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Identification
NameInsulin Detemir
Accession NumberDB01307
TypeBiotech
GroupsApproved
Description

Insulin detemir is a long-acting human insulin analogue used to maintain basal levels of insulin in diabetic individuals. It is produced using recombinant DNA technology in yeast cells. This insulin analogue has a 14-C fatty acid, myristic acid, bound to the lysine amino acid at position B29. The myristoyl side chain increases self-association and albumin binding. This along with slow systemic absorption from the injection site prolongs distribution of the hormone into tissues and results in a long duration of action. Novo Nordisk markets insulin detemir under the trade name Levemir.

Protein structureNo structure small
Related Articles
Protein chemical formulaC267H402N64O76S6
Protein average weight5916.9 Da
Sequences
>Protein sequence for A chain
GIVEQCCTSICSLYQLENYCN
>Protein sequence for B chain 
FVNQHLCGSHLVEALYLVCGERGFFYTPK
Download FASTA Format
Synonyms
Insulin detemir
Insulin detemir recombinant
Levemir
Levemir flexpen
Levemir innolet
Levemir penfill
NN-304
External Identifiers Not Available
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Levemirinjection, solution100 [iU]/mLsubcutaneousNovo Nordisk2006-03-272016-04-23Us
Levemirimplant14.2 mg/mLsoft tissueDispensing Solutions, Inc.2006-03-272016-04-05Us
Levemirinjection, solution14.2 mg/mLsubcutaneousPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2008-03-312016-04-05Us
Levemirinjection, solution100 [iU]/mLsubcutaneousNovo Nordisk2006-03-272016-11-30Us
Levemirinjection, solution100 [iU]/mLsubcutaneousNovo Nordisk2013-10-312016-04-23Us
Levemir Flextouchsolution100 unitsubcutaneousNovo Nordisk Canada Inc2013-11-25Not applicableCanada
Levemir Penfillsolution100 unitsubcutaneousNovo Nordisk Canada Inc2005-11-14Not applicableCanada
Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
International Brands
NameCompany
Levemir FlexPen Novo Nordisk
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNII4FT78T86XV
CAS number169148-63-4
Taxonomy
DescriptionNot Available
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassOrganic Acids
ClassCarboxylic Acids and Derivatives
Sub ClassAmino Acids, Peptides, and Analogues
Direct ParentPeptides
Alternative ParentsNot Available
SubstituentsNot Available
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External DescriptorsNot Available
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the treatment of type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus. May be used in combination with oral anti-diabetic agents in type 2 diabetic patients who are not in adequate metabolic control with oral anti-diabetic agents alone.
PharmacodynamicsInsulin is a natural hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreas. In non-diabetic individuals, a basal level of insulin is supplemented with insulin spikes following meals. Increased insulin secretion following meals is responsible for the metabolic changes that occur as the body transitions from a postabsorptive to absorptive state. Insulin promotes cellular uptake of glucose, particularly in muscle and adipose tissues, promotes energy storage via glycogenesis, opposes catabolism of energy stores, increases DNA replication and protein synthesis by stimulating amino acid uptake by liver, muscle and adipose tissue, and modifies the activity of numerous enzymes involved in glycogen synthesis and glycolysis. Insulin also promotes growth and is required for the actions of growth hormone (e.g. protein synthesis, cell division, DNA synthesis). Insulin detemir is a long-acting insulin analogue with a flat and predictable action profile. It is used to mimic the basal levels of insulin in diabetic individuals. The onset of action of insulin detemir is 1 to 2 hours and its duration of action is up to 24 hours. Interestingly, it has a lower affinity (30%) for the insulin receptor than human insulin.
Mechanism of actionInsulin detemir binds to the insulin receptor (IR), a heterotetrameric protein consisting of two extracellular alpha units and two transmembrane beta units. The binding of insulin to the alpha subunit of IR stimulates the tyrosine kinase activity intrinsic to the beta subunit of the receptor. The bound receptor autophosphorylates and phosphorylates numerous intracellular substrates such as insulin receptor substrates (IRS) proteins, Cbl, APS, Shc and Gab 1. Activation of these proteins leads to the activation of downstream signaling molecules including PI3 kinase and Akt. Akt regulates the activity of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and protein kinase C (PKC), both of which play critical roles in metabolism and catabolism. Insulin detemir’s long duration of action appears to be a result of slow systemic absorption from the injection site and delayed distribution to target tissues. The myristic acid side chain on insulin detemir increases self-association and gives it a high binding affinity to serum albumin. These features slows its distribution into target tissues and prolongs its duration of action.
Related Articles
AbsorptionMaximum serum concentrations are reached 6 to 8 hours following subcutaneous injection. When single dose of 0.5 units/kg of insulin detemir was given to adult type 1 diabetes patients, the maximum serum concentration (Cmax) was 4,641 ± 2,299 pmol/L. Absorption is also dependent on the site of injection. When injected into the thigh, the AUC was lower than when injected into the deltoid and abdominal regions. Bioavailability is approximately 60%.
Volume of distribution
  • 0.1 L/kg
Protein binding> 98% bound to albumin
Metabolism

As with natural insulin, all metabolites formed are inactive.

Route of eliminationNot Available
Half life5 - 7 hours depending on dose. The half life also differs between age groups (type 1 diabetes patients): Children (6-12 years) = 302 ± 100 minutes; Adolescents (13-17 years) = 301 ± 107 minutes; Adults (18-65 years) = 425 ± 78 minutes
Clearance

Apparent clearance (CL/F), type 1 diabetes adult patients = 3.41 ± 1.00 L/min·kg

ToxicityHypoglycemia may occur with inappropriately high doses. Neurogenic (autonomic) signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia include trembling, palpitations, sweating, anxiety, hunger, nausea and tingling. Neuroglycopenic signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia include difficulty concentrating, lethargy/weakness, confusion, drowsiness, vision changes, difficulty speaking, headache, and dizziness. Mild hypoglycemia is characterized by the presence of autonomic symptoms. Moderate hypoglycemia is characterized by the presence of autonomic and neuroglycopenic symptoms. Individuals may become unconscious in severe cases of hypoglycemia. Injection site reactions may also occur. Symptoms include: redness, inflammation, bruising, swelling and itching at the injection site.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Implantsoft tissue14.2 mg/mL
Injection, solutionsubcutaneous100 [iU]/mL
Injection, solutionsubcutaneous14.2 mg/mL
Solutionsubcutaneous100 unit
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Levemir flexpen 100 unit/ml14.28USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
CA2171424 No2002-06-042014-09-16Canada
US5750497 No1999-06-162019-06-16Us
US5866538 No1997-06-202017-06-20Us
US6004297 No1999-01-282019-01-28Us
US6011007 No1994-02-022014-02-02Us
US6899699 No2002-01-022022-01-02Us
US7686786 No2006-08-032026-08-03Us
US8672898 No2002-01-022022-01-02Us
US8684969 No2005-10-202025-10-20Us
US8920383 No2006-07-172026-07-17Us
US9108002 No2006-01-202026-01-20Us
US9132239 No2012-02-012032-02-01Us
US9265893 No2012-09-232032-09-23Us
USRE41956 No2001-01-212021-01-21Us
USRE43834 No1999-01-282019-01-28Us
Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental PropertiesNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General References
  1. Kurtzhals P: Pharmacology of insulin detemir. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2007 Aug;36 Suppl 1:14-20. [PubMed:17881328 ]
  2. Morales J: Defining the role of insulin detemir in Basal insulin therapy. Drugs. 2007;67(17):2557-84. [PubMed:18034591 ]
  3. Tibaldi J: Actions of insulin beyond glycemic control: a perspective on insulin detemir. Adv Ther. 2007 Jul-Aug;24(4):868-82. [PubMed:17901036 ]
  4. Danne T, Lupke K, Walte K, Von Schuetz W, Gall MA: Insulin detemir is characterized by a consistent pharmacokinetic profile across age-groups in children, adolescents, and adults with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2003 Nov;26(11):3087-92. [PubMed:14578244 ]
  5. Owens DR, Bolli GB: Beyond the era of NPH insulin--long-acting insulin analogs: chemistry, comparative pharmacology, and clinical application. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2008 Oct;10(5):333-49. doi: 10.1089/dia.2008.0023. [PubMed:18715209 ]
External Links
ATC CodesA10AE05
AHFS Codes
  • 68:20.08
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (911 KB)
MSDSDownload (504 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AcetohexamideAcetohexamide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Detemir.
Acetylsalicylic acidAcetylsalicylic acid may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Detemir.
AlogliptinAlogliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Detemir.
AripiprazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Aripiprazole.
Arsenic trioxideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Arsenic trioxide.
ArticaineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Articaine.
AsenapineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Asenapine.
AtazanavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Atazanavir.
BendroflumethiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Bendroflumethiazide.
BetamethasoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Betamethasone.
BrexpiprazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Brexpiprazole.
BumetanideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Bumetanide.
BuserelinThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Buserelin.
CanagliflozinCanagliflozin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Detemir.
CeritinibThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Ceritinib.
ChlorothiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Chlorothiazide.
ChlorpropamideInsulin Detemir may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Chlorpropamide.
ChlorthalidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Chlorthalidone.
ClozapineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Clozapine.
CorticotropinThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.
Cortisone acetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Cortisone acetate.
Cyproterone acetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Cyproterone acetate.
DabrafenibThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Dabrafenib.
DanazolThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Danazol.
DarunavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Darunavir.
DesogestrelThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Desogestrel.
DexamethasoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Dexamethasone.
DiazoxideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Diazoxide.
DienogestThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Dienogest.
DihydrotestosteroneDihydrotestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Detemir.
DisopyramideInsulin Detemir may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Disopyramide.
DrospirenoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Drospirenone.
Edetic AcidEdetic Acid may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Detemir.
EpinephrineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Epinephrine.
ErythromycinInsulin Detemir may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Erythromycin.
EstradiolThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol.
EstropipateThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Estropipate.
Etacrynic acidThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Ethacrynic acid.
Ethinyl EstradiolThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Ethinyl Estradiol.
Ethynodiol diacetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Ethynodiol.
EtonogestrelThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Etonogestrel.
EverolimusThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Everolimus.
ExenatideExenatide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Detemir.
FludrocortisoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Fludrocortisone.
FosamprenavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Fosamprenavir.
FurosemideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Furosemide.
GliclazideInsulin Detemir may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Gliclazide.
GlimepirideInsulin Detemir may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Glimepiride.
GlipizideInsulin Detemir may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Glipizide.
GliquidoneGliquidone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Detemir.
GlyburideInsulin Detemir may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Glyburide.
GoserelinThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Goserelin.
HistrelinThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Histrelin.
HydrochlorothiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Hydrochlorothiazide.
HydrocortisoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Hydrocortisone.
Hydroxyprogesterone caproateThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Hydroxyprogesterone caproate.
IloperidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Iloperidone.
IndapamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Indapamide.
IndinavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Indinavir.
Insulin AspartInsulin Detemir may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Aspart.
Insulin DegludecInsulin Detemir may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin degludec.
Insulin GlargineInsulin Detemir may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Glargine.
Insulin GlulisineInsulin Glulisine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Detemir.
Insulin HumanInsulin Detemir may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Regular.
Insulin LisproInsulin Detemir may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Lispro.
LanreotideInsulin Detemir may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Lanreotide.
LeuprolideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Leuprolide.
LevonorgestrelThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Levonorgestrel.
LinagliptinLinagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Detemir.
Lipoic AcidLipoic Acid may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Detemir.
LiraglutideLiraglutide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Detemir.
LopinavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Lopinavir.
LurasidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Lurasidone.
MecaserminInsulin Detemir may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Mecasermin.
Medroxyprogesterone AcetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Medroxyprogesterone Acetate.
Megestrol acetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Megestrol acetate.
MestranolThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Mestranol.
MetforminMetformin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Detemir.
MethotrimeprazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Methotrimeprazine.
MethyclothiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Methyclothiazide.
MethylprednisoloneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Methylprednisolone.
MetolazoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Metolazone.
MetreleptinMetreleptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Detemir.
MifepristoneInsulin Detemir may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Mifepristone.
NadololNadolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Detemir.
NateglinideInsulin Detemir may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Nateglinide.
NelfinavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Nelfinavir.
NiacinThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.
NilotinibThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Nilotinib.
NorethisteroneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Norethindrone.
NorgestimateThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Norgestimate.
OctreotideInsulin Detemir may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Octreotide.
OlanzapineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Olanzapine.
OxandroloneOxandrolone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Detemir.
PaliperidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Paliperidone.
ParoxetineParoxetine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Detemir.
PasireotideInsulin Detemir may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Pasireotide.
PegvisomantPegvisomant may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Detemir.
PentamidineInsulin Detemir may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Pentamidine.
PhenelzinePhenelzine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Detemir.
PioglitazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pioglitazone is combined with Insulin Detemir.
PipotiazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Pipotiazine.
PramlintidePramlintide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Detemir.
PrednisoloneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Prednisolone.
PrednisoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Prednisone.
ProgesteroneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Progesterone.
QuetiapineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Quetiapine.
QuinineInsulin Detemir may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Quinine.
RepaglinideInsulin Detemir may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Repaglinide.
Repository corticotropinThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Repository corticotropin.
RisperidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Risperidone.
RitonavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.
RosiglitazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Insulin Detemir is combined with Rosiglitazone.
SaquinavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Saquinavir.
SaxagliptinSaxagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Detemir.
SirolimusThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Sirolimus.
SitagliptinSitagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Detemir.
SparfloxacinSparfloxacin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Detemir.
SulfadiazineInsulin Detemir may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sulfadiazine.
SulfamethoxazoleInsulin Detemir may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sulfamethoxazole.
SulfisoxazoleInsulin Detemir may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sulfisoxazole.
SunitinibInsulin Detemir may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sunitinib.
TacrolimusThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrolimus.
TemsirolimusThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Temsirolimus.
TestosteroneTestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Detemir.
TipranavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Tipranavir.
TolazamideInsulin Detemir may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Tolazamide.
TolbutamideInsulin Detemir may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Tolbutamide.
TorasemideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Torasemide.
TranylcypromineTranylcypromine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Detemir.
TriamcinoloneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Triamcinolone.
TrichlormethiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Trichlormethiazide.
TrimethoprimInsulin Detemir may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Trimethoprim.
TriptorelinThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Triptorelin.
VildagliptinVildagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Detemir.
VorinostatThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Vorinostat.
ZiprasidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Ziprasidone.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Receptor signaling protein tyrosine kinase activity
Specific Function:
Receptor tyrosine kinase which mediates the pleiotropic actions of insulin. Binding of insulin leads to phosphorylation of several intracellular substrates, including, insulin receptor substrates (IRS1, 2, 3, 4), SHC, GAB1, CBL and other signaling intermediates. Each of these phosphorylated proteins serve as docking proteins for other signaling proteins that contain Src-homology-2 domains (SH2 ...
Gene Name:
INSR
Uniprot ID:
P06213
Molecular Weight:
156331.465 Da
References
  1. Hennige AM, Sartorius T, Tschritter O, Preissl H, Fritsche A, Ruth P, Haring HU: Tissue selectivity of insulin detemir action in vivo. Diabetologia. 2006 Jun;49(6):1274-82. Epub 2006 Mar 29. [PubMed:16570163 ]
  2. Kurtzhals P, Schaffer L, Sorensen A, Kristensen C, Jonassen I, Schmid C, Trub T: Correlations of receptor binding and metabolic and mitogenic potencies of insulin analogs designed for clinical use. Diabetes. 2000 Jun;49(6):999-1005. [PubMed:10866053 ]
  3. Sorensen AR, Stidsen CE, Ribel U, Nishimura E, Sturis J, Jonassen I, Bouman SD, Kurtzhals P, Brand CL: Insulin detemir is a fully efficacious, low affinity agonist at the insulin receptor. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2010 Aug;12(8):665-73. doi: 10.1111/j.1463-1326.2010.01206.x. [PubMed:20590743 ]
  4. Wada T, Azegami M, Sugiyama M, Tsuneki H, Sasaoka T: Characteristics of signalling properties mediated by long-acting insulin analogue glargine and detemir in target cells of insulin. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2008 Sep;81(3):269-77. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2008.05.007. Epub 2008 Jun 27. [PubMed:18585815 ]
  5. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inducer
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N...
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular Weight:
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
no
Actions
other/unknown
General Function:
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function:
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloidal osmotic pressure of blood. Major zinc transporter in plasma, typically binds about 80% of all plasma zinc.
Gene Name:
ALB
Uniprot ID:
P02768
Molecular Weight:
69365.94 Da
References
  1. Klein O, Lynge J, Endahl L, Damholt B, Nosek L, Heise T: Albumin-bound basal insulin analogues (insulin detemir and NN344): comparable time-action profiles but less variability than insulin glargine in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2007 May;9(3):290-9. [PubMed:17391154 ]
  2. Kurtzhals P: Pharmacology of insulin detemir. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2007 Aug;36 Suppl 1:14-20. [PubMed:17881328 ]
Comments
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Drug created on June 30, 2007 08:45 / Updated on May 04, 2016 03:03