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Identification
NameMemantine
Accession NumberDB01043  (APRD00221)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Investigational
Description

Memantine is an amantadine derivative with low to moderate-affinity for NMDA receptors. It is a noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist that binds preferentially to NMDA receptor-operated cation channels. It blocks the effects of excessive levels of glutamate that may lead to neuronal dysfunction. It is under investigation for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, but there has been no clinical support for the prevention or slowing of disease progression.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
1-Amino-3,5-dimethyladamantane
1,3-Dimethyl-5-adamantanamine
3,5-Dimethyl-1-adamantanamine
3,5-Dimethyl-1-aminoadamantane
3,5-Dimethyltricyclo(3.3.1.1(3,7))decan-1-amine
Memantina
Memantine
Memantinum
External Identifiers Not Available
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Act Memantinetablet10 mgoralActavis Pharma Company2010-02-18Not applicableCanada
Act Memantinetablet5 mgoralActavis Pharma CompanyNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Ebixatablet10 mgoralLundbeck Canada Inc2004-12-16Not applicableCanada
Med-memantinetablet10 mgoralGeneric Medical Partners Inc2015-02-03Not applicableCanada
Med-memantinetablet5 mgoralGeneric Medical Partners IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Memantinetablet10 mgoralSanis Health Inc2015-07-22Not applicableCanada
Memantinetablet10 mgoralSivem Pharmaceuticals Ulc2015-10-07Not applicableCanada
Memantinetablet10 mgoralMeliapharm Inc2011-07-272014-06-25Canada
Memantine HydrochloridekitoralActavis Pharma, Inc2015-04-012016-04-23Us
Memantine Hydrochloridetablet10 mg/1oralActavis Pharma, Inc2015-04-012016-04-23Us
Memantine Hydrochloridetablet5 mg/1oralActavis Pharma, Inc2015-04-012016-04-23Us
Memantine Hydrochloridesolution2 mg/mLoralActavis Pharma, Inc2015-04-012016-04-23Us
Memantine Hydrochloride Tabletstablet10 mgoralAlembic Pharmaceuticals LimitedNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Mylan-memantinetablet10 mgoralMylan Pharmaceuticals Ulc2015-04-07Not applicableCanada
Namendatablet10 mg/1oralCardinal Health2003-10-162016-04-05Us
NamendakitoralForest Laboratories, Inc.2003-10-162016-04-23Us
Namendatablet5 mg/1oralCardinal Health2003-10-162016-04-05Us
Namendatablet10 mg/1oralLake Erie Medical & Surgical Supply DBA Quality Care Products LLC2012-04-032016-04-05Us
Namendatablet5 mg/1oralRebel Distributors Corp2006-08-092016-04-05Us
Namendatablet10 mg/1oralContract Pharmacy Services Pa2010-03-192016-04-05Us
Namendatablet10 mg/1oralRebel Distributors Corp2004-11-172016-04-05Us
Namendatablet10 mg/1oralbryant ranch prepack2003-10-162016-04-05Us
Namendatablet5 mg/1oralbryant ranch prepack2003-10-162016-04-05Us
Namendatablet10 mg/1oralForest Laboratories, Inc.2003-10-162016-04-23Us
Namendatablet5 mg/1oralForest Laboratories, Inc.2003-10-162016-04-23Us
Namendatablet10 mg/1oralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2003-10-162016-04-05Us
Namendasolution2 mg/mLoralForest Laboratories, Inc.2005-04-182016-04-23Us
Namendatablet10 mg/1oralCardinal Health2003-10-162016-04-05Us
Namenda XRcapsule, extended release28 mg/1oralForest Laboratories, Inc.2011-10-312016-04-23Us
Namenda XRcapsule, extended release28 mg/1oralCarilion Materials Management2011-10-312016-04-05Us
Namenda XRcapsule, extended release21 mg/1oralForest Laboratories, Inc.2011-10-312016-04-23Us
Namenda XRcapsule, extended release14 mg/1oralCarilion Materials Management2011-10-312016-04-05Us
Namenda XRcapsule, extended release7 mg/1oralAvera Mc Kennan Hospital2015-03-162016-04-05Us
Namenda XRcapsule, extended release14 mg/1oralForest Laboratories, Inc.2011-10-312016-04-23Us
Namenda XRcapsule, extended release7 mg/1oralForest Laboratories, Inc.2011-10-312016-04-23Us
Namenda XRkitoralForest Laboratories, Inc.2011-09-152016-04-23Us
Namenda XRcapsule, extended release28 mg/1oralCarilion Materials Management2011-10-312016-04-05Us
Namenda XRcapsule, extended release28 mg/1oralAvera Mc Kennan Hospital2015-03-022016-04-05Us
Novo-memantinetablet10 mgoralTeva Canada LimitedNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Novo-memantinetablet5 mgoralTeva Canada LimitedNot applicableNot applicableCanada
PMS-memantinetablet5.0 mgoralPharmascience Inc2015-03-02Not applicableCanada
PMS-memantinetablet10 mgoralPharmascience Inc2009-11-04Not applicableCanada
Ran-memantinetablet10 mgoralRanbaxy Pharmaceuticals Canada Inc.2014-07-16Not applicableCanada
Ratio-memantinetablet10 mgoralTeva Canada Limited2009-10-30Not applicableCanada
Riva-memantinetablet10 mgoralLaboratoire Riva Inc2010-06-14Not applicableCanada
Sandoz Memantinetablet10 mgoralSandoz Canada Incorporated2010-04-16Not applicableCanada
Sandoz Memantine Fcttablet10 mgoralSandoz Canada Incorporated2014-07-17Not applicableCanada
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-memantinetablet10 mgoralApotex Inc2011-06-17Not applicableCanada
Memantinetablet10 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2015-08-152016-04-05Us
Memantinetablet5 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2015-08-152016-04-05Us
Memantinetablet10 mg/1oralDr. Reddys Laboratories Limited2015-07-112016-04-05Us
Memantinetablet10 mg/1oralMajor Pharmaceuticals2015-07-202016-04-05Us
Memantinetablet5 mg/1oralDr. Reddys Laboratories Limited2015-07-112016-04-05Us
Memantinetablet5 mg/1oralMajor Pharmaceuticals2015-07-202016-04-05Us
Memantine Hydrochloridetablet5 mg/1oralMylan Institutional Inc.2015-08-242016-04-05Us
Memantine Hydrochloridetablet10 mg/1oralTorrent Pharmaceuticals Limited2015-10-132016-04-05Us
Memantine Hydrochloridetablet5 mg/1oralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2015-07-112016-04-23Us
Memantine Hydrochloridetablet, film coated5 mg/1oralAurobindo Pharma Limited2015-10-132016-04-05Us
Memantine HydrochloridekitWockhardt USA LLC.2015-09-042016-04-05Us
Memantine Hydrochloridetablet10 mg/1oralMylan Institutional Inc.2015-07-312016-04-05Us
Memantine Hydrochloridetablet10 mg/1oralMacleods Pharmaceuticals Limited2015-10-122016-04-05Us
Memantine Hydrochloridetablet5 mg/1oralTorrent Pharmaceuticals Limited2015-10-132016-04-05Us
Memantine Hydrochloridetablet, film coated10 mg/1oralAv Kare, Inc.2016-01-112016-04-05Us
Memantine Hydrochloridetablet10 mg/1oralWockhardt USA LLC.2015-09-042016-04-05Us
Memantine Hydrochloridetablet, film coated5 mg/1oralAv Kare, Inc.2016-01-112016-04-05Us
Memantine Hydrochloridetablet5 mg/1oralWockhardt USA LLC.2015-09-042016-04-05Us
Memantine Hydrochloridetablet5 mg/1oralMacleods Pharmaceuticals Limited2015-10-122016-04-05Us
Memantine HydrochloridekitVivimed Labs Limited2015-09-042016-04-05Us
Memantine Hydrochloridesolution2 mg/mLoralMacleods Pharmaceuticals Limited2015-10-132016-04-05Us
Memantine Hydrochloridetablet10 mg/1oralVivimed Labs Limited2015-09-042016-04-05Us
Memantine Hydrochloridetablet, film coated5 mg/1oralAmneal Pharmaceuticals of New York, LLC2015-04-302016-04-05Us
Memantine Hydrochloridetablet, film coated10 mg/1oralUnichem Pharmaceuticals (USA), Inc.2015-11-012016-04-05Us
Memantine Hydrochloridetablet, film coated10 mg/1oralUpsher Smith Laboratories, Inc2015-07-312016-04-05Us
Memantine Hydrochloridetablet5 mg/1oralVivimed Labs Limited2015-09-042016-04-05Us
Memantine Hydrochloridetablet, film coated10 mg/1oralAmneal Pharmaceuticals of New York, LLC2015-04-302016-04-05Us
Memantine Hydrochloridetablet, film coated5 mg/1oralUnichem Pharmaceuticals (USA), Inc.2015-11-012016-04-05Us
Memantine Hydrochloridetablet, film coated5 mg/1oralUpsher Smith Laboratories, Inc2015-07-312016-04-05Us
Memantine Hydrochloridetablet, film coated10 mg/1oralLupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2015-07-132016-04-05Us
Memantine Hydrochloridetablet10 mg/1oralAjanta Pharma Limited2015-08-272016-04-05Us
Memantine Hydrochloridesolution2 mg/mLoralLannett Company, Inc.2015-10-132016-04-23Us
Memantine Hydrochloridetablet10 mg/1oralPura Cap Pharmaceutical Llc2016-02-222016-04-05Us
Memantine Hydrochloridetablet, film coated5 mg/1oralLupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2015-07-132016-04-05Us
Memantine Hydrochloridetablet, coated10 mg/1oralAlembic Pharmaceuticals Inc.2015-10-132016-04-05Us
Memantine Hydrochloridetablet, film coated10 mg/1oralSun Pharma Global FZE2015-07-112016-04-05Us
Memantine Hydrochloridetablet5 mg/1oralAjanta Pharma Limited2015-08-272016-04-05Us
Memantine Hydrochloridetablet10 mg/1oralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2015-07-112016-04-23Us
Memantine Hydrochloridetablet5 mg/1oralPura Cap Pharmaceutical Llc2016-02-222016-04-05Us
Memantine Hydrochloridetablet, film coated10 mg/1oralAurobindo Pharma Limited2015-10-132016-04-05Us
Memantine Hydrochloridetablet, coated5 mg/1oralAlembic Pharmaceuticals Inc.2015-10-132016-04-05Us
Memantine Hydrochloridetablet, film coated5 mg/1oralSun Pharma Global FZE2015-07-112016-04-05Us
Mematine Hydrochloridetablet, film coated10 mg/1oralOrchid Chemicals & Pharmaceuticals Limited2015-01-112016-04-05Us
Mematine Hydrochloridetablet, film coated5 mg/1oralOrchid Chemicals & Pharmaceuticals Limited2015-01-112016-04-05Us
Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
International Brands
NameCompany
AbixaNot Available
AkatinolNot Available
AxuraNot Available
MemoxNot Available
Brand mixtures
NameLabellerIngredients
NamzaricForest Laboratories, Inc.
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Memantine Hydrochloride
41100-52-1
Thumb
  • InChI Key: LDDHMLJTFXJGPI-UHFFFAOYNA-N
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 215.144077416
  • Average Mass: 215.763
DBSALT000456
Categories
UNIIW8O17SJF3T
CAS number19982-08-2
WeightAverage: 179.3018
Monoisotopic: 179.167399677
Chemical FormulaC12H21N
InChI KeyInChIKey=BUGYDGFZZOZRHP-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C12H21N/c1-10-3-9-4-11(2,6-10)8-12(13,5-9)7-10/h9H,3-8,13H2,1-2H3
IUPAC Name
3,5-dimethyladamantan-1-amine
SMILES
CC12CC3CC(C)(C1)CC(N)(C3)C2
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as cyclohexylamines. These are organic compounds containing a cyclohexylamine moiety, which consist of a cyclohexane ring attached to an amine group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganonitrogen compounds
ClassCyclohexylamines
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentCyclohexylamines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Cyclohexylamine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Amine
  • Aliphatic homopolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic homopolycyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the treatment of moderate to severe dementia of the Alzheimer's type.
PharmacodynamicsMemantine, an amantadine derivative, is an NMDA receptor antagonist used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. It differs from traditional agents used in Alzheimer's disease by acting on glutamatergic neurotransmission, rather than cholinergic. There is some evidence that dysfunction of glutamatergic neurotransmission, manifested as neuronal excitotoxicity, is involved in the aetiology of Alzheimer's disease (Cacabelos et al., 1999). As such, targeting the glutamatergic system, specifically NMDA receptors, was a novel approach to treatment in view of the limited efficacy of existing drugs targeting the cholinergic system. A systematic review of randomised controlled trials found that memantine has a positive effect on cognition, mood, behaviour, and the ability to perform daily activities. There is no evidence that memantine prevents or slows neurodegeneration in patients with Alzheimer's disease.
Mechanism of actionMemantine exerts its action through uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonism, binding preferentially to the NMDA receptor-operated cation channels. Prolonged increased levels of glutamate in the brain of demented patients are sufficient to counter the voltage-dependent block of NMDA receptors by Mg2+ ions and allow continuous influx of Ca2+ ions into cells, ultimately resulting in neuronal degeneration. Studies suggest that memantine binds more effectively than Mg2+ ions at the NMDA receptor, and thereby effectively blocks this prolonged influx of Ca2+ ions through the NMDA channel whilst preserving the transient physiological activation of the channels by higher concentrations of synaptically released glutamate. Thus memantine protects against chronically elevated concentrations of glutamate. Memantine also has antagonistic activity at the type 3 serotonergic (5-HT3) receptor with a potency that is similar to that at the NMDA receptor, and lower antagonistic activity at the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. This drug has no affinity for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), benzodiazepine, dopamine, adrenergic, histamine, or glycine receptors or for voltage-dependent calcium, sodium, or potassium channels.
Related Articles
AbsorptionWell absorbed orally with a bioavailability of approximately 100%. Peak plasma concentrations are reached in 3-7 hours. Food has no effect on absorption.
Volume of distribution
  • 9 to 11 L/kg
Protein binding45%
Metabolism

Excreted largely unchanged. About 20% is metabolized to 1-amino-3-hydroxymethyl-5-methyl-adamantane and 3-amino-1-hydroxy-5,7-dimethyl-adamantane.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Memantine
Not Available
1-amino-3-hydroxymethyl-5-methyl-adamantaneDetails
Memantine
Not Available
3-amino-1-hydroxy-5,7-dimethyl-adamantaneDetails
Route of eliminationMemantine undergoes partial hepatic metabolism. About 48% of administered drug is excreted unchanged in urine; the remainder is converted primarily to three polar metabolites which possess minimal NMDA receptor antagonistic activity: the N-glucuronide conjugate, 6-hydroxy memantine, and 1-nitroso-deaminated memantine. It is excreted predominantly in the urine, unchanged.
Half life60-100 hours
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicitySide effects include pain, abnormal crying, leg pain, fever, increased apetite. Adverse drug reactions include: dizziness, confusion, headache, hallucinations, tiredness. Less common side effects include: vomiting, anxiety, hypertonia, cystitis, and increased libido. Doses of up to 400 mg have been tolerated.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9939
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9823
Caco-2 permeable+0.6082
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.6403
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.82
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.7555
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.7774
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8213
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.6153
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.5319
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9327
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9281
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.872
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9025
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8309
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.6795
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.6945
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.7426
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9633
Rat acute toxicity2.3455 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9839
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.6818
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Tabletoral5 mg
Tabletoral10 mg
Kit
Tabletoral10 mg/1
Tabletoral5 mg/1
Tablet, coatedoral10 mg/1
Tablet, coatedoral5 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedoral10 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedoral5 mg/1
Kitoral
Solutionoral2 mg/mL
Capsule, extended releaseoral14 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseoral21 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseoral28 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseoral7 mg/1
Capsuleoral
Tabletoral5.0 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Namenda 10 mg tablet3.38USD tablet
Namenda 5 mg tablet3.32USD tablet
Namenda 5-10 mg titration pk3.32USD each
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
CA2426492 No2006-10-032023-05-08Canada
US5061703 Yes1995-10-112015-10-11Us
US8039009 Yes2009-09-242029-09-24Us
US8058291 No2009-12-052029-12-05Us
US8168209 Yes2006-05-222026-05-22Us
US8173708 Yes2006-05-222026-05-22Us
US8283379 Yes2006-05-222026-05-22Us
US8293794 No2005-11-222025-11-22Us
US8329752 Yes2006-05-222026-05-22Us
US8338485 No2005-11-222025-11-22Us
US8338486 No2005-11-222025-11-22Us
US8362085 Yes2006-05-222026-05-22Us
US8580858 No2005-11-222025-11-22Us
US8598233 Yes2006-05-222026-05-22Us
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point258 °CPhysProp
water solubility35 mg/mL (HCl salt), 0.9 mg/mL for free baseNot Available
logP3.28HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0455 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.31ALOGPS
logP2.07ChemAxon
logS-3.6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)10.7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area26.02 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity54.49 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability21.82 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

DrugSyn.org

US3391142
General References
  1. Cacabelos R, Takeda M, Winblad B: The glutamatergic system and neurodegeneration in dementia: preventive strategies in Alzheimer's disease. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 1999 Jan;14(1):3-47. [PubMed:10029935 ]
  2. Rogawski MA, Wenk GL: The neuropharmacological basis for the use of memantine in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. CNS Drug Rev. 2003 Fall;9(3):275-308. [PubMed:14530799 ]
  3. Robinson DM, Keating GM: Memantine: a review of its use in Alzheimer's disease. Drugs. 2006;66(11):1515-34. [PubMed:16906789 ]
  4. Rogawski MA: Low affinity channel blocking (uncompetitive) NMDA receptor antagonists as therapeutic agents--toward an understanding of their favorable tolerability. Amino Acids. 2000;19(1):133-49. [PubMed:11026482 ]
  5. Rammes G, Rupprecht R, Ferrari U, Zieglgansberger W, Parsons CG: The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor channel blockers memantine, MRZ 2/579 and other amino-alkyl-cyclohexanes antagonise 5-HT(3) receptor currents in cultured HEK-293 and N1E-115 cell systems in a non-competitive manner. Neurosci Lett. 2001 Jun 22;306(1-2):81-4. [PubMed:11403963 ]
External Links
ATC CodesN06DA52N06DA53N06DX01
AHFS Codes
  • 28:92.00
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (102 KB)
MSDSDownload (65.7 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AcetazolamideAcetazolamide may decrease the excretion rate of Memantine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
AmantadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amantadine is combined with Memantine.
BupropionThe serum concentration of Memantine can be increased when it is combined with Bupropion.
Calcium AcetateThe serum concentration of Memantine can be increased when it is combined with Calcium Acetate.
DextromethorphanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dextromethorphan is combined with Memantine.
DiclofenamideDiclofenamide may decrease the excretion rate of Memantine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
EthoxzolamideEthoxzolamide may decrease the excretion rate of Memantine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
KetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Memantine.
Lactic AcidThe serum concentration of Memantine can be increased when it is combined with Sodium lactate.
MethazolamideMethazolamide may decrease the excretion rate of Memantine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Sodium bicarbonateThe serum concentration of Memantine can be increased when it is combined with Sodium bicarbonate.
TopiramateTopiramate may decrease the excretion rate of Memantine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
TrimethoprimThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trimethoprim is combined with Memantine.
ZonisamideZonisamide may decrease the excretion rate of Memantine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Food Interactions
  • Take without regard to meals.

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Protein phosphatase 2a binding
Specific Function:
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with reduced single-channel conductance, low calcium permeability and low voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine. May play a role in the development of dendritic spines. May play a role in PPP2CB-NMDAR mediated signaling mechanism (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GRIN3A
Uniprot ID:
Q8TCU5
Molecular Weight:
125464.07 Da
References
  1. Smothers CT, Woodward JJ: Pharmacological characterization of glycine-activated currents in HEK 293 cells expressing N-methyl-D-aspartate NR1 and NR3 subunits. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Aug;322(2):739-48. Epub 2007 May 14. [PubMed:17502428 ]
  2. Chatterton JE, Awobuluyi M, Premkumar LS, Takahashi H, Talantova M, Shin Y, Cui J, Tu S, Sevarino KA, Nakanishi N, Tong G, Lipton SA, Zhang D: Excitatory glycine receptors containing the NR3 family of NMDA receptor subunits. Nature. 2002 Feb 14;415(6873):793-8. Epub 2002 Jan 30. [PubMed:11823786 ]
  3. Schrattenholz A, Soskic V: NMDA receptors are not alone: dynamic regulation of NMDA receptor structure and function by neuregulins and transient cholesterol-rich membrane domains leads to disease-specific nuances of glutamate-signalling. Curr Top Med Chem. 2006;6(7):663-86. [PubMed:16719808 ]
  4. Foster AC, Kemp JA: Glutamate- and GABA-based CNS therapeutics. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2006 Feb;6(1):7-17. Epub 2005 Dec 22. [PubMed:16377242 ]
  5. Rogawski MA, Wenk GL: The neuropharmacological basis for the use of memantine in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. CNS Drug Rev. 2003 Fall;9(3):275-308. [PubMed:14530799 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels possesses high calcium permeability and voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Activation requires binding of agonist to both types of subunits.
Gene Name:
GRIN2A
Uniprot ID:
Q12879
Molecular Weight:
165281.215 Da
References
  1. Chen HS, Lipton SA: Pharmacological implications of two distinct mechanisms of interaction of memantine with N-methyl-D-aspartate-gated channels. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005 Sep;314(3):961-71. Epub 2005 May 18. [PubMed:15901795 ]
  2. Maler JM, Esselmann H, Wiltfang J, Kunz N, Lewczuk P, Reulbach U, Bleich S, Ruther E, Kornhuber J: Memantine inhibits ethanol-induced NMDA receptor up-regulation in rat hippocampal neurons. Brain Res. 2005 Aug 9;1052(2):156-62. [PubMed:16009352 ]
  3. Bresink I, Benke TA, Collett VJ, Seal AJ, Parsons CG, Henley JM, Collingridge GL: Effects of memantine on recombinant rat NMDA receptors expressed in HEK 293 cells. Br J Pharmacol. 1996 Sep;119(2):195-204. [PubMed:8886398 ]
  4. Blanpied TA, Boeckman FA, Aizenman E, Johnson JW: Trapping channel block of NMDA-activated responses by amantadine and memantine. J Neurophysiol. 1997 Jan;77(1):309-23. [PubMed:9120573 ]
  5. Rogawski MA, Wenk GL: The neuropharmacological basis for the use of memantine in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. CNS Drug Rev. 2003 Fall;9(3):275-308. [PubMed:14530799 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with high calcium permeability and voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine. In concert with DAPK1 at extrasynaptic sites, acts as a central mediator for stroke damage. Its phosphorylation at Ser-1303 by DAPK1 enhances synaptic NMDA receptor channel activity inducing injurious Ca2+ influx through them, resulting in an ...
Gene Name:
GRIN2B
Uniprot ID:
Q13224
Molecular Weight:
166365.885 Da
References
  1. Kashiwagi K, Masuko T, Nguyen CD, Kuno T, Tanaka I, Igarashi K, Williams K: Channel blockers acting at N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors: differential effects of mutations in the vestibule and ion channel pore. Mol Pharmacol. 2002 Mar;61(3):533-45. [PubMed:11854433 ]
  2. Nakazato E, Kato A, Watanabe S: Brain but not spinal NR2B receptor is responsible for the anti-allodynic effect of an NR2B subunit-selective antagonist CP-101,606 in a rat chronic constriction injury model. Pharmacology. 2005 Jan;73(1):8-14. Epub 2004 Sep 27. [PubMed:15452358 ]
  3. Maler JM, Esselmann H, Wiltfang J, Kunz N, Lewczuk P, Reulbach U, Bleich S, Ruther E, Kornhuber J: Memantine inhibits ethanol-induced NMDA receptor up-regulation in rat hippocampal neurons. Brain Res. 2005 Aug 9;1052(2):156-62. [PubMed:16009352 ]
  4. Blanpied TA, Boeckman FA, Aizenman E, Johnson JW: Trapping channel block of NMDA-activated responses by amantadine and memantine. J Neurophysiol. 1997 Jan;77(1):309-23. [PubMed:9120573 ]
  5. Rogawski MA, Wenk GL: The neuropharmacological basis for the use of memantine in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. CNS Drug Rev. 2003 Fall;9(3):275-308. [PubMed:14530799 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Voltage-gated potassium channel activity
Specific Function:
This is one of the several different receptors for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. This receptor is a ligand-gated ion channel, which when activated causes fast, depolarizing responses in neurons. It is a cation-specific, but otherwise relatively nonselective, ion channel.
Gene Name:
HTR3A
Uniprot ID:
P46098
Molecular Weight:
55279.835 Da
References
  1. Rammes G, Rupprecht R, Ferrari U, Zieglgansberger W, Parsons CG: The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor channel blockers memantine, MRZ 2/579 and other amino-alkyl-cyclohexanes antagonise 5-HT(3) receptor currents in cultured HEK-293 and N1E-115 cell systems in a non-competitive manner. Neurosci Lett. 2001 Jun 22;306(1-2):81-4. [PubMed:11403963 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CHRNA7
Uniprot ID:
Q693P7
Molecular Weight:
2987.635 Da
References
  1. Aracava Y, Pereira EF, Maelicke A, Albuquerque EX: Memantine blocks alpha7* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors more potently than n-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in rat hippocampal neurons. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005 Mar;312(3):1195-205. Epub 2004 Nov 2. [PubMed:15522999 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Potassium channel regulator activity
Specific Function:
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name:
DRD2
Uniprot ID:
P14416
Molecular Weight:
50618.91 Da
References
  1. Seeman P, Caruso C, Lasaga M: Memantine agonist action at dopamine D2High receptors. Synapse. 2008 Feb;62(2):149-53. [PubMed:18000814 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
binder
General Function:
Voltage-gated cation channel activity
Specific Function:
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with high calcium permeability and voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine. This protein plays a key role in synaptic plasticity, synaptogenesis, excitotoxicity, memory acquisition and learning. It mediates neuronal functions in glutamate neurotransmission. Is involved in the cell surface targeting of NMDA receptors (...
Gene Name:
GRIN1
Uniprot ID:
Q05586
Molecular Weight:
105371.945 Da
References
  1. Kotermanski SE, Wood JT, Johnson JW: Memantine binding to a superficial site on NMDA receptors contributes to partial trapping. J Physiol. 2009 Oct 1;587(Pt 19):4589-604. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2009.176297. Epub 2009 Aug 17. [PubMed:19687120 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase.
Gene Name:
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID:
P20813
Molecular Weight:
56277.81 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Exhibits a high coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity. Can act in the hydroxylation of the anti-cancer drugs cyclophosphamide and ifosphamide. Competent in the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1. Constitutes the major nicotine C-oxidase. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. Possesses low phenacetin O-deethylation activity.
Gene Name:
CYP2A6
Uniprot ID:
P11509
Molecular Weight:
56501.005 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine.
Gene Name:
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID:
P33261
Molecular Weight:
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Quaternary ammonium group transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates tubular uptake of organic compounds from circulation. Mediates the influx of agmatine, dopamine, noradrenaline (norepinephrine), serotonin, choline, famotidine, ranitidine, histamin, creatinine, amantadine, memantine, acriflavine, 4-[4-(dimethylamino)-styryl]-N-methylpyridinium ASP, amiloride, metformin, N-1-methylnicotinamide (NMN), tetraethylammonium (TEA), 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridiniu...
Gene Name:
SLC22A2
Uniprot ID:
O15244
Molecular Weight:
62579.99 Da
References
  1. Busch AE, Karbach U, Miska D, Gorboulev V, Akhoundova A, Volk C, Arndt P, Ulzheimer JC, Sonders MS, Baumann C, Waldegger S, Lang F, Koepsell H: Human neurons express the polyspecific cation transporter hOCT2, which translocates monoamine neurotransmitters, amantadine, and memantine. Mol Pharmacol. 1998 Aug;54(2):342-52. [PubMed:9687576 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on May 04, 2016 03:17