutional LLC2011-10-29Not applicableUs
Doxorubicin Hydrochlorideinjection, solution2 mg/mLintravenousActavis Pharma, Inc.2014-11-01Not applicableUs
Doxorubicin Hydrochlorideinjection50 mg/25mLintravenousAmneal Agila, Llc2013-04-30Not applicableUs
Doxorubicin Hydrochlorideinjection, solution2 mg/mLintravenousTeva Parenteral Medicines, Inc.1995-09-01Not applicableUs
Doxorubicin Hydrochlorideinjection20 mg/10mLintravenousMylan Institutional LLC2012-02-14Not applicableUs
Doxorubicin Hydrochlorideinjection, solution2 mg/mLintravenousSun Pharmaceutical Industries Limited2012-02-20Not applicableUs
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
AdriablastinaPfizer
AdriamycinPfizer
AdriblastinActavis
RubexNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Doxorubicin Hydrochloride
Thumb
  • InChI Key: MWWSFMDVAYGXBV-BADIEKLNSA-N
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 579.150738514
  • Average Mass: 579.98
DBSALT000060
Categories
UNII80168379AG
CAS number23214-92-8
WeightAverage: 543.5193
Monoisotopic: 543.174060775
Chemical FormulaC27H29NO11
InChI KeyInChIKey=AOJJSUZBOXZQNB-TZSSRYMLSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C27H29NO11/c1-10-22(31)13(28)6-17(38-10)39-15-8-27(36,16(30)9-29)7-12-19(15)26(35)21-20(24(12)33)23(32)11-4-3-5-14(37-2)18(11)25(21)34/h3-5,10,13,15,17,22,29,31,33,35-36H,6-9,28H2,1-2H3/t10-,13-,15-,17-,22+,27-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(8S,10S)-10-{[(2R,4S,5S,6S)-4-amino-5-hydroxy-6-methyloxan-2-yl]oxy}-6,8,11-trihydroxy-8-(2-hydroxyacetyl)-1-methoxy-5,7,8,9,10,12-hexahydrotetracene-5,12-dione
SMILES
COC1=CC=CC2=C1C(=O)C1=C(O)C3=C(C[C@](O)(C[C@@H]3O[[email protected]]3C[[email protected]](N)[[email protected]](O)[[email protected]](C)O3)C(=O)CO)C(O)=C1C2=O
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as anthracyclines. These are polyketides containing a tetracenequinone ring structure with a sugar attached by glycosidic linkage.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassPhenylpropanoids and polyketides
ClassAnthracyclines
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentAnthracyclines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Anthracyclinone-skeleton
  • Anthracycline
  • Tetracenequinone
  • 1,4-anthraquinone
  • 9,10-anthraquinone
  • Anthracene
  • Amino sugar
  • Tetralin
  • Aryl ketone
  • Hydroquinone
  • Anisole
  • Amino saccharide
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Benzenoid
  • Oxane
  • Monosaccharide
  • Vinylogous acid
  • Tertiary alcohol
  • Alpha-hydroxy ketone
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Polyol
  • Ketone
  • 1,2-aminoalcohol
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Ether
  • Acetal
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Primary alcohol
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Alcohol
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationDoxorubicin is used to produce regression in disseminated neoplastic conditions like acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myeloblastic leukemia, Wilms’ tumor, neuroblastoma, soft tissue and bone sarcomas, breast carcinoma, ovarian carcinoma, transitional cell bladder carcinoma, thyroid carcinoma, gastric carcinoma, Hodgkin’s disease, malignant lymphoma and bronchogenic carcinoma in which the small cell histologic type is the most responsive compared to other cell types. Doxorubicin is also indicated for use as a component of adjuvant therapy in women with evidence of axillary lymph node involvement following resection of primary breast cancer.
PharmacodynamicsDoxorubicin is an antineoplastic in the anthracycline class. General properties of drugs in this class include: interaction with DNA in a variety of different ways including intercalation (squeezing between the base pairs), DNA strand breakage and inhibition with the enzyme topoisomerase II. Most of these compounds have been isolated from natural sources and antibiotics. However, they lack the specificity of the antimicrobial antibiotics and thus produce significant toxicity. The anthracyclines are among the most important antitumor drugs available. Doxorubicin is widely used for the treatment of several solid tumors while daunorubicin and idarubicin are used exclusively for the treatment of leukemia. Doxorubicin may also inhibit polymerase activity, affect regulation of gene expression, and produce free radical damage to DNA. Doxorubicin possesses an antitumor effect against a wide spectrum of tumors, either grafted or spontaneous. The anthracyclines are cell cycle-nonspecific.
Mechanism of actionDoxorubicin has antimitotic and cytotoxic activity through a number of proposed mechanisms of action: Doxorubicin forms complexes with DNA by intercalation between base pairs, and it inhibits topoisomerase II activity by stabilizing the DNA-topoisomerase II complex, preventing the religation portion of the ligation-religation reaction that topoisomerase II catalyzes.
Related Articles
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distribution

The distributive half-life is 5 minutes, which suggests that doxorubicin is rapidly taken up by tissue.
Steady state volume of distribution = 809 to 1214 L/m2

Protein bindingDoxorubicin and its major metabolite, doxorubicinol, is 74-76% bound to plasma protein. The extent to binding is independent of plasma concentration up to 1.1 mcg/mL. Doxorubicin does not cross the blood brain barrier.
Metabolism

Doxorubicin is capable of undergoing 3 metabolic routes: one-electron reduction, two-electron reduction, and deglycosidation. However, approximately half of the dose is eliminated from the body unchanged. Two electron reduction yields doxorubicinol, a secondary alcohol. This pathway is considered the primary metabolic pathway. The one electron reduction is facilitated by several oxidoreductases to form a doxirubicin-semiquinone radical. These enzymes include mitochondrial and cystolic NADPH dehydrogenates, xanthine oxidase, and nitric oxide synthases. Deglycosidation is a minor metabolic pathway (1-2% of the dose undergoes this pathway). The resultant metabolites are deoxyaglycone or hydroxyaglycone formed via reduction or hydrolysis respectively. Enzymes that may be involved with this pathway include xanthine oxidase, NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, and cytosolic NADPH dehydrogenase.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Doxorubicin
DoxorubicinolDetails
Doxorubicin
Doxorubicin-semiquinoneDetails
Doxorubicin
Doxorubicinol deoxaglyconeDetails
Doxorubicin
Not Available
Doxorubicine hydroxyaglyconeDetails
Doxorubicine hydroxyaglycone
Not Available
Doxirubicinol hydroxyaglyconeDetails
Route of elimination40% of the dose appears in bile in 5 days. 5-12% of the drug and its metabolites appears in urine during the same time period. <3% of the dose recovered in urine was doxorubicinol.
Half lifeTerminal half life = 20 - 48 hours.
Clearance
  • 324-809 mL/min/m2 [by metabolism and biliary excretion]
  • 1088 mL/min/m2 [Men]
  • 433 mL/min/m2 [Women]
  • 1540 mL/min/m2 [children greater than 2 years of age receiving administration of 10 to 75 mg/m2 doses]
  • 813 mL/min/m2 [infants younger than 2 years of age receiving administration of 10 to 75 mg/m2 doses]
ToxicityLD50=21800 ug/kg (rat, subcutaneous)
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Doxorubicin Metabolism PathwayDrug metabolismSMP00650
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption-0.8092
Blood Brain Barrier-0.9951
Caco-2 permeable-0.799
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.7861
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8782
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8382
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9053
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8042
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.5888
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9045
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9209
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9025
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.831
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8911
Ames testAMES toxic0.9198
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9534
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9672
Rat acute toxicity2.6644 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9752
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.7195
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Ortho biotech products lp
  • Pharmacia and upjohn co
  • App pharmaceuticals llc
  • Bedford laboratories div ben venue laboratories inc
  • Pharmachemie bv
  • Teva parenteral medicines inc
  • Bristol myers squibb co
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Solutionintravenous; intravesical2 mg
Concentrate for solution for infusionIntravenous use2 mg/ml
Suspensionintravenous2 mg
Injection, suspension, liposomalintravenous2 mg/mL
Injectable, liposomalintravenous2 mg/mL
Injectionintravenous10 mg/5mL
Injectionintravenous20 mg/10mL
Injectionintravenous200 mg/100mL
Injectionintravenous50 mg/25mL
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionintravenous2 mg/mL
Injection, solutionintravenous2 mg/mL
Powder for solutionintravenous10 mg
Powder for solutionintravenous150 mg
Powder for solutionintravenous50 mg
Solutionintravenous2 mg
Liposomesintravenous2 mg
Powder, dispersion and solvent for concentrate for dispersion for infusionIntravenous use50 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Doxorubicin 50 mg vial132.0USD vial
Doxil 2 mg/ml vial115.78USD ml
Adriamycin 50 mg vial64.8USD vial
Doxorubicin 10 mg vial44.4USD vial
Adriamycin 20 mg vial26.4USD vial
Adriamycin 10 mg vial13.2USD vial
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
CA1335565 No1995-05-162012-05-16Canada
CA1338702 No1998-11-122013-11-12Canada
US5013556 No1992-10-202009-10-20Us
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point229-231 °CPhysProp
water solubilitySolubleNot Available
logP1.27HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Caco2 permeability-6.8ADME Research, USCD
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility1.18 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1.41ALOGPS
logP0.92ChemAxon
logS-2.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)9.53ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)8.94ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count12ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count6ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area206.07 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity134.59 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability53.87 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings5ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Gian P. Vicario, Sergio Penco, Federico Arcamone, “Daunorubicin and doxorubicin labelled with .sup.14 C at the 14-position and processes for their preparation.” U.S. Patent US4211864, issued March, 1976.

US4211864
General References
  1. Weiss RB: The anthracyclines: will we ever find a better doxorubicin? Semin Oncol. 1992 Dec;19(6):670-86. [PubMed:1462166 ]
  2. Tan C, Tasaka H, Yu KP, Murphy ML, Karnofsky DA: Daunomycin, an antitumor antibiotic, in the treatment of neoplastic disease. Clinical evaluation with special reference to childhood leukemia. Cancer. 1967 Mar;20(3):333-53. [PubMed:4290058 ]
  3. Arcamone F, Cassinelli G, Fantini G, Grein A, Orezzi P, Pol C, Spalla C: Adriamycin, 14-hydroxydaunomycin, a new antitumor antibiotic from S. peucetius var. caesius. Biotechnol Bioeng. 1969 Nov;11(6):1101-10. [PubMed:5365804 ]
  4. Di Marco A, Gaetani M, Scarpinato B: Adriamycin (NSC-123,127): a new antibiotic with antitumor activity. Cancer Chemother Rep. 1969 Feb;53(1):33-7. [PubMed:5772652 ]
  5. Lomovskaya N, Otten SL, Doi-Katayama Y, Fonstein L, Liu XC, Takatsu T, Inventi-Solari A, Filippini S, Torti F, Colombo AL, Hutchinson CR: Doxorubicin overproduction in Streptomyces peucetius: cloning and characterization of the dnrU ketoreductase and dnrV genes and the doxA cytochrome P-450 hydroxylase gene. J Bacteriol. 1999 Jan;181(1):305-18. [PubMed:9864344 ]
  6. Mordente A, Meucci E, Silvestrini A, Martorana GE, Giardina B: New developments in anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(13):1656-72. [PubMed:19442138 ]
  7. Minotti G: Reactions of adriamycin with microsomal iron and lipids. Free Radic Res Commun. 1989;7(3-6):143-8. [PubMed:2555273 ]
External Links
ATC CodesL01DB01
AHFS Codes
  • 10:00.00
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (105 KB)
MSDSDownload (74.1 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AbirateroneThe metabolism of Doxorubicin can be decreased when combined with Abiraterone.
AcebutololThe serum concentration of Acebutolol can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
AceclofenacAceclofenac may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
AcetaminophenThe serum concentration of Acetaminophen can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
AcetaminophenThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Acetaminophen.
AcetyldigitoxinAcetyldigitoxin may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Doxorubicin.
AcetyldigitoxinThe serum concentration of Acetyldigitoxin can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
Acetylsalicylic acidAcetylsalicylic acid may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Acetylsalicylic acidThe serum concentration of Acetylsalicylic acid can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
AdapaleneAdapalene may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
AfatinibThe serum concentration of Afatinib can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
AfatinibThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Afatinib.
AlbendazoleThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Albendazole.
AldosteroneThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Aldosterone.
AlectinibThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Alectinib.
Alendronic acidDoxorubicin may increase the hypocalcemic activities of Alendronic acid.
AlfentanilThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Alfentanil.
AlitretinoinThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
AmantadineThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.
AmbrisentanThe serum concentration of Ambrisentan can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
AmdinocillinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Amdinocillin.
Aminohippuric acidThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Aminohippuric acid.
AmiodaroneThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Amiodarone.
AmitriptylineThe serum concentration of Amitriptyline can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
AmitriptylineThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Amitriptyline.
AmlodipineThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Amlodipine.
AmoxicillinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Amoxicillin.
Amphotericin BAmphotericin B may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Doxorubicin.
AmpicillinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Ampicillin.
AmprenavirThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Amprenavir.
AmsacrineThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Amsacrine.
AntipyrineAntipyrine may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
AntipyrineThe metabolism of Antipyrine can be decreased when combined with Doxorubicin.
ApixabanThe serum concentration of Apixaban can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
ApremilastApremilast may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
AprepitantThe metabolism of Doxorubicin can be decreased when combined with Aprepitant.
AripiprazoleThe serum concentration of Aripiprazole can be increased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
Arsenic trioxideThe serum concentration of Arsenic trioxide can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
ArtemetherThe metabolism of Doxorubicin can be decreased when combined with Artemether.
AstemizoleThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Astemizole.
AtazanavirThe serum concentration of Atazanavir can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
AtazanavirThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Atazanavir.
AtenololThe serum concentration of Atenolol can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
AtenololThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Atenolol.
AtomoxetineThe metabolism of Doxorubicin can be decreased when combined with Atomoxetine.
AtorvastatinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Atorvastatin.
AxitinibThe serum concentration of Axitinib can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
AzapropazoneAzapropazone may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
AzelastineAzelastine may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
AzithromycinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Azithromycin.
AzlocillinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Azlocillin.
BalsalazideBalsalazide may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
BanoxantroneThe metabolism of Banoxantrone can be decreased when combined with Doxorubicin.
BenoxaprofenBenoxaprofen may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Benzathine benzylpenicillinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Benzathine benzylpenicillin.
BenzocaineThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Benzocaine.
BenzphetamineThe metabolism of Benzphetamine can be decreased when combined with Doxorubicin.
Benzyl alcoholThe metabolism of Benzyl alcohol can be decreased when combined with Doxorubicin.
BenzylpenicillinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Benzylpenicillin.
Benzylpenicillin PotassiumThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Benzylpenicillin Potassium.
BepridilThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Bepridil.
BetamethasoneThe serum concentration of Betamethasone can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
BetaxololThe metabolism of Doxorubicin can be decreased when combined with Betaxolol.
BevacizumabBevacizumab may increase the cardiotoxic activities of Doxorubicin.
BexaroteneThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Bexarotene.
BiperidenThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Biperiden.
BoceprevirThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Boceprevir.
BoceprevirThe serum concentration of Boceprevir can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
BortezomibThe metabolism of Doxorubicin can be decreased when combined with Bortezomib.
BosentanThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Bosentan.
BosutinibThe serum concentration of Bosutinib can be increased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
Botulinum Toxin Type ADoxorubicin may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.
Botulinum Toxin Type BDoxorubicin may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Botulinum Toxin Type B.
Brentuximab vedotinThe serum concentration of Brentuximab vedotin can be increased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
BromfenacBromfenac may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
BromocriptineThe serum concentration of Bromocriptine can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
BromocriptineThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Bromocriptine.
BrompheniramineThe metabolism of Brompheniramine can be decreased when combined with Doxorubicin.
BumetanideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bumetanide is combined with Doxorubicin.
BuprenorphineThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Buprenorphine.
BupropionThe serum concentration of Bupropion can be increased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
BuspironeThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Buspirone.
CabazitaxelThe serum concentration of Cabazitaxel can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
CabazitaxelThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Cabazitaxel.
CaffeineThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
CaffeineThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.
CamptothecinThe serum concentration of Camptothecin can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
CanagliflozinThe serum concentration of Canagliflozin can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
CanagliflozinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Canagliflozin.
CandesartanThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Candesartan.
CapreomycinCapreomycin may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Doxorubicin.
CaptoprilThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Captopril.
CarbamazepineThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Carbamazepine.
CarbenicillinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Carbenicillin.
CarbinoxamineThe metabolism of Carbinoxamine can be decreased when combined with Doxorubicin.
CarboplatinDoxorubicin may increase the ototoxic activities of Carboplatin.
CarfilzomibThe serum concentration of Carfilzomib can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
CarprofenCarprofen may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
CarvedilolThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Carvedilol.
CaspofunginThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Caspofungin.
CastanospermineCastanospermine may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
CelecoxibCelecoxib may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
CeritinibThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Ceritinib.
CeritinibThe serum concentration of Ceritinib can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
CerivastatinThe serum concentration of Cerivastatin can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
ChloroquineChloroquine may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
ChlorpromazineThe serum concentration of Chlorpromazine can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
ChlorpromazineThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Chlorpromazine.
ChlorpropamideThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Chlorpropamide.
ChlorprothixeneThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Chlorprothixene.
CholecalciferolThe metabolism of Doxorubicin can be decreased when combined with Cholecalciferol.
CholesterolThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Cholesterol.
Cholic AcidThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Cholic Acid.
CilazaprilThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Cilazapril.
CimetidineThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Cimetidine.
CinacalcetThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Cinacalcet.
CinnarizineThe metabolism of Cinnarizine can be decreased when combined with Doxorubicin.
CiprofloxacinThe serum concentration of Ciprofloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
CiprofloxacinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Ciprofloxacin.
CisaprideThe metabolism of Cisapride can be decreased when combined with Doxorubicin.
CisplatinCisplatin may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Doxorubicin.
CisplatinThe serum concentration of Cisplatin can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
CitalopramThe serum concentration of Citalopram can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
CitalopramThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Citalopram.
ClarithromycinThe serum concentration of Clarithromycin can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
ClarithromycinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Clarithromycin.
ClemastineThe metabolism of Doxorubicin can be decreased when combined with Clemastine.
ClobazamThe serum concentration of Clobazam can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
ClobazamThe metabolism of Doxorubicin can be decreased when combined with Clobazam.
ClodronateDoxorubicin may increase the hypocalcemic activities of Clodronate.
ClofazimineThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Clofazimine.
clomethiazoleThe metabolism of clomethiazole can be decreased when combined with Doxorubicin.
ClomifeneThe serum concentration of Clomifene can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
ClomipramineThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Clomipramine.
ClonidineThe serum concentration of Clonidine can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
ClonixinClonixin may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
ClopidogrelThe serum concentration of Clopidogrel can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
ClotiazepamThe metabolism of Clotiazepam can be decreased when combined with Doxorubicin.
ClotrimazoleThe metabolism of Doxorubicin can be decreased when combined with Clotrimazole.
CloxacillinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Cloxacillin.
ClozapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Doxorubicin is combined with Clozapine.
ClozapineThe metabolism of Doxorubicin can be decreased when combined with Clozapine.
CobicistatThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Cobicistat.
CobimetinibThe serum concentration of Cobimetinib can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
CocaineThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Cocaine.
ColchicineThe serum concentration of Colchicine can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
ColchicineThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Colchicine.
ColforsinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Colforsin.
ColistimethateDoxorubicin may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Colistimethate.
ConivaptanThe metabolism of Doxorubicin can be decreased when combined with Conivaptan.
Conjugated Equine EstrogensThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
CrizotinibThe metabolism of Doxorubicin can be decreased when combined with Crizotinib.
CrizotinibThe serum concentration of Crizotinib can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
CyclacillinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Cyclacillin.
CyclophosphamideThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Cyclophosphamide.
CyclophosphamideThe metabolism of Cyclophosphamide can be decreased when combined with Doxorubicin.
CyclosporineDoxorubicin may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Cyclosporine.
CyclosporineThe metabolism of Doxorubicin can be decreased when combined with Cyclosporine.
D-LimoneneD-Limonene may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Dabigatran etexilateThe serum concentration of Dabigatran etexilate can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
DabrafenibThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Dabrafenib.
DaclatasvirThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Daclatasvir.
DactinomycinThe serum concentration of Dactinomycin can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
DactinomycinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Dactinomycin.
DapagliflozinThe serum concentration of Dapagliflozin can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
DarifenacinThe metabolism of Doxorubicin can be decreased when combined with Darifenacin.
DarunavirThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Darunavir.
DasatinibThe serum concentration of Dasatinib can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
DasatinibThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Dasatinib.
DaunorubicinThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
DebrisoquinThe serum concentration of Debrisoquin can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
DeferasiroxThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Deferasirox.
DelavirdineThe metabolism of Doxorubicin can be decreased when combined with Delavirdine.
DenosumabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Denosumab is combined with Doxorubicin.
DesipramineThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Desipramine.
DeslanosideDeslanoside may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Doxorubicin.
DeslanosideThe serum concentration of Deslanoside can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
DesloratadineThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Desloratadine.
DexamethasoneThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Dexamethasone.
DexrazoxaneThe therapeutic efficacy of Doxorubicin can be decreased when used in combination with Dexrazoxane.
DextromethorphanThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Dextromethorphan.
DextromethorphanThe metabolism of Dextromethorphan can be decreased when combined with Doxorubicin.
DiazepamThe serum concentration of Diazepam can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
DiclofenacDiclofenac may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
DiclofenacThe metabolism of Diclofenac can be decreased when combined with Doxorubicin.
DicloxacillinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Dicloxacillin.
DiethylstilbestrolThe serum concentration of Diethylstilbestrol can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
DiflunisalDiflunisal may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
DigitoxinDigitoxin may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Doxorubicin.
DigitoxinThe serum concentration of Digitoxin can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
DigoxinDigoxin may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Doxorubicin.
DigoxinThe serum concentration of Digoxin can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
DihydroergotamineThe metabolism of Doxorubicin can be decreased when combined with Dihydroergotamine.
DihydrotestosteroneThe serum concentration of Dihydrotestosterone can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
DiltiazemThe metabolism of Doxorubicin can be decreased when combined with Diltiazem.
DiltiazemThe serum concentration of Diltiazem can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
DiphenhydramineThe metabolism of Doxorubicin can be decreased when combined with Diphenhydramine.
DipyridamoleThe serum concentration of Dipyridamole can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
DipyridamoleThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Dipyridamole.
DocetaxelThe metabolism of Doxorubicin can be decreased when combined with Docetaxel.
DocetaxelThe serum concentration of Docetaxel can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
DomperidoneThe serum concentration of Domperidone can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
DoxazosinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Doxazosin.
DoxepinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Doxepin.
DoxycyclineThe metabolism of Doxorubicin can be decreased when combined with Doxycycline.
DronabinolThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Dronabinol.
DronedaroneThe metabolism of Doxorubicin can be decreased when combined with Dronedarone.
DroxicamDroxicam may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
DuloxetineThe metabolism of Doxorubicin can be decreased when combined with Duloxetine.
EdoxabanThe serum concentration of Edoxaban can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
EfavirenzThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Efavirenz.
EfavirenzThe metabolism of Efavirenz can be decreased when combined with Doxorubicin.
ElbasvirThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Elbasvir.
EletriptanThe serum concentration of Eletriptan can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
EliglustatThe metabolism of Doxorubicin can be decreased when combined with Eliglustat.
EltrombopagThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Eltrombopag.
EnalaprilThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Enalapril.
EnzalutamideThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Enzalutamide.
EpinastineThe serum concentration of Epinastine can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
EpirizoleEpirizole may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
ErgonovineThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Ergonovine.
ErgotamineThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Ergotamine.
ErlotinibThe serum concentration of Erlotinib can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
ErythromycinThe metabolism of Doxorubicin can be decreased when combined with Erythromycin.
ErythromycinThe serum concentration of Erythromycin can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
Eslicarbazepine acetateThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Eslicarbazepine acetate.
EstradiolThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
EstramustineThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Estramustine.
EstriolThe serum concentration of Estriol can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
EstroneThe serum concentration of Estrone can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
Etacrynic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etacrynic acid is combined with Doxorubicin.
EtanerceptEtanercept may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Ethinyl EstradiolThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
EthylmorphineThe metabolism of Ethylmorphine can be decreased when combined with Doxorubicin.
Etidronic acidDoxorubicin may increase the hypocalcemic activities of Etidronic acid.
EtodolacEtodolac may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
EtofenamateEtofenamate may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
EtoposideThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
EtoposideThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.
EtoricoxibEtoricoxib may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
EtravirineThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Etravirine.
Evening primrose oilEvening primrose oil may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
EverolimusThe serum concentration of Everolimus can be increased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
exisulindexisulind may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
EzetimibeThe serum concentration of Ezetimibe can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
FelodipineThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Felodipine.
FenbufenFenbufen may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
FenoprofenFenoprofen may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
FentanylThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Fentanyl.
FesoterodineThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Fesoterodine can be increased when Fesoterodine is used in combination with Doxorubicin.
FexofenadineThe serum concentration of Fexofenadine can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
FexofenadineThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Fexofenadine.
FidaxomicinThe serum concentration of Fidaxomicin can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
FidaxomicinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Fidaxomicin.
FingolimodDoxorubicin may increase the immunosuppressive activities of Fingolimod.
FloctafenineFloctafenine may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
FlucloxacillinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Flucloxacillin.
FluconazoleThe metabolism of Doxorubicin can be decreased when combined with Fluconazole.
FlunarizineThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Doxorubicin.
FlunitrazepamThe metabolism of Flunitrazepam can be decreased when combined with Doxorubicin.
FlunixinFlunixin may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
FluoxetineThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Fluoxetine.
FluoxetineThe metabolism of Fluoxetine can be decreased when combined with Doxorubicin.
FlupentixolThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Flupentixol.
FluphenazineThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Fluphenazine.
FlurazepamThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Flurazepam.
FlurbiprofenFlurbiprofen may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Fluticasone furoateThe serum concentration of Fluticasone furoate can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
FluvoxamineThe metabolism of Doxorubicin can be decreased when combined with Fluvoxamine.
FosamprenavirThe metabolism of Doxorubicin can be decreased when combined with Fosamprenavir.
FosaprepitantThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Fosaprepitant.
FoscarnetFoscarnet may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Doxorubicin.
FosphenytoinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Fosphenytoin.
FurosemideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Furosemide is combined with Doxorubicin.
Fusidic AcidThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Fusidic Acid.
GefitinibThe serum concentration of Gefitinib can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
GefitinibThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Gefitinib.
GemcitabineThe serum concentration of Gemcitabine can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
GenisteinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Genistein.
GlyburideThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Glyburide.
GlycerolThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Glycerol.
Gramicidin DThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
GrazoprevirThe serum concentration of Grazoprevir can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
GrepafloxacinThe serum concentration of Grepafloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
GrepafloxacinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Grepafloxacin.
HaloperidolThe serum concentration of Haloperidol can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
HaloperidolThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Haloperidol.
HalothaneThe metabolism of Halothane can be decreased when combined with Doxorubicin.
HMPL-004HMPL-004 may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
HydrocortisoneThe serum concentration of Hydrocortisone can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
HydrocortisoneThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Hydrocortisone.
IbandronateDoxorubicin may increase the hypocalcemic activities of Ibandronate.
IbuprofenIbuprofen may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
IbuprofenThe serum concentration of Ibuprofen can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
IbuproxamIbuproxam may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
IcatibantIcatibant may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
IdelalisibThe serum concentration of Idelalisib can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
IdelalisibThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Idelalisib.
IfosfamideThe metabolism of Ifosfamide can be decreased when combined with Doxorubicin.
ImatinibThe metabolism of Doxorubicin can be decreased when combined with Imatinib.
ImatinibThe serum concentration of Imatinib can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
ImipramineThe serum concentration of Imipramine can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
ImipramineThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Imipramine.
IndacaterolThe serum concentration of Indacaterol can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
IndinavirThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Indinavir.
IndomethacinIndomethacin may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
IndomethacinThe serum concentration of Indomethacin can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
IndoprofenIndoprofen may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
IrinotecanThe serum concentration of Irinotecan can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
IsavuconazoniumThe metabolism of Doxorubicin can be decreased when combined with Isavuconazonium.
IsofluraneThe metabolism of Isoflurane can be decreased when combined with Doxorubicin.
IsoniazidThe metabolism of Doxorubicin can be decreased when combined with Isoniazid.
IsoxicamIsoxicam may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
IsradipineThe metabolism of Doxorubicin can be decreased when combined with Isradipine.
ItraconazoleThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Itraconazole.
IvacaftorThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Ivacaftor.
IvermectinThe serum concentration of Ivermectin can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
IvermectinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Ivermectin.
IxazomibThe metabolism of Ixazomib can be decreased when combined with Doxorubicin.
KebuzoneKebuzone may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
KetamineThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Ketamine.
KetamineThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Doxorubicin.
KetazolamThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
KetobemidoneThe metabolism of Ketobemidone can be decreased when combined with Doxorubicin.
KetoconazoleThe serum concentration of Ketoconazole can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
KetoconazoleThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Ketoconazole.
KetoprofenKetoprofen may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
KetorolacKetorolac may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
LamivudineThe serum concentration of Lamivudine can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
LamotrigineThe serum concentration of Lamotrigine can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
LansoprazoleThe serum concentration of Lansoprazole can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
LansoprazoleThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Lansoprazole.
LapatinibThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Lapatinib.
LedipasvirThe serum concentration of Ledipasvir can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
LeflunomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Doxorubicin is combined with Leflunomide.
LeflunomideLeflunomide may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
LenalidomideThe serum concentration of Lenalidomide can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
LenvatinibThe serum concentration of Lenvatinib can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
LevetiracetamThe serum concentration of Levetiracetam can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
LevofloxacinThe serum concentration of Levofloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
LevofloxacinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Levofloxacin.
LevomilnacipranThe serum concentration of Levomilnacipran can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
LevothyroxineThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Levothyroxine.
LidocaineThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Lidocaine.
LidocaineThe metabolism of Lidocaine can be decreased when combined with Doxorubicin.
LinagliptinThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
LiothyronineThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Liothyronine.
LiotrixThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Liotrix.
LisinoprilThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Lisinopril.
LomitapideThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Lomitapide.
LoperamideThe serum concentration of Loperamide can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
LoperamideThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Loperamide.
LopinavirThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Lopinavir.
LoratadineThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Loratadine.
LorcaserinThe metabolism of Doxorubicin can be decreased when combined with Lorcaserin.
LornoxicamLornoxicam may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
LosartanThe serum concentration of Losartan can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
LosartanThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Losartan.
LovastatinThe metabolism of Doxorubicin can be decreased when combined with Lovastatin.
LoxoprofenLoxoprofen may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
LuliconazoleThe metabolism of Doxorubicin can be decreased when combined with Luliconazole.
LumacaftorThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Lumacaftor.
LumefantrineThe metabolism of Doxorubicin can be decreased when combined with Lumefantrine.
LumiracoxibLumiracoxib may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Magnesium salicylateMagnesium salicylate may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
MalathionThe metabolism of Malathion can be decreased when combined with Doxorubicin.
MannitolMannitol may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Doxorubicin.
MannitolThe serum concentration of Mannitol can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
MaprotilineThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Maprotiline.
MasoprocolMasoprocol may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
MebendazoleThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Mebendazole.
MecamylamineDoxorubicin may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Mecamylamine.
Meclofenamic acidMeclofenamic acid may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Mefenamic acidMefenamic acid may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
MefloquineThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Mefloquine.
Megestrol acetateThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Megestrol acetate.
MeloxicamMeloxicam may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
MephenytoinThe metabolism of Mephenytoin can be decreased when combined with Doxorubicin.
MeprobamateThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Meprobamate.
MercaptopurineDoxorubicin may increase the hepatotoxic activities of Mercaptopurine.
MesalazineMesalazine may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
MetamizoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metamizole is combined with Doxorubicin.
MethadoneThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Methadone.
MethadoneThe metabolism of Methadone can be decreased when combined with Doxorubicin.
MethotrexateThe serum concentration of Methotrexate can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
MethotrimeprazineThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Methotrimeprazine.
MethoxyfluraneThe metabolism of Methoxyflurane can be decreased when combined with Doxorubicin.
MethylphenobarbitalThe metabolism of Methylphenobarbital can be decreased when combined with Doxorubicin.
MethylprednisoloneThe serum concentration of Methylprednisolone can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
MethyltestosteroneThe metabolism of Methyltestosterone can be decreased when combined with Doxorubicin.
MeticillinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Meticillin.
MetoprololThe serum concentration of Metoprolol can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
MetoprololThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Metoprolol.
MexiletineThe metabolism of Mexiletine can be decreased when combined with Doxorubicin.
MezlocillinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Mezlocillin.
MianserinThe metabolism of Mianserin can be decreased when combined with Doxorubicin.
MibefradilThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Mibefradil.
MiconazoleThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Miconazole.
MidazolamThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Midazolam.
MifepristoneThe metabolism of Doxorubicin can be decreased when combined with Mifepristone.
MirabegronThe serum concentration of Mirabegron can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
MirabegronThe metabolism of Doxorubicin can be decreased when combined with Mirabegron.
MitomycinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Mitomycin.
MitotaneThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Mitotane.
MitoxantroneThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.
ModafinilThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Modafinil.
MorphineThe serum concentration of Morphine can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
MorphineThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Morphine.
Mycophenolate mofetilMycophenolate mofetil may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Mycophenolate mofetilThe serum concentration of Mycophenolate mofetil can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
Mycophenolic acidMycophenolic acid may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
NabumetoneNabumetone may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
NadololThe serum concentration of Nadolol can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
NafcillinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Nafcillin.
NaftifineNaftifine may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
NaloxegolThe serum concentration of Naloxegol can be increased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
NaloxoneThe serum concentration of Naloxone can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
NaltrexoneThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Naltrexone.
NaproxenNaproxen may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
NaringeninThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Naringenin.
NatalizumabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Doxorubicin is combined with Natalizumab.
NCX 4016NCX 4016 may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
NefazodoneThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Nefazodone.
NelfinavirThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Nelfinavir.
NeostigmineThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Neostigmine.
NepafenacNepafenac may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
NetupitantThe metabolism of Doxorubicin can be decreased when combined with Netupitant.
NevirapineThe metabolism of Doxorubicin can be decreased when combined with Nevirapine.
NicardipineThe serum concentration of Nicardipine can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
NicardipineThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Nicardipine.
NicotineThe metabolism of Nicotine can be decreased when combined with Doxorubicin.
NifedipineThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Nifedipine.
Niflumic AcidNiflumic Acid may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
NilotinibThe metabolism of Doxorubicin can be decreased when combined with Nilotinib.
NilotinibThe serum concentration of Nilotinib can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
NimesulideNimesulide may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
NintedanibThe serum concentration of Nintedanib can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
NisoldipineThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Nisoldipine.
NitrazepamThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Nitrazepam.
NitrendipineThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Nitrendipine.
NizatidineThe serum concentration of Nizatidine can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
NorethisteroneThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Norethisterone.
OlanzapineThe serum concentration of Olanzapine can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
OlaparibThe metabolism of Doxorubicin can be decreased when combined with Olaparib.
OlopatadineOlopatadine may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
OlsalazineOlsalazine may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
OmbitasvirThe serum concentration of Ombitasvir can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
OmeprazoleThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Omeprazole.
OrgoteinOrgotein may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
OsimertinibThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Osimertinib.
OsimertinibThe serum concentration of Osimertinib can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
OspemifeneThe metabolism of Ospemifene can be decreased when combined with Doxorubicin.
OuabainOuabain may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Doxorubicin.
OuabainThe serum concentration of Ouabain can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
OxacillinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Oxacillin.
OxaprozinOxaprozin may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
OxyphenbutazoneOxyphenbutazone may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
P-NitrophenolThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with P-Nitrophenol.
PaclitaxelThe serum concentration of Paclitaxel can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
PaclitaxelThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Paclitaxel.
PalbociclibThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Palbociclib.
Palmitic AcidThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Palmitic Acid.
PamidronateDoxorubicin may increase the hypocalcemic activities of Pamidronate.
PanobinostatThe serum concentration of Panobinostat can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
PanobinostatThe metabolism of Doxorubicin can be decreased when combined with Panobinostat.
PantoprazoleThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Pantoprazole.
ParecoxibParecoxib may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
ParoxetineThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Paroxetine.
PazopanibThe serum concentration of Pazopanib can be increased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
Peginterferon alfa-2bThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Peginterferon alfa-2b.
PentobarbitalThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Pentobarbital.
PerhexilineThe metabolism of Perhexiline can be decreased when combined with Doxorubicin.
PerindoprilThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Perindopril.
PermethrinThe metabolism of Permethrin can be decreased when combined with Doxorubicin.
PerphenazineThe metabolism of Perphenazine can be decreased when combined with Doxorubicin.
PethidineThe metabolism of Pethidine can be decreased when combined with Doxorubicin.
PhenobarbitalThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.
PhenoxymethylpenicillinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Phenoxymethylpenicillin.
PhenylbutazonePhenylbutazone may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
PhenytoinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
PimecrolimusThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pimecrolimus is combined with Doxorubicin.
PimozideThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Pimozide.
PiperacillinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Piperacillin.
PiretanideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Piretanide is combined with Doxorubicin.
PirfenidonePirfenidone may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
PiroxicamPiroxicam may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
PitavastatinThe serum concentration of Pitavastatin can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
PivampicillinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Pivampicillin.
PivmecillinamThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Pivmecillinam.
Platelet Activating FactorThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Platelet Activating Factor.
PomalidomideThe serum concentration of Pomalidomide can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
PonatinibThe serum concentration of Ponatinib can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
PonatinibThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Ponatinib.
PosaconazoleThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Posaconazole.
PrasugrelThe metabolism of Prasugrel can be decreased when combined with Doxorubicin.
PravastatinThe serum concentration of Pravastatin can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
PravastatinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Pravastatin.
PrazosinThe serum concentration of Prazosin can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
PrazosinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Prazosin.
PrednisoloneThe serum concentration of Prednisolone can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
PrednisoneThe serum concentration of Prednisone can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
PrednisoneThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Prednisone.
PrimidoneThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Primidone.
ProbenecidThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Probenecid.
Procaine benzylpenicillinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Procaine benzylpenicillin.
ProgesteroneThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Progesterone.
PromazineThe metabolism of Doxorubicin can be decreased when combined with Promazine.
PromethazineThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Promethazine.
PromethazineThe metabolism of Promethazine can be decreased when combined with Doxorubicin.
PropacetamolPropacetamol may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
PropafenoneThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Propafenone.
PropofolThe metabolism of Propofol can be decreased when combined with Doxorubicin.
PropranololThe serum concentration of Propranolol can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
PropranololThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Propranolol.
ProtriptylineThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Protriptyline.
PrucaloprideThe serum concentration of Prucalopride can be increased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
PTC299PTC299 may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
QuercetinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Quercetin.
QuetiapineThe serum concentration of Quetiapine can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
QuinacrineThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Quinacrine.
QuinidineThe serum concentration of Quinidine can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
QuinidineThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Quinidine.
QuinineThe serum concentration of Quinine can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
QuinineThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Quinine.
Rabies vaccineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Doxorubicin is combined with Rabies vaccine.
RanitidineThe serum concentration of Ranitidine can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
RanitidineThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Ranitidine.
RanolazineThe serum concentration of Ranolazine can be increased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
RanolazineThe metabolism of Doxorubicin can be decreased when combined with Ranolazine.
ReboxetineThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Reboxetine.
RegorafenibThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Regorafenib.
ReserpineThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Reserpine.
ResveratrolResveratrol may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
RifabutinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Rifabutin.
RifampicinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Rifampicin.
RifapentineThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Rifapentine.
RifaximinThe serum concentration of Rifaximin can be increased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
RilpivirineThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Rilpivirine.
RisedronateDoxorubicin may increase the hypocalcemic activities of Risedronate.
RisperidoneThe serum concentration of Risperidone can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
RitonavirThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
RivaroxabanThe serum concentration of Rivaroxaban can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
RofecoxibRofecoxib may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
RoflumilastRoflumilast may increase the immunosuppressive activities of Doxorubicin.
RolapitantThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Rolapitant.
RomidepsinThe serum concentration of Romidepsin can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
RopiniroleThe metabolism of Doxorubicin can be decreased when combined with Ropinirole.
RopivacaineThe metabolism of Ropivacaine can be decreased when combined with Doxorubicin.
SalicylamideSalicylamide may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Salicylic acidSalicylic acid may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Salicylic acidThe serum concentration of Salicylic acid can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
SalsalateSalsalate may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
SaquinavirThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Saquinavir.
ScopolamineThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Scopolamine.
SelegilineThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Selegiline.
SelegilineThe metabolism of Selegiline can be decreased when combined with Doxorubicin.
SelexipagThe serum concentration of Selexipag can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
SeratrodastSeratrodast may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
SeratrodastThe metabolism of Seratrodast can be decreased when combined with Doxorubicin.
SertralineThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Sertraline.
SertralineThe metabolism of Sertraline can be decreased when combined with Doxorubicin.
SevofluraneThe metabolism of Sevoflurane can be decreased when combined with Doxorubicin.
SildenafilThe metabolism of Doxorubicin can be decreased when combined with Sildenafil.
SilodosinThe serum concentration of Silodosin can be increased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
SiltuximabThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Siltuximab.
SimeprevirThe serum concentration of Simeprevir can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
SimeprevirThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Simeprevir.
SimvastatinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Simvastatin.
Sipuleucel-TThe therapeutic efficacy of Sipuleucel-T can be decreased when used in combination with Doxorubicin.
SirolimusThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Sirolimus.
SitagliptinThe serum concentration of Sitagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
SofosbuvirThe serum concentration of Sofosbuvir can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
SorafenibThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Sorafenib.
SorafenibThe serum concentration of Sorafenib can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
SparfloxacinThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
SphingosineThe serum concentration of Sphingosine can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
SpironolactoneThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Spironolactone.
SRT501SRT501 may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
St. John's WortThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with St. John&#39;s Wort.
StaurosporineThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Staurosporine.
StavudineThe therapeutic efficacy of Stavudine can be decreased when used in combination with Doxorubicin.
StiripentolThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Stiripentol.
StreptozocinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Streptozocin.
SulbactamThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Sulbactam.
SulfasalazineSulfasalazine may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
SulfinpyrazoneThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Sulfinpyrazone.
SulfisoxazoleThe metabolism of Doxorubicin can be decreased when combined with Sulfisoxazole.
SulindacSulindac may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
SumatriptanThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Sumatriptan.
SunitinibThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Sunitinib.
SuprofenSuprofen may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
TacrineThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Tacrine.
TacrolimusThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Tacrolimus.
TamoxifenThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Tamoxifen.
Taurocholic AcidThe serum concentration of Taurocholic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
Taurocholic AcidThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Taurocholic Acid.
Technetium Tc-99m MedronateDoxorubicin may increase the hypocalcemic activities of Technetium Tc-99m Medronate.
Technetium Tc-99m sestamibiThe serum concentration of Technetium Tc-99m sestamibi can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
TelaprevirThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Telaprevir.
TelaprevirThe serum concentration of Telaprevir can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
TelithromycinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Telithromycin.
TelmisartanThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Telmisartan.
TemazepamThe metabolism of Temazepam can be decreased when combined with Doxorubicin.
TemsirolimusThe serum concentration of Temsirolimus can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
TemsirolimusThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Temsirolimus.
TenofovirThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Tenofovir.
TenoxicamTenoxicam may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
TepoxalinTepoxalin may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
TerazosinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Terazosin.
TerbinafineThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Terbinafine.
TerfenadineThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Terfenadine.
TeriflunomideThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Teriflunomide.
TesmilifeneThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Tesmilifene.
TestosteroneThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Testosterone.
TestosteroneThe metabolism of Testosterone can be decreased when combined with Doxorubicin.
ThioridazineThe serum concentration of Thioridazine can be increased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
Tiaprofenic acidTiaprofenic acid may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
TicagrelorThe serum concentration of Ticagrelor can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
TicagrelorThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Ticagrelor.
TicarcillinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Ticarcillin.
TiclopidineThe metabolism of Doxorubicin can be decreased when combined with Ticlopidine.
TiludronateDoxorubicin may increase the hypocalcemic activities of Tiludronate.
TimololThe serum concentration of Timolol can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
TipranavirThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Tipranavir.
TocilizumabThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Tocilizumab.
TofacitinibDoxorubicin may increase the immunosuppressive activities of Tofacitinib.
Tolfenamic AcidTolfenamic Acid may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
TolmetinTolmetin may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
TolvaptanThe serum concentration of Tolvaptan can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
TolvaptanThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Tolvaptan.
TopotecanThe serum concentration of Topotecan can be increased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
TorasemideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Torasemide is combined with Doxorubicin.
ToremifeneThe serum concentration of Toremifene can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
TramadolThe metabolism of Tramadol can be decreased when combined with Doxorubicin.
TranilastTranilast may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
TranylcypromineThe metabolism of Doxorubicin can be decreased when combined with Tranylcypromine.
TrastuzumabTrastuzumab may increase the neutropenic activities of Doxorubicin.
Trastuzumab emtansineThe serum concentration of Trastuzumab emtansine can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
TrazodoneThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Trazodone.
TretinoinThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be decreased when combined with Doxorubicin.
TrifluoperazineThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Trifluoperazine.
TriflupromazineThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Triflupromazine.
TrimethoprimThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Trimethoprim.
TrimipramineThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Trimipramine.
Trisalicylate-cholineTrisalicylate-choline may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
TroleandomycinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Troleandomycin.
UlipristalThe serum concentration of Ulipristal can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
UmeclidiniumThe serum concentration of Umeclidinium can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
ValdecoxibValdecoxib may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Valproic AcidThe metabolism of Valproic Acid can be decreased when combined with Doxorubicin.
VancomycinVancomycin may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Doxorubicin.
VecuroniumThe serum concentration of Vecuronium can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
VenlafaxineThe metabolism of Doxorubicin can be decreased when combined with Venlafaxine.
VenlafaxineThe serum concentration of Venlafaxine can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
VerapamilThe metabolism of Doxorubicin can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.
VerapamilThe serum concentration of Verapamil can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
VinblastineThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Vinblastine.
VincristineThe serum concentration of Vincristine can be increased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
VincristineThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Vincristine.
VinorelbineThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Vinorelbine.
VismodegibThe serum concentration of Vismodegib can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
VoriconazoleThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Voriconazole.
VortioxetineThe metabolism of Vortioxetine can be decreased when combined with Doxorubicin.
ZaltoprofenZaltoprofen may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
ZidovudineThe serum concentration of Zidovudine can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.
ZileutonZileuton may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
ZimelidineThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Zimelidine.
ZiprasidoneThe metabolism of Doxorubicin can be decreased when combined with Ziprasidone.
Zoledronic acidDoxorubicin may increase the hypocalcemic activities of Zoledronic acid.
ZomepiracZomepirac may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Food Interactions
  • Liberal fluid intake to increase urine output and help the excretion of uric acid.

Targets

1. DNA
Kind
Nucleotide
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
intercalation
General Function:
Used for biological information storage.
Specific Function:
DNA contains the instructions needed for an organism to develop, survive and reproduce.
Molecular Weight:
2.15 x 1012 Da
References
  1. Fornari FA, Randolph JK, Yalowich JC, Ritke MK, Gewirtz DA: Interference by doxorubicin with DNA unwinding in MCF-7 breast tumor cells. Mol Pharmacol. 1994 Apr;45(4):649-56. [PubMed:8183243 ]
  2. Momparler RL, Karon M, Siegel SE, Avila F: Effect of adriamycin on DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis in cell-free systems and intact cells. Cancer Res. 1976 Aug;36(8):2891-5. [PubMed:1277199 ]
  3. Frederick CA, Williams LD, Ughetto G, van der Marel GA, van Boom JH, Rich A, Wang AH: Structural comparison of anticancer drug-DNA complexes: adriamycin and daunomycin. Biochemistry. 1990 Mar 13;29(10):2538-49. [PubMed:2334681 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Ubiquitin binding
Specific Function:
Control of topological states of DNA by transient breakage and subsequent rejoining of DNA strands. Topoisomerase II makes double-strand breaks. Essential during mitosis and meiosis for proper segregation of daughter chromosomes. May play a role in regulating the period length of ARNTL/BMAL1 transcriptional oscillation (By similarity).
Gene Name:
TOP2A
Uniprot ID:
P11388
Molecular Weight:
174383.88 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
  2. Rody A, Karn T, Gatje R, Ahr A, Solbach C, Kourtis K, Munnes M, Loibl S, Kissler S, Ruckhaberle E, Holtrich U, von Minckwitz G, Kaufmann M: Gene expression profiling of breast cancer patients treated with docetaxel, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide within the GEPARTRIO trial: HER-2, but not topoisomerase II alpha and microtubule-associated protein tau, is highly predictive of tumor response. Breast. 2007 Feb;16(1):86-93. Epub 2006 Sep 28. [PubMed:17010609 ]
  3. Koehn H, Magan N, Isaacs RJ, Stowell KM: Differential regulation of DNA repair protein Rad51 in human tumour cell lines exposed to doxorubicin. Anticancer Drugs. 2007 Apr;18(4):419-25. [PubMed:17351394 ]
  4. Hayashi S, Hatashita M, Matsumoto H, Shioura H, Kitai R, Kano E: Enhancement of radiosensitivity by topoisomerase II inhibitor, amrubicin and amrubicinol, in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells and kinetics of apoptosis and necrosis induction. Int J Mol Med. 2006 Nov;18(5):909-15. [PubMed:17016621 ]
  5. Azarova AM, Lyu YL, Lin CP, Tsai YC, Lau JY, Wang JC, Liu LF: Roles of DNA topoisomerase II isozymes in chemotherapy and secondary malignancies. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Jun 26;104(26):11014-9. Epub 2007 Jun 19. [PubMed:17578914 ]
  6. Menendez JA, Vellon L, Lupu R: DNA topoisomerase IIalpha (TOP2A) inhibitors up-regulate fatty acid synthase gene expression in SK-Br3 breast cancer cells: in vitro evidence for a 'functional amplicon' involving FAS, Her-2/neu and TOP2A genes. Int J Mol Med. 2006 Dec;18(6):1081-7. [PubMed:17089011 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiot...
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  2. Lu H, Chen CS, Waxman DJ: Potentiation of methoxymorpholinyl doxorubicin antitumor activity by P450 3A4 gene transfer. Cancer Gene Ther. 2009 May;16(5):393-404. doi: 10.1038/cgt.2008.93. Epub 2008 Nov 14. [PubMed:19011599 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular Weight:
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  2. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase.
Gene Name:
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID:
P20813
Molecular Weight:
56277.81 Da
References
  1. Masek V, Anzenbacherova E, Etrych T, Strohalm J, Ulbrich K, Anzenbacher P: Interaction of N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide copolymer-doxorubicin conjugates with human liver microsomal cytochromes P450: comparison with free doxorubicin. Drug Metab Dispos. 2011 Sep;39(9):1704-10. doi: 10.1124/dmd.110.037986. Epub 2011 Jun 3. [PubMed:21642392 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Oxygen binding
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, retinoid and xenobiotics. Preferentially oxidizes 17beta-estradiol to the carcinogenic 4-hydroxy derivative, and a variety of procarcinogenic compou...
Gene Name:
CYP1B1
Uniprot ID:
Q16678
Molecular Weight:
60845.33 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Prostaglandin-e2 9-reductase activity
Specific Function:
NADPH-dependent reductase with broad substrate specificity. Catalyzes the reduction of a wide variety of carbonyl compounds including quinones, prostaglandins, menadione, plus various xenobiotics. Catalyzes the reduction of the antitumor anthracyclines doxorubicin and daunorubicin to the cardiotoxic compounds doxorubicinol and daunorubicinol. Can convert prostaglandin E2 to prostaglandin F2-alp...
Gene Name:
CBR1
Uniprot ID:
P16152
Molecular Weight:
30374.73 Da
References
  1. Kassner N, Huse K, Martin HJ, Godtel-Armbrust U, Metzger A, Meineke I, Brockmoller J, Klein K, Zanger UM, Maser E, Wojnowski L: Carbonyl reductase 1 is a predominant doxorubicin reductase in the human liver. Drug Metab Dispos. 2008 Oct;36(10):2113-20. doi: 10.1124/dmd.108.022251. Epub 2008 Jul 17. [PubMed:18635746 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Nadph binding
Specific Function:
Has low NADPH-dependent oxidoreductase activity towards 4-benzoylpyridine and menadione (in vitro).
Gene Name:
CBR3
Uniprot ID:
O75828
Molecular Weight:
30849.97 Da
References
  1. Bains OS, Karkling MJ, Lubieniecka JM, Grigliatti TA, Reid RE, Riggs KW: Naturally occurring variants of human CBR3 alter anthracycline in vitro metabolism. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2010 Mar;332(3):755-63. doi: 10.1124/jpet.109.160614. Epub 2009 Dec 9. [PubMed:20007405 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
L-glucuronate reductase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of a variety of aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes to their corresponding alcohols. Catalyzes the reduction of mevaldate to mevalonic acid and of glyceraldehyde to glycerol. Has broad substrate specificity. In vitro substrates include succinic semialdehyde, 4-nitrobenzaldehyde, 1,2-naphthoquinone, methylglyoxal, and D-glucuronic acid. Plays a role in the ac...
Gene Name:
AKR1A1
Uniprot ID:
P14550
Molecular Weight:
36572.71 Da
References
  1. Kassner N, Huse K, Martin HJ, Godtel-Armbrust U, Metzger A, Meineke I, Brockmoller J, Klein K, Zanger UM, Maser E, Wojnowski L: Carbonyl reductase 1 is a predominant doxorubicin reductase in the human liver. Drug Metab Dispos. 2008 Oct;36(10):2113-20. doi: 10.1124/dmd.108.022251. Epub 2008 Jul 17. [PubMed:18635746 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Trans-1,2-dihydrobenzene-1,2-diol dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the conversion of aldehydes and ketones to alcohols. Catalyzes the reduction of prostaglandin (PG) D2, PGH2 and phenanthrenequinone (PQ) and the oxidation of 9-alpha,11-beta-PGF2 to PGD2. Functions as a bi-directional 3-alpha-, 17-beta- and 20-alpha HSD. Can interconvert active androgens, estrogens and progestins with their cognate inactive metabolites. Preferentially transforms andro...
Gene Name:
AKR1C3
Uniprot ID:
P42330
Molecular Weight:
36852.89 Da
References
  1. Novotna R, Wsol V, Xiong G, Maser E: Inactivation of the anticancer drugs doxorubicin and oracin by aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1C3. Toxicol Lett. 2008 Sep;181(1):1-6. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2008.06.858. Epub 2008 Jun 21. [PubMed:18616992 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Superoxide dismutase activity
Specific Function:
The enzyme apparently serves as a quinone reductase in connection with conjugation reactions of hydroquinons involved in detoxification pathways as well as in biosynthetic processes such as the vitamin K-dependent gamma-carboxylation of glutamate residues in prothrombin synthesis.
Gene Name:
NQO1
Uniprot ID:
P15559
Molecular Weight:
30867.405 Da
References
  1. Pawlowska J, Tarasiuk J, Wolf CR, Paine MJ, Borowski E: Differential ability of cytostatics from anthraquinone group to generate free radicals in three enzymatic systems: NADH dehydrogenase, NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase, and xanthine oxidase. Oncol Res. 2003;13(5):245-52. [PubMed:12688675 ]
  2. Niitsu N, Kasukabe T, Yokoyama A, Okabe-Kado J, Yamamoto-Yamaguchi Y, Umeda M, Honma Y: Anticancer derivative of butyric acid (Pivalyloxymethyl butyrate) specifically potentiates the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin and daunorubicin through the suppression of microsomal glycosidic activity. Mol Pharmacol. 2000 Jul;58(1):27-36. [PubMed:10860924 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Xanthine oxidase activity
Specific Function:
Key enzyme in purine degradation. Catalyzes the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine. Catalyzes the oxidation of xanthine to uric acid. Contributes to the generation of reactive oxygen species. Has also low oxidase activity towards aldehydes (in vitro).
Gene Name:
XDH
Uniprot ID:
P47989
Molecular Weight:
146422.99 Da
References
  1. Pawlowska J, Tarasiuk J, Wolf CR, Paine MJ, Borowski E: Differential ability of cytostatics from anthraquinone group to generate free radicals in three enzymatic systems: NADH dehydrogenase, NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase, and xanthine oxidase. Oncol Res. 2003;13(5):245-52. [PubMed:12688675 ]
  2. Niitsu N, Kasukabe T, Yokoyama A, Okabe-Kado J, Yamamoto-Yamaguchi Y, Umeda M, Honma Y: Anticancer derivative of butyric acid (Pivalyloxymethyl butyrate) specifically potentiates the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin and daunorubicin through the suppression of microsomal glycosidic activity. Mol Pharmacol. 2000 Jul;58(1):27-36. [PubMed:10860924 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Tetrahydrobiopterin binding
Specific Function:
Produces nitric oxide (NO) which is a messenger molecule with diverse functions throughout the body. In the brain and peripheral nervous system, NO displays many properties of a neurotransmitter. Probably has nitrosylase activity and mediates cysteine S-nitrosylation of cytoplasmic target proteins such SRR.
Gene Name:
NOS1
Uniprot ID:
P29475
Molecular Weight:
160969.095 Da
References
  1. Vasquez-Vivar J, Martasek P, Hogg N, Masters BS, Pritchard KA Jr, Kalyanaraman B: Endothelial nitric oxide synthase-dependent superoxide generation from adriamycin. Biochemistry. 1997 Sep 23;36(38):11293-7. [PubMed:9333325 ]
  2. Fogli S, Nieri P, Breschi MC: The role of nitric oxide in anthracycline toxicity and prospects for pharmacologic prevention of cardiac damage. FASEB J. 2004 Apr;18(6):664-75. [PubMed:15054088 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Tetrahydrobiopterin binding
Specific Function:
Produces nitric oxide (NO) which is a messenger molecule with diverse functions throughout the body. In macrophages, NO mediates tumoricidal and bactericidal actions. Also has nitrosylase activity and mediates cysteine S-nitrosylation of cytoplasmic target proteins such COX2. As component of the iNOS-S100A8/9 transnitrosylase complex involved in the selective inflammatory stimulus-dependent S-n...
Gene Name:
NOS2
Uniprot ID:
P35228
Molecular Weight:
131116.3 Da
References
  1. Vasquez-Vivar J, Martasek P, Hogg N, Masters BS, Pritchard KA Jr, Kalyanaraman B: Endothelial nitric oxide synthase-dependent superoxide generation from adriamycin. Biochemistry. 1997 Sep 23;36(38):11293-7. [PubMed:9333325 ]
  2. Fogli S, Nieri P, Breschi MC: The role of nitric oxide in anthracycline toxicity and prospects for pharmacologic prevention of cardiac damage. FASEB J. 2004 Apr;18(6):664-75. [PubMed:15054088 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Tetrahydrobiopterin binding
Specific Function:
Produces nitric oxide (NO) which is implicated in vascular smooth muscle relaxation through a cGMP-mediated signal transduction pathway. NO mediates vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis in coronary vessels and promotes blood clotting through the activation of platelets.Isoform eNOS13C: Lacks eNOS activity, dominant-negative form that may down-regulate eNOS activity by ...
Gene Name:
NOS3
Uniprot ID:
P29474
Molecular Weight:
133287.62 Da
References
  1. Vasquez-Vivar J, Martasek P, Hogg N, Masters BS, Pritchard KA Jr, Kalyanaraman B: Endothelial nitric oxide synthase-dependent superoxide generation from adriamycin. Biochemistry. 1997 Sep 23;36(38):11293-7. [PubMed:9333325 ]
  2. Fogli S, Nieri P, Breschi MC: The role of nitric oxide in anthracycline toxicity and prospects for pharmacologic prevention of cardiac damage. FASEB J. 2004 Apr;18(6):664-75. [PubMed:15054088 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Specific Function:
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone (By similarity).
Gene Name:
NDUFS2
Uniprot ID:
O75306
Molecular Weight:
52545.26 Da
References
  1. Pawlowska J, Tarasiuk J, Wolf CR, Paine MJ, Borowski E: Differential ability of cytostatics from anthraquinone group to generate free radicals in three enzymatic systems: NADH dehydrogenase, NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase, and xanthine oxidase. Oncol Res. 2003;13(5):245-52. [PubMed:12688675 ]
  2. Thornalley PJ, Bannister WH, Bannister JV: Reduction of oxygen by NADH/NADH dehydrogenase in the presence of adriamycin. Free Radic Res Commun. 1986;2(3):163-71. [PubMed:2850270 ]
  3. Nohl H, Gille L, Staniek K: The exogenous NADH dehydrogenase of heart mitochondria is the key enzyme responsible for selective cardiotoxicity of anthracyclines. Z Naturforsch C. 1998 Mar-Apr;53(3-4):279-85. [PubMed:9618942 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nadh dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone (By similarity).
Gene Name:
NDUFS3
Uniprot ID:
O75489
Molecular Weight:
30241.245 Da
References
  1. Pawlowska J, Tarasiuk J, Wolf CR, Paine MJ, Borowski E: Differential ability of cytostatics from anthraquinone group to generate free radicals in three enzymatic systems: NADH dehydrogenase, NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase, and xanthine oxidase. Oncol Res. 2003;13(5):245-52. [PubMed:12688675 ]
  2. Thornalley PJ, Bannister WH, Bannister JV: Reduction of oxygen by NADH/NADH dehydrogenase in the presence of adriamycin. Free Radic Res Commun. 1986;2(3):163-71. [PubMed:2850270 ]
  3. Nohl H, Gille L, Staniek K: The exogenous NADH dehydrogenase of heart mitochondria is the key enzyme responsible for selective cardiotoxicity of anthracyclines. Z Naturforsch C. 1998 Mar-Apr;53(3-4):279-85. [PubMed:9618942 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Quinone binding
Specific Function:
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone (By similarity).
Gene Name:
NDUFS7
Uniprot ID:
O75251
Molecular Weight:
23563.3 Da
References
  1. Pawlowska J, Tarasiuk J, Wolf CR, Paine MJ, Borowski E: Differential ability of cytostatics from anthraquinone group to generate free radicals in three enzymatic systems: NADH dehydrogenase, NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase, and xanthine oxidase. Oncol Res. 2003;13(5):245-52. [PubMed:12688675 ]
  2. Thornalley PJ, Bannister WH, Bannister JV: Reduction of oxygen by NADH/NADH dehydrogenase in the presence of adriamycin. Free Radic Res Commun. 1986;2(3):163-71. [PubMed:2850270 ]
  3. Nohl H, Gille L, Staniek K: The exogenous NADH dehydrogenase of heart mitochondria is the key enzyme responsible for selective cardiotoxicity of anthracyclines. Z Naturforsch C. 1998 Mar-Apr;53(3-4):279-85. [PubMed:9618942 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, nad(p)h as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function:
This enzyme is required for electron transfer from NADP to cytochrome P450 in microsomes. It can also provide electron transfer to heme oxygenase and cytochrome B5.
Gene Name:
POR
Uniprot ID:
P16435
Molecular Weight:
76689.12 Da
References
  1. Gutierrez PL, Gee MV, Bachur NR: Kinetics of anthracycline antibiotic free radical formation and reductive glycosidase activity. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1983 May;223(1):68-75. [PubMed:6305277 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitorinducer
General Function:
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular Weight:
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Fardel O, Lecureur V, Daval S, Corlu A, Guillouzo A: Up-regulation of P-glycoprotein expression in rat liver cells by acute doxorubicin treatment. Eur J Biochem. 1997 May 15;246(1):186-92. [PubMed:9210482 ]
  2. Gao J, Murase O, Schowen RL, Aube J, Borchardt RT: A functional assay for quantitation of the apparent affinities of ligands of P-glycoprotein in Caco-2 cells. Pharm Res. 2001 Feb;18(2):171-6. [PubMed:11405287 ]
  3. Takara K, Tanigawara Y, Komada F, Nishiguchi K, Sakaeda T, Okumura K: Cellular pharmacokinetic aspects of reversal effect of itraconazole on P-glycoprotein-mediated resistance of anticancer drugs. Biol Pharm Bull. 1999 Dec;22(12):1355-9. [PubMed:10746169 ]
  4. Jutabha P, Wempe MF, Anzai N, Otomo J, Kadota T, Endou H: Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing human P-glycoprotein: probing trans- and cis-inhibitory effects on [3H]vinblastine and [3H]digoxin efflux. Pharmacol Res. 2010 Jan;61(1):76-84. doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2009.07.002. Epub 2009 Jul 21. [PubMed:19631272 ]
  5. Li D, Jang SH, Kim J, Wientjes MG, Au JL: Enhanced drug-induced apoptosis associated with P-glycoprotein overexpression is specific to antimicrotubule agents. Pharm Res. 2003 Jan;20(1):45-50. [PubMed:12608535 ]
  6. Troutman MD, Thakker DR: Novel experimental parameters to quantify the modulation of absorptive and secretory transport of compounds by P-glycoprotein in cell culture models of intestinal epithelium. Pharm Res. 2003 Aug;20(8):1210-24. [PubMed:12948019 ]
  7. Kim S, Kim SS, Bang YJ, Kim SJ, Lee BJ: In vitro activities of native and designed peptide antibiotics against drug sensitive and resistant tumor cell lines. Peptides. 2003 Jul;24(7):945-53. [PubMed:14499271 ]
  8. Ambudkar SV, Lelong IH, Zhang J, Cardarelli CO, Gottesman MM, Pastan I: Partial purification and reconstitution of the human multidrug-resistance pump: characterization of the drug-stimulatable ATP hydrolysis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Sep 15;89(18):8472-6. [PubMed:1356264 ]
  9. Kusunoki N, Takara K, Tanigawara Y, Yamauchi A, Ueda K, Komada F, Ku Y, Kuroda Y, Saitoh Y, Okumura K: Inhibitory effects of a cyclosporin derivative, SDZ PSC 833, on transport of doxorubicin and vinblastine via human P-glycoprotein. Jpn J Cancer Res. 1998 Nov;89(11):1220-8. [PubMed:9914792 ]
  10. Li YC, Fung KP, Kwok TT, Lee CY, Suen YK, Kong SK: Mitochondria-targeting drug oligomycin blocked P-glycoprotein activity and triggered apoptosis in doxorubicin-resistant HepG2 cells. Chemotherapy. 2004 Jun;50(2):55-62. [PubMed:15211078 ]
  11. Sieczkowski E, Lehner C, Ambros PF, Hohenegger M: Double impact on p-glycoprotein by statins enhances doxorubicin cytotoxicity in human neuroblastoma cells. Int J Cancer. 2010 May 1;126(9):2025-35. doi: 10.1002/ijc.24885. [PubMed:19739078 ]
  12. Bray J, Sludden J, Griffin MJ, Cole M, Verrill M, Jamieson D, Boddy AV: Influence of pharmacogenetics on response and toxicity in breast cancer patients treated with doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide. Br J Cancer. 2010 Mar 16;102(6):1003-9. doi: 10.1038/sj.bjc.6605587. Epub 2010 Feb 23. [PubMed:20179710 ]
  13. Tao LY, Liang YJ, Wang F, Chen LM, Yan YY, Dai CL, Fu LW: Cediranib (recentin, AZD2171) reverses ABCB1- and ABCC1-mediated multidrug resistance by inhibition of their transport function. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2009 Oct;64(5):961-9. doi: 10.1007/s00280-009-0949-1. Epub 2009 Mar 3. [PubMed:19255759 ]
  14. Woodahl EL, Crouthamel MH, Bui T, Shen DD, Ho RJ: MDR1 (ABCB1) G1199A (Ser400Asn) polymorphism alters transepithelial permeability and sensitivity to anticancer agents. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2009 Jun;64(1):183-8. doi: 10.1007/s00280-008-0906-4. Epub 2009 Jan 4. [PubMed:19123050 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates export of organic anions and drugs from the cytoplasm. Mediates ATP-dependent transport of glutathione and glutathione conjugates, leukotriene C4, estradiol-17-beta-o-glucuronide, methotrexate, antiviral drugs and other xenobiotics. Confers resistance to anticancer drugs. Hydrolyzes ATP with low efficiency.
Gene Name:
ABCC1
Uniprot ID:
P33527
Molecular Weight:
171589.5 Da
References
  1. Loe DW, Almquist KC, Cole SP, Deeley RG: ATP-dependent 17 beta-estradiol 17-(beta-D-glucuronide) transport by multidrug resistance protein (MRP). Inhibition by cholestatic steroids. J Biol Chem. 1996 Apr 19;271(16):9683-9. [PubMed:8621644 ]
  2. Godinot N, Iversen PW, Tabas L, Xia X, Williams DC, Dantzig AH, Perry WL 3rd: Cloning and functional characterization of the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1/ABCC1) from the cynomolgus monkey. Mol Cancer Ther. 2003 Mar;2(3):307-16. [PubMed:12657726 ]
  3. Tribull TE, Bruner RH, Bain LJ: The multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 transports methoxychlor and protects the seminiferous epithelium from injury. Toxicol Lett. 2003 Apr 30;142(1-2):61-70. [PubMed:12765240 ]
  4. Nunoya K, Grant CE, Zhang D, Cole SP, Deeley RG: Molecular cloning and pharmacological characterization of rat multidrug resistance protein 1 (mrp1). Drug Metab Dispos. 2003 Aug;31(8):1016-26. [PubMed:12867490 ]
  5. Stride BD, Grant CE, Loe DW, Hipfner DR, Cole SP, Deeley RG: Pharmacological characterization of the murine and human orthologs of multidrug-resistance protein in transfected human embryonic kidney cells. Mol Pharmacol. 1997 Sep;52(3):344-53. [PubMed:9281595 ]
  6. Wong IL, Chan KF, Tsang KH, Lam CY, Zhao Y, Chan TH, Chow LM: Modulation of multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1/ABCC1)-mediated multidrug resistance by bivalent apigenin homodimers and their derivatives. J Med Chem. 2009 Sep 10;52(17):5311-22. doi: 10.1021/jm900194w. [PubMed:19725578 ]
  7. Tao LY, Liang YJ, Wang F, Chen LM, Yan YY, Dai CL, Fu LW: Cediranib (recentin, AZD2171) reverses ABCB1- and ABCC1-mediated multidrug resistance by inhibition of their transport function. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2009 Oct;64(5):961-9. doi: 10.1007/s00280-009-0949-1. Epub 2009 Mar 3. [PubMed:19255759 ]
  8. Zheng LS, Wang F, Li YH, Zhang X, Chen LM, Liang YJ, Dai CL, Yan YY, Tao LY, Mi YJ, Yang AK, To KK, Fu LW: Vandetanib (Zactima, ZD6474) antagonizes ABCC1- and ABCG2-mediated multidrug resistance by inhibition of their transport function. PLoS One. 2009;4(4):e5172. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0005172. Epub 2009 Apr 23. [PubMed:19390592 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
May act as an inducible transporter in the biliary and intestinal excretion of organic anions. Acts as an alternative route for the export of bile acids and glucuronides from cholestatic hepatocytes (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ABCC3
Uniprot ID:
O15438
Molecular Weight:
169341.14 Da
References
  1. Zeng H, Chen ZS, Belinsky MG, Rea PA, Kruh GD: Transport of methotrexate (MTX) and folates by multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 3 and MRP1: effect of polyglutamylation on MTX transport. Cancer Res. 2001 Oct 1;61(19):7225-32. [PubMed:11585759 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Isoform 1: May participate directly in the active transport of drugs into subcellular organelles or influence drug distribution indirectly. Transports glutathione conjugates as leukotriene-c4 (LTC4) and N-ethylmaleimide S-glutathione (NEM-GS).Isoform 2: Inhibits TNF-alpha-mediated apoptosis through blocking one or more caspases.
Gene Name:
ABCC6
Uniprot ID:
O95255
Molecular Weight:
164904.81 Da
References
  1. Cai J, Daoud R, Alqawi O, Georges E, Pelletier J, Gros P: Nucleotide binding and nucleotide hydrolysis properties of the ABC transporter MRP6 (ABCC6). Biochemistry. 2002 Jun 25;41(25):8058-67. [PubMed:12069597 ]
  2. Belinsky MG, Chen ZS, Shchaveleva I, Zeng H, Kruh GD: Characterization of the drug resistance and transport properties of multidrug resistance protein 6 (MRP6, ABCC6). Cancer Res. 2002 Nov 1;62(21):6172-7. [PubMed:12414644 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function:
High-capacity urate exporter functioning in both renal and extrarenal urate excretion. Plays a role in porphyrin homeostasis as it is able to mediates the export of protoporhyrin IX (PPIX) both from mitochondria to cytosol and from cytosol to extracellular space, and cellular export of hemin, and heme. Xenobiotic transporter that may play an important role in the exclusion of xenobiotics from t...
Gene Name:
ABCG2
Uniprot ID:
Q9UNQ0
Molecular Weight:
72313.47 Da
References
  1. Suzuki M, Suzuki H, Sugimoto Y, Sugiyama Y: ABCG2 transports sulfated conjugates of steroids and xenobiotics. J Biol Chem. 2003 Jun 20;278(25):22644-9. Epub 2003 Apr 7. [PubMed:12682043 ]
  2. Wang X, Furukawa T, Nitanda T, Okamoto M, Sugimoto Y, Akiyama S, Baba M: Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) induces cellular resistance to HIV-1 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Mol Pharmacol. 2003 Jan;63(1):65-72. [PubMed:12488537 ]
  3. Ozvegy C, Litman T, Szakacs G, Nagy Z, Bates S, Varadi A, Sarkadi B: Functional characterization of the human multidrug transporter, ABCG2, expressed in insect cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001 Jul 6;285(1):111-7. [PubMed:11437380 ]
  4. Allen JD, Van Dort SC, Buitelaar M, van Tellingen O, Schinkel AH: Mouse breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp1/Abcg2) mediates etoposide resistance and transport, but etoposide oral availability is limited primarily by P-glycoprotein. Cancer Res. 2003 Mar 15;63(6):1339-44. [PubMed:12649196 ]
  5. An Y, Ongkeko WM: ABCG2: the key to chemoresistance in cancer stem cells? Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2009 Dec;5(12):1529-42. doi: 10.1517/17425250903228834. [PubMed:19708828 ]
  6. Tiwari AK, Sodani K, Wang SR, Kuang YH, Ashby CR Jr, Chen X, Chen ZS: Nilotinib (AMN107, Tasigna) reverses multidrug resistance by inhibiting the activity of the ABCB1/Pgp and ABCG2/BCRP/MXR transporters. Biochem Pharmacol. 2009 Jul 15;78(2):153-61. doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2009.04.002. Epub 2009 Apr 11. [PubMed:19427995 ]
  7. Dai CL, Liang YJ, Wang YS, Tiwari AK, Yan YY, Wang F, Chen ZS, Tong XZ, Fu LW: Sensitization of ABCG2-overexpressing cells to conventional chemotherapeutic agent by sunitinib was associated with inhibiting the function of ABCG2. Cancer Lett. 2009 Jun 28;279(1):74-83. doi: 10.1016/j.canlet.2009.01.027. Epub 2009 Feb 18. [PubMed:19232821 ]
  8. Zheng LS, Wang F, Li YH, Zhang X, Chen LM, Liang YJ, Dai CL, Yan YY, Tao LY, Mi YJ, Yang AK, To KK, Fu LW: Vandetanib (Zactima, ZD6474) antagonizes ABCC1- and ABCG2-mediated multidrug resistance by inhibition of their transport function. PLoS One. 2009;4(4):e5172. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0005172. Epub 2009 Apr 23. [PubMed:19390592 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Organic cation transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
High affinity carnitine transporter; the uptake is partially sodium-ion dependent. Thought to mediate the L-carnitine secretion mechanism from testis epididymal epithelium into the lumen which is involved in the maturation of spermatozoa. Also transports organic cations such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) and doxorubicin. The uptake of TEA is inhibited by various organic cations. The uptake of dox...
Gene Name:
SLC22A16
Uniprot ID:
Q86VW1
Molecular Weight:
64613.58 Da
References
  1. Bray J, Sludden J, Griffin MJ, Cole M, Verrill M, Jamieson D, Boddy AV: Influence of pharmacogenetics on response and toxicity in breast cancer patients treated with doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide. Br J Cancer. 2010 Mar 16;102(6):1003-9. doi: 10.1038/sj.bjc.6605587. Epub 2010 Feb 23. [PubMed:20179710 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Atpase activity, coupled to transmembrane movement of substances
Specific Function:
ATP-dependent transporter probably involved in cellular detoxification through lipophilic anion extrusion.
Gene Name:
ABCC10
Uniprot ID:
Q5T3U5
Molecular Weight:
161627.375 Da
References
  1. Chen ZS, Hopper-Borge E, Belinsky MG, Shchaveleva I, Kotova E, Kruh GD: Characterization of the transport properties of human multidrug resistance protein 7 (MRP7, ABCC10). Mol Pharmacol. 2003 Feb;63(2):351-8. [PubMed:12527806 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ABCB8
Uniprot ID:
Q9NUT2
Molecular Weight:
79988.17 Da
References
  1. Elliott AM, Al-Hajj MA: ABCB8 mediates doxorubicin resistance in melanoma cells by protecting the mitochondrial genome. Mol Cancer Res. 2009 Jan;7(1):79-87. doi: 10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-08-0235. [PubMed:19147539 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Involved in the ATP-dependent secretion of bile salts into the canaliculus of hepatocytes.
Gene Name:
ABCB11
Uniprot ID:
O95342
Molecular Weight:
146405.83 Da
References
  1. Wang EJ, Casciano CN, Clement RP, Johnson WW: Fluorescent substrates of sister-P-glycoprotein (BSEP) evaluated as markers of active transport and inhibition: evidence for contingent unequal binding sites. Pharm Res. 2003 Apr;20(4):537-44. [PubMed:12739759 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Can activate specifically hydrolysis of GTP bound to RAC1 and CDC42, but not RALA. Mediates ATP-dependent transport of S-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)-glutathione (DNP-SG) and doxorubicin (DOX) and is the major ATP-dependent transporter of glutathione conjugates of electrophiles (GS-E) and DOX in erythrocytes. Can catalyze transport of glutathione conjugates and xenobiotics, and may contribute to the mul...
Gene Name:
RALBP1
Uniprot ID:
Q15311
Molecular Weight:
76062.86 Da
References
  1. Singhal SS, Singhal J, Nair MP, Lacko AG, Awasthi YC, Awasthi S: Doxorubicin transport by RALBP1 and ABCG2 in lung and breast cancer. Int J Oncol. 2007 Mar;30(3):717-25. [PubMed:17273774 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates hepatobiliary excretion of numerous organic anions. May function as a cellular cisplatin transporter.
Gene Name:
ABCC2
Uniprot ID:
Q92887
Molecular Weight:
174205.64 Da
References
  1. Folmer Y, Schneider M, Blum HE, Hafkemeyer P: Reversal of drug resistance of hepatocellular carcinoma cells by adenoviral delivery of anti-ABCC2 antisense constructs. Cancer Gene Ther. 2007 Nov;14(11):875-84. Epub 2007 Aug 17. [PubMed:17704753 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23